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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2978 journals)
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    - BIOENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1418 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (254 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 254 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [35 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3051 journals]
  • Rules of Engagement: The Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae
    • Authors: Avatar Joshi; Benjamin Kostiuk; Andrew Rogers; Jennifer Teschler; Stefan Pukatzki; Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Pages: 267 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Avatar Joshi, Benjamin Kostiuk, Andrew Rogers, Jennifer Teschler, Stefan Pukatzki, Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer. This review details the recent insights regarding the structure and function of the T6SS as well as the diverse signals and regulatory pathways that control its activation in V. cholerae.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.003
       
  • The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced
           by Soil Bacteria
    • Authors: Olaf Tyc; ; Chunxu Song; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Michiel Vos; Paolina Garbeva
      Pages: 280 - 292
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Olaf Tyc , Chunxu Song, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Michiel Vos, Paolina Garbeva
      The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding the physicochemical properties of bacterial metabolites, the factors that govern their production and ecological roles. Interspecific interactions and competitor sensing are among the main biotic factors affecting the production of bacterial secondary metabolites. Many soil bacteria produce both volatile and soluble compounds. In contrast to soluble compounds, volatile organic compounds can diffuse easily through air- and gas-filled pores in the soil and likely play an important role in long-distance microbial interactions. In this review we provide an overview of the most important soluble and volatile classes of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria, their ecological roles, and their possible synergistic effects.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.002
       
  • The DSF Family of Quorum Sensing Signals: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and
           Turnover
    • Authors: Lian Zhou; Lian-Hui Zhang; Miguel Cámara; Ya-Wen He
      Pages: 293 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lian Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang, Miguel Cámara, Ya-Wen He
      The diffusible signaling factor (DSF)-based quorum sensing (QS) system has emerged as a widely conserved cell–cell communication mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria. Typically, signals from the DSF family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids which regulate diverse biological functions. Recently, substantial progress has been made on the characterization of new members of this family of signals. There have also been new developments in the understanding of the biosynthesis of these molecules where dual enzymatic activities of the DSF synthase and the use of various substrates have been described. The recent discovery of a naturally occurring DSF turnover mechanism and its regulation provides a new dimension in our understanding of how DSF-dependent microorganisms modulate virulence gene expression in response to changes in the surrounding environment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.013
       
  • From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus
           mirabilis
    • Authors: Allison N. Norsworthy; Melanie M. Pearson
      Pages: 304 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Allison N. Norsworthy, Melanie M. Pearson
      Proteus mirabilis is a model organism for urease-producing uropathogens. These diverse bacteria cause infection stones in the urinary tract and form crystalline biofilms on indwelling urinary catheters, frequently leading to polymicrobial infection. Recent work has elucidated how P. mirabilis causes all of these disease states. Particularly exciting is the discovery that this bacterium forms large clusters in the bladder lumen that are sites for stone formation. These clusters, and other steps of infection, require two virulence factors in particular: urease and MR/P fimbriae. Highlighting the importance of MR/P fimbriae is the cotranscribed regulator, MrpJ, which globally controls virulence. Overall, P. mirabilis exhibits an extraordinary lifestyle, and further probing will answer exciting basic microbiological and clinically relevant questions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.015
       
  • Lactobacillus iners: Friend or Foe?
    • Authors: Mariya I. Petrova; Gregor Reid; Mario Vaneechoutte; Sarah Lebeer
      Pages: 182 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mariya I. Petrova, Gregor Reid, Mario Vaneechoutte, Sarah Lebeer
      The vaginal microbial community is typically characterized by abundant lactobacilli. Lactobacillus iners, a fairly recently detected species, is frequently present in the vaginal niche. However, the role of this species in vaginal health is unclear, since it can be detected in normal conditions as well as during vaginal dysbiosis, such as bacterial vaginosis, a condition characterized by an abnormal increase in bacterial diversity and lack of typical lactobacilli. Compared to other Lactobacillus species, L. iners has more complex nutritional requirements and a Gram-variable morphology. L. iners has an unusually small genome (ca. 1 Mbp), indicative of a symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle, in contrast to other lactobacilli that show niche flexibility and genomes of up to 3–4 Mbp. The presence of specific L. iners genes, such as those encoding iron–sulfur proteins and unique σ-factors, reflects a high degree of niche specification. The genome of L. iners strains also encodes inerolysin, a pore-forming toxin related to vaginolysin of Gardnerella vaginalis. Possibly, this organism may have clonal variants that in some cases promote a healthy vagina, and in other cases are associated with dysbiosis and disease. Future research should examine this friend or foe relationship with the host.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.007
       
  • The Enigmatic Esx Proteins: Looking Beyond Mycobacteria
    • Authors: Meera Unnikrishnan; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tracy Palmer; Mark J. Pallen
      Pages: 192 - 204
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3
      Author(s): Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J. Pallen
      Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.004
       
  • Disentangling Interactions in the Microbiome: A Network Perspective
    • Authors: Mehdi Layeghifard; David M. Hwang; David S. Guttman
      Pages: 217 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3
      Author(s): Mehdi Layeghifard, David M. Hwang, David S. Guttman
      Microbiota are now widely recognized as being central players in the health of all organisms and ecosystems, and subsequently have been the subject of intense study. However, analyzing and converting microbiome data into meaningful biological insights remain very challenging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in network theory and their applicability to microbiome research. We discuss emerging graph theoretical concepts and approaches used in other research disciplines and demonstrate how they are well suited for enhancing our understanding of the higher-order interactions that occur within microbiomes. Network-based analytical approaches have the potential to help disentangle complex polymicrobial and microbe–host interactions, and thereby further the applicability of microbiome research to personalized medicine, public health, environmental and industrial applications, and agriculture.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.008
       
  • Protecting from Envelope Stress: Variations on the Phage-Shock-Protein
           Theme
    • Authors: Riccardo Manganelli; Maria Laura Gennaro
      First page: 242
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3
      Author(s): Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro
      During envelope stress, critical inner-membrane functions are preserved by the phage-shock-protein (Psp) system, a stress response that emerged from work with Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Reciprocal regulatory interactions and multiple effector functions are well documented in these organisms. Searches for the Psp system across phyla reveal conservation of only one protein, PspA. However, examination of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria reveals that PspA orthologs associate with non-orthologous regulatory and effector proteins retaining functions similar to those in Gram-negative counterparts. Conservation across phyla emphasizes the long-standing importance of the Psp system in prokaryotes, while inter- and intra-phyla variations within the system indicate adaptation to different cell envelope structures, bacterial lifestyles, and/or bacterial morphogenetic strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.010
       
  • Cell Death Pathway That Monitors Spore Morphogenesis
    • Authors: Amanda R. Decker; Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Amanda R. Decker, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required. Recently, a quality control pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis which monitors the assembly of the spore envelope and specifically eliminates, through cell lysis, sporulating cells that assemble the envelope incorrectly. Here, we review the use of checkpoints that govern the entry into sporulation in B. subtilis and discuss how the use of regulated cell death pathways during bacterial development may help maintain the fidelity of the sporulation program in the species.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.005
       
  • The Transcription Terminator Rho: A First Bacterial Prion
    • Authors: Irantzu Pallarès; Salvador Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
      Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.008
       
  • Finally, Archaea Get Their CRISPR-Cas Toolbox
    • Authors: Uri Gophna; Thorsten Allers; Anita Marchfelder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
      The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.009
       
  • Bacterial Unculturability and the Formation of Intercellular Metabolic
           Networks
    • Authors: Samay Pande; Christian Kost
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Samay Pande, Christian Kost
      The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells. Spatial colocalisation and a continuous coevolution further increase the nutritional dependency and optimise fluxes through combined metabolic networks. Thus, bacteria likely function as networks of interacting cells that reciprocally exchange nutrients and biochemical functions rather than as physiologically autonomous units.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.015
       
  • Short-Sighted Virus Evolution and a Germline Hypothesis for Chronic Viral
           Infections
    • Authors: Katrina A. Lythgoe; Andy Gardner; Oliver G. Pybus; Joe Grove
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Katrina A. Lythgoe, Andy Gardner, Oliver G. Pybus, Joe Grove
      With extremely short generation times and high mutability, many viruses can rapidly evolve and adapt to changing environments. This ability is generally beneficial to viruses as it allows them to evade host immune responses, evolve new behaviours, and exploit ecological niches. However, natural selection typically generates adaptation in response to the immediate selection pressures that a virus experiences in its current host. Consequently, we argue that some viruses, particularly those characterised by long durations of infection and ongoing replication, may be susceptible to short-sighted evolution, whereby a virus’ adaptation to its current host will be detrimental to its onward transmission within the host population. Here we outline the concept of short-sighted viral evolution and provide examples of how it may negatively impact viral transmission among hosts. We also propose that viruses that are vulnerable to short-sighted evolution may exhibit strategies that minimise its effects. We speculate on the various mechanisms by which this may be achieved, including viral life history strategies that result in low rates of within-host evolution, or the establishment of a ‘germline’ lineage of viruses that avoids short-sighted evolution. These concepts provide a new perspective on the way in which some viruses have been able to establish and maintain global pandemics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.003
       
  • Integrating Lung Physiology, Immunology, and Tuberculosis
    • Authors: Jordi B. Torrelles; Larry S. Schlesinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jordi B. Torrelles, Larry S. Schlesinger
      Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly ‘attacked’ by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several ‘interaction points’ (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection. These interactions are critical, not only from a pathogenesis perspective but also in considering the effectiveness of therapies and vaccines in the lungs. Here we discuss emerging views on immunologic interactions occurring in the lungs for M. tuberculosis and their impact on infection and persistence.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.007
       
  • Moving From One to Many
    • Authors: Gail Teitzel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel


      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
       
  • Shapeshifting to Survive: Shape Determination and Regulation in
           Caulobacter crescentus
    • Authors: Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel; Erin D. Goley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D. Goley
      Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge. Here, we have summarized recent advances that have been made to understand morphology in the dimorphic Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.006
       
  • Microbiology Managers: Managerial Training in the RItrain Project
    • Authors: R. Russell M. Paterson; Nelson Lima; Cath Brooksbank; Enrico Guarini; Markus Pasterk; Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): R. Russell M. Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
       
  • Bacteria–Bacteriophage Coevolution in the Human Gut: Implications for
           Microbial Diversity and Functionality
    • Authors: Pauline D. Scanlan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pauline D. Scanlan
      Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria–bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind – the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria–phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes. I then examine the evidence and discuss the potential role of AC in driving observed patterns of intra- and interindividual variation in the gut microbiome together with detailing the potential functional consequences of such AC-driven microbial variation for human health and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.012
       
  • Sweet New Roles for Protein Glycosylation in Prokaryotes
    • Authors: Jerry Eichler; Michael Koomey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
      Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea. Recent efforts have begun to elucidate some of these prokaryote-specific roles, which are addressed in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.001
       
  • Symbiont Acquisition and Replacement as a Source of Ecological Innovation
    • Authors: Sailendharan Sudakaran; Christian Kost; Martin Kaltenpoth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
      Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect–bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood. Here we review the known ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiont gains, switches, and replacements, and identify future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of symbiosis as a major driving force of ecological adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.014
       
  • Are CDI Systems Multicolored, Facultative, Helping Greenbeards?
    • Authors: Elizabeth S. Danka; Erin C. Garcia; Peggy A. Cotter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Elizabeth S. Danka, Erin C. Garcia, Peggy A. Cotter
      Competitive and cooperative interactions between organisms, including bacteria, can significantly impact the composition of a community and the fitness of its members, as well as the fitness of their hosts when communities are living on or within other organisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical to the development of strategies to control microbiological communities that impact animal and plant health and also for understanding the evolution of social behaviors, which has been challenging for evolutionary biologists. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon defined by the delivery of a protein toxin to the cytoplasm of neighboring bacteria upon cell–cell contact, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless a specific immunity protein is present. CDI was first described based on observations of interbacterial killing and has been assumed to function primarily as a means of eliminating competitor cells. However, recent molecular evidence indicates that multiple levels of specificity restrict CDI toxin delivery and activity to the same bacterial strain, and that CDI system proteins can mediate cooperative behaviors among ‘self’ cells, a phenomenon called contact-dependent signaling (CDS). Here we review these recent findings and discuss potential biological and evolutionary implications of CDI system-mediated interbacterial competition and cooperation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.008
       
  • Interferon-I: The Pièce de Résistance of HIV-1 Transmission?
    • Authors: Damien C. Tully; Daniel T. Claiborne; Todd M. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Damien C. Tully, Daniel T. Claiborne, Todd M. Allen
      Despite the extensive viral quasispecies that develops in an individual during the course of HIV-1 infection, transmission is typically established by a single donor viral variant. Recent studies now provide insight into the phenotypic properties influencing this selection process at transmission, including the contribution of resistance to type I interferons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.010
       
  • Bioengineered 3D Models for Studying Human Cell–Tuberculosis
           Interactions
    • Authors: Sulayman Benmerzoug; Valerie F.J. Quesniaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sulayman Benmerzoug, Valerie F.J. Quesniaux
      In vivo animal models have intrinsic limitations for studying relationships between tuberculosis and its host and there is a need for alternative, in vitro cellular models. A microsphere-based 3D in vitro culture system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human blood mononuclear cells was reported to address specific aspects of host–pathogen interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.009
       
  • Dual Immunity Concomitantly Suppresses HIV-1 Progression
    • Authors: Huma Qureshi; Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Huma Qureshi, Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) elicited in HIV-1+ elite neutralizers typically are unable to reduce viremia in the same individuals from whom they are isolated. A recent study reports the development of bnAbs in an elite controller that, along with the help of T cells, were associated with restricting HIV-1 progression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.011
       
  • Genome Surfing As Driver of Microbial Genomic Diversity
    • Authors: Mallory J. Choudoir; Kevin Panke-Buisse; Cheryl P. Andam; Daniel H. Buckley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mallory J. Choudoir, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Cheryl P. Andam, Daniel H. Buckley
      Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.006
       
  • Critical Streptococcus suis Virulence Factors: Are They All Really
           Critical?
    • Authors: Mariela Segura; Nahuel Fittipaldi; Cynthia Calzas; Marcelo Gottschalk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Cynthia Calzas, Marcelo Gottschalk
      Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can be transmitted to humans by contact with diseased animals or contaminated raw pork products. This pathogen possesses a coat of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that confers protection against the immune system. Yet, the CPS is not the only virulence factor enabling this bacterium to successfully colonize, invade, and disseminate in its host leading to severe systemic diseases such as meningitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Indeed, recent research developments, cautiously inventoried in this review, have revealed over 100 ‘putative virulence factors or traits’ (surface-associated or secreted components, regulatory genes or metabolic pathways), of which at least 37 have been claimed as being ‘critical’ for virulence. In this review we discuss the current contradictions and controversies raised by this explosion of virulence factors and the future directions that may be conceived to advance and enlighten research on S. suis pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.005
       
  • Collective Infectious Units in Viruses
    • Authors: Rafael
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rafael Sanjuán
      Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell–cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks. Collective infectious units may contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity, and could have implications for the evolution of social-like virus–virus interactions. These may include various forms of cooperation such as immunity evasion, genetic complementation, division of labor, and relaxation of fitness trade-offs, but also noncooperative interactions such as negative dominance and interference, potentially leading to conflict.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
       
  • KSHV microRNAs: Tricks of the Devil
    • Authors: Jie Qin; Wan Li; Shou-Jiang Gao; Chun Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
      Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3


      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
       
  • Biofilms: Microbial Cities Wherein Flow Shapes Competition
    • Authors: Su Chuen Chew; Liang Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Su Chuen Chew, Liang Yang
      The phenotypic diversity in biofilms allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Stochastic gene expression and structural differentiation are believed to confer phenotypic diversity. However, two recent publications demonstrate how hydrodynamic flow and substrate topography can also alter the competitive outcomes of different bacterial phenotypes, increasing biofilm phenotypic variation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.007
       
  • Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New
           Bacterial Behaviours
    • Authors: Stephanie E. Jones; Marie A. Elliot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Stephanie E. Jones, Marie A. Elliot
      Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed ‘exploration’ – so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.001
       
  • Regulation Mechanisms of Viral IRES-Driven Translation
    • Authors: Kuo-Ming Lee; Chi-Jene Chen; Shin-Ru Shih
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kuo-Ming Lee, Chi-Jene Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
      Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) can be found in the mRNA of many viruses as well as in cellular genes involved in the stress response, cell cycle, and apoptosis. IRES-mediated translation can occur when dominant cap-dependent translation is inhibited, and viruses can take advantage of this to subvert host translation machinery. In this review, we focus on the four major types of IRES identified in RNA viruses, and outline their distinct structural properties and requirements of translational factors. We further discuss auxiliary host factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), which are involved in the modulation of optimal IRES activity. Currently known strategies employed by viruses to harness ITAFs and regulate IRES activity are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T12:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.010
       
  • Picking the Survivor! CRISPR Reveals HIV Dependency Factors
    • Authors: Kerstin Schott; Renate König
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kerstin Schott, Renate König
      A new study employs genome-wide loss-of-function CRISPR/Cas9 screening to identify three novel factors for HIV-1 entry. The factors represent promising targets for therapeutics as they are essential for HIV-1 infection, but dispensable for cell survival. The involved pathways were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, target cells for HIV-1.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T12:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.004
       
  • The Secrets of Acinetobacter Secretion
    • Authors: Brent S. Weber; Rachel L. Kinsella; Christian M. Harding; Mario F. Feldman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Brent S. Weber, Rachel L. Kinsella, Christian M. Harding, Mario F. Feldman
      Infections caused by the bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are a mounting concern for healthcare practitioners as widespread antibiotic resistance continues to limit therapeutic treatment options. The biological processes used by A. baumannii to cause disease are not well defined, but recent research has indicated that secreted proteins may play a major role. A variety of mechanisms have now been shown to contribute to protein secretion by A. baumannii and other pathogenic species of Acinetobacter, including a type II secretion system (T2SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS), autotransporter, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of secretion systems in Acinetobacter species, and highlight their unique aspects that contribute to the pathogenicity and persistence of these emerging pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T09:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.005
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Control of Evolution through
           Replication–Transcription Conflicts
    • Authors: Houra Merrikh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Houra Merrikh
      Evolution could potentially be accelerated if an organism could selectively increase the mutation rate of specific genes that are actively under positive selection. Recently, a mechanism that cells can use to target rapid evolution to specific genes was discovered. This mechanism is driven by gene orientation-dependent encounters between DNA replication and transcription machineries. These encounters increase mutagenesis in lagging-strand genes, where replication–transcription conflicts are severe. Due to the orientation and transcription-dependent nature of this process, conflict-driven mutagenesis can be used by cells to spatially (gene-specifically) and temporally (only upon transcription induction) regulate the rate of gene evolution. Here, I summarize recent findings on this topic, and discuss the implications of increasing mutagenesis rates and accelerating evolution through active mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T09:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.008
       
  • Evolutionary Constraints Shaping Streptococcus pyogenes–Host
           Interactions
    • Authors: Reid V. Wilkening; Michael J. Federle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Reid V. Wilkening, Michael J. Federle
      Research on the Gram-positive human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) has long focused on invasive illness, the most severe manifestations of GAS infection. Recent advances in descriptions of molecular mechanisms of GAS virulence, coupled with massive sequencing efforts to isolate genomes, have allowed the field to better understand the molecular and evolutionary changes leading to pandemic strains. These findings suggest that it is necessary to rethink the dogma involving GAS pathogenesis, and that the most productive avenues for research going forward may be investigations into GAS in its ‘normal’ habitat, the nasopharynx, and its ability to either live with its host in an asymptomatic lifestyle or as an agent of superficial infections. This review will consider these advances, focusing on the natural history of GAS, the evolution of pandemic strains, and novel roles for several key virulence factors that may allow the field to better understand their physiological role.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T09:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.007
       
  • Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections: New Compounds, Novel
           Antimicrobial Therapies?
    • Authors: Roel M. van Harten; Rob J.L. Willems; Nathaniel I. Martin; Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Roel M. van Harten, Rob J.L. Willems, Nathaniel I. Martin, Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium and E. faecalis. These new antibacterial agents include teixobactin (targeting lipid II and lipid III), lipopeptides derived from nisin (targeting lipid II), dimeric vancomycin analogues (targeting lipid II), sortase transpeptidase inhibitors (targeting the sortase enzyme), alanine racemase inhibitors, lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibitors (targeting LtaS), various oxazolidinones (targeting the bacterial ribosome), and tarocins (interfering with teichoic acid biosynthesis). The targets of these novel compounds and mode of action make them very promising for further antimicrobial drug development and future treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Here we review current knowledge of the most favorable anti-enterococcal compounds along with their implicated modes of action and efficacy in animal models to project their possible future use in the clinical setting.

      PubDate: 2017-02-19T09:44:38Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.004
       
  • Langerhans Cells: the ‘Yin and Yang’ of HIV Restriction and
           Transmission
    • Authors: Luzia Mayr; Bin Su; Christiane Moog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
      Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.009
       
  • RNA Chaperones Step Out of Hfq’s Shadow
    • Authors: Laetitia Attaiech; J.N. Mark Glover; Xavier Charpentier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Laetitia Attaiech, J.N. Mark Glover, Xavier Charpentier
      The stability and function of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) often require a specialized RNA-binding protein called an RNA chaperone. Recent findings show that proteins containing a ProQ/FinO domain constitute a new class of RNA chaperones that could play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation throughout bacterial species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.006
       
  • Cultivation-Free Raman Spectroscopic Investigations of Bacteria
    • Authors: Björn Lorenz; Christina Wichmann; Stephan Stöckel; Petra Rösch; Jürgen Popp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Björn Lorenz, Christina Wichmann, Stephan Stöckel, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp
      Raman spectroscopy is currently advertised as a hot and ambitious technology that has all of the features needed to characterize and identify bacteria. Raman spectroscopy is rapid, easy to use, noninvasive, and it could complement established microbiological and biomolecular methods in the near future. To bring this vision closer to reality, ongoing research is being conducted on spectral fingerprinting. This can yield a wealth of information, from even single bacteria from various habitats which can be further improved by combining Raman spectroscopy with methods such as stable isotope probing to elucidate microbial interactions. In conjunction with extensive statistical analysis, Raman spectroscopy will allow identification of (non)pathogenic bacteria at different taxonomic levels.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
       
  • A New Way to Beat Intestinal Pathogens
    • Authors: Corrella S. Detweiler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Corrella S. Detweiler
      In the gastrointestinal tract, the tug of war for iron may provide a new way to vaccinate. Recent work shows that immunizing mice with siderophores (small molecules that microbes produce to capture iron) foils pathogen colonization and may instead allow a commensal to expand.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.003
       
  • Step by Step, Cell by Cell: Quantification of the Bacterial Cell Cycle
    • Authors: Matteo Osella; Sander J. Tans; Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Matteo Osella, Sander J. Tans, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      The Escherichia coli cell cycle is a classic, but we are still missing some of its essential aspects. The reason is that our knowledge is mostly based on population data, and our grasp of the behavior of single cells is still very limited. Today, new dynamic single-cell data promise to overcome this barrier. Existing data from single cells have already led to findings and hypotheses that challenge standard views, and have raised new questions. Here, we review these recent developments and propose that a systematic exploration of the correlation patterns between ‘cell-cycle intervals’ defined by key molecular events measured in many single cells could lead to a quantitative characterization of the cell cycle in terms of inherent stochasticity and homeostatic controls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.005
       
  • The Peculiar Functions of the Bacterial Extracellular Matrix
    • Authors: Anna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anna Dragoš, Ákos T. Kovács
      A biofilm is a common life form where bacterial cells crowd together surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Traditionally, the ECM is considered as a structural material that glues and shields the biofilm cells. Here we describe alternative functions of the ECM, highlighting how it benefits microbes beyond the biofilms. Next to protecting free-living cells, the ECM participates in signaling, migration, and genetic exchange either being freely shared with other species or being exclusive to siblings. Considering the structural and recently discovered functions of the ECM, we also attempt to revise its role in sociomicrobiology. In the light of recent findings, the canonical view on ECM as a passive structural material of biofilms should be revisited.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
       
  • Helicobacter pylori: A Paradigm Pathogen for Subverting Host Cell Signal
           Transmission
    • Authors: Michael Naumann; Olga Sokolova; Nicole Tegtmeyer; Steffen Backert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michael Naumann, Olga Sokolova, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert
      Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa in the human stomach and represents a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex impact of H. pylori on manipulating host signalling networks, that is, by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS). We show that H. pylori infections reflect a paradigm for interspecies contact-dependent molecular communication, which includes the disruption of cell–cell junctions and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as well as proinflammatory, cell cycle-related, proliferative, antiapoptotic, and DNA damage responses. The contribution of these altered signalling cascades to disease outcome is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T01:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.004
       
  • The ‘Antibiotic Apocalypse’ – Scaremongering or
           Scientific Reporting?
    • Authors: Jonathan A .G. Cox; Tony Worthington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan A .G. Cox, Tony Worthington
      Antimicrobial resistance is dominating scientific media. We are warned of an impending ‘antibiotic apocalypse’, where mankind faces its biggest threat, untreatable microbes. However, the world is not ending. Scientists are responding to the threat; new knowledge and chemotherapeutics are being created to safeguard our future. The future is bright, not gloomy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T22:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.016
       
  • Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the
           Environment to Humans: Non-Direct Proportionality between Abundance and
           Risk
    • Authors: Manaia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Célia M. Manaia
      The past decade has witnessed a burst of study regarding antibiotic resistance in the environment, mainly in areas under anthropogenic influence. Therefore, impacts of the contaminant resistome, that is, those related to human activities, are now recognized. However, a key issue refers to the risk of transmission of resistance to humans, for which a quantitative model is urgently needed. This opinion paper makes an overview of some risk-determinant variables and raises questions regarding research needs. A major conclusion is that the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be managed under the precautionary principle, because it may be too late to act if we wait until we have concrete risk values.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T22:00:25Z
       
  • Herpesviruses and Their Host Cells: A Successful Liaison
    • Authors: Barbara Adler; Christine Sattler; Heiko Adler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Barbara Adler, Christine Sattler, Heiko Adler
      During a long history of coevolution, herpesviruses have reached a fine-tuned balance with their hosts, allowing them to successfully persist and spread to new hosts without causing too much damage. Only under certain circumstances, as in neonates or immunocompromised individuals, they may cause serious diseases. The delicate balance between herpesviruses and their hosts results from interactions of a great variety of viral and cellular factors which together shape the tropism for a particular host, tissue, or cell. Understanding these interactions will provide insight into the viral life cycle and cell biology in general. Moreover, it will also facilitate comprehension of herpesvirus pathogenesis, enabling the development of new strategies to combat herpesviruses in cases where they cause disease.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T20:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.009
       
  • Protecting from Envelope Stress: Variations on the Phage-Shock-Protein
           Theme
    • Authors: Riccardo Manganelli; Maria Laura Gennaro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro


      PubDate: 2016-12-07T19:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.10.001
       
 
 
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