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MICROBIOLOGY (257 journals)                  1 2     

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access  
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access  
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Histology     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2     

Journal Cover International Journal of Food Microbiology
  [SJR: 1.614]   [H-I: 121]   [12 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0168-1605
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Activity of R(+) limonene on the maximum growth rate of fish spoilage
           organisms and related effects on shelf-life prolongation of fresh gilthead
           sea bream fillets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Filippo Giarratana, Daniele Muscolino, Chiara Beninati, Graziella Ziino, Alessandro Giuffrida, Antonio Panebianco
      R(+)limonene (LMN) is the major aromatic compound in essential oils obtained from oranges, grapefruits, and lemons. The improvement of preservation techniques to reduce the growth and activity of spoilage microorganisms in foods is crucial to increase their shelf life and to reduce the losses due to spoilage. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effect of LMN on the shelf life of fish fillets. Its effectiveness was preliminarily investigated in vitro against 60 strains of Specific Spoilage Organisms (SSOs) and then on gilt-head sea bream fillets stored at 2±0.5°C for 15days under vacuum. LMN showed a good inhibitory effect against tested SSOs strains. On gilt-head sea bream fillets, LMN inhibited the growth SSOs effectively, and its use resulted in a shelf-life extension of ca. 6–9days of treated fillets, compared to the control samples. The LMN addition in Sparus aurata fillets giving a distinctive smell and like-lemon taste to fish fillets that resulted pleasant to panellists. Its use contributed to a considerable reduction of fish spoilage given that the fillets treated with LMN were still sensory acceptable after 15days of storage. LMN may be used as an effective antimicrobial system to reduce the microbial growth and to improve the shelf life of fresh gilt-head sea bream fillets.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T13:54:07Z
  • Contamination of salmon fillets and processing plants with spoilage
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Trond Møretrø, Birgitte Moen, Even Heir, Anlaug Å. Hansen, Solveig Langsrud
      The processing environment of salmon processing plants represents a potential major source of bacteria causing spoilage of fresh salmon. In this study, we have identified major contamination routes of important spoilage associated species within the genera Pseudomonas, Shewanella and Photobacterium in pre-rigor processing of salmon. Bacterial counts and culture-independent 16S rRNA gene analysis on salmon fillet from seven processing plants showed higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. in industrially processed fillets compared to salmon processed under strict hygienic conditions. Higher levels of Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp. were found on fillets produced early on the production day compared to later processed fillets. The levels of Photobacterium spp. were not dependent on the processing method or time of processing. In follow-up studies of two plants, bacterial isolates (n =2101) from the in-plant processing environments (sanitized equipment/machines and seawater) and from salmon collected at different sites in the production were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Pseudomonas spp. dominated in equipment/machines after sanitation with 72 and 91% of samples from the two plants being Pseudomonas-positive. The phylogenetic analyses, based on partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing, showed 48 unique sequence profiles of Pseudomonas of which two were dominant. Only six profiles were found on both machines and in fillets in both plants. Shewanella spp. were found on machines after sanitation in the slaughter department while Photobacterium spp. were not detected after sanitation in any parts of the plants. Shewanella spp. and Photobacterium spp. were found on salmon in the slaughter departments. Shewanella was frequently present in seawater tanks used for bleeding/short term storage. In conclusion, this study provides new knowledge on the processing environment as a source of contamination of salmon fillets with Pseudomonas spp. and Shewanella spp., while Photobacterium spp. most likely originate from the live fish and seawater. The study show that strict hygiene during processing is a prerequisite for optimal shelf life of salmon fillets and that about 90% reductions in the initial levels of bacteria on salmon fillets can be obtained using optimal hygienic conditions.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T13:54:07Z
  • Microbial degradation of aflatoxin B1: Current status and future advances
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): C. Verheecke, T. Liboz, F. Mathieu
      Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a natural toxin produced by many food-contaminant fungi and is a threat to human and animal health. This review summarizes current knowledge of the different ways to limit AFB1 in the food chain. We start by introducing current data and reviews available on the prevention of AFB1 occurrence, on AFB1 non-biological decontamination and biological adsorption. We then focus on microbial AFB1-degradation. The latter has already been well studied using living organisms, supernatants or purified enzymes. This review compiles information on the variety of protocols and the efficacy of the different sub-kingdoms or classes of microorganisms or their enzymes. We pay particular attention to publications closest to in vivo applications of microbial AFB1-degradation. In addition, this review also provides a summary of the currently known microbial degradation metabolites of AFB1 and their levels of toxicity, and provides recommendations on the most promising techniques to pursue the aim of minimizing ABF1 in the food supply.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • The citrus postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum depends on the
           PdMpkB kinase for developmental and virulence functions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Haijie Ma, Xuepeng Sun, Mingshuang Wang, Yunpeng Gai, Kuang-Ren Chung, Hongye Li
      The postharvest pathogen Penicillium digitatum causes green mold decay on citrus fruit, resulting in severe economic losses. To explore possible factors involved in fungal pathogenesis, phenotypic characterization of the budding yeast Fus3/Kiss1 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homolog was carried out. The P. digitatum MAP kinase B coding gene, designated PdMpkB, was functionally inactivated via homologous recombination. The fungal strain (∆ PdMpkB ) carrying a Pd MpkB deletion demonstrated altered gene expression profiles, reduced growth and conidiogenesis, elevated resistance to osmotic stress, and failed to induce green mold decay on citrus fruit. ∆ PdMpkB was more resistant to CaCl2, NaCl and sorbitol than its progenitor strain, indicating a negative regulatory function of PdMpkB in osmotic stress adaptation. Fungal infection assays on citrus fruit revealed that ∆ PdMpkB proliferated poorly within host tissues, induced water-soaking lesions, failed to break through host cuticle layers and thus, failed to produce aerial hyphae and conidia. Introduction of a functional copy of PdMpkB into a null mutant restored all defective phenotypes. Transcriptome analysis revealed that inactivation of PdMpkB impacted expression of the genes associated with cell wall-degrading enzyme activities, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolisms, conidial formation, and numerous metabolic processes. Our results define pivotal roles of the PdMpkB-mediated signaling pathway in developmental and pathological functions in the citrus postharvest pathogen P. digitatum.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Increased mannoprotein content in wines produced by Saccharomyces
           kudriavzevii×Saccharomyces cerevisiae hybrids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Laura Pérez-Través, Amparo Querol, Roberto Pérez-Torrado
      Several wine quality aspects are influenced by yeast mannoproteins on account of aroma compounds retention, lactic-acid bacterial growth stimulation, protection against protein haze and astringency reduction. Thus selecting a yeast strain that produces high levels of mannoproteins is important for the winemaking industry. In this work, we observed increased levels of mannoproteins in S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids, compared to the S. cerevisiae strain, in wine fermentations. Furthermore, the expression of a key gene related to mannoproteins biosynthesis, PMT1, increased in the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrid. We showed that artificially constructed S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids also increased the levels of mannoproteins. This work demonstrates that either natural or artificial S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids present mannoprotein overproducing capacity under winemaking conditions, a desirable physiological feature for this industry. These results suggest that genome interaction in hybrids generates a physiological environment that enhances the release of mannoproteins.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Microbiological and molecular characterization of commercially available
           probiotics containing Bacillus clausii from India and Pakistan
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Vania Patrone, Paola Molinari, Lorenzo Morelli
      Probiotics are actively used for treatment of diarrhoea, respiratory infections, and prevention of infectious gastrointestinal diseases. The efficacy of probiotics is due to strain-specific features and the number of viable cells; however, several reports of deviations from the label in the actual content of strains in probiotic products are a matter of concern. Most of the available data on quality focuses on probiotic products containing lactobacilli and/or bifidobacteria, while very few data are available on spore-forming probiotics. The present study evaluates the label claims for spore count and species identification in five commercial probiotic products marketed in India and Pakistan that claim to contain Bacillus clausii: Tufpro, Ecogro, Enterogermina, Entromax, and Ospor. Bacterial enumeration from three batches was done by microbiological plating methods by two independent operators. Species identification was done using PCR amplification and sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA gene, and determination of the total amount of species present in the products was done using PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analysis followed by DNA sequencing of the excised bands. Plate count methods demonstrated poor correlations between quantitative label indications and bacteria recovered from plates for Tufpro, Ecogro, and Ospor. The 16S rRNA analysis performed on bacteria isolated from plate counts showed that only Enterogermina and Ospor contained homogenous B. clausii. PCR-DGGE analysis revealed that only Enterogermina had a homogenous B. clausii population while other products had mixed bacterial populations. In conclusion, the current analysis clearly demonstrates that of the five analysed commercial probiotics, only Enterogermina followed the label claims.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two
           common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Michael Sulyok, Yinka Somorin, Foluke I. Odutayo, Stella U. Nwabekee, Afeez T. Balogun, Rudolf Krska
      An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p <0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Morin inhibits biofilm production and reduces the virulence of Listeria
           monocytogenes — An in vitro and in vivo approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Murugesan Sivaranjani, Shanmugaraj Gowrishankar, Arumugam Kamaladevi, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian, Kirshnaswamy Balamurugan, Arumugam Veera Ravi
      The current study explores the in vitro and in vivo antibiofilm efficacy of morin against a leading foodborne pathogen-Listeria monocytogenes (LM). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of morin against LM strains was found to be 100μg/ml. The non-antibacterial effect of morin at its sub-MICs (6.25, 12.5 and 25μg/ml) was determined through growth curve and XTT assay. Morin at its sub-MICs demonstrated a significant dose dependent inhibitory efficacy against LM biofilm formation which was also evidenced through light, confocal and scanning electron microscopic analyses. However, morin failed to disperse the mature biofilm of LM even at its MIC. Our data also revealed the anti-virulence efficacy of morin, as it significantly inhibited the production of hemolysin and motility of LM. Concentration-dependent susceptibility of morin treated LM cells to normal human serum was observed. In vivo studies revealed that morin extended the lifespan of LM infected Caenorhabditis elegans by about 85%. Furthermore, the non-toxic nature and in vivo anti-adherence efficacy of morin were also ascertained through C. elegans-LM infection model. Overall, the data of the current study identifies morin as a promising antibiofilm agent and its suitability to formulate protective strategies against biofilm associated infections caused by LM.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • The four-component aureocin A70 as a promising agent for food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Patrícia Carlin Fagundes, Felipe Miceli de Farias, Olinda Cabral da Silva Santos, Juliana Aparecida Souza da Paz, Hilana Ceotto-Vigoder, Daniela Sales Alviano, Maria Teresa Villela Romanos, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
      Aureocin A70 is the only four-component bacteriocin described to date. As it inhibits the growth of a wide range of Gram-positive bacteria, including Listeria monocytogenes strains isolated from food, its potential for improving food safety was investigated in this study. Aureocin A70 (10,240AU/mL) proved to be bactericidal, but not extensively lytic, against listerial strains. The antibacterial activity of aureocin A70 (16AU/mL) was then tested in UHT-treated skimmed milk inoculated with the food-associated L. monocytogenes L12 strain (4-log CFU/mL) during storage at 4°C for one week. Aureocin A70 caused a time-dependent reduction in the listerial viable cell counts (5.51-log units) up to 7days of incubation. Aureocin A70 was neither toxic to the Vero and the L-929 cell lines nor exhibited a hemolytic activity against sheep red blood cells. Aureocin A70 proved to be completely stable for one month at 25°C, 16weeks at 4°C and 20weeks at −20°C. Aureocin A70 exhibited a time-dependent susceptibility to simulated gastric juice and bile salts mimicking gastrointestinal conditions. The entrapment of aureocin A70 in an alginate/gelatin matrix revealed that this bacteriocin can be released from this matrix. Moreover, it remained adsorbed to and active on a low-density polyethylene plastic surface suggesting that aureocin A70 may be employed in bioactive packaging to control the growth of undesirable bacteria. Taken together these results suggest that aureocin A70 is a promising alternative to be used in food applications.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Occurrence of Coxiella burnetii in goat and ewe unpasteurized cheeses:
           Screening and genotyping
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Alessia Galiero, Filippo Fratini, Cesare Cammà, Marco Di Domenico, Valentina Curini, Irene Baronti, Barbara Turchi, Domenico Cerri
      Q fever is a zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii which infects humans as well as several animal species; sheep, goats and cattle are the primary animal reservoir. The main route of human exposure to Coxiella burnetii is inhalation of contaminated aerosols from excreta, especially birth products, while the role of unpasteurized dairy products in the transmission of Q fever to humans remains still controversial. The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of Coxiella burnetii in unpasteurized cheese samples (n=84) by PCR and to genotype the circulating strains by Multispacer sequence typing (MST) analysis. Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in 27/84 (32.14%) cheeses and positivity rate of handicraft cheeses reached 17.24%, while positivity rate of non-handicraft cheeses reached 65.38%. In addition, the MST profile of Coxiella burnetii detected in 5 cheese samples have shown the circulation of ST12 and ST32 genotypes in Tuscany.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Unconventional bacterial association for dough leavening
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Alida Musatti, Chiara Mapelli, Roberto Foschino, Claudia Picozzi, Manuela Rollini
      The purpose of the research was to obtain innovative yeast-free doughs leavened by Zymomonas mobilis and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Z. mobilis, as well as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, produces an equimolar mixture of ethanol and CO2 through glucose, fructose or sucrose fermentation. In the present work, the inability of Z. mobilis to metabolize maltose has been circumvented by the addition of L. sanfranciscensis in the formulation. Indeed, L. sanfranciscensis, a heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium (LAB) typical of sourdough environment, hydrolyzes maltose releasing glucose which can be used by Z. mobilis for its metabolism. Biomass samples of Z. mobilis subs. mobilis DSM 424 and L. sanfranciscensis DSM 20663 were grown separately in liquid media and then associated in a model dough. Leavening trials set up by using three different microbial combinations (Lactobacillus:Zymomonas 80+80mg, 15+145mg and 145+15mg biomass, i.e. 1:1, 1:10 and 10:1 respectively on cell dry weight basis) evidenced CO2 production levels (mL) higher than the mathematical sum of CO2 produced by the single bacteria. In particular, when the biomass combination of L. sanfranciscensis and Z. mobilis was 1:1 (80+80mg cdw) and 10:1 (145+15mg cdw) a CO2 production of 46.3–41.4mL versus 26.7–28.5mL was achieved. The calculated productivity gain showed positive performances of the microbial combination up to 180–240min leavening. The subsequent efficiency loss may be due several factors, above all glucose shortage for Z. mobilis, as well as decrease of dough pH that can negatively affect both Lactobacillus and Zymomonas metabolism. As in traditional sourdoughs, L. sanfranciscensis was responsible for the souring activity with positive effects on both dough tasting and reduction of spoilage microbiota; Z. mobilis was instead responsible for most of the CO2 production. A bakery product leavened with the unconventional association Z. mobilis - L. sanfranciscensis will be addressed to people having adverse responses to the ingestion of bakery goods, thus providing innovation in the area of yeast-free leavened food.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Protease and lipase activities of fungal and bacterial strains derived
           from an artisanal raw ewe's milk cheese
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Sebnem Ozturkoglu-Budak, Ad Wiebenga, Peter A. Bron, Ronald P. de Vries
      We previously identified the microbiota present during cheese ripening and observed high protease and lipase activity in Divle Cave cheese. To determine the contribution of individual isolates to enzyme activities, we investigated a range of species representing this microbiota for their proteolytic and lipolytic ability. In total, 17 fungal, 5 yeast and 18 bacterial strains, previously isolated from Divle Cave cheese, were assessed. Qualitative protease and lipase activities were performed on skim-milk agar and spirit-blue lipase agar, respectively, and resulted in a selection of strains for quantitative assays. For the quantitative assays, the strains were grown on minimal medium containing irradiated Divle Cave cheese, obtained from the first day of ripening. Out of 16 selected filamentous fungi, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium cavernicola and Penicillium olsonii showed the highest protease activity, while Mucor racemosus was the best lipase producer. Yarrowia lipolytica was the best performing yeast with respect to protease and lipase activity. From the 18 bacterial strains, 14 and 11 strains, respectively showed protease and lipase activity in agar plates. Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus stratosphericus, Brevibacterium antiquum, Psychrobacter glacincola and Pseudomonas proteolytica displayed the highest protease and lipase activity. The proteases of yeast and filamentous fungi were identified as mainly aspartic protease by specific inhibition with Pepstatin A, whereas inhibition by PMSF (phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride) indicated that most bacterial enzymes belong to serine type protease. Our results demonstrate that aspartic proteases, which usually have high milk clotting activity, are predominantly derived from fungal strains, and therefore fungal enzymes appear to be more suitable for use in the cheese industry. Microbial enzymes studied in this research might be alternatives for rennin (chymosin) from animal source because of their low cost and stable availability. Future studies will aim to purify these enzymes to test their suitability for use in similar artisanal cheeses or in large scale commercial cheeses.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Conventional and molecular methods used in the detection and subtyping of
           Yersinia enterocolitica in food
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Stefanos Petsios, Maria Fredriksson-Ahomaa, Hercules Sakkas, Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Mexican unpasteurised fresh cheeses are contaminated with Salmonella spp.,
           non-O157 Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli and potential
           uropathogenic E. coli strains: A public health risk
    • Abstract: Publication date: 21 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 237
      Author(s): Rosa Guzman-Hernandez, Araceli Contreras-Rodriguez, Rosa Hernandez-Velez, Iza Perez-Martinez, Ahide Lopez-Merino, Mussaret B. Zaidi, Teresa Estrada-Garcia
      Fresh cheeses are a main garnish of Mexican food. Consumption of artisanal fresh cheeses is very common and most of them are made from unpasteurised cow milk. A total of 52 fresh unpasteurised cheeses of five different types were purchased from a variety of suppliers from Tabasco, Mexico. Using the most probable number method, 67% and 63% of samples were positive for faecal coliforms and E. coli, respectively; revealing their low microbiological quality. General hygienic conditions and practices of traditional cheese manufacturers were poor; most establishments had unclean cement floors, all lacked windows and doors screens, and none of the food-handlers wore aprons, surgical masks or bouffant caps. After analysing all E. coli isolates (121 strains) for the presence of 26 virulence genes, results showed that 9 (17%) samples were contaminated with diarrheagenic E. coli strains, 8 harboured non-O157 Shiga toxin producing E. coli (STEC), and one sample contained both STEC and diffusely adherent E. coli strains. All STEC strains carried the stx1 gene. Potential uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains were isolated from 15 (29%) samples; the most frequent gene combination was fimA-agn43. Two samples were contaminated with Salmonella. The results demonstrated that unpasteurised fresh cheeses produced in Tabasco are of poor microbiological quality and may frequently harbour foodborne pathogens. Food safety authorities in Mexico need to conduct more rigorous surveillance of fresh cheeses. Furthermore, simple and inexpensive measures as establishing programs emphasizing good hand milking practices and hygienic manufacturing procedures may have a major effect on improving the microbiological quality of these food items.

      PubDate: 2016-08-18T16:22:00Z
  • Natural occurrence of mycotoxins and toxigenic capacity of Alternaria
           strains from mouldy peppers
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Lucía da Cruz Cabral, Laura Terminiello, Virginia Fernández Pinto, Kristian Fog Nielsen, Andrea Patriarca
      Sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum) is an important crop cultivated worldwide, with Argentina being one of the major producers in South America. The fruit is susceptible to several fungal diseases, leading to severe economic losses for producers. In this study, Alternaria was found as the prevalent genus in mouldy peppers (50% fruits infected). Morphological identification revealed that all 64 Alternaria isolates belonged to small-spored species, most of them corresponding to A. tenuissima, A. arborescens and A. alternata species-groups. Their secondary metabolite profile was evaluated in vitro; alternariols were synthesized by most of the isolates (91% for alternariol and 92% for alternariol monomethyl ether). A high number of Alternaria spp. also produced tenuazonic acid (64%), altenuene (84%) and tentoxin (72%). In addition, damaged pepper fruits were analysed for the presence of tenuazonic acid and alternariols. A total 32 out of 48 spoiled pepper fruits were contaminated with at least one of these metabolites. Half of the samples were positive for tenuazonic acid (range 8–11,422μg/kg), while alternariol and its monomethyl ether were less frequently detected (21 and 29%, respectively) and at lower concentrations. This is the first report on the natural occurrence of Alternaria mycotoxins in Argentinean sweet pepper, and highlights a consumer risk when mouldy fruits are used in industrialized products because these compounds are not destroyed by conventional heat treatments.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T16:07:35Z
  • Determination of single cell lag times of Cronobacter spp. strains exposed
           to different stress conditions: Impact on detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): H. Margot, M.H. Zwietering, H. Joosten, R. Stephan
      The variability of stress resistance and lag time of single cells can have a big impact on their growth and therefore on the probability of their detection in food. In this study, six strains of Cronobacter spp. were subjected to heat, acid and desiccation stress and single cell lag times were determined using optical density measurements. The duration of lag time was highest after acid stress and did not correlate to stress resistance. The effect that the inactivation caused by stress and an extended lag time had on the projected cfu level reached after enrichment was simulated in different scenarios. For most strains, an enrichment time of 18h was sufficient for stressed cells to reach the suggested minimum level of cell inoculum for the Cronobacter screening broth detection. Particular strains may require longer recovery periods. Further, probability calculations showed that the number of samples taken from a batch may have an important effect on detection probability, especially at low contamination rates. Therefore, in addition to increasing the recovery period, increasing the number of samples is a suitable strategy to improve detection.

      PubDate: 2016-08-13T16:07:35Z
  • Detection, seroprevalence and antimicrobial resistance of Yersinia
           enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis in pig tonsils in Northern
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): S. Bonardi, I. Bruini, M. D'Incau, I. Van Damme, E. Carniel, S. Brémont, P. Cavallini, S. Tagliabue, F. Brindani
      Yersiniosis is the third most common reported zoonoses in Europe, with Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis responsible for 98.66% and 0.94% of the confirmed human cases in 2013. From June 2013 to October 2014, 201 pigs at slaughter belonging to 67 batches were tested for Y. enterocolitica and Y. pseudotuberculosis in tonsils. Diaphragm muscle samples were tested for antibodies against Yersinia by a commercially available ELISA test. Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 was detected in 55/201 pig tonsils (27.4%; 95% CI 23.1–37.1). The positive pigs came from 38/67 batches (56.7%) and were reared in 36/61 farms (59.0%). There was no statistical difference between farrow-to-finish and finishing farms. The mean count of Y. enterocolitica was 3.56±0.85log10 CFU/g with a minimum of 2.0log10 CFU/g and a maximum of 4.78log10 CFU/g. Y. pseudotuberculosis was isolated from 4/201 pig tonsils (2.0%; 95% CI 0.0–4.5). Three isolates belonged to serotype O:3 and one to serotype O:1. The positive pigs belonged to 4/67 batches (6.0%) and came from finishing farms only. Y. pseudotuberculosis could be enumerated in one sample only (4.27log10 CFU/g). The ELISA test demonstrated that 56.1% of the meat juice samples were positive for Yersinia antibodies. Serological positivity was found in 67.9% (36/53) of the Y. enterocolitica- and 75.0% (3/4) of the Y. pseudotuberculosis positive pigs. A significant association was found between serological results and the presence of Y. enterocolitica in tonsils (OR=1.97, p =0.044). All the Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3 isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftazidime, ertapenem and meropenem, 94.5% to cefotaxime, 89.1% to kanamycin and 78.2% to tetracycline. The highest resistance rates were observed for ampicillin (100%), sulphonamides (98.2%) and streptomycin (78.2%). Y. pseudotuberculosis strains were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested, i.e. amoxicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, azithromycin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, sulphonamide, tetracycline and ticarcillin. The study shows that Italian fattening pigs are frequently infected with human pathogenic Y. enterocolitica 4/O:3. Although the isolation rate is slightly lower than in other European countries, the serological test demonstrates that the infection is widespread among pig population. In fact, seroprevalence is similar to other EU countries. The detection of Y. pseudotuberculosis serotypes O:1 and O:3 in pig tonsils is of concern. Since tonsils may represent a contamination source for pig meat at slaughter, further studies regarding human infections by both microbial species are strongly recommended.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T01:21:42Z
  • Integrative taxonomy of Anisakidae and Raphidascarididae (Nematoda) in
           Paralichthys patagonicus and Xystreurys rasile (Pisces: Teleostei) from
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Michelle Cristie Gonçalves da Fonseca, Marcelo Knoff, Nilza Nunes Felizardo, Maria Isabel N. Di Azevedo, Eduardo José Lopes Torres, Delir Corrêa Gomes, Alena Mayo Iñiguez, Sérgio Carmona de São Clemente
      Thirty-six Paralichthys patagonicus and 30 Xystreurys rasile were collected in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil to investigate the presence of anisakid and raphidascaridid nematodes. Anisakis typica, Terranova sp., Contracaecum sp., Hysterothylacium deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. were identified using integrative taxonomy of morphological and genetic data. Morphological and morphometric analysis was conducted using bright field microscopy with scanning electron microscopy for topographic characterization of the cuticular surface. Phylogenetic analysis, using ITS and cox2 molecular targets, clearly demonstrated the species identification of A. typica and H. deardorffoverstreetorum and the high diversity of H. deardorffoverstreetorum. This is the first report of A. typica, H. deardorffoverstreetorum, and Raphidascaris sp. parasitizing P. patagonicus and X. rasile.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T01:21:42Z
  • Quantitative image analysis to characterize the dynamics of Listeria
           monocytogenes biofilms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): M. Mosquera-Fernández, P. Sanchez-Vizuete, R. Briandet, M.L. Cabo, E. Balsa-Canto
      This work shows that the combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) analyses of images acquired by confocal laser scanning microscopy facilitates the quantitative spatiotemporal characterization of architectures formed by Listeria monocytogenes biofilms. In particular, the analysis of structural features such as maximum thickness, biovolume, areal porosity and maximum diffusion distance allowed elucidating differences in biofilm formation of three L. monocytogenes strains (L1A1, CECT5873 and CECT4032). The analysis showed a common sequence for all strains. In the first phase, independent clusters evolve to interconnected clusters and honeycomb-like structures. Flat biofilms characterized the second phase. The structures disappear in the third phase. Nevertheless, the duration of the phases differed from strain to strain. L1A1 strain exhibited the slowest dynamics and the thickest biofilms while the strain CECT4032 presented the faster dynamics and the thinnest biofilms. Also, the number of dead cells varies significantly from strain to strain. From the results of the analysis, it can be concluded that 2D parameters are critical to differentiating morphological features while 3D parameters ease the interpretation and comparative study of the different phases during the life cycle of biofilms.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T01:21:42Z
  • Genetic characterization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)
           and atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolates from goat's
           milk and goat farm environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): María-Elena Álvarez-Suárez, Andrés Otero, María-Luisa García-López, Ghizlane Dahbi, Miguel Blanco, Azucena Mora, Jorge Blanco, Jesús A. Santos
      The aim of this study was to characterize a collection of 44 Shiga toxin-producing (STEC) and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) isolated from goat milk and goat farm environment. Of the 19 STEC isolates, five (26.3%) carried the stx1 gene, four (21.1%) the stx2 gene and 10 (52.6%) presented both stx genes. Six (31.6%) STEC strains were eae-positive and belonged to serotypes related to severe human disease (O157:H7 and O5:HNM). Another seven STEC strains were of serotype O146:H21 and three of serotype O166:H28, also linked to human disease. The STEC strains isolated from goat milk were of serotypes potentially pathogenic for humans. All the 25 EPEC isolates were considered atypical (aEPEC) and one aEPEC strain was of serotype O26:H11, a serotype frequently isolated in children with diarrhea. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was carried out with seven housekeeping genes and 23 sequence types (ST) were detected, 14 of them newly described. Twelve STs grouped STEC isolates and 11 STs grouped EPEC isolates. Genetic typing by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) resulted in 38 patterns which grouped in 10 clusters. Well-defined groups were also observed for strains of pathogenic serotypes. In conclusion, strains of STEC and aEPEC belonging to serotypes related to severe human disease have been detected in goat milk and the goat farm environment. Ruminants are an important reservoir of STEC strains and the role of these animals as carriers of other pathogenic types of E. coli seems to be an emerging concern.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T01:21:42Z
  • Polymorphism of the phosphoserine phosphatase gene in Streptococcus
           thermophilus and its potential use for typing and monitoring of population
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Annamaria Ricciardi, Francesca De Filippis, Teresa Zotta, Angelo Facchiano, Danilo Ercolini, Eugenio Parente
      The phosphoserine phosphatase gene (serB) of Streptococcus thermophilus is the most polymorphic gene among those used in Multilocus Sequence Typing schemes for this species and has been used for both genotyping of isolates and for evaluation of population diversity. However, the information on the potential of this gene as a marker for diversity in S. thermophilus species is still fragmentary. In this study, we evaluated serB nucleotide polymorphism and its potential impact on protein structure using data from traditional sequencing. In addition we evaluated the ability of serB targeted high-throughput sequencing in studying the diversity of S. thermophilus populations in cheese and starter cultures. Data based on traditional cultivation based techniques and sequencing provided evidence that the distribution of serB alleles varies significantly in some environments (commercial starter cultures, traditional starter cultures, cheese). Mutations had relatively little impact on predicted protein structure and were not found in domains that are predicted to be important for its functionality. Cultivation independent, serB targeted high-throughput sequencing provided evidence for significantly different alleles distribution in different cheese types and detected fluctuations in alleles abundance in a mixed strain starter reproduced by backslopping. Notwithstanding some shortcomings of this method that are discussed here, the cultivation independent approach appears to be more sensitive than cultivation based approaches based on isolation and traditional sequencing.

      PubDate: 2016-08-09T01:21:42Z
  • Role of extracellular matrix protein CabA in resistance of Vibrio
           vulnificus biofilms to decontamination strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Jin Hwan Park, Byungho Lee, Youmi Jo, Sang Ho Choi
      Biofilms are recalcitrant and raise safety problems in the food industry. In this study, the role of CabA, an extracellular matrix protein, in the resistance of the biofilms of Vibrio vulnificus, a foodborne pathogen, to decontamination strategies was investigated. Biofilms of the cabA mutant revealed reduced resistance to detachment by vibration and disinfection by sodium hypochlorite compared to the biofilms of the parental wild type in vitro. The reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms was complemented by introducing a recombinant cabA, indicating that the reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms is caused by the inactivation of cabA. The expression of cabA was induced in cells bound to oyster, the primary vehicle of the pathogen. The cabA mutant biofilms on oyster are defective in biomass and resistance to detachment and disinfection. The bacterial cells in the wild-type biofilms are clustered by filaments which are not apparent in the cabA mutant biofilms. The combined results indicated that CabA contributes to the structural integrity of V. vulnificus biofilms possibly by forming filaments in the matrix and thus rendering the biofilms robust, suggesting that CabA could be a target to control V. vulnificus biofilms on oyster.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T01:17:04Z
  • Quality attributes and microbial survival on whole cantaloupes with
           antimicrobial coatings containing chitosan, lauric arginate, cinnamon oil
           and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Qiumin Ma, Yue Zhang, Faith Critzer, P. Michael Davidson, Qixin Zhong
      Cantaloupes are susceptible to microbiological contamination in pre- or postharvest environments. Novel intervention strategies, such as antimicrobial coatings, are needed to improve the microbiological safety of cantaloupes. The objective of this study was to prepare whole cantaloupes coated with mixtures containing chitosan, lauric arginate (LAE), cinnamon oil (CO), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and determine survival characteristics of inoculated foodborne pathogens during storage as well as cantaloupe quality attributes. Chitosan coating with 0.1% LAE, 0.1% EDTA, and 1% CO was the most effective for inactivating foodborne pathogens inoculated on cantaloupes. This coating caused a >3logCFU/cm2 reduction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes immediately after coating and reduced Salmonella enterica to below the detection limit during a 14-day storage. Total molds and yeasts also were reduced to the detection limit by the coating. The redness and yellowness of uncoated cantaloupes were significantly higher than coated ones from day 6. The firmness of uncoated cantaloupes and those coated with chitosan only was significantly lower than other treatments from day 10. No significant differences were found in total soluble solids content or weight loss between coated and uncoated cantaloupes. Results showed the potential benefits of applying the coating mixtures to improve the quality and microbiological safety of cantaloupes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T01:17:04Z
  • Relevance of the transcription factor PdSte12 in Penicillium digitatum
           conidiation and virulence during citrus fruit infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Laura Vilanova, Neus Teixidó, Rosario Torres, Josep Usall, Inmaculada Viñas, Paloma Sánchez-Torres
      Green mould, resulting from Penicillium digitatum, is the most important postharvest disease of citrus. In a previous study, the PdSte12 transcription factor gene was identified, and disruption mutants were obtained. In the present study, the ΔPdSte12 mutants generated through gene replacement showed significantly reduced virulence during citrus fruit infection. Virulence was affected not only in mature fruit but also in immature fruit, and disease severity was markedly reduced when the oranges were stored at 20 or 4°C. In addition, the ΔPdSte12 mutants were defective in asexual reproduction, producing few conidia. The conidiophores of these mutants had longer metulae with fewer branches at the tip of the hyphae. Gene expression analysis revealed that PdSte12 might act as a negative regulator of several transporter-encoding genes and a positive regulator of two sterol demethylases, all of which are involved in fungicide resistance and fungal virulence. Moreover, PdSte12 exhibited the negative regulation of another transcription factor PdMut3, putatively involved in fungal pathogenesis but with no effect on the MAPK SLT2 P. digitatum orthologue belonging to different transcription pathways relevant to cell integrity. These results indicate the PdSte12 transcription factor is functionally conserved in P. digitatum for infection and asexual reproduction, similar to other Ste12 fungal plant pathogens.

      PubDate: 2016-08-04T01:17:04Z
  • Prevalence, antibiotic resistance, and extended-spectrum and AmpC
           β-lactamase productivity of Salmonella isolates from raw meat and
           seafood samples in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Dao Thi Anh Nguyen, Masashi Kanki, Phuc Do Nguyen, Hien Thi Le, Phong Thanh Ngo, Doan Nguyen Minh Tran, Ninh Hoang Le, Chinh Van Dang, Takao Kawai, Ryuji Kawahara, Shinya Yonogi, Yuji Hirai, Michio Jinnai, Shinji Yamasaki, Yuko Kumeda, Yoshimasa Yamamoto

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T05:24:14Z
  • Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance and virulence of enterococci from
           equipment surfaces, raw materials, and traditional cheeses
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Raimondo Gaglio, Natacha Couto, Cátia Marques, Maria de Fatima Silva Lopes, Giancarlo Moschetti, Constança Pomba, Luca Settanni
      Forty enterococci isolated along the production chains of three traditional cheeses (PDO Pecorino Siciliano, PDO Vastedda della Valle del Belìce, and Caciocavallo Palermitano) made in Sicily (southern Italy) were studied for the assessment of their antibiotic resistance and virulence by a combined phenotypic/genotypic approach. A total of 31 Enterococcus displayed resistance to at least one or more of the antimicrobials tested. The strains exhibited high percentages of resistance to erythromycin (52.5%), ciprofloxacin (35.0%), quinupristin–dalfopristin (20.0%), tetracycline (17.5%), and high-level streptomycin (5.0%). The presence of tet(M), cat(pC221), and aadE genes for resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and streptomycin, respectively, was registered in all strains with resistance phenotype. The erm(B) gene was not detected in any erythromycin-resistant strain. The Enterococcus strains were further tested by PCR for the presence of virulence genes, namely, gelE, asa1, efaA, ace, and esp. Twenty strains were positive for all virulence genes tested. Among the enterococci isolated from final cheeses, three strains (representing 33.3% of total cheese strains) were sensible to all antimicrobials tested and did not carry any virulence factor. Although this study confirmed that the majority of dairy enterococci are vectors for the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, only two strains showed a high resistance to aminoglycosides, commonly administered to combat enterococci responsible for human infections. Furthermore, the presence of the strains E. casseliflavus FMAC163, E. durans FMAC134B, and E. faecium PON94 without risk determinants, found at dominating levels over the Enterococcus populations in the processed products, stimulates further investigations for their future applications in cheese making. All strains devoid of the undesired traits were isolated from stretched cheeses. Thus, this cheese typology represents an interesting environment to deepen the studies on the risk/benefit role of enterococci in fermented foods for their qualified presumption of safety (QPS) assessment.

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T05:24:14Z
  • Developing and optimizing bacteriophage treatment to control
           enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Abigail B. Snyder, Jennifer J. Perry, Ahmed E. Yousef
      Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 108 PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6–914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4–3.0logCFU/g on cut green pepper (5-min rinse) and 3.4–3.5logCFU/g on spinach leaves (2-min rinse), during 72h storage. The majority of this decline was caused by the antimicrobial action of the phage. These findings suggest the utility of bacteriophage to selectively control pathogens on fresh produce.

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T05:24:14Z
  • Detailed analyses of the bacterial populations in processed cocoa beans of
           different geographic origin, subject to varied fermentation conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Cristian Bortolini, Vania Patrone, Edoardo Puglisi, Lorenzo Morelli
      The quality of chocolate is influenced by several parameters, one of which is bacterial diversity during fermentation and drying; a crucial factor for the generation of the optimal cocoa flavor precursors. Our understanding of the bacterial populations involved in chocolate fermentation can be improved by the use of high-throughput sequencing technologies (HTS), combined with PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA subunit. Here, we have conducted a high-throughput assessment of bacterial diversity in four processed samples of cocoa beans from different geographic origins. As part of this study, we also assessed whether different DNA extraction methods could affect the quality of our data. The dynamics of microbial populations were analyzed postharvest (fermentation and sun drying) and shipment, before entry to the industrial process. A total of 691,867 high quality sequences were obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the two bacterial 16S rRNA hypervariable regions, V3 and V4, following paired-read assembly of the raw reads. Manual curation of the 16S database allowed us to assign the correct taxonomic classifications, at species level, for 83.8% of those reads. This approach revealed a limited biodiversity and population dynamics for both the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and acetic acid bacteria (AAB), both of which are key players during the acetification and lactic acid fermentation phases. Among the LAB, the most abundant species were Lactobacillus fermentum, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Weissella paramesenteroides, and Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum. Among the AAB, Acetobacter syzygii, was most abundant, then Acetobacter senegalensis and Acetobacter pasteriuanus. Our results indicate that HTS approach has the ability to provide a comprehensive view of the cocoa bean microbiota at the species level.

      PubDate: 2016-07-30T05:24:14Z
  • Aptitude of Saccharomyces yeasts to ferment unripe grapes harvested during
           cluster thinning for reducing alcohol content of wine
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Barbara Bovo, Chiara Nadai, Chiara Vendramini, Wilson Josè Fernandes Lemos Junior, Milena Carlot, Andrea Skelin, Alessio Giacomini, Viviana Corich
      Among the viticultural techniques developed to obtain wine with reduced alcohol content, the use of unripe grapes with low sugar and high malic acid concentration, harvested at cluster thinning, was recently explored. So far, no studies have evaluated the fermentation performances of Saccharomyces in unripe grape musts, in terms of fermentation ability and reducing malic acid contents, to improve the quality of this low-alcohol beverage. In this work, we evaluated 24 S. cerevisiae strains isolated from Italian and Croatian vineyards with different fermentation aptitudes. Moreover, four S. paradoxus were considered, as previous works demonstrated that strains belonging to this species were able to degrade high malic acid amounts in standard musts. The industrial strain S. cerevisiae 71B was added as reference. Sugar and malic acid contents were modified in synthetic musts in order to understand the effect of their concentrations on alcoholic fermentation and malic acid degradation. S. cerevisiae fermentation performances improved when glucose concentration decreased and malic acid level increased. The conditions that simulate unripe grape must, i.e. low glucose and high malic acid content were found to enhance S. cerevisiae ability to degrade malic acid. On the contrary, S. paradoxus strains were able to degrade high amounts of malic acid only in conditions that resemble ripe grape must, i.e. high glucose and low malic acid concentration. In fermentation trials when low glucose concentrations were used, at high malic acid levels S. cerevisiae strains produced higher glycerol than at low malic acid condition. Malic acid degradation ability, tested on the best performing S. cerevisiae strains, was enhanced in fermentation trials when unripe grape must was used.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T13:29:52Z
  • Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene on the development of black mold disease
           and its potential effect on alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether
           biosynthesis on tomatoes infected with Alternaria alternata
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): N. Estiarte, A. Crespo-Sempere, S. Marín, V. Sanchis, A.J. Ramos
      Ethylene is a naturally produced plant regulator involved in several plant functions, such as regulation of fruit ripening. Inhibition of ethylene perception by using 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) slows down the ripening of the fruit maintaining its quality and freshness. The use of 1-MCP is a commercial strategy commonly used in the food industry to extend the postharvest life of several fruits, including tomatoes. To assess how 1-MCP affected infection by Alternaria alternata on tomatoes, three different cultivars were artificially inoculated with 5μL of an A. alternata conidial suspension (105 conidia/mL). Tomatoes were treated with 0.6μL/L of 1-MCP for 24h. Spiked but untreated tomatoes were considered controls. Then, fruit were stored 6days at 10°C and one more week at 20°C to simulate shelf-life. Fungal growth development and mycotoxin production (alternariol, AOH and alternariol monomethyl ether, AME) were assessed both on the first and on the second week. After the first 6days at 10°C, in just one variety the black mold disease was higher in the 1-MCP treated samples. However, after two weeks of storage, in all cases, tomatoes treated with 1-MCP showed more significant fungal growth disease. Regarding mycotoxin production, no large differences were observed among different treatments, which was corroborated with gene expression analysis of pksJ, a gene related to AOH and AME biosynthesis.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T13:29:52Z
  • Occurrence of ascaridoid nematodes in selected edible fish from the
           Persian Gulf and description of Hysterothylacium larval type XV and
           Hysterothylacium persicum n. sp. (Nematoda: Raphidascarididae)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Shokoofeh Shamsi, Masoumeh Ghadam, Jaydipbhai Suthar, Hoseinali Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, Mehdi Soltani, Saeed Mirzargar
      Despite several reports on the presence of the potentially zoonotic nematodes among edible fishes in the Persian Gulf, there is still no study on the specific identification of these parasites or their genetic characterisation. In the present study, a total of 600 fish belonging to five popular species of fish in the region, including Otolithes ruber, Psettodes erumei, Saurida tumbil, Scomberomorus commerson and Sphyraena jello were examined for infection with nematode parasites. Detailed microscopy of nematodes found in the present study followed by characterisation of the first and second internal transcribed spacers (ITS-1 and ITS-2, respectively) showed that they belong to five distinct taxa that could be potentially zoonotic. Anisakis type I was found in four species of fish, had identical ITS sequences as Anisakis typica previously reported in Australian waters and was different from those reported in the Nearctic. Hysterothylacium type VI in the present study was morphologically similar to those previously described from Australasian waters and ITS sequences were identical among Australian specimens and those found in the present study. Another Hysterothylacium larval type was also found in the present study which had identical ITS sequences and similar morphology to those previously reported and identified as H. amoyense in China Sea. Since no ITS sequence data from a well identified adult H. amoyense with an identifiable museum voucher number is yet available and due to some other issues discussed in the article we suggest assignment of this larval type from the China Sea and the Persian Gulf to H. amoyense is doubtful until future studies on a well identified male specimen of H. amoyense or other species reveals the specific identity of this larval type. We propose to refer to this larval type as Hysterothylacium larval type XV. In the present study we also describe a new species, Hysterothylacium persicum and discuss how to differentiate it from closely related species. We also found some adult females with distinct morphology and ITS sequence but due to lack of male specimens they have been referred as Hysterothylacium sp. in this paper. They had the same ITS sequence data as Hysterothylacium larval type VI. This study shows the presence of a relatively broad diversity of potentially zoonotic nematodes in edible fish of the Persian Gulf. Therefore educational campaigns for public and local health practitioners are suggested to protect consumers from becoming infected with these parasites.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T13:29:52Z
  • Antifungal effect of kefir fermented milk and shelf life improvement of
           corn arepas
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Raúl Ricardo Gamba, Carlos Andrés Caro, Olga Lucía Martínez, Ana Florencia Moretti, Leda Giannuzzi, Graciela Liliana De Antoni, Angela León Peláez

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T13:29:52Z
  • Putrescine biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally
           activated at acidic pH and counteracts acidification of the cytosol
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Beatriz del Rio, Daniel Linares, Victor Ladero, Begoña Redruello, Maria Fernandez, Maria Cruz Martin, Miguel A. Alvarez
      Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is a lactic acid bacterium that synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The AGDI genes cluster includes aguR. This encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system, the job of which is to sense the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulate the transcription of the catabolic operon aguBDAC. The latter encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine. This work reports the effect of extracellular pH on putrescine biosynthesis and on the genetic regulation of the AGDI pathway. Increased putrescine biosynthesis was detected at acidic pH (pH5) compared to neutral pH. Acidic pH induced the transcription of the catabolic operon via the activation of the aguBDAC promoter P aguB . However, the external pH had no significant effect on the activity of the aguR promoter P aguR , or on the transcription of the aguR gene. The transcriptional activation of the AGDI pathway was also found to require a lower agmatine concentration at pH5 than at neutral pH. Finally, the following of the AGDI pathway counteracted the acidification of the cytoplasm under acidic external conditions, suggesting it to provide protection against acid stress.

      PubDate: 2016-07-24T13:29:52Z
  • Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in
           cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Sudarsan Mukhopadhyay, Kimberly Sokorai, Dike Ukuku, Xuetong Fan, Vijay Juneja, Joseph Sites, Jennifer Cassidy
      The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. Freshly prepared CP with or without 0.1% ascorbic acid (AA) was inoculated with a bacterial cocktail composed of a three serotype mixture of S. enterica (S. Poona, S. Newport H1275 and S. Stanley H0558) and a mixture of three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, 43256 and 51742) to a population of ca. 108 CFU/g. Double sealed and double bagged inoculated CP (ca. 5g) were pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Data indicated increased inactivation of both Salmonella and Listeria spp. with higher pressure. Log reduction for CP at 300MPa, 8°C for 5min was 2.4±0.2 and 1.6±0.5logCFU/g for Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. Survivability of the pathogens was significantly compromised at 400MPa and 8°C, inactivating 4.5±0.3logCFU/g of Salmonella and 3.0±0.4logCFU/g of Listeria spp. Complete inactivation of the pathogens in the puree (log reduction >6.7logCFU/g), with or without AA, was achieved when the pressure was further increased to 500MPa, except that for Listeria containing no AA at 8°C. Listeria presented higher resistance to pressure treatment compared to Salmonella spp. Initial temperatures (8 and 15°C) had no significant influence on Salmonella log reductions. Log reduction of pathogens increased but not significantly with increase of temperature. AA did not show any significant antimicrobial activity. Viable counts were about 0.2–0.4logCFU/g less in presence of 0.1% AA. These data validate that HHP can be used as an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupe puree.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Effects of innovative and conventional sanitizing treatments on the
           reduction of Saccharomycopsis fibuligera defects on industrial durum wheat
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Virgilio Giannone, Iole Pitino, Biagio Pecorino, Aldo Todaro, Alfio Spina, Maria Rosaria Lauro, Filippo Tomaselli, Cristina Restuccia
      Wickerhamomyces anomalus, Hyphopichia burtonii and Saccharomycopsis fibuligera are spoilage yeasts causing chalk mold defects on sliced bread packaged under modified atmosphere. The first objective of this study, carried out in a bread-making company for two consecutive years, was to genetically identify yeasts isolated from spoiled sliced bread in Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) and to determine the dominant species among identified strains. The second objective was to evaluate the effects of hydrogen peroxide and silver solution 12% (HPS) treatment in the leavening cells and cooling chambers, in comparison with the conventional Ortho-Phenylphenol (OPP) fumigating treatment, on the incidence of chalk defects of the commercialized products. One-hundred percent of the isolated yeasts were identified as S. fibuligera, while H. burtonii and W. anomalus were not detected. Concerning mean water activity (aw) and moisture content values, packaged bread samples were, respectively, included in the range 0.922–0.940 and 33.40–35.39%. S. fibuligera was able to grow in a wide range of temperature (11.5 to 28.5°C) and relative humidity (70.00 to 80.17%) in the processing environments, and product aw <0.94. Compared to OPP, the combined treatment with hydrogen peroxide and silver solution, in association with MAP, reduced to a negligible level yeast contamination of industrial sliced bread. The identification of the spoilage organisms and a comprehensive understanding of the combined effects of aw, pO2/pCO2 inside the packages, environmental conditions and sanitizing treatment on the growth behaviour is essential for future development of adequate preventive process strategies against chalk mold defects.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Growth differences and competition between Listeria monocytogenes strains
           determine their predominance on ham slices and lead to bias during
           selective enrichment with the ISO protocol
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Evangelia Zilelidou, Evanthia Manthou, Panagiotis Skandamis
      Listeria monocytogenes strains are widespread in the environment where they live well mixed, often resulting in multiple strains contaminating a single food sample. The occurrence of different strains in the same food might trigger strain competition, contributing to uneven growth of strains in food and to bias during selective procedures. We tested the growth of seven L. monocytogenes strains (C5, 6179, ScottA, PL24, PL25, PL26, PL27) on ham slices and on nutrient-rich agar at 10°C, singly and in combinations. Strains were made resistant to different antibiotics for their selective enumeration. In addition, growth of single strains (axenic culture) and competition between strains in xenic cultures of two strains was evaluated in enrichment broth and on selective agar. According to ISO 11290-1:1996/Amd 1:2004 standard protocol for detection of L. monocytogenes, two enrichment steps both followed by streaking on ALOA were performed. Strain cultures were directly added in the enrichment broth or used to inoculate minced beef and sliced hams which were then mixed with enrichment broth. 180–360 colonies were used to determine the relative percentage of each strain recovered on plates per enrichment step. The data showed a significant impact of co-cultivation on the growth of six out of seven strains on ham and a bias towards certain strains during selective enrichment. Competition was manifested by: (i) cessation of growth for the outcompeted strain when the dominant strain reached stationary phase, (ii) reduction of growth rates or (iii) total suppression of growth (both on ham and in enrichment broth or ALOA). Outgrowth of strains by their competitors on ALOA resulted in limited to no recovery, with the outcompeting strain accounting for up to 100% of the total recovered colonies. The observed bias was associated with the enrichment conditions (i.e. food type added to the enrichment broth) and the strain-combination. The outcome of growth competition on food or nonselective agar surface did not necessarily coincide with the results of competition during enrichment. The results show that certain strains present in foods may be missed during classical detection due to strain competition and such likelihood should be taken into consideration when resolving a listeriosis outbreak.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Genome-wide identification of genes involved in growth and fermentation
           activity at low temperature in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Zoel Salvadó, Lucía Ramos-Alonso, Jordi Tronchoni, Vanessa Penacho, Estéfani García-Ríos, Pilar Morales, Ramon Gonzalez, José Manuel Guillamón
      Fermentation at low temperatures is one of the most popular current winemaking practices because of its reported positive impact on the aromatic profile of wines. However, low temperature is an additional hurdle to develop Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine yeasts, which are already stressed by high osmotic pressure, low pH and poor availability of nitrogen sources in grape must. Understanding the mechanisms of adaptation of S. cerevisiae to fermentation at low temperature would help to design strategies for process management, and to select and improve wine yeast strains specifically adapted to this winemaking practice. The problem has been addressed by several approaches in recent years, including transcriptomic and other high-throughput strategies. In this work we used a genome-wide screening of S. cerevisiae diploid mutant strain collections to identify genes that potentially contribute to adaptation to low temperature fermentation conditions. Candidate genes, impaired for growth at low temperatures (12°C and 18°C), but not at a permissive temperature (28°C), were deleted in an industrial homozygous genetic background, wine yeast strain FX10, in both heterozygosis and homozygosis. Some candidate genes were required for growth at low temperatures only in the laboratory yeast genetic background, but not in FX10 (namely the genes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis). Other genes related to ribosome biosynthesis (SNU66 and PAP2) were required for low-temperature fermentation of synthetic must (SM) in the industrial genetic background. This result coincides with our previous findings about translation efficiency with the fitness of different wine yeast strains at low temperature.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Assessment of the bacterial community in directly brined Aloreña de
           Málaga table olive fermentations by metagenetic analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): E. Medina, M.A. Ruiz-Bellido, V. Romero-Gil, F. Rodríguez-Gómez, M. Montes-Borrego, B.B. Landa, F.N. Arroyo-López
      This study uses an “omics” approach to evaluate the bacterial biodiversity changes during fermentation process of natural green cracked Aloreña de Málaga table olives, from raw material to fermented fruit. For this purpose, two industries separated by almost 20km in Guadalhorce Valley (Málaga, Spain) were analysed for obtaining both brines and fruit samples at different moments of fermentation (0, 7, 30 and 120days). Physicochemical and microbial counts during fermentation showed the typical evolution of this type of processes, apparently dominated by yeasts. However, high-throughput barcoded pyrosequencing analysis of V2–V3 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene showed at 97% identity the presence of 131 bacterial genera included in 357 operational taxonomic units, not detected by the conventional approach. The bacterial biodiversity was clearly higher in the olives at the moment of reception in the industry and during the first days of fermentation, while decreased considerably as elapse the fermentation process. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae species was scarce during the four months of study. On the contrary, the most important genus at the end of fermentation was Celerinatantimonas in both brine (95.3% of frequency) and fruit (89.4%) samples, while the presence of well-known spoilage microorganisms (Pseudomonas and Propionibacterium) and halophilic bacteria (Modestobacter, Rhodovibrio, Salinibacter) was also common during the course of fermentation. Among the most important bacterial pathogens related to food, only Staphylococcus genus was found at low frequencies (<0.02% of total sequences). Results show the need of this type of studies to enhance our knowledge of the microbiology of table olive fermentations. It is also necessary to determine the role played by these species not previously detected in table olives on the quality and safety of this fermented vegetable.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Occurrence of emerging food-borne pathogenic Arcobacter spp. isolated from
           pre-cut (ready-to-eat) vegetables
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Anna Mottola, Elisabetta Bonerba, Giancarlo Bozzo, Patrizia Marchetti, Gaetano Vitale Celano, Valeriana Colao, Valentina Terio, Giuseppina Tantillo, Maria José Figueras, Angela Di Pinto
      Given that changes in consumer food behaviours have led to an increase in the demand for pre-cut ready-to-eat (RTE) vegetables, and that few data are currently available on the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. in such foods, the aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of Arcobacter spp. that carry virulence-associated genes on pre-cut RTE vegetables, using cultural and molecular methods. Arcobacter was detected using biomolecular identification methods in 44/160 (27.5%) of the samples, of which 40/44 (90.9%) isolates corresponded to A. butzleri and 4/44 (9.1%) to A. cryaerophilus. Studying the incidence of 9 virulence-associated genes revealed the widespread distribution of these genes among the Arcobacter isolates tested. The results obtained in our research provided plenty of information on the health risks associated with the direct consumption of raw vegetables, and highlight the need to implement further studies at each level of the production chain, in order to obtain further information to help protect human health.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Supplementation with fruit and okara soybean by-products and amaranth
           flour increases the folate production by starter and probiotic cultures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Marcela Albuquerque Cavalcanti de Albuquerque, Raquel Bedani, Antônio Diogo Silva Vieira, Jean Guy LeBlanc, Susana Marta Isay Saad
      The ability of two starter cultures (Streptococcus (S.) thermophilus ST-M6 and St. thermophilus TA-40) and eleven probiotic cultures (St. thermophilus TH-4, Lactobacillus (Lb.) acidophilus LA-5, Lb. fermentum PCC, Lb. reuteri RC-14, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei, Lb. casei 431, Lb. paracasei subsp. paracasei F19, Lb. rhamnosus GR-1, and Lb. rhamnosus LGG, Bifidobacterium (B.) animalis subsp. lactis BB-12, B. longum subsp. longum BB-46, and B. longum subsp. infantis BB-02) to produce folate in a modified MRS broth (mMRS) supplemented with different fruit (passion fruit, acerola, orange, and mango) and okara soybean by-products and amaranth flour was investigated. Initially, the folate content of each vegetable substrate was determined: passion fruit by-product showed the lowest folate content (8±2ng/mL) and okara the highest (457±22ng/mL). When the orange by-product and amaranth flour were added to mMRS, all strains were able to increase folate production after 24h of fermentation. B. longum subsp infantis BB-02 produced the highest concentrations (1223±116ng/mL) in amaranth flour. Okara was the substrate that had the lowest impact on the folate production by all strains evaluated. Lb. acidophilus LA-5 (297±36ng/mL) and B. animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 (237±23ng/mL) were also able to produce folate after growth in mMRS containing acerola and orange by-products, respectively. The results of this study demonstrate that folate production is not only strain-dependent but also influenced by the addition of different substrates in the growth media.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Safety and technological characterization of coagulase-negative
           staphylococci isolates from traditional Korean fermented soybean foods for
           starter development
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Do-Won Jeong, Bitnara Lee, Jae-Young Her, Kwang-Geun Lee, Jong-Hoon Lee
      To select starters for the production of meju and doenjang, traditional Korean fermented soybean foods, we assessed the safety and technological properties of their predominant isolates, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Phenotypic antibiotic resistance, hemolysis and biofilm formation were strain-specific. None of the S. succinus isolates exhibited antibiotic resistance or hemolytic activities. Thirty-three selected strains, identified through safety assessments of 81 coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolates, produced cadaverine, putrescine, and tyramine, but not histamine in the laboratory setting. The production of these three biogenic amines may, however, be insignificant considering the high levels of tyramine produced by the control, Enterococcus faecalis. The 33 CNS strains could grow on tryptic soy agar containing 21% NaCl (w/v), exhibited acid producing activity at 15% NaCl, and expressed strain-specific protease and lipase activities. S. succinus 14BME1, the selected starter candidate, produced significant amounts of benzeneacetic acid, 2,3-butanediol, trimethylpyrazine, and tetramethylpyrazine through soybean fermentation.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama
           meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Cecilia Fontana, Daniela Bassi, Constanza López, Vincenza Pisacane, Maria Claudia Otero, Edoardo Puglisi, Annalisa Rebecchi, Pier Sandro Cocconcelli, Graciela Vignolo
      Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Development of a predictive model for Salmonella spp. reduction in meat
           jerky product with temperature, potassium sorbate, pH, and water activity
           as controlling factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 7 November 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 236
      Author(s): Vijay K. Juneja, Martin Valenzuela-Melendres, Dilek Heperkan, Derrick Bautista, David Anderson, Cheng-An Hwang, Aida Peña-Ramos, Juan Pedro Camou, Noemi Torrentera-Olivera
      The objective of this study was to develop a predictive model for the inactivation of Salmonella spp. in ground beef jerky as a function of temperature (T), pH, potassium sorbate (PS), and final water activity (aw). Following a central composite design, ground beef was combined with PS (0 to 0.3%, w/w), pH adjusted from 5 to 7, inoculated with a cocktail of 6 serotypes of Salmonella spp. and heat processed at temperatures between 65 and 85°C until the final aw ranging from 0.65 to 0.85 was achieved. Surviving Salmonella cells were enumerated on tryptic soy agar overlaid with xylose lysine deoxycholate agar (pre-tempered to 47°C) after incubation for 48h at 30°C. Bacterial inactivation was quantified in terms of logarithmic reductions of Salmonella counts (log10 CFU/g) and inactivation rate (log10 (CFU/g)/h). The results indicated that pH, PS and T significantly (p<0.05) interacted to inactivate Salmonella in beef jerky. Decreasing meat pH significantly (p<0.05) increased the efficacy of PS and T to reduce the levels of Salmonella spp. Beef jerky processed at 82°C, pH5.5, with 0.25% PS to a final aw of 0.7 resulted in a maximum Salmonella logarithmic reduction of 5.0log10 CFU/g and an inactivation rate of 1.3log10 (CFU/g)/h. The predictive model developed can be used to effectively design drying processes for beef jerky under low humidity conditions and thereby, ensuring an adequate degree of protection against risks associated with Salmonella spp.

      PubDate: 2016-07-20T13:27:39Z
  • Transcriptome analysis of beer-spoiling Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464
           during growth in degassed and gassed beer
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Jordyn Bergsveinson, Vanessa Friesen, Barry Ziola
      Lactobacillus brevis BSO 464 (Lb464) is a beer-spoilage-related (BSR) isolate of interest given its unique physiological attributes; specifically, it is highly hop-tolerant and exhibits very rapid growth in pressurized/gassed beer. RNA sequencing was performed on Lb464 grown in pressurized and non-pressurized beer to determine important genetic mechanisms for growth in these environments. The data generated were compared against data in a previous transcriptional study of another lactic acid bacterium (LAB) during growth in beer, namely, Pediococcus claussenii ATCC BAA-344T (Pc344). Results revealed that the most important genetic elements for Lb464 growth in beer are related to biogenic amine metabolism, membrane transport and fortification, nutrient scavenging, and efficient transcriptional regulation. Comparison with the previous transcriptional study of Pc344 indicated that the total coding capacity (plasmid profile and genome size) of a LAB isolate allows for beer-spoilage virulence and adaptation to different beer environments, i.e., the ability to grow in degassed beer (during production) or gassed beer (packaged product). Further, differences in gene expression of Lb464 and Pc344 during mid-exponential growth in beer may dictate how rapidly each isolate exhausts particular carbon sources during. The presence of headspace pressure/dissolved CO2 was found to drive Lb464 transcription during mid-exponential growth in beer towards increasing cell wall and membrane modification, transport, osmoregulation, and DNA metabolism and transposition events. This transcriptional activity resembles transcriptional patterns or signatures observed in a viable, but non-culturable state established by non-related organisms, suggesting that Lb464 overall uses complex cellular regulation to maintain cell division and growth in the stressful beer environment. Additionally, increased expression of several hypothetical proteins, the hop-tolerance gene horC, and DNA repair and recombination genes from plasmids pLb464-2, −4, and −8 were observed in the gassed beer environment. Thus, plasmids can harbor genes with specific (gassed) beer growth advantages, and confirm that plasmid transfer and acquisition as important activities for adaptation to the beer environment.

      PubDate: 2016-07-12T12:08:52Z
  • Lactic acid bacteria as protective cultures in fermented pork meat to
           prevent Clostridium spp. growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Diana Di Gioia, Giuseppe Mazzola, Ivana Nikodinoska, Irene Aloisio, Tomaz Langerholc, Maddalena Rossi, Stefano Raimondi, Beatriz Melero, Jordi Rovira
      In meat fermented foods, Clostridium spp. growth is kept under control by the addition of nitrite. The growing request of consumers for safer products has led to consider alternative bio-based approaches, the use of protective cultures being one of them. This work is aimed at checking the possibility of using two Lactobacillus spp. strains as protective cultures against Clostridium spp. in pork ground meat for fermented salami preparation. Both Lactobacillus strains displayed anti-clostridia activity in vitro using the spot agar test and after co-culturing them in liquid medium with each Clostridium strain. Only one of them, however, namely L. plantarum PCS20, was capable of effectively surviving in ground meat and of performing anti-microbial activity in carnis in a challenge test where meat was inoculated with the Clostridium strain. Therefore, this work pointed out that protective cultures can be a feasible approach for nitrite reduction in fermented meat products.

      PubDate: 2016-07-12T12:08:52Z
  • Arginine acts as an inhibitor of the biosynthesis of several mycotoxins
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Najim Touhami, Katharina Buhl, Markus Schmidt-Heydt, Rolf Geisen
      It is well known that the type and the availability of nitrogen have a great influence on the biosynthesis of certain mycotoxins. Here it is shown that some amino acids have no influence, some others strongly support and a third group inhibits the biosynthesis of ochratoxin (OTA) by Penicillium nordicum even in a complex medium, such as PDA. Arginine (Arg) is one of the strong OTA inhibiting amino acids. It was shown that Arg not only inhibits OTA in Penicillium but also citrinin (CIT) biosynthesis in Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium expansum and Penicillium citrinum and alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethylether (AME) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) biosynthesis in Alternaria alternata. The minimal inhibitory concentration of Arg differs depending on the mycotoxin and the species analysed. However, the OTA biosynthesis by P. verrucosum and P. nordicum was most sensitive. Growth, on the other hand, was much less affected by Arg. Urea, a metabolite of Arg catabolism, shows a similar inhibitory activity. In wheat medium containing 50mM Arg almost no OTA was produced by Penicillium, in contrast to plain wheat medium.

      PubDate: 2016-07-12T12:08:52Z
  • Production of staphylococcal enterotoxins in microbial broth and milk by
           Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Justyna Schubert, Magdalena Podkowik, Jarosław Bystroń, Jacek Bania
      Twenty Staphylococcus aureus strains harboring seh gene, including one carrying also sec gene and 11 sea gene, were grown in BHI+YE broth and milk and were tested for SEA, SEC and SEH production. All strains decreased pH of BHI+YE broth at 24h and increased them at 48h. Seventeen S. aureus strains grown in milk changed pH for no >0.3 unit until 48h. Three other S. aureus strains significantly decreased pH during growth in milk. All S. aureus produced SEH in BHI+YE broth in amounts ranging from 95 to 1292ng/ml, and from 170 to 4158ng/ml at 24 and 48h, respectively. SEH production in milk by 17 strains did not exceed 23ng/ml at 24h and 36ng/ml at 48h. Three S. aureus strains able to decrease milk pH produced 107–3029ng/ml and 320–4246ng/ml of SEH in milk at 24 and 48h, respectively. These strains were grown in milk and BHI+YE broth with pH stabilized at values near neutral leading to a significant decrease of SEH production. Representative weak SEH producers were grown in milk at reduced pH resulting in moderate increase in SEH production. SEA was produced in milk by 10 S. aureus strains at 24–151ng/ml at 24h, and 31–303ng/ml at 48h. SEA production in milk was higher or comparable as in BHI+YE broth in 3 strains and lower for remaining strains. Production of SEC by sec-positive S. aureus strains was lower in milk than in BHI+YE broth, ranging from 131 to 2319ng/ml at 24 and 48h in milk and 296–30,087ng/ml in BHI+YE at 24 and 48h. Both lacE and lacG transcripts involved in lactose metabolism were significantly up-regulated in milk in strong SEH producers. In these strains hld, rot and sarA transcripts were up-regulated in milk as compared to weak SEH producers. Stabilization of milk pH at a value of raw milk significantly down-regulated hld, rot and sarA RNA in strong SEH producers. Milk was generally found unfavorable for enterotoxin production. However, certain S. aureus strains were not restricted in SEH and SEA expression in milk, unlike SEC which remained down-regulated in this environment. Therefore, low safety risk related to S. aureus producing SEC in milk, as suggested previously, may not pertain to certain SEA and SEH-producing strains.

      PubDate: 2016-07-12T12:08:52Z
  • Okara (soybean residue) biotransformation by yeast Yarrowia lipolytica
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Weng Chan VONG, Kai Ling Corrine AU YANG, Shao-Quan LIU
      Okara, or soybean residue, is a soy food processing by-product from the manufacture of soymilk and soybean curd (tofu). In this study, solid-state fermentation of okara was conducted over 5days using yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, and the changes in proximate composition, antioxidant capacity, non-volatiles and volatiles were investigated. Yeast metabolism of okara significantly increased the amounts of lipid, succinate and free amino acids and enhanced the antioxidant capacity. In particular, there was a marked increase in important umami tastants after fermentation, with 3-fold increase in succinate and a 20-fold increase in glutamate. The final fermented okara contained 3.37g succinate and 335mg glutamate/100g dry matter. Aldehydes and their derived acids in the fresh okara were catabolised by Y. lipolytica mainly to methyl ketones, leading to a reduced grassy off-odour and a slightly pungent, musty and cheese-like odour in the fermented okara. Amino acid-derived volatiles, such as 3-methylbutanal and 2-phenylethanol, were also produced. Overall, the okara fermented by Y. lipolytica had a greater amount of umami-tasting substances, a cheese-like odour, improved digestibility and enhanced antioxidant capacity. These changes highlight the potential of Yarrowia-fermented okara as a more nutritious, savoury food product or ingredient. Y. lipolytica was thus demonstrated to be suitable for the biovalorisation of this soy food processing by-product.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T03:46:25Z
  • Influence of food intrinsic complexity on Listeria monocytogenes growth
           in/on vacuum-packed model systems at suboptimal temperatures
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Maria Baka, Estefanía Noriega, Kristof Van Langendonck, Jan F. Van Impe
      Food intrinsic factors e.g., food (micro)structure, compositional and physicochemical aspects, which are mutually dependent, influence microbial growth. While the effect of composition and physicochemical properties on microbial growth has been thoroughly assessed and characterised, the role of food (micro)structure still remains unravelled. Most studies on food (micro)structure focus on comparing planktonic growth in liquid (microbiological) media with colonial growth in/on solid-like systems or on real food surfaces. However, foods are not only liquids or solids; they can also be emulsions or gelled emulsions and have complex compositions. In this study, Listeria monocytogenes growth was studied on the whole spectrum of (micro)structure, in terms of food (model) systems. The model systems varied not only in (micro)structure, which was the target of the study, but also in compositional and physicochemical characteristics, which was an inevitable consequence of the (micro)structural variability. The compositional and physicochemical differences were mainly due to the presence or absence of fat and gelling agents. The targeted (micro)structures were: i) liquids, ii) aqueous gels, iii) emulsions and iv) gelled emulsions. Furthermore, the microbial dynamics were studied and compared in/on all these model systems, as well as on a compositionally predefined canned meat, developed in order to have equal compositional level to the gelled emulsion model system and represent a real food system. Frankfurter sausages were the targeted real foods, selected as a case study, to which the canned meat had similar compositional characteristics. All systems were vacuum packed and incubated at 4, 8 and 12°C. The most appropriate protocol for the preparation of the model systems was developed. The pH, water activity and resistance to penetration of the model systems were characterised. Results indicated that low temperature contributes to growth variations among the model systems. Additionally, the firmer the solid system, the faster L. monocytogenes grew on it. Finally, it was found that L. monocytogenes grows faster on canned meat and real Frankfurters, as found in a previous study, followed by liquids, aqueous gels, emulsions and gelled emulsions. This observation indicates that all model systems, developed in this study, underestimated L. monocytogenes growth. Despite some limitations, model systems are overall advantageous and therefore, their validation is always recommended prior to further use.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T03:46:25Z
  • Incidence and growth of Salmonella enterica on the peel and pulp of
           avocado (Persea americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa)
    • Abstract: Publication date: 17 October 2016
      Source:International Journal of Food Microbiology, Volume 235
      Author(s): Ana Carolina B. Rezende, Juliana Crucello, Rafael C. Moreira, Beatriz S. Silva, Anderson S. Sant'Ana
      The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and to estimate the growth kinetic parameters (maximum growth rate, μ; lag time, λ; and maximum population, κ) of Salmonella on the peel and pulp of avocado (Persea americana var. americana) and custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) as affected by temperature (10–30°C). The incidence of Salmonella was assessed on the peel and pulp of the fruits (n =200 of each fruit), separately, totalizing 800 analyses. Only three samples of custard apple pulp were positive for Salmonella enterica and the three isolates recovered belonged to serotype S. Typhimurium. Salmonella was not recovered from avocado and custard apple peels and from avocado pulp. Generally, the substrate (pulp or peel) of growth did not affect μ values of S. enterica (p >0.05). Very similar μ values were found for S. enterica inoculated in custard apple and avocado. S. enterica presented the highest λ in the peel of the fruits. The growth of S. enterica resulted in larger λ in custard apple in comparison to avocado. For example, the λ of S. enterica in the pulp of custard apple and avocado were 47.0±0.78h and 10.0±3.78h, respectively. The lowest values of κ were obtained at the lower storage temperature conditions (10°C). For instance, κ values of 3.7±0.06log CFU/g and 2.9±0.03log CFU/g were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in avocado and custard apple pulps at 10°C (p <0.05), respectively. On the other hand, at 30°C, κ values were 6.5±0.25log CFU/g and 6.5±0.05log CFU/g, respectively. Significantly higher κ were obtained from the growth of S. enterica in the pulp than in the peel of the fruits (p <0.05). For instance, the growth of S. enterica in the pulp of avocado led to a κ value of 6.5±0.25log CFU/g, while in the peel led to a κ value of 4.6±0.23log CFU/g (p <0.05). In general, growth kinetic parameters indicated that avocado comprises a better substrate than custard apple for the growth of S. enterica. The square root model fitted to the data obtained in this study and to the growth data available in the literature for other tropical low acid fruits indicated high variability in μ and λ of Salmonella. The results obtained in this study show that whole low acid tropical fruits can harbor Salmonella, and that this foodborne pathogen can not only survive but also grow both on the peel and pulp of low acid tropical fruits, such as avocado and custard apple.

      PubDate: 2016-07-08T03:46:25Z
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