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MICROBIOLOGY (243 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular Biology     Open Access  
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AIMS Molecular Science     Open Access  
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Microbial Malaise: How Can We Classify the Microbiome'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Robert G. Beiko
      The names and lineages of microorganisms are critical to our understanding of the microbiome. However, microbial taxonomy and phylogeny are in perpetual flux, with emerging criteria being used to rename and reshape our views of the microbial world. Different candidate molecular and nonmolecular criteria are often broadly consistent with one another, which underpins the pluralistic approach to taxonomy. However, the taxonomic picture is clouded when underlying criteria are not in agreement, or when reference datasets contain erroneously named organisms. How does the shifting taxonomic landscape impact our interpretation of microbial communities, especially in the face of inconsistencies and errors' How can taxonomy be applied in a consistent way when different users have different requirements of the classifications that emerge' The key path forward involves finding ways to integrate conflicting taxonomic criteria, choosing the right units of analysis for microbiomic studies, and making molecular taxonomy transparent and accessible in a way that complements current genomic resources.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Bacterial Amyloid Formation: Structural Insights into Curli Biogensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nani Van Gerven, Roger D. Klein, Scott J. Hultgren, Han Remaut
      Curli are functional amyloid fibers assembled by many Gram-negative bacteria as part of an extracellular matrix that encapsulates the bacteria within a biofilm. A multicomponent secretion system ensures the safe transport of the aggregation-prone curli subunits across the periplasm and outer membrane, and coordinates subunit self-assembly into surface-attached fibers. To avoid the build-up of potentially toxic intracellular protein aggregates, the timing and location of the interactions of the different curli proteins are of paramount importance. Here we review the structural and molecular biology of curli biogenesis, with a focus on the recent breakthroughs in our understanding of subunit chaperoning and secretion. The mechanistic insight into the curli assembly pathway will provide tools for new biotechnological applications and inform the design of targeted inhibitors of amyloid polymerization and biofilm formation.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell
           Metabolic Network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher M. Goodwin, Shihao Xu, Joshua Munger
      Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host's metabolic resources is a core host–pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host's metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Biofilm Recruitment of Vibrio cholerae by Matrix Proteolysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marylise Duperthuy, Bernt Eric Uhlin, Sun Nyunt Wai
      The appearance of bacterial biofilms involves secretion of polysaccharides and proteins that form an extracellular matrix embedding the bacteria. Proteases have also been observed, but their role has remained unclear. Smith and co-workers have now found that proteolysis can contribute to further recruitment of bacteria to Vibrio cholerae biofilms.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Erratum to: ‘The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial
           chemotherapy and drug resistance’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruthie B. Birger, Roger D. Kouyos, Ted Cohen, Emily C. Griffiths, Silvie Huijben, Michael J. Mina, Victoriya Volkova, Bryan Grenfell, C. Jessica E. Metcalf

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Antiviral Monoclonal Antibodies: Can They Be More Than Simple Neutralizing
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Mireia Pelegrin, Mar Naranjo-Gomez, Marc Piechaczyk
      Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are increasingly being considered as agents to fight severe viral diseases. So far, they have essentially been selected and used on the basis of their virus-neutralizing activity and/or cell-killing activity to blunt viral propagation via direct mechanisms. There is, however, accumulating evidence that they can also induce long-lasting protective antiviral immunity by recruiting the endogenous immune system of infected individuals during the period of immunotherapy. Exploiting this property may revolutionize antiviral mAb-based immunotherapies, with benefits for both patients and healthcare systems.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Natural Product Biosynthetic Diversity and Comparative Genomics of the
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Elke Dittmann, Muriel Gugger, Kaarina Sivonen, David P. Fewer
      Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of slow-growing photosynthetic bacteria and a prolific source of natural products with intricate chemical structures and potent biological activities. The bulk of these natural products are known from just a handful of genera. Recent efforts have elucidated the mechanisms underpinning the biosynthesis of a diverse array of natural products from cyanobacteria. Many of the biosynthetic mechanisms are unique to cyanobacteria or rarely described from other organisms. Advances in genome sequence technology have precipitated a deluge of genome sequences for cyanobacteria. This makes it possible to link known natural products to biosynthetic gene clusters but also accelerates the discovery of new natural products through genome mining. These studies demonstrate that cyanobacteria encode a huge variety of cryptic gene clusters for the production of natural products, and the known chemical diversity is likely to be just a fraction of the true biosynthetic capabilities of this fascinating and ancient group of organisms.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Sweet Talk: Protein Glycosylation in Bacterial Interaction With the Host
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Qiuhe Lu, Shan Li, Feng Shao
      Pathogenic bacteria encode virulent glycosyltransferases that conjugate various glycans onto substrate proteins via the N- or O-linkage. The HMW system in nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and the Pgl system in Campylobacter jejuni glycosylate bacterial surface or periplasmic proteins at the eukaryotic-like Asn-X-Ser/Thr motif. The NleB effector from enterobacteria mediates arginine GlcNAcylation of host death-domain proteins to block inflammation, representing an atypical N-glycosylation. The large clostridial cytotoxins and related glucosyltransferase toxins from Legionella and Photorhabdus monoglycosylate a serine/threonine or tyrosine in host Rho GTPase or elongation factor 1A (eEF1A). The emerging bacterial autotransporter heptosyltransferase (BAHT) family of heptosyltransferases also catalyses O-glycosylation and modifies autotransporters for adhesion to the host. These glycosylations, diverse in linkages and glycan structures, determine appropriate functioning of bacterial virulence factors or hijack host cellular processes in pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Roles of Lipoproteins and Apolipoproteins in Particle Formation of
           Hepatitis C Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Takasuke Fukuhara, Chikako Ono, Francesc Puig-Basagoiti, Yoshiharu Matsuura
      More than 160 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), and cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma induced by HCV infection are life-threatening diseases. HCV takes advantage of many aspects of lipid metabolism for an efficient propagation in hepatocytes. Due to the morphological and physiological similarities of HCV particles to lipoproteins, lipid-associated HCV particles are named lipoviroparticles. Recent analyses have revealed that exchangeable apolipoproteins directly interact with the viral membrane to generate infectious HCV particles. In this review, we summarize the roles of lipid metabolism in the life cycle of HCV.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • One of These is Not Like the Others
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Martin S. Pavelka
      A Mycobacterium tuberculosis metA mutant that is auxotrophic for methionine is unlike other auxotrophic mutants of this important species as methionine starvation results in rapid death instead of cessation of growth. Evidence suggests that this phenotype results from starvation affecting essential pathways that utilize S-adenosylmethionine in addition to methionine.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • SAMHD1: At the Crossroads of Cell Proliferation, Immune Responses, and
           Virus Restriction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ester Ballana, José A. Esté
      SAMHD1 is a triphosphohydrolase enzyme that controls the intracellular level of deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs) and plays a role in innate immune sensing and autoimmune disease. SAMHD1 has also been identified as an intrinsic virus restriction factor, inactivated through degradation by HIV-2 Vpx or through a post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism. Phosphorylation of SAMHD1 by cyclin-dependent kinases has been strongly associated with inactivation of the virus restriction mechanism, providing an association between virus replication and cell proliferation. Tight regulation of cell proliferation suggests that viruses, particularly HIV-1 replication, latency, and reactivation, may be similarly controlled by multiple checkpoint mechanisms that, in turn, regulate dNTP levels. In this review, we discuss how SAMHD1 is a viral restriction factor, the mechanism associated with viral restriction, the pathway leading to its inactivation in proliferating cells, and how strategies aimed at controlling virus restriction could lead to a functional cure for HIV.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Microbial Invasions: The Process, Patterns, and Mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cyrus Alexander Mallon, Jan Dirk van Elsas, Joana Falcão Salles
      There has recently been a surge of literature examining microbial invasions into a variety of environments. These studies often include a component of biological diversity as a major factor determining an invader's fate, yet common results are rarely cross-compared. Since many studies only present a snapshot of the entire invasion process, a bird's eye view is required to piece together the entire continuum, which we find consists of introduction, establishment, spread, and impact phases. We further examine the patterns and mechanisms associated with invasion resistance and create a mechanistic synthesis governed by the species richness, species evenness, and resource availability of resident communities. We conclude by exploring the advantages of using a theoretical invasion framework across different fields.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Roles of Indole as an Interspecies and Interkingdom Signaling Molecule
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jin-Hyung Lee, Thomas K. Wood, Jintae Lee
      A number of bacteria, and some plants, produce large quantities of indole, which is widespread in animal intestinal tracts and in the rhizosphere. Indole, as an interspecies and interkingdom signaling molecule, plays important roles in bacterial pathogenesis and eukaryotic immunity. Furthermore, indole and its derivatives are viewed as potential antivirulence compounds against antibiotic-resistant pathogens because of their ability to inhibit quorum sensing and virulence factor production. Indole modulates oxidative stress, intestinal inflammation, and hormone secretion in animals, and it controls plant defense systems and growth. Insects and nematodes can recognize indole, which controls some of their behavior. This review presents current knowledge regarding indole and its derivatives, their biotechnological applications and their role in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Rates of Lateral Gene Transfer in Prokaryotes: High but Why'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Michiel Vos, Matthijn C. Hesselman, Tim A. te Beek, Mark W.J. van Passel, Adam Eyre-Walker
      Lateral gene transfer is of fundamental importance to the evolution of prokaryote genomes and has important practical consequences, as evidenced by the rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance and virulence determinants. Relatively little effort has so far been devoted to explicitly quantifying the rate at which accessory genes are taken up and lost, but it is possible that the combined rate of lateral gene transfer and gene loss is higher than that of point mutation. What evolutionary forces underlie the rate of lateral gene transfer are not well understood. We here use theory developed to explain the evolution of mutation rates to address this question and explore its consequences for the study of prokaryote evolution.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • The Tailocin Tale: Peeling off Phage Tails
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Maarten G.K. Ghequire, René De Mot
      Bacteria produce a variety of particles resembling phage tails that are functional without an associated phage head. Acquired from diverse bacteriophage sources, these stand-alone units were sculpted to serve different ecological roles. Such tailocins mediate antagonism between related bacteria as well as interactions with eukaryotic cells.

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Trends Form Follows Function: New Ways to Inform and Inspire
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Is There Sufficient Evidence to Consider Bacillus thuringiensis a
           Multihost Pathogen' Response to Loguercio and Argôlo-Filho
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 10
      Author(s): Lifang Ruan, Neil Crickmore, Ming Sun

      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
  • Engineering Microbiomes to Improve Plant and Animal Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): U.G. Mueller, J.L. Sachs
      Animal and plant microbiomes encompass diverse microbial communities that colonize every accessible host tissue. These microbiomes enhance host functions, contributing to host health and fitness. A novel approach to improve animal and plant fitness is to artificially select upon microbiomes, thus engineering evolved microbiomes with specific effects on host fitness. We call this engineering approach host-mediated microbiome selection, because this method selects upon microbial communities indirectly through the host and leverages host traits that evolved to influence microbiomes. In essence, host phenotypes are used as probes to gauge and manipulate those microbiome functions that impact host fitness. To facilitate research on host-mediated microbiome engineering, we explain and compare the principal methods to impose artificial selection on microbiomes; discuss advantages and potential challenges of each method; offer a skeptical appraisal of each method in light of these potential challenges; and outline experimental strategies to optimize microbiome engineering. Finally, we develop a predictive framework for microbiome engineering that organizes research around principles of artificial selection, quantitative genetics, and microbial community-ecology.

      PubDate: 2015-09-27T07:40:27Z
  • Tackling antimicrobial resistance at global and local scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 9
      Author(s): Hellen Gelband, Ramanan Laxminarayan
      Antibiotic resistance, similar to climate change, is a shared global problem, but unlike climate change, national and local action produces direct localized benefits in addition to improving the global situation.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:12:39Z
  • Rerouting Resistance: Escaping Restriction Using Alternative Cellular
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ailie Marx, Akram Alian
      Pathogens, essentially utilizing host machinery for replication, can adapt to exploit cellular redundancies to substitute favored host–pathogen interactions when blocked, leading to a new type of stubborn resistance. Resa-Infante et al. reveal one such ‘rerouting-resistance’ acquired by the influenza virus when a vital host factor was deleted in mice.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:12:39Z
  • No-Go’ing Back: Co-opting RVB-2 to Control HIV-1 Gene Expression and
           Immune Response
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Valerie Le Sage, Alessandro Cinti, Andrew J. Mouland
      Production of infectious HIV-1 particles requires viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein incorporation. Although, the precise mechanism remains elusive, interaction between Env and the matrix (MA) domain of Gag plays a central role. Work by Mu and colleagues demonstrates how the Env–MA interaction regulates gag mRNA stability and Gag expression levels.

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:12:39Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 9

      PubDate: 2015-09-03T06:12:39Z
  • SRFBP1, an Additional Player in HCV Entry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lucie Fénéant, Laurence Cocquerel
      The tetraspanin CD81 dynamics and interactions with other proteins are essential for hepatitis C virus (HCV) entry. Recently, Gerold and collaborators used a proteomic approach and found the serum response factor binding protein 1 (SRFBP1) to be involved in a post-fusion entry process by interacting with CD81 upon HCV infection.

      PubDate: 2015-08-29T06:11:24Z
  • Is Campylobacter to esophageal adenocarcinoma as Helicobacter is to
           gastric adenocarcinoma'
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 8
      Author(s): Nadeem O. Kaakoush, Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez, Si Ming Man, Hazel M. Mitchell
      Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops through a cascade of cellular changes that shares similarities to the etiology of Helicobacter pylori-associated intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma. While host genetics and immune response have been implicated in the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma, studies investigating esophageal microbial communities suggest that bacteria may also play an important role in driving the inflammation that leads to disease. Of these, emerging Campylobacter species have been found to be more prevalent and abundant in patients progressing through the esophageal adenocarcinoma cascade compared to controls. Given that these bacteria possess several virulence mechanisms such as toxin production, cellular invasion, and intracellular survival, emerging Campylobacter species should be investigated as etiological agents of the chronic esophageal inflammation that leads to cancer.

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:35:46Z
  • Nitrogen cycling in corals: the key to understanding holobiont
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 8
      Author(s): Nils Rädecker, Claudia Pogoreutz, Christian R. Voolstra, Jörg Wiedenmann, Christian Wild
      Corals are animals that form close mutualistic associations with endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Together they provide the calcium carbonate framework of coral reef ecosystems. The importance of the microbiome (i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) to holobiont functioning has only recently been recognized. Given that growth and density of Symbiodinium within the coral host is highly dependent on nitrogen availability, nitrogen-cycling microbes may be of fundamental importance to the stability of the coral–algae symbiosis and holobiont functioning, in particular under nutrient-enriched and -depleted scenarios. We summarize what is known about nitrogen cycling in corals and conclude that disturbance of microbial nitrogen cycling may be tightly linked to coral bleaching and disease.

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:35:46Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 8

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:35:46Z
  • Improving preclinical models of HIV microbicide efficacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 8
      Author(s): Nadia R. Roan, Jan Münch
      Despite potent in vitro efficacy, most topical microbicides fail to effectively prevent HIV transmission. One reason for clinical failure may be that current microbicide testing does not reflect the environment encountered during sexual virus transmission. We discuss how preclinical microbicide development could be improved by more closely mimicking real-life conditions.

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:35:46Z
  • Whole-genome sequence comparisons reveal the evolution of Vibrio cholerae
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 8
      Author(s): Eun Jin Kim, Chan Hee Lee, G. Balakrish Nair, Dong Wook Kim
      The analysis of the whole-genome sequences of Vibrio cholerae strains from previous and current cholera pandemics has demonstrated that genomic changes and alterations in phage CTX (particularly in the gene encoding the B subunit of cholera toxin) were major features in the evolution of V. cholerae. Recent studies have revealed the genetic mechanisms in these bacteria by which new variants of V. cholerae are generated from type-specific strains; these mechanisms suggest that certain strains are selected by environmental or human factors over time. By understanding the mechanisms and driving forces of historical and current changes in the V. cholerae population, it would be possible to predict the direction of such changes and the evolution of new variants; this has implications for the battle against cholera.

      PubDate: 2015-08-04T03:35:46Z
  • Languages and dialects: bacterial communication beyond homoserine lactones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sophie Brameyer, Helge B. Bode, Ralf Heermann
      Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl homoserine lactones (acyl-HSLs) for communication, predominantly mediated by LuxR-type receptors. Recent studies uncovered aryl-HSLs, α-pyrones and dialkylresorcinols as further chemical languages of Gram-negative bacteria. These findings extend the number of bacterial signaling molecules and suggest that cell–cell communication goes far beyond acyl-HSL signaling in nature.

      PubDate: 2015-07-28T20:48:16Z
  • Targeting specific bacteria in the oral microbiome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jorge Frias-Lopez
      A lack of tools that kill selected members of the oral microbiome has hampered the ability to study specific roles of bacteria within bacterial communities. Work by Guo et al. shows the potential of antimicrobial peptides as a tool to assess the role of individual species in the microbial community.

      PubDate: 2015-07-27T12:05:42Z
  • Bat-to-human: spike features determining ‘host jump’ of
           coronaviruses SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and beyond
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guangwen Lu, Qihui Wang, George F. Gao
      Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) are zoonotic pathogens that crossed the species barriers to infect humans. The mechanism of viral interspecies transmission is an important scientific question to be addressed. These coronaviruses contain a surface-located spike (S) protein that initiates infection by mediating receptor-recognition and membrane fusion and is therefore a key factor in host specificity. In addition, the S protein needs to be cleaved by host proteases before executing fusion, making these proteases a second determinant of coronavirus interspecies infection. Here, we summarize the progress made in the past decade in understanding the cross-species transmission of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV by focusing on the features of the S protein, its receptor-binding characteristics, and the cleavage process involved in priming.

      PubDate: 2015-07-23T11:54:45Z
  • Entry and exit of bacterial outer membrane proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rajeev Misra
      The sites of new outer membrane protein (OMP) deposition and the fate of pre-existing OMPs are still enigmatic despite numerous concerted efforts. Rassam et al. identified mid-cell regions as the primary entry points for new OMP insertion in clusters, driving the pre-existing OMP clusters towards cell poles for long-term storage.

      PubDate: 2015-07-14T10:49:53Z
  • Anthropogenic action shapes the evolutionary ecology of Bacillus
           thuringiensis: response to Ruan et al
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Leandro L. Loguercio , Ronaldo C. Argôlo-Filho

      PubDate: 2015-07-10T10:19:57Z
  • The giant panda gut microbiome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Fuwen Wei , Xiao Wang , Qi Wu
      Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed.

      PubDate: 2015-07-06T10:07:08Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 7

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T10:02:29Z
  • Getting to the root of epidemic spread with phylodynamic analysis of
           genomic data
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 7
      Author(s): Louis du Plessis , Tanja Stadler
      When epidemiological and evolutionary dynamics occur on similar timescales, pathogen genomes sampled from infected hosts carry a signature of the dynamics of epidemic spread. Phylodynamic inference methods aim to extract this signature from genetic data. We discuss the contribution of phylodynamics toward understanding the 2014 West African Ebola virus epidemic.

      PubDate: 2015-07-01T10:02:29Z
  • Complex host genetic susceptibility to Staphylococcus aureus infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sanjay K. Shukla , Warren Rose , Steven J. Schrodi
      Understanding of the host genetic susceptibility to carriage of, and infections, due to Staphylococcus aureus, a nosocomial pathogen, is still in its nascent stages. Mouse models show variable susceptibility to S. aureus infections across mouse strains and disease models with roles for signaling pathways involving Toll-like receptors (TLR-1, TLR-2, and TLR-6), interleukins (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-13), chemokines [CXC ligand (CXCL)-1 and CXCL-2], and T helper (Th)1/Th2 responses. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) for carriage in humans identified SNPs in IL4, DEFB1, CRP, and VDR for persistent nasal carriage. NR3C1 haplotypes may either enhance risk or provide protection from colonization. GWASs for all S. aureus diseases have suggested roles for DAPK3, a kinase, and XRN1, a nuclease, while CDON could have a role in complicated bacteremia. More studies are needed to identify host susceptibility genes along with confirmation from functional assays.

      PubDate: 2015-06-26T09:35:56Z
  • Lokiarchaeota: eukaryote-like missing links from microbial dark
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Arshan Nasir , Kyung Mo Kim , Gustavo Caetano-Anollés
      Identification and genome sequencing of novel organismal groups can reduce the gap between the sequenced minority and the unexplored majority. The recent discovery of phylum Lokiarchaeota promises understanding of biological history. Here we inquire if Lokiarchaeota truly represent ancient eukaryotic ancestors or just microbial dark matter of expanding archaeal diversity.

      PubDate: 2015-06-26T09:35:56Z
  • Control of bacterial metabolism by quorum sensing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eunhye Goo , Jae Hyung An , Yongsung Kang , Ingyu Hwang
      Bacterial quorum sensing (QS)-dependent gene expression is a dynamic response to cell density. Bacteria produce costly public goods for the benefit of the population as a whole. As an example, QS rewires cellular metabolism to produce oxalate (a public good) to enable survival during the stationary phase in Burkholderia glumae, Burkholderia thailandensis, and Burkholderia pseudomallei. Recent reports showed that QS serves as a metabolic brake to maintain homeostatic primary metabolism in B. glumae and readjusts the central metabolism of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this review, we emphasize the dynamics and complexity of the control of gene expression by QS and discuss the metabolic costs and possible metabolic options to sustain cooperativity. We then focus on how QS influences bacterial central metabolism.

      PubDate: 2015-06-14T09:07:00Z
  • Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits,
           products, and functions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ute Römling , Michael Y. Galperin
      Recent studies of bacterial cellulose biosynthesis, including structural characterization of a functional cellulose synthase complex, provided the first mechanistic insight into this fascinating process. In most studied bacteria, just two subunits, BcsA and BcsB, are necessary and sufficient for the formation of the polysaccharide chain in vitro. Other subunits – which differ among various taxa – affect the enzymatic activity and product yield in vivo by modulating (i) the expression of the biosynthesis apparatus, (ii) the export of the nascent β-D-glucan polymer to the cell surface, and (iii) the organization of cellulose fibers into a higher-order structure. These auxiliary subunits play key roles in determining the quantity and structure of resulting biofilms, which is particularly important for the interactions of bacteria with higher organisms – leading to rhizosphere colonization and modulating the virulence of cellulose-producing bacterial pathogens inside and outside of host cells. We review the organization of four principal types of cellulose synthase operon found in various bacterial genomes, identify additional bcs genes that encode components of the cellulose biosynthesis and secretion machinery, and propose a unified nomenclature for these genes and subunits. We also discuss the role of cellulose as a key component of biofilms and in the choice between acute infection and persistence in the host.

      PubDate: 2015-06-14T09:07:00Z
  • Infectious asthma triggers: time to revise the hygiene hypothesis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Wilmore C. Webley , Kelly L. Aldridge
      The hygiene hypothesis supports an inverse relationship between respiratory infections in early-life and atopic diseases. However, a recent study supports growing evidence that early-life infection and airway microbiome composition can significantly influence asthma inception and exacerbation later in life. This reignites discussions on infection-mediated asthma phenotypes and potential therapeutics.

      PubDate: 2015-06-10T09:01:52Z
  • How do divergent ecological strategies emerge among marine
           bacterioplankton lineages'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Haiwei Luo , Mary Ann Moran
      Heterotrophic bacteria in pelagic marine environments are frequently categorized into two canonical ecological groups: patch-associated and free-living. This framework provides a conceptual basis for understanding bacterial utilization of oceanic organic matter. Some patch-associated bacteria are ecologically linked with eukaryotic phytoplankton, and this observation fits with predicted coincidence of their genome expansion with marine phytoplankton diversification. By contrast, free-living bacteria in today's oceans typically live singly with streamlined metabolic and regulatory functions that allow them to grow in nutrient-poor seawater. Recent analyses of marine Alphaproteobacteria suggest that some free-living bacterioplankton lineages evolved from patch-associated ancestors up to several hundred million years ago. While evolutionary analyses agree with the hypothesis that natural selection has maintained these distinct ecological strategies and genomic traits in present-day populations, they do not rule out a major role for genetic drift in driving ancient ecological switches. These two evolutionary forces may have acted on ocean bacteria at different geological time scales and under different geochemical constraints, with possible implications for future adaptations to a changing ocean. New evolutionary models and genomic data are leading to a more comprehensive understanding of marine bacterioplankton evolutionary history.

      PubDate: 2015-06-06T08:38:47Z
  • The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruthie B. Birger , Roger D. Kouyos , Ted Cohen , Emily C. Griffiths , Silvie Huijben , Michael Mina , Victoriya Volkova , Bryan Grenfell , C. Jessica E. Metcalf
      Across a range of pathogens, resistance to chemotherapy is a growing problem in both public health and animal health. Despite the ubiquity of coinfection, and its potential effects on within-host biology, the role played by coinfecting pathogens on the evolution of resistance and efficacy of antimicrobial chemotherapy is rarely considered. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms of interaction of coinfecting pathogens, ranging from immune modulation and resource modulation, to drug interactions. We discuss their potential implications for the evolution of resistance, providing evidence in the rare cases where it is available. Overall, our review indicates that the impact of coinfection has the potential to be considerable, suggesting that this should be taken into account when designing antimicrobial drug treatments.

      PubDate: 2015-05-31T08:13:36Z
  • Tolerance engineering in bacteria for the production of advanced biofuels
           and chemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
      During microbial production of solvent-like compounds, such as advanced biofuels and bulk chemicals, accumulation of the final product can negatively impact the cultivation of the host microbe and limit the production levels. Consequently, improving solvent tolerance is becoming an essential aspect of engineering microbial production strains. Mechanisms ranging from chaperones to transcriptional factors have been used to obtain solvent-tolerant strains. However, alleviating growth inhibition does not invariably result in increased production. Transporters specifically have emerged as a powerful category of proteins that bestow tolerance and often improve production but are difficult targets for cellular expression. Here we review strain engineering, primarily as it pertains to bacterial solvent tolerance, and the benefits and challenges associated with the expression of membrane-localized transporters in improving solvent tolerance and production.

      PubDate: 2015-05-27T08:02:42Z
  • Bacterial spread from cell to cell: beyond actin-based motility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Carole J. Kuehl , Ana-Maria Dragoi , Arthur Talman , Hervé Agaisse
      Several intracellular pathogens display the ability to propagate within host tissues by displaying actin-based motility in the cytosol of infected cells. As motile bacteria reach cell–cell contacts they form plasma membrane protrusions that project into adjacent cells and resolve into vacuoles from which the pathogen escapes, thereby achieving spread from cell to cell. Seminal studies have defined the bacterial and cellular factors that support actin-based motility. By contrast, the mechanisms supporting the formation of protrusions and their resolution into vacuoles have remained elusive. Here, we review recent advances in the field showing that Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri have evolved pathogen-specific mechanisms of bacterial spread from cell to cell.

      PubDate: 2015-05-27T08:02:42Z
  • Evolution of bacterial transcription factors: how proteins take on new
           tasks, but do not always stop doing the old ones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandhya S. Visweswariah , Stephen J.W. Busby
      Many bacterial transcription factors do not behave as per the textbook operon model. We draw on whole genome work, as well as reported diversity across different bacteria, to argue that transcription factors may have evolved from nucleoid-associated proteins. This view would explain a large amount of recent data gleaned from high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
  • RNA structures are involved in the thermoregulation of bacterial
           virulence-associated traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): María Victoria Grosso-Becera , Luis Servín-González , Gloria Soberón-Chávez
      Pathogenic bacteria are exposed to temperature changes during colonization of the human body and during exposure to environmental conditions. Virulence-associated traits are mainly expressed by pathogenic bacteria at 37°C. We review different cases of post-transcriptional regulation of virulence-associated proteins through RNA structures (called RNA thermometers or RNATs) that modulate the translation of mRNAs. The analysis of RNATs in pathogenic bacteria has started to produce a comprehensive picture of the structures involved, and of the genes regulated by this mechanism. However, we are still not able to predict the functionality of putative RNATs predicted by bioinformatics methods, and there is not a global approach to measure the effect of these RNA structures in gene regulation during bacterial infections.

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
  • Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lucas T. Jae , Thijn R. Brummelkamp
      Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann–Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This ‘receptor switch’ represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host–pathogen interactions and viral tropism.

      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
  • How Ebola has been evolving in West Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Si-Qing Liu , Simon Rayner , Bo Zhang
      The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has generated fears of a global epidemic. Particularly, estimates of higher substitution rates have raised concerns about increased transmissibility or virulence. A recent study using a more comprehensive datasets demonstrates lower variation, highlighting the importance of representative datasets and limitations of computational modelling.

      PubDate: 2015-05-18T04:20:21Z
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