Subjects -> EDUCATION (Total: 2528 journals)
    - ADULT EDUCATION (24 journals)
    - COLLEGE AND ALUMNI (10 journals)
    - E-LEARNING (37 journals)
    - EDUCATION (2168 journals)
    - HIGHER EDUCATION (154 journals)
    - ONLINE EDUCATION (41 journals)
    - SCHOOL ORGANIZATION (14 journals)

EDUCATION (2168 journals)            First | 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10     

Showing 1201 - 857 of 857 Journals sorted alphabetically
Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nursing Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Nursing Scholarship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Occupational Therapy Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools, & Early Intervention     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 52)
Journal of Outdoor and Environmental Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Pedagogy - Pedagogick? ?asopis     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Peer Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Philosophy in Schools     Open Access  
Journal of Philosophy of Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Physical Education and Sports Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Planning Education and Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Political Science Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Popular Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Praxis in Multicultural Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pre-College Engineering Education Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Primary Education     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Psychologists and Counsellors in Schools     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Public Affairs Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Quality in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Real Estate Practice and Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Religious Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research and Education Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Research in Childhood Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Research in Educational Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Research in International Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Interprofessional Practice and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Research in Music Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Research In Reading     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Research in Science Teaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Research Initiatives     Open Access  
Journal of Research on Christian Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Research on Educational Effectiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Research on Leadership Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Research on Technology in Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of School Choice     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of School Health     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of School Violence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Science and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Science and Technology of the Arts     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Science Education and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Science Education for Students with Disabilities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science Learning     Open Access  
Journal of Science Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Second Language Teaching & Research     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Security Education     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Shanghai University (English Edition)     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Social Science Education : JSSE     Open Access  
Journal of Social Studies Education Research     Open Access  
Journal of Special Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Statistics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Student Affairs Research and Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Studies in Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Studies in International Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Supranational Policies of Education (JoSPoE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Teacher Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Teaching English for Specific and Academic Purposes     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Teaching in International Business     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Teaching in Social Work     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Teaching in the Addictions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Teaching Language Skills     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Technical Education     Open Access  
Journal of Technical Education and Training     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the European Teacher Education Network     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of The First-Year Experience & Students in Transition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the International Academy for Case Studies     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Education     Open Access  
Journal of Training and Development     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Transformative Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Visual Literacy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Vocational Education & Training     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Women in Educational Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Writing in Creative Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal on Empowering Teaching Excellence     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal on English as a Foreign Language     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal Pelita PAUD     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Plus Education     Open Access  
Journal Sampurasun : Interdisciplinary Studies for Cultural Heritage     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journalism & Mass Communication Educator     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Joyful Learning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JPG (Jurnal Pendidikan Geografi)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JPGI (Jurnal Penelitian Guru Indonesia)     Open Access  
JPI (Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia) : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JPPI (Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan Indonesia)     Open Access  
JRAMathEdu : Journal of Research and Advances in Mathematics Education     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
JUMLAHKU : Jurnal Matematika Ilmiah STKIP Muhammadiyah Kuningan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Juridikdas : Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Dasar     Open Access  
JURING (Journal for Research in Mathematics Learning)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Akuntabilitas Manajemen Pendidikan     Open Access  
Jurnal Al Bayan : Jurnal Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Arab     Open Access  
Jurnal Bahasa Lingua Scientia     Open Access  
Jurnal Basicedu : Journal of Elementary Education     Open Access  
Jurnal Bimbingan Konseling     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Biogenerasi     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Biologi Edukasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Candrasangkala Pendidikan Sejarah     Open Access  
Jurnal Curricula     Open Access  
Jurnal Dinamika Pendidikan     Open Access  
Jurnal Dinamika Penelitian : Media Komunikasi Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access  
Jurnal Educatio : Jurnal Pendidikan Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Edukasi Khatulistiwa : Pembelajaran Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Hadhari : An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Ilmiah KORPUS     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan Dasar     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmiah Potensia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmiah Sekolah Dasar     Open Access  
Jurnal Ilmu Pendidikan     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Ilmu Sosial dan Humaniora     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Teknologi Pendidikan     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal IPA & Pembelajaran IPA     Open Access  
Jurnal Kajian Bimbingan dan Konseling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Keilmuan Bahasa, Sastra, dan Pengajarannya     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Kependidikan     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Kependidikan : Penelitian Inovasi Pembelajaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Keperawatan Profesional     Open Access  
Jurnal Konseling dan Pendidikan     Open Access  
Jurnal Lensa Pendas     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Manajemen dan Supervisi Pendidikan (JMSP)     Open Access  
Jurnal MEKOM (Media Komunikasi Pendidikan Kejuruan)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pelangi     Open Access  
Jurnal Pembangunan Pendidikan Fondasi dan Aplikasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Pencerahan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Bahasa dan Sastra Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Biologi Indonesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Bisnis dan Manajemen     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Edutama     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Ekonomi     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jurnal Pendidikan Fisika Indonesia (Indonesian Journal of Physics Education)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan Humaniora : Journal of Humanities Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan Karakter     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pendidikan Malaysia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Raflesia     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Nonformal     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Sains     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Pendidikan Teknologi dan Kejuruan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pendidikan Vokasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian dan Evaluasi Pendidikan     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Humaniora     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Penelitian Pembelajaran Matematika Sekolah     Open Access  
Jurnal Penelitian Pendidikan     Open Access  
Jurnal Pengabdian Kepada Masyarakat (Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement)     Open Access  
Jurnal Perspektif Pendidikan dan Keguruan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal PGSD     Open Access  
Jurnal Prima Edukasia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pro-Life     Open Access  
Jurnal PROMKES : Jurnal Promosi Kesehatan dan Pendidikan Kesehatan Indonesia (The Indonesian Journal of Health Promotion and Health Education)     Open Access  
Jurnal Psikoedukasi dan Konseling     Open Access  
Jurnal Psikologi Pendidikan dan Konseling : Jurnal Kajian Psikologi Pendidikan dan Bimbingan Konseling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pustaka Ilmiah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Riset Pendidikan Matematika     Open Access  
Jurnal Sosiologi Pendidikan Humanis     Open Access  
Jurnal Studi Guru dan Pembelajaran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Taman Vokasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Tatsqif     Open Access  
Jurnal Tuturan     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Jurnal Varidika     Open Access  
Jurnal Visi Ilmu Pendidikan     Open Access  
K-12 STEM Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kappa Delta Pi Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Karaelmas Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi     Open Access  
Kasuari : Physics Education Journal     Open Access  
Kasvatus & Aika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kerbala Magazine of Physical Edu. Seiences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kerygma und Dogma     Hybrid Journal  
Kimün. Revista Interdisciplinaria de Formación Docente     Open Access  
Kleio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Konfigurasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Kimia dan Terapan     Open Access  
KONSELI : Jurnal Bimbingan dan Konseling     Open Access  
Kontinu : Jurnal Penelitian Didaktik Matematika     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Koulu ja menneisyys     Open Access  
Kreano, Jurnal Matematika Kreatif-Inovatif     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Kronos : The Language Teaching Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
KULA : knowldge creation, dissemination, and preservation studies     Open Access  
Kuramsal Eğitimbilim Dergisi / Journal of Theoretical Educational Science     Open Access  
L'Orientation scolaire et professionnelle     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
L2 Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Land Forces Academy Review     Open Access  
Language and Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Language Literacy : Journal of Linguistics, Literature, and Language Teaching     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Language Teaching     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Language Teaching Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Language Testing in Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Language, Culture and Curriculum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)

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Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Learning & Behavior
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.616
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 4  
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1543-4494 - ISSN (Online) 1543-4508
Published by Psychonomic Society Publications Homepage  [4 journals]
  • When it looks and walks like an ant
    • Abstract: Summary Some jumping spiders (family Salticidae) bear a striking resemblance to ants, a dangerous type of prey, both in terms of their appearance and in terms of how they move. Recent research has taken important steps toward determining whether predators categorize these spiders as ants on the basis of the way they move.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Social tolerance in not-so-social pumas
    • Abstract: Summary Elbroch, Levy, Lubell, Quigley, and Caragiulo (2017, Science Advances, 3, e170218) used GPS and motion-activated camera technology to track and rate the interactions between solitary wild pumas. They found that tolerance at feeding sites was not predicted by kinship but, rather, indicated the ability to engage in direct reciprocity, challenging previous assumptions about social cognition in solitary species.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Retrieval practice after multiple context changes, but not long retention
           intervals, reduces the impact of a final context change on instrumental
    • Abstract: Abstract Recent evidence from this laboratory suggests that a context switch after operant learning consistently results in a decrement in responding. One way to reduce this decrement is to train the response in multiple contexts. One interpretation of this result, rooted in stimulus sampling theory, is that conditioning of a greater number of common stimulus elements arising from more contexts causes better generalization to new contexts. An alternative explanation is that each change of context causes more effortful retrieval, and practice involving effortful retrieval results in learning that is better able to transfer to new situations. The current experiments were designed to differentiate between these two explanations for the first time in an animal learning and memory task. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the detrimental impact of a context change on an instrumental nose-poking response can be reduced by training the response in multiple contexts. Experiment 2 then found that a training procedure which inserted extended retention intervals between successive training sessions did not reduce the detrimental impact of a final context change. This occurred even though the inserted retention intervals had a detrimental impact on responding (and, thus, presumably retrieval) similar to the effect that context switches had in Experiment 1. Together, the results suggest that effortful retrieval practice may not be sufficient to reduce the negative impact of a context change on instrumental behavior. A common elements explanation which supposes that physical and temporal contextual cues do not overlap may account for the findings more readily.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Comparing cognition by integrating concept learning, proactive
           interference, and list memory
    • Abstract: This article describes an approach for training a variety of species to learn the abstract concept of same/different, which in turn forms the basis for testing proactive interference and list memory. The stimulus set for concept-learning training was progressively doubled from 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 . . . to 1,024 different pictures with novel-stimulus transfer following learning. All species fully learned the same/different abstract concept: capuchin and rhesus monkeys learned more readily than pigeons; nutcrackers and magpies were at least equivalent to monkeys and transferred somewhat better following initial training sets. A similar task using the 1,024-picture set plus delays was used to test proactive interference on occasional trials. Pigeons revealed greater interference with 10-s than with 1-s delays, whereas delay time had no effect on rhesus monkeys, suggesting that the monkeys’ interference was event based. This same single-item same/different task was expanded to a 4-item list memory task to test animal list memory. Humans were tested similarly with lists of kaleidoscope pictures. Delays between the list and test were manipulated, resulting in strong initial recency effects (i.e., strong 4th-item memory) at short delays and changing to a strong primacy effect (i.e., strong 1st-item memory) at long delays (pigeons 0-s to 10-s delays; monkeys 0-s to 30-s delays; humans 0-s to 100-s delays). Results and findings are discussed in terms of these species’ cognition and memory comparisons, evolutionary implications, and future directions for testing other species in these synergistically related tasks.
      PubDate: 2018-06-01
  • Incidental spatial memory in the domestic dog ( Canis familiaris )
    • Abstract: Abstract We built upon previous work by Fujita et al. (2012, Animal Cognition, 15(6), 1055–1063) to create an experiment that investigated the presence of incidental memory for the spatial location of uneaten food in the domestic dog. Here, we dissociated potentially incidental spatial memory from the incidental memory for the characteristics of objects, in this case, food bowls. Eighteen household domestic dogs of various breeds and age were presented with four bowls. Each bowl contained either a novel object, treats the dog could consume, treats it could not consume, or it was left empty. Following a delay, the dogs returned to the laboratory and were presented with empty bowls in the same spatial orientation as the initial exposure and could move freely between bowls. This experiment required no previous training outside of basic obedience and so avoids the possibility that performance on the test was a conditioned response. We hypothesized that domestic dogs would be able to remember the location of uneaten food when presented with an unexpected memory test. We found that dogs in this study showed no evidence that they encoded spatial location in the absence of other cues that could be used to distinguish food bowls at specific locations. This suggests that dogs in previous experiments were more dependent on incidentally encoding the “what” and “in what” of this task than the “where,” in the absence of features making each location distinct.
      PubDate: 2018-05-29
  • Behavioral synchronization and affiliation: Dogs exhibit human-like skills
    • Abstract: Abstract Behavioral synchronization is evolutionary adaptive, fostering social cohesion. In humans, affiliation between partners is associated with a high level of behavioral synchronization; people show increased affiliation towards people who synchronize with them. Surprisingly, until recently, little was known about these phenomena at an interspecific level, which is, however, essential to better understand the respective roles of evolution and ontogeny. After presenting why dog–human dyads are a relevant biological model to study this field of social cognition, we review the recent findings about dog–human behavioral synchronization. We summarize recently published findings on behavioral synchronization and affiliation between dogs and humans. We also review results showing that genetic selection modulates behavioral synchronization propensity in dogs, emphasizing the role of genetic selection on dog’s social behaviors towards humans. Finally, we discuss the possible evolutionary influences and proximate mechanisms of this phenomenon. We conclude that, as in humans, behavioral synchronization acts as a social glue between dogs and humans. After dogs’ ability to use human-directional cues or to produce referential cues towards humans, we evidenced a new human-like social process in the dog, at the interspecfic level with humans.
      PubDate: 2018-04-30
  • Fake snakes uncover chimpanzees’ mind-reading ability
    • Abstract: Summary Crockford et al. (2017, Science Advances, 3(11), e1701742) conducted experimental studies in the wild in Africa to investigate the ability of chimpanzees to understand the mental states of other conspecific individuals. Their findings suggest that chimpanzees understand whether or not other individuals are aware of dangers, and they behave differently according to their understanding about the mental states of other individuals.
      PubDate: 2018-04-27
  • Specificity and flexibility of social influence on spatial choice
    • Abstract: Abstract Rats searched for food in a situation that allowed them to determine which locations contained food after searching a small number of them, but not which of the baited locations contained more-preferred food rather than a less-preferred food. During some experimental trials, the latter information was available from the choices of model rats making choices together with the subject rats, because some of the model rats tended to choose the locations baited with more-preferred food. On the surface, the results suggest that social influence specified the locations of more-preferred food to the subject rats. However, more detailed analysis and data from a second experiment indicate that the social influence can be explained by a general tendency to approach another rat making choices, acquired if rats are exposed to a contingency between social approach and increased foraging success.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
  • The neuroscience of perceptual categorization in pigeons: A mechanistic
    • Abstract: Abstract We are surrounded by an endless variation of objects. The ability to categorize these objects represents a core cognitive competence of humans and possibly all vertebrates. Research on category learning in nonhuman animals started with the seminal studies of Richard Herrnstein on the category “human” in pigeons. Since then, we have learned that pigeons are able to categorize a large number of stimulus sets, ranging from Cubist paintings to English orthography. Strangely, this prolific field has largely neglected to also study the avian neurobiology of categorization. Here, we present a hypothesis that combines experimental results and theories from categorization research in pigeons with neurobiological insights on visual processing and dopamine-mediated learning in primates. We conclude that in both fields, similar conclusions on the mechanisms of perceptual categorization have been drawn, despite very little cross-reference or communication between these two areas to date. We hypothesize that perceptual categorization is a two-component process in which stimulus features are first rapidly extracted in a feed-forward process, thereby enabling a fast subdivision along multiple category borders. In primates this seems to happen in the inferotemporal cortex, while pigeons may primarily use a cluster of associative visual forebrain areas. The second process rests on dopaminergic error-prediction learning that enables prefrontal areas to connect top down the relevant visual category dimension to the appropriate action dimension.
      PubDate: 2018-03-12
  • The effects of pool shape manipulations on rat spatial memory acquired in
           the Morris water maze
    • Abstract: Abstract The Morris water maze is a popular task for examining spatial navigation and memory in rats. Historically, emphasis has been put on extramaze cues as the primary environmental feature guiding navigation and spatial memory formation. However, other features of the environment may also be involved. In this experiment, we trained rats on the spatial version of the Morris water maze over four days. A probe test was given 24 h after training, in which the shape of the pool either remained the same as during training or was changed to a different shape. Mass training of a new platform position in one training session was performed in a pool of one of these two shapes, with a second probe test being done 24 h afterward. The results showed that spatial training produces a spatial preference for the trained location in the probe test when the pool shape remains the same. However, changing the shape of the pool eliminates this preference. All groups learned the new platform position during mass training and also expressed a spatial preference for the mass-trained quadrant when tested 24 h later. The results from these experiments implicate the use of pool shape in guiding spatial navigation in the water maze and as a critical environmental feature represented in spatial memory.
      PubDate: 2018-03-08
  • Distance and direction, but not light cues, support response reversal
    • Abstract: Abstract Across three experiments, we examined the cuing properties of metric (distance and direction) and nonmetric (lighting) cues in different tasks. In Experiment 1, rats were trained on a response problem in a T-maze, followed by four reversals. Rats that experienced a change in maze orientation (Direction group) or a change in the length of the start arm (Distance group) across reversals showed facilitation of reversal learning relative to a group that experienced changes in room lighting across reversals. In Experiment 2, rats learned a discrimination task more readily when distance or direction cues were used than when light cues were used as the discriminative stimuli. In Experiment 3, performance on a go/no-go task was equivalent using both direction and lighting cues. The successful use of both metric and nonmetric cues in the go/no-go task indicates that rats are sensitive to both types of cues and that the usefulness of different cues is dependent on the nature of the task.
      PubDate: 2018-03-05
  • How lost “passenger” ants find their way home
    • Abstract: Summary Animal navigation has fascinated biologists and engineers for centuries, and some of the most illuminating discoveries have come from the study of creatures with a brain no larger than a sesame seed. In an elegant recent study, Pfeiffer and Wittlinger (Science, 353, 1155–1157, 2016) have shown the means by which desert ants, carried from one nest to another by a relative, find their own way back home if they are accidentally dropped en route.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Apes track false beliefs but might not understand them
    • Abstract: Summary Apes can correctly determine how to help a person with a false belief. But they may not need a concept of belief to do so.
      PubDate: 2018-03-01
  • Running-based pica and taste avoidance in rats
    • Abstract: Abstract Running in an activity wheel generates pica behavior (kaolin clay intake) in rats. Wheel running also results in Pavlovian conditioned avoidance of the taste solution consumed immediately before the running. Since pica has been considered a behavioral marker of nausea in rats, these findings suggest that wheel running induces nausea, which is the underlying physiological state for establishing taste avoidance. This article reports a replication of running-based pica in rats (Experiment 1) and concurrent demonstrations of running-based pica and taste avoidance in the same animals (Experiments 2 and 3). Also shown is that pica does not alleviate running-based taste avoidance (Experiment 3). Another finding is that pica is generated by a nausea-inducing lithium chloride injection but not by a pain-inducing hypertonic saline injection (Experiment 4). These results, when taken together, support the hypothesis that pica behavior generated by wheel running reflects nausea in rats.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
  • Acquisition and retention of conditioned aversions to context and taste in
           laboratory mice
    • Abstract: Abstract We compared the rate of acquisition and strength of retention of conditioned context aversion (CCA) with conditioned taste aversion (CTA) using pigmented, genetically heterogeneous mice (derived from Large and Small strains). Extending previous findings, in Experiment 1, mice accustomed to drinking from large glass bottles in the colony room learned to avoid graduated tubes after a single conditioning trial when drinking from these novel tubes was paired with injections of LiCl. The results also showed that CCA could be developed even when there was a 30-minute delay between conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus. Retention of the aversion lasted for 4 weeks in both Immediate and Delay groups. Studies of conditioned saccharin aversion were conducted in Experiment 2. CTA acquisition was very similar to that observed in CCA and duration of aversion retention was similar in the CCA and CTA Delay groups, although at least 2 weeks longer in the Immediate group. Thus, CCA acquisition and retention characteristics are closer to those seen for CTA than has previously been reported. In Experiment 3, we examined whether albino mice (which are known to have weaker visual abilities compared to pigmented mice) would develop CCA comparable to those of pigmented mice. The development of conditioned aversion and its duration of retention was similar in albinos and pigmented mice. Nonspecific aversion emerged as an important contributor to strength of aversion during retention trials in both CCA and CTA paradigms with pigmented (but not albino) mice and deserves additional scrutiny in this field of inquiry.
      PubDate: 2017-11-09
  • Understanding social decision-making from another species’
    • Abstract: Summary One challenge of studying cognition and behavior in other species is designing studies that are intuitive and motivating to the subjects; studies that lack these features may result in false negatives and other outcomes that bias our understanding of animals’ abilities and choices. Here, Schmelz, Grueneisen, Kabalak, Jost, and Tomasello (PNAS, 114(28), 7462–7467, 2017) investigated prosocial behavior, in which animals may make decisions that benefit a conspecific, and found that, contrary to much earlier work, when chimpanzees are given a reason to do so, they do make prosocial choices.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • Associative structure of second-order conditioning in humans
    • Abstract: Abstract Second-order conditioning (SOC; i.e., conditioned responding to S2 as a result of S1–US pairings followed by S2–S1 pairings) is generally explained by either a direct S2→US association or by an associative chain (i.e., S2→S1→US). Previous research found that differences in responses to S2 after S1 was extinguished often depended on the nature of the S2–S1 pairings (i.e., sequential or simultaneous). In two experiments with human participants, we examined the possibility that such differences result from S1 evoking S2 during extinction of S1 following simultaneous but not sequential S2–S1 pairings. This evocation of S2 by S1 following simultaneous pairings may have paired the evoked representation of S2 with absence of the outcome, thereby facilitating mediated extinction of S2. Using sequential S2-S1 pairings, both Experiments 1 and 2 failed to support this account of how extinction of S1 reduced responding to S2. Experiment 1 found that extinguishing S1 reduced responding to S2, while extinguishing S2 had little effect on responses to S1, although forward evocation of S1 during extinction of S2 paired the evoked representation of S1 with absence of the outcome. In Experiment 2, evocation of S2 during S1 nonreinforced trials was prevented because S2–S1 pairings followed (rather than proceeded) S1-alone exposures. Nevertheless, responding to S2 at test mimicked S1 responding. Responding to S2 was high in the context in which S1 had been reinforced and low in the context in which S1 had been nonreinforced. Collectively, these experiments provide additional support for the associative-chain account of SOC.
      PubDate: 2017-11-03
  • Measuring the “transfer of meaning” through members of equivalence
           classes merged via a class-specific reinforcement procedure
    • Abstract: Abstract Seven participants received conditional discrimination training that established the 12 conditional relations A1B1, A2B2, A3B3, A1C1, A2C2, A3C3, D1E1, D2E2, D3E3, D1F1, D2F2, and D3F3. The A stimuli were pictures of faces portraying emotional expressions; the others were arbitrary forms. Correct responses resulted in presentations of class-specific reinforcers, Sr1, Sr2, and Sr3. After training, tests confirmed the formation of ABC and DEF equivalence classes. Further tests then documented the merger of the classes and the emergence of SrB, SrC, SrE, and SrF relations, showing that the class-specific reinforcers were equivalence class members. Finally, participants did Semantic Differential ratings that tested whether the emotional valence of the A stimuli transferred to the arbitrary forms, B and E. The results show that participants’ evaluations of the B and E stimuli were similar to evaluations of the A stimuli made by participants of a control group. This finding is considered as a demonstration that class-specific outcomes can mediate class merger phenomena and the transfer of functions through members of merged classes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-25
  • Stimulus preexposure speeds or slows subsequent acquisition of associative
           learning depending on learning test procedures and response measure
    • Abstract: Abstract Prior exposure to a conditioned stimulus (CS) typically results in latent inhibition—slower acquisition of associative learning about that stimulus in subsequent training. Here, we found that CS preexposure had different effects on the appetitive conditioning of rats with a sucrose unconditioned stimulus (US) depending on training test procedures, the similarity of preexposure and training procedures, and the choice of response measure. Preexposure to a visual or an auditory stimulus produced facilitation of acquisition of food-cup-directed responding when both of those cues were (separately) paired with sucrose delivery in the training test (Experiments 1 and 3). By contrast, the same preexposure procedure resulted in latent inhibition of food-cup learning if the second stimulus in the test phase was of the same modality as the preexposed stimulus (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, latent inhibition was enhanced if both phases included a single CS or both phases included both auditory and visual CSs, compared to treatments in which only one CS was presented in one phase but two CSs were presented in the other phase. In Experiment 4, preexposure of an auditory cue slowed subsequent learning about it if the context was salient but enhanced learning if the context was of weaker salience. Finally, a measure of general activity revealed latent inhibition after preexposure in all conditions in all 4 experiments. We discuss the results within several classes of latent inhibition theories, none of which provides a comprehensive account.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
  • Divergences in learning and memory among wild zebrafish: Do sex and body
           size play a role'
    • Abstract: Abstract Given its diverse ecological distribution, zebrafish has great potential for investigations on the effect of habitat characteristics on cognition. Studies were conducted on four wild-caught zebrafish populations to understand the role of native habitat, sex, and body size in determining learning through a novel task associated with a food reward. The habitat variables, namely, the relative abundances of zebrafish and predatory fish and the substrate and vegetation diversity, were quantified during fish sampling. Fish were subjected to a novel task to find a food reward in a maze over successive training trials followed by a test for memory. Performances of subjects were based on time taken to find the food reward and number of mistakes made during trials, and tests for memory. The experiments revealed significant differences in learning rates and memory across populations. Males made significantly fewer mistakes than females only within two populations. No relationship between performance and body size was observed. The differences in learning and memory among wild zebrafish could be due to differences in predation, complexity, and stability of the native habitats. These findings suggest the possible role of multiple interacting factors in determining learning and memory among populations and point to a need for incorporating effects of several factors in future studies.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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