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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2968 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (229 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (104 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1417 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (207 journals)
    - BOTANY (216 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (25 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (64 journals)
    - GENETICS (157 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (257 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (27 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (70 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (138 journals)

MICROBIOLOGY (257 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access  
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access  
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Histology     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [28 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2969 journals]
  • Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gerard D. Wright
      Rooted in the mechanism of action of antibiotics and subject to bacterial evolution, antibiotic resistance is difficult and perhaps impossible to overcome. Nevertheless, strategies can be used to minimize the emergence and impact of resistance. Antibiotic adjuvants offer one such approach. These are compounds that have little or no antibiotic activity themselves but act to block resistance or otherwise enhance antibiotic action. Antibiotic adjuvants are therefore delivered in combination with antibiotics and can be divided into two groups: Class I agents that act on the pathogen, and Class II agents that act on the host. Adjuvants offer a means to both suppress the emergence of resistance and rescue the activity of existing drugs, offering an orthogonal strategy complimentary to new antibiotic discovery


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • On the Origin of CRISPR-Cas Technology: From Prokaryotes to Mammals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francisco J.M. Mojica, Lluis Montoliu
      Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequences cooperate with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to form the basis of CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes. For more than 20 years, these systems were of interest only to specialists, mainly molecular microbiologists, who tried to understand the properties of this unique defense mechanism. In 2012, the potential of CRISPR-Cas systems was uncovered and these were presented as genome-editing tools with an outstanding capacity to trigger targeted genetic modifications that can be applied to virtually any organism. Shortly thereafter, in early 2013, these tools were shown to efficiently drive specific modification of mammalian genomes. This review attempts to summarize, in a comprehensive manner, the key events and milestones that brought CRISPR-Cas technology from prokaryotes to mammals.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Emerging Technologies for Gut Microbiome Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jason W. Arnold, Jeffrey Roach, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril
      Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking. Emerging technologies, including engineered organoids derived from human stem cells, high-throughput culturing, and microfluidics assays allowing for the introduction of novel approaches, will improve the efficiency and quality of microbiome research. Here, we discuss emerging technologies and their potential impact on gut microbiome studies.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Virocell Metabolism: Metabolic Innovations During Host–Virus
           Interactions in the Ocean
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shilo Rosenwasser, Carmit Ziv, Shiri Graff van Creveld, Assaf Vardi
      Marine viruses are considered to be major ecological, evolutionary, and biogeochemical drivers of the marine environment, responsible for nutrient recycling and determining species composition. Viruses can re-shape their host's metabolic network during infection, generating the virocell–a unique metabolic state that supports their specific requirement. Here we discuss the concept of ‘virocell metabolism’ and its formation by rewiring of host-encoded metabolic networks, or by introducing virus-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes which provide the virocell with novel metabolic capabilities. The ecological role of marine viruses is commonly assessed by their relative abundance and phylogenetic diversity, lacking the ability to assess the dynamics of active viral infection. The new ability to define a unique metabolic state of the virocell will expand the current virion-centric approaches in order to quantify the impact of marine viruses on microbial food webs.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Sugar Coating the Envelope: Glycoconjugates for Microbe–Host
           Crosstalk
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Hanne L.P. Tytgat, Willem M. de Vos
      Tremendous progress has been made on mapping the mainly bacterial members of the human intestinal microbiota. Knowledge on what is out there, or rather what is inside, needs to be complemented with insight on how these bacteria interact with their biotic environment. Bacterial glycoconjugates, that is, the collection of all glycan-modified molecules, are ideal modulators of such interactions. Their enormous versatility and diversity results in a species-specific glycan barcode, providing a range of ligands for host interaction. Recent reports on the functional importance of glycosylation of important bacterial ligands in beneficial and pathogenic species underpin this. Glycoconjugates, and glycoproteins in particular, are an underappreciated, potentially crucial, factor in understanding bacteria–host interactions of old friends and foes.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gerard D. Wright



      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • A Step Forward to Empower Global Microbiome Research Through Local
           Leadership
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Victor S. Pylro, Tsai S. Mui, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues, Fernando D. Andreote, Luiz F.W. Roesch



      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Buildings, Beneficial Microbes, and Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jordan Peccia, Sarah E. Kwan
      Bacteria and fungi in buildings exert an influence on the human microbiome through aerosol deposition, surface contact, and human and animal interactions. As the identities and functions of beneficial human microbes emerge, the consequences of building design, operation, and function must be understood to maintain the health of occupants in buildings.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • The Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Competition
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Melanie Ghoul, Sara Mitri
      Microbes are typically surrounded by different strains and species with whom they compete for scarce nutrients and limited space. Given such challenging living conditions, microbes have evolved many phenotypes with which they can outcompete and displace their neighbours: secretions to harvest resources, loss of costly genes whose products can be obtained from others, stabbing and poisoning neighbouring cells, or colonising spaces while preventing others from doing so. These competitive phenotypes appear to be common, although evidence suggests that, over time, competition dies down locally, often leading to stable coexistence of genetically distinct lineages. Nevertheless, the selective forces acting on competition and the resulting evolutionary fates of the different players depend on ecological conditions in a way that is not yet well understood. Here, we highlight open questions and theoretical predictions of the long-term dynamics of competition that remain to be tested. Establishing a clearer understanding of microbial competition will allow us to better predict the behaviour of microbes, and to control and manipulate microbial communities for industrial, environmental, and medical purposes.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Feverish Quest for Ebola Immunotherapy: Straight or Cocktail'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9
      Author(s): Erica Ollmann Saphire, M. Javad Aman
      The ebolavirus immunotherapeutics field has replaced previous perceptions of antibody inadequacy with a new abundance of monoclonals exhibiting post exposure efficacy. Now the questions are: what epitopes to target, what immunological mechanisms to seek, whether species-specific or broadly reactive antibodies are best, and whether a cocktail or monotherapy should be used.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Driving Apart and Segregating Genomes in Archaea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniela Barillà
      Genome segregation is a fundamental biological process in organisms from all domains of life. How this stage of the cell cycle unfolds in Eukarya has been clearly defined and considerable progress has been made to unravel chromosome partition in Bacteria. The picture is still elusive in Archaea. The lineages of this domain exhibit different cell-cycle lifestyles and wide-ranging chromosome copy numbers, fluctuating from 1 up to 55. This plurality of patterns suggests that a variety of mechanisms might underpin disentangling and delivery of DNA molecules to daughter cells. Here I describe recent developments in archaeal genome maintenance, including investigations of novel genome segregation machines that point to unforeseen bacterial and eukaryotic connections.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Gram-Positive Firmicutes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lauren Davey, Scott A. Halperin, Song F. Lee
      Extracytoplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs) catalyze the oxidation, reduction, and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds. Although these processes have been characterized in Gram-negative bacteria, the majority of Gram-positive TDORs have only recently been discovered. Results from recent studies have revealed distinct trends in the types of TDOR used by different groups of Gram-positive bacteria, and in their biological functions. Actinobacteria TDORs can be essential for viability, while Firmicute TDORs influence various physiological processes, including protein stability, oxidative stress resistance, bacteriocin production, and virulence. In this review we discuss the diverse extracytoplasmic TDORs used by Gram-positive bacteria, with a focus on Gram-positive Firmicutes.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Marine Non-Cyanobacterial Diazotrophs: Moving beyond Molecular Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Deniz Bombar, Ryan W. Paerl, Lasse Riemann
      The nitrogen input through biological N2 fixation is essential for life in vast areas of the global ocean. The belief is that cyanobacteria are the only relevant N2-fixing (diazotrophic) organisms. It has, however, now become evident that non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs, bacteria and archaea with ecologies fundamentally distinct from those of cyanobacteria, are widespread and occasionally fix N2 at significant rates. The documentation of a globally relevant nitrogen input from these diazotrophs would constitute a new paradigm for research on oceanic nitrogen cycling. Here we highlight the need for combining rate measurements and molecular analyses of field samples with cultivation studies in order to clarify the ecology of non-cyanobacteria and their contribution to marine N2 fixation on local and global scales.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Host–Bacterial Crosstalk Determines Staphylococcus aureus Nasal
           Colonization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michelle E. Mulcahy, Rachel M. McLoughlin
      Staphylococcus aureus persistently colonizes the anterior nares of approximately one fifth of the population and nasal carriage is a significant risk factor for infection. Recent advances have significantly refined our understanding of S. aureus–host communication during nasal colonization. Novel bacterial adherence mechanisms in the nasal epithelium have been identified, and novel roles for both the innate and the adaptive immune response in controlling S. aureus nasal colonization have been defined, through the use of both human and rodent models. It is clear that S. aureus maintains a unique, complex relationship with the host immune system and that S. aureus nasal colonization is overall a multifactorial process which is as yet incompletely understood.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Effects of Sialic Acid Modifications on Virus Binding and Infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Brian R. Wasik, Karen N. Barnard, Colin R. Parrish
      Sialic acids (Sias) are abundantly displayed on the surfaces of vertebrate cells, and particularly on all mucosal surfaces. Sias interact with microbes of many types, and are the targets of specific recognition by many different viruses. They may mediate virus binding and infection of cells, or alternatively can act as decoy receptors that bind virions and block virus infection. These nine-carbon backbone monosaccharides naturally occur in many different modified forms, and are attached to underlying glycans through varied linkages, creating significant diversity in the pathogen receptor forms. Here we review the current knowledge regarding the distribution of modified Sias in different vertebrate hosts, tissues, and cells, their effects on viral pathogens where those have been examined, and outline unresolved questions.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Natural Products and the Gene Cluster Revolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Paul R. Jensen
      Genome sequencing has created unprecedented opportunities for natural-product discovery and new insight into the diversity and distributions of natural-product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). These gene collectives are highly evolved for horizontal exchange, thus providing immediate opportunities to test the effects of small molecules on fitness. The marine actinomycete genus Salinispora maintains extraordinary levels of BGC diversity and has become a useful model for studies of secondary metabolism. Most Salinispora BGCs are observed infrequently, resulting in high population-level diversity while conforming to constraints associated with maximum genome size. Comparative genomics is providing a mechanism to assess secondary metabolism in the context of evolution and evidence that some products represent ecotype-defining traits while others appear selectively neutral.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sophie Bleves
      TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenesis: The Importance of Reduced Cytotoxicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9
      Author(s): Mark S. Smeltzer
      Toxin production clearly contributes to the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus, but that does not mean it is always in the best interest of the pathogen. Indeed, the ability to limit toxin production may provide an important mechanism for persistence, dissemination, and development of invasive disease within an individual human host.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Bap: A New Type of Functional Amyloid
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9
      Author(s): Patrick Di Martino
      Bacteria can build a biofilm matrix scaffold from exopolysaccharides or proteins, and DNA. In a recent report, Taglialegna and colleagues show that pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus produces a protein scaffold based on amyloid assembly of fragments from the biofilm-associated protein. Amyloidogenesis occurs in response to environmental signals.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • HBV Slow Maturation Process Leads to Infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 8
      Author(s): Koichi Watashi
      Initial hepatitis B virus (HBV) attachment occurs via heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), which then trigger receptor-mediated internalization. Although HSPGs express in many tissues, HBV is destined for hepatotropic infection. A recent paper by Seitz et al. proposed that the slow viral maturation process plays a critical role in liver-specific distribution.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 8
      Author(s): Kenneth Kim, Sujan Shresta
      The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood–brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Hard-Wired Control of Bacterial Processes by Chromosomal Gene Location
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jelle Slager, Jan-Willem Veening
      Bacterial processes, such as stress responses and cell differentiation, are controlled at many different levels. While some factors, such as transcriptional regulation, are well appreciated, the importance of chromosomal gene location is often underestimated or even completely neglected. A combination of environmental parameters and the chromosomal location of a gene determine how many copies of its DNA are present at a given time during the cell cycle. Here, we review bacterial processes that rely, completely or partially, on the chromosomal location of involved genes and their fluctuating copy numbers. Special attention will be given to the several different ways in which these copy-number fluctuations can be used for bacterial cell fate determination or coordination of interdependent processes in a bacterial cell.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • The Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Milestones of Infant Development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Efrem S. Lim, David Wang, Lori R. Holtz
      The human gut harbors a complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms (collectively termed the microbiome) that impact health and disease. Emerging studies indicate that the gut bacterial microbiome and virome play an important role in healthy infant development. In turn, the composition of the microbiome during development can be influenced by factors such as dietary, environmental, and maternal conditions. As such, the microbiome trajectory during early infancy could be predictors of healthy development. Conversely, adverse early events in life may have consequences later in life. This review focuses on our understanding of the bacterial microbiome and virome during early development, conditions that might influence these processes, and their long-term implications for infant health.


      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
       
  • Chlamydia trachomatis Genital Tract Infections: When Host Immune Response
           and the Microbiome Collide
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Noa Ziklo, Wilhelmina M. Huston, Jane S. Hocking, Peter Timms
      Genital infections with Chlamydia trachomatis continue to be a major health problem worldwide. While some individuals clear their infection (presumed to be the result of an effective Th1/interferon-γ response), others develop chronic infections and some are prone to repeat infections. In females in particular, chronic asymptomatic infections are common and can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease and infertility. Recent studies suggest that the genital tract microbiota could be a significant factor and explain person-to-person variation in C. trachomatis infections. One hypothesis suggests that C. trachomatis can use its trpBA genes to rescue tryptophan from indole, which is a product of anaerobic members of the genital tract microbiota. Women with particular microbiota types, such as seen in bacterial vaginosis, have increased numbers of anaerobes, and this would enable the chlamydia in these individuals to overcome the host's interferon-γ attempts to eliminate it, resulting in more repeat and/or chronic infections.


      PubDate: 2016-06-18T18:09:23Z
       
  • Fat(al) attraction: Picornaviruses Usurp Lipid Transfer at Membrane
           Contact Sites to Create Replication Organelles
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7
      Author(s): Hilde M. van der Schaar, Cristina M. Dorobantu, Lucian Albulescu, Jeroen R.P.M. Strating, Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld
      All viruses that carry a positive-sense RNA genome (+RNA), such as picornaviruses, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and SARS- and MERS-coronavirus, confiscate intracellular membranes of the host cell to generate new compartments (i.e., replication organelles) for amplification of their genome. Replication organelles (ROs) are membranous structures that not only harbor viral proteins but also contain a specific array of hijacked host factors that create a unique lipid microenvironment optimal for genome replication. While some lipids may be locally synthesized de novo, other lipids are shuttled towards ROs. In picornavirus-infected cells, lipids are exchanged at membrane contact sites between ROs and other organelles. In this paper, we review recent advances in our understanding of how picornaviruses exploit host membrane contact site machinery to generate ROs, a mechanism that is used by some other +RNA viruses as well.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • Oysters and Vibrios as a Model for Disease Dynamics in Wild Animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7
      Author(s): Frédérique Le Roux, K. Mathias Wegner, Martin F. Polz
      Disease dynamics in the wild are influenced by a number of ecological and evolutionary factors not addressed by traditional laboratory-based characterization of pathogens. Here we propose the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as a model for studying the interaction of the environment, bacterial pathogens, and the host in disease dynamics. We show that an important first step is to ask whether the functional unit of pathogenesis is a bacterial clone, a population, or a consortium in order to assess triggers of disease outbreaks and devise appropriate monitoring tools. Moreover, the development of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) oysters has enabled assessment of the infection process under natural conditions. Finally, recent results show the importance of microbial interactions and host genetics in determining oyster health and disease.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • Immuno-Pharmacological Targeting of Virus-Containing Compartments in
           HIV-1-Infected Macrophages
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7
      Author(s): Francesca Graziano, Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
      In addition to CD4 T lymphocytes, HIV-1 infects tissue macrophages that can actively accumulate infectious virions in vacuolar subcellular structures mostly connected to the plasma membrane and recently termed virus-containing compartments (VCCs). The VCC-associated HIV-1 reservoir of infected macrophages can be either increased or depleted by immunologic and pharmacologic agents, at least in vitro, thus suggesting that these factors (or related molecules) could be effective in curtailing the macrophage-associated HIV-1 reservoir in infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we review evidence on the pathogenic role of tissue macrophages as long-term viral reservoirs in vivo and upon in vitro infection with a particular emphasis on the immuno-pharmacological modulation of VCCs.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic
           Endomembrane System
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7
      Author(s): Sven B. Gould, Sriram G. Garg, William F. Martin
      Eukaryotes possess an elaborate endomembrane system with endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, and dynamic vesicle traffic. Theories addressing the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic endomembranes have overlooked the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that bacteria, archaea, and mitochondria secrete into their surroundings. We propose that the eukaryotic endomembrane system originated from bacterial OMVs released by the mitochondrial ancestor within the cytosol of its archaeal host at eukaryote origin. Confined within the host's cytosol, OMVs accumulated naturally, fusing either with each other or with the host's plasma membrane. This matched the host's archaeal secretory pathway for cotranslational protein insertion with outward bound mitochondrial-derived vesicles consisting of bacterial lipids, forging a primordial, secretory endoplasmic reticulum as the cornerstone of the eukaryotic endomembrane system. Video


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • Oscillospira: a Central, Enigmatic Component of the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7
      Author(s): Tom Konikoff, Uri Gophna
      Oscillospira is an enigmatic bacterial genus that has never been cultured, but is constantly detected by 16S rRNA gene surveys of the human microbiome. Here we summarize recent evidence that Oscillospira is positively associated with leanness and health, speculate about its physiology, and argue its potential importance for human health.


      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 7




      PubDate: 2016-06-15T14:52:13Z
       
  • A New Perspective on Microbes Formerly Known as Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Holger Daims, Sebastian Lücker, Michael Wagner
      Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) catalyze the second step of nitrification, nitrite oxidation to nitrate, which is an important process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. NOB were traditionally perceived as physiologically restricted organisms and were less intensively studied than other nitrogen-cycling microorganisms. This picture is in contrast to new discoveries of an unexpected high diversity of mostly uncultured NOB and a great physiological versatility, which includes complex microbe–microbe interactions and lifestyles outside the nitrogen cycle. Most surprisingly, close relatives to NOB perform complete nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and this finding will have far-reaching implications for nitrification research. We review recent work that has changed our perspective on NOB and provides a new basis for future studies on these enigmatic organisms.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T13:57:13Z
       
  • Control and Eradication Strategies of Hepatitis B Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Chiaho Shih, Shu-Fan Chou, Ching-Chun Yang, Jyun-Yuan Huang, Gansukh Choijilsuren, Ren-Shiang Jhou
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a major human pathogen, and chronic hepatitis can lead to cirrhosis and malignant hepatocellular carcinoma. While HBV vaccine and treatment are available, it has remained a challenge to completely eradicate the virus from patients. Current therapy using either interferon or polymerase inhibitors cannot cure HBV with a high efficacy. Lifelong therapy is needed to suppress HBV in patients who achieve no seroconversion. Here, we review recent exciting advances of new strategies, including the inhibition of viral entry, the destruction or silencing of HBV covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA), and breaking immune tolerance. Combinations of different therapeutic strategies could improve the cure rate of viral persistence in chronic hepatitis B.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T13:57:13Z
       
  • How Our Other Genome Controls Our Epi-Genome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Antonella Celluzzi, Andrea Masotti
      Eukaryotes and prokaryotes produce extracellular nanovescicles that contain RNAs and other molecules that they exploit to communicate. Recently, inter-kingdom crosstalk was demonstrated between humans and bacteria through fecal microRNAs. We suggest here how bacteria interact with humans via RNAs within membrane vesicles to alter our epigenome, thus filling the gap and closing the circle. At the same time, there are indications that there could be a wider inter-kingdom communication network that might encompass all known kingdoms. Now that the connection with our other genome has been established, we also should begin to explore the ‘social’ network that we have around us.


      PubDate: 2016-06-10T13:57:13Z
       
  • New Insights into the Mycolate-Containing Compound Biosynthesis and
           Transport in Mycobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Annaïk Quémard
      Mycolic acids are extremely-long-chain fatty acids that compose a large family of mycolate-containing compounds, major envelope lipid components and critical pathogenicity factors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In recent years there have been major advances in understanding their metabolic pathway. Unknown enzymes of the fatty acid synthase type II elongation system and the condensation system that builds the mycolic acid scaffold were identified. Missing links with the mycolate-containing compound biosynthesis–such as the mechanisms of transfer onto trehalose and of translocation through the inner membrane–were deciphered, while recycling processes have emerged. Beyond the more accurate picture of the biosynthesis and translocation pathways dedicated to these unique molecules, major issues that should be addressed in the future are also discussed.


      PubDate: 2016-06-05T12:45:18Z
       
  • RIG-I-Like Receptors: One STrEP Forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Charlotte Lässig, Karl-Peter Hopfner
      RIG-I-like receptors detect cytosolic viral RNA and activate an antiviral innate immune response. A new study employs the one STrEP-purification technique and next generation sequencing to characterize physiological ligands in an infected cell. The view of all three RLRs bound to viral RNAs shows specialization, collaboration and new binding sites.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Regulation of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Polymerization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michel Arthur
      How bacterial cells control the activity of peptidoglycan polymerases has remained mysterious. Biochemical characterization of derivatives of penicillin-binding protein PBP1b that are functional in the absence of lipoprotein LpoB provides evidence for allosteric control of PBP1b glycosyltransferase activity via binding of LpoB to the PBP1b UBH1 domain.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • The Future of Antibiotics: Emerging Technologies and Stewardship
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jeffrey L. Fortman, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
      Antibiotic resistance is on the rise while the number of antibiotics being brought to market continues to drop. While this is a dire situation, a number of emerging technologies have the potential to reverse this trend. These, and supporting legislative initiatives, promise to stave off the post-antibiotic era.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Zika Virus: Two or Three Lineages'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhen Gong, Yuxia Gao, Guan-Zhu Han
      Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has become an emerging concern of global public health. Several recent studies provide new insights into the evolution and diversity of ZIKV, with important implications for ongoing surveillance and control measures.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • Potential Pitfalls in Estimating Viral Load Heritability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gabriel E. Leventhal, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
      In HIV patients, the set-point viral load (SPVL) is the most widely used predictor of disease severity. Yet SPVL varies over several orders of magnitude between patients. The heritability of SPVL quantifies how much of the variation in SPVL is due to transmissible viral genetics. There is currently no clear consensus on the value of SPVL heritability, as multiple studies have reported apparently discrepant estimates. Here we illustrate that the discrepancies in estimates are most likely due to differences in the estimation methods, rather than the study populations. Importantly, phylogenetic estimates run the risk of being strongly confounded by unrealistic model assumptions. Care must be taken when interpreting and comparing the different estimates to each other.


      PubDate: 2016-05-16T11:12:05Z
       
  • Rewiring the Pneumococcal Cell Cycle with Serine/Threonine- and
           Tyrosine-kinases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christophe Grangeasse
      Over the past decade, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has gained prominence as a model for studying the bacterial cell cycle. This important human pathogen possesses a characteristic diplo-ovococcal cell shape and produces a protective polysaccharide capsule required for virulence, and it has been used to investigate natural genetic transformation. Recent advances have demonstrated that the pneumococcus has evolved phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms dedicated to controlling cell division and ensuring the concealment of the newborn cells by the capsule. In this review, I survey the role of the only two serine/threonine- (StkP) and tyrosine-kinases (CpsD) of the pneumococcus and discuss the existence of interconnected phosphorylation networks coordinating cell division and morphogenesis with key aspects of the cell cycle.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Improving Viral Protease Inhibitors to Counter Drug Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Ronald Swanstrom, Celia A. Schiffer
      Drug resistance is a major problem in health care, undermining therapy outcomes and necessitating novel approaches to drug design. Extensive studies on resistance to viral protease inhibitors, particularly those of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease, revealed a plethora of information on the structural and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. These insights led to several strategies to improve viral protease inhibitors to counter resistance, such as exploiting the essential biological function and leveraging evolutionary constraints. Incorporation of these strategies into structure-based drug design can minimize vulnerability to resistance, not only for viral proteases but for other quickly evolving drug targets as well, toward designing inhibitors one step ahead of evolution to counter resistance with more intelligent and rational design.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • The Commonalities in Bacterial Effector Inhibition of Apoptosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keith S. Robinson, Rochelle Aw
      Antiapoptotic pathways of the host cell play integral roles in bacterial pathogenesis, with inhibition of those pathways resulting in halted disease pathology. Certain pathogens have developed elegant mechanisms to modulate the fate of the host cell, many of which target novel pathways that are poorly understood in the context of the cell biology. Bacterial pathogenesis research not only promotes the understanding of the role of antiapoptotic pathways in bacterial infection, but has a broader context in understanding the epitome of human disease, that is, developing the understanding of tumorigenic or inflammatory pathways. Here we review host antiapoptotic signalling pathways manipulated by translocated bacterial effectors that propagate the disease state, drawing common parallels and showing the novel differences.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Right Place, Right Time: Focalization of Membrane Proteins in
           Gram-Positive Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sumitra D. Mitra, Irina Afonina, Kimberly A. Kline
      Membrane proteins represent a significant proportion of total bacterial proteins and perform vital cellular functions ranging from exchanging metabolites and genetic material, secretion and sorting, sensing signal molecules, and cell division. Many of these functions are carried out at distinct foci on the bacterial membrane, and this subcellular localization can be coordinated by a number of factors, including lipid microdomains, protein–protein interactions, and membrane curvature. Elucidating the mechanisms behind focal protein localization in bacteria informs not only protein structure–function correlation, but also how to disrupt the protein function to limit virulence. Here we review recent advances describing a functional role for subcellular localization of membrane proteins involved in genetic transfer, secretion and sorting, cell division and growth, and signaling.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Microbial Metagenomics Reveals Climate-Relevant Subsurface Biogeochemical
           Processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Philip E. Long, Kenneth H. Williams, Susan S. Hubbard, Jillian F. Banfield
      Microorganisms play key roles in terrestrial system processes, including the turnover of natural organic carbon, such as leaf litter and woody debris that accumulate in soils and subsurface sediments. What has emerged from a series of recent DNA sequencing-based studies is recognition of the enormous variety of little known and previously unknown microorganisms that mediate recycling of these vast stores of buried carbon in subsoil compartments of the terrestrial system. More importantly, the genome resolution achieved in these studies has enabled association of specific members of these microbial communities with carbon compound transformations and other linked biogeochemical processes–such as the nitrogen cycle–that can impact the quality of groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric trace gas concentrations. The emerging view also emphasizes the importance of organism interactions through exchange of metabolic byproducts (e.g., within the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles) and via symbioses since many novel organisms exhibit restricted metabolic capabilities and an associated extremely small cell size. New, genome-resolved information reshapes our view of subsurface microbial communities and provides critical new inputs for advanced reactive transport models. These inputs are needed for accurate prediction of feedbacks in watershed biogeochemical functioning and their influence on the climate via the fluxes of greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Viral Carcinogenesis Beyond Malignant Transformation: EBV in the
           Progression of Human Cancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Deilson Elgui de Oliveira, Bárbara G. Müller-Coan, Joseph S. Pagano
      Cancer progression begins when malignant cells colonize adjacent sites, and it is characterized by increasing tumor heterogeneity, invasion and dissemination of cancer cells. Clinically, progression is the most relevant stage in the natural history of cancers. A given virus is usually regarded as oncogenic because of its ability to induce malignant transformation of cells. Nonetheless, oncogenic viruses may also be important for the progression of infection-associated cancers. Recently this hypothesis has been addressed because of studies on the contribution of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the aggressiveness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV products modulate cancer progression phenomena, such as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this regard, there are compelling data about the effects of EBV latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs), as well as nontranslated viral RNAs, such as the EBV-encoded small nonpolyadenylated RNAs (EBERs) and viral microRNAs, notably EBV miR-BARTs. The available data on the mechanisms and players involved in the contribution of EBV infection to the aggressiveness of NPC are discussed in this review. Overall, this conceptual framework may be valuable for the understanding of the contribution of some infectious agents in the progression of cancers.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The Odd One Out
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vegard Eldholm, François Balloux
      Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threats are typically represented by bacteria capable of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One clear exception is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It is an obligate human pathogen with limited genetic diversity and a low mutation rate which lacks any evidence for HGT. Such features should, in principle, reduce its ability to rapidly evolve AMR. We identify key features in its biology and epidemiology that allow it to overcome its low adaptive potential. We focus in particular on its innate resistance to drugs, its unusual life cycle, including an often extensive latent phase, and its ability to shelter from exposure to antimicrobial drugs within cavities it induces in the lungs.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
       
  • Microbial Ecology and Evolution in the Acid Mine Drainage Model System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Li-Nan Huang, Jia-Liang Kuang, Wen-Sheng Shu
      Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a unique ecological niche for acid- and toxic-metals-adapted microorganisms. These low-complexity systems offer a special opportunity for the ecological and evolutionary analyses of natural microbial assemblages. The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented interest in the study of AMD communities using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and community genomic and postgenomic methodologies, significantly advancing our understanding of microbial diversity, community function, and evolution in acidic environments. This review describes new data on AMD microbial ecology and evolution, especially dynamics of microbial diversity, community functions, and population genomes, and further identifies gaps in our current knowledge that future research, with integrated applications of meta-omics technologies, will fill.


      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
       
 
 
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