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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2995 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (255 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 255 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [37 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Bacteria–Bacteriophage Coevolution in the Human Gut: Implications for
           Microbial Diversity and Functionality
    • Authors: Pauline D. Scanlan
      Pages: 614 - 623
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Pauline D. Scanlan
      Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria–bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind – the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria–phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes. I then examine the evidence and discuss the potential role of AC in driving observed patterns of intra- and interindividual variation in the gut microbiome together with detailing the potential functional consequences of such AC-driven microbial variation for human health and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.012
       
  • Genome Surfing As Driver of Microbial Genomic Diversity
    • Authors: Mallory J. Choudoir; Kevin Panke-Buisse; Cheryl P. Andam; Daniel H. Buckley
      Pages: 624 - 636
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Mallory J. Choudoir, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Cheryl P. Andam, Daniel H. Buckley
      Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.006
       
  • Cell Death Pathway That Monitors Spore Morphogenesis
    • Authors: Amanda R. Decker; Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      Pages: 637 - 647
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Amanda R. Decker, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required. Recently, a quality control pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis which monitors the assembly of the spore envelope and specifically eliminates, through cell lysis, sporulating cells that assemble the envelope incorrectly. Here, we review the use of checkpoints that govern the entry into sporulation in B. subtilis and discuss how the use of regulated cell death pathways during bacterial development may help maintain the fidelity of the sporulation program in the species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.005
       
  • KSHV microRNAs: Tricks of the Devil
    • Authors: Jie Qin; Wan Li; Shou-Jiang Gao; Chun Lu
      Pages: 648 - 661
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
      Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.002
       
  • Sweet New Roles for Protein Glycosylation in Prokaryotes
    • Authors: Jerry Eichler; Michael Koomey
      Pages: 662 - 672
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
      Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea. Recent efforts have begun to elucidate some of these prokaryote-specific roles, which are addressed in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.001
       
  • Shapeshifting to Survive: Shape Determination and Regulation in
           Caulobacter crescentus
    • Authors: Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel; Erin D. Goley
      Pages: 673 - 687
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D. Goley
      Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge. Here, we have summarized recent advances that have been made to understand morphology in the dimorphic Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.006
       
  • Integrating Lung Physiology, Immunology, and Tuberculosis
    • Authors: Jordi B. Torrelles; Larry S. Schlesinger
      Pages: 688 - 697
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jordi B. Torrelles, Larry S. Schlesinger
      Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly ‘attacked’ by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several ‘interaction points’ (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection. These interactions are critical, not only from a pathogenesis perspective but also in considering the effectiveness of therapies and vaccines in the lungs. Here we discuss emerging views on immunologic interactions occurring in the lungs for M. tuberculosis and their impact on infection and persistence.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.007
       
  • Spatial and Temporal Control of Evolution through
           Replication–Transcription Conflicts
    • Authors: Houra Merrikh
      Pages: 515 - 521
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Houra Merrikh
      Evolution could potentially be accelerated if an organism could selectively increase the mutation rate of specific genes that are actively under positive selection. Recently, a mechanism that cells can use to target rapid evolution to specific genes was discovered. This mechanism is driven by gene orientation-dependent encounters between DNA replication and transcription machineries. These encounters increase mutagenesis in lagging-strand genes, where replication–transcription conflicts are severe. Due to the orientation and transcription-dependent nature of this process, conflict-driven mutagenesis can be used by cells to spatially (gene-specifically) and temporally (only upon transcription induction) regulate the rate of gene evolution. Here, I summarize recent findings on this topic, and discuss the implications of increasing mutagenesis rates and accelerating evolution through active mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.008
       
  • Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New
           Bacterial Behaviours
    • Authors: Stephanie E. Jones; Marie A. Elliot
      Pages: 522 - 531
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Stephanie E. Jones, Marie A. Elliot
      Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed ‘exploration’ – so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.001
       
  • The Secrets of Acinetobacter Secretion
    • Authors: Brent S. Weber; Rachel L. Kinsella; Christian M. Harding; Mario F. Feldman
      Pages: 532 - 545
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Brent S. Weber, Rachel L. Kinsella, Christian M. Harding, Mario F. Feldman
      Infections caused by the bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are a mounting concern for healthcare practitioners as widespread antibiotic resistance continues to limit therapeutic treatment options. The biological processes used by A. baumannii to cause disease are not well defined, but recent research has indicated that secreted proteins may play a major role. A variety of mechanisms have now been shown to contribute to protein secretion by A. baumannii and other pathogenic species of Acinetobacter, including a type II secretion system (T2SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS), autotransporter, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of secretion systems in Acinetobacter species, and highlight their unique aspects that contribute to the pathogenicity and persistence of these emerging pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.005
       
  • Regulation Mechanisms of Viral IRES-Driven Translation
    • Authors: Kuo-Ming Lee; Chi-Jene Chen; Shin-Ru Shih
      Pages: 546 - 561
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Kuo-Ming Lee, Chi-Jene Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
      Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) can be found in the mRNA of many viruses as well as in cellular genes involved in the stress response, cell cycle, and apoptosis. IRES-mediated translation can occur when dominant cap-dependent translation is inhibited, and viruses can take advantage of this to subvert host translation machinery. In this review, we focus on the four major types of IRES identified in RNA viruses, and outline their distinct structural properties and requirements of translational factors. We further discuss auxiliary host factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), which are involved in the modulation of optimal IRES activity. Currently known strategies employed by viruses to harness ITAFs and regulate IRES activity are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.010
       
  • Evolutionary Constraints Shaping Streptococcus pyogenes–Host
           Interactions
    • Authors: Reid V. Wilkening; Michael J. Federle
      Pages: 562 - 572
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Reid V. Wilkening, Michael J. Federle
      Research on the Gram-positive human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) has long focused on invasive illness, the most severe manifestations of GAS infection. Recent advances in descriptions of molecular mechanisms of GAS virulence, coupled with massive sequencing efforts to isolate genomes, have allowed the field to better understand the molecular and evolutionary changes leading to pandemic strains. These findings suggest that it is necessary to rethink the dogma involving GAS pathogenesis, and that the most productive avenues for research going forward may be investigations into GAS in its ‘normal’ habitat, the nasopharynx, and its ability to either live with its host in an asymptomatic lifestyle or as an agent of superficial infections. This review will consider these advances, focusing on the natural history of GAS, the evolution of pandemic strains, and novel roles for several key virulence factors that may allow the field to better understand their physiological role.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.007
       
  • Transcriptional Regulation of Antiviral Interferon-Stimulated Genes
    • Authors: Wenshi Wang; Lei Xu; Junhong Su; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Qiuwei Pan
      Pages: 573 - 584
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Wenshi Wang, Lei Xu, Junhong Su, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
      Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a group of gene products that coordinately combat pathogen invasions, in particular viral infections. Transcription of ISGs occurs rapidly upon pathogen invasion, and this is classically provoked via activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) pathway, mainly by interferons (IFNs). However, a plethora of recent studies have reported a variety of non-canonical mechanisms regulating ISG transcription. These new studies are extremely important for understanding the quantitative and temporal differences in ISG transcription under specific circumstances. Because these canonical and non-canonical regulatory mechanisms are essential for defining the nature of host defense and associated detrimental proinflammatory effects, we comprehensively review the state of this rapidly evolving field and the clinical implications of recently acquired knowledge in this respect.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.001
       
  • Critical Streptococcus suis Virulence Factors: Are They All Really
           Critical?
    • Authors: Mariela Segura; Nahuel Fittipaldi; Cynthia Calzas; Marcelo Gottschalk
      Pages: 585 - 599
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Cynthia Calzas, Marcelo Gottschalk
      Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can be transmitted to humans by contact with diseased animals or contaminated raw pork products. This pathogen possesses a coat of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that confers protection against the immune system. Yet, the CPS is not the only virulence factor enabling this bacterium to successfully colonize, invade, and disseminate in its host leading to severe systemic diseases such as meningitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Indeed, recent research developments, cautiously inventoried in this review, have revealed over 100 ‘putative virulence factors or traits’ (surface-associated or secreted components, regulatory genes or metabolic pathways), of which at least 37 have been claimed as being ‘critical’ for virulence. In this review we discuss the current contradictions and controversies raised by this explosion of virulence factors and the future directions that may be conceived to advance and enlighten research on S. suis pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.005
       
  • Genomics and Ecology of Novel N2O-Reducing Microorganisms
    • Authors: Sara Hallin; Laurent Philippot; Frank E. Löffler; Robert A. Sanford; Christopher M. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sara Hallin, Laurent Philippot, Frank E. Löffler, Robert A. Sanford, Christopher M. Jones
      Microorganisms with the capacity to reduce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to harmless dinitrogen gas are receiving increased attention due to increasing N2O emissions (and our need to mitigate climate change) and to recent discoveries of novel N2O-reducing bacteria and archaea. The diversity of denitrifying and nondenitrifying microorganisms with capacity for N2O reduction was recently shown to be greater than previously expected. A formerly overlooked group (clade II) in the environment include a large fraction of nondenitrifying N2O reducers, which could be N2O sinks without major contribution to N2O formation. We review the recent advances about fundamental understanding of the genomics, physiology, and ecology of N2O reducers and the importance of these findings for curbing N2O emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.003
       
  • Zika Virus Protease: An Antiviral Drug Target
    • Authors: CongBao Kang; Thomas H. Keller; Dahai Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): CongBao Kang, Thomas H. Keller, Dahai Luo
      The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused global concern due to its link to severe damage to the brain development of foetuses and neuronal complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective and safe treatment and vaccination options. Among the proposed viral and host components, the viral NS2B-NS3 protease represents an attractive drug target due to its essential role in the virus life cycle. Here, we outline recent progress in studies on the Zika protease. Biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies on different protease constructs provide new insight into the structure and activity of the protease. The unlinked construct displays higher enzymatic activity and better mimics the native state of the enzyme and therefore is better suited for drug discovery. Furthermore, the structure of the free enzyme adopts a closed conformation and a preformed active site. The availability of a lead fragment hit and peptide inhibitors, as well as the attainability of soakable crystals, suggest that the unlinked construct is a promising tool for drug discovery.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.001
       
  • Epidemiology, Evolution, and Pathogenesis of H7N9 Influenza Viruses in
           Five Epidemic Waves since 2013 in China
    • Authors: Shuo Su; Min Gu; Di Liu; Jie Cui; George F. Gao; Jiyong Zhou; Xiufan Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shuo Su, Min Gu, Di Liu, Jie Cui, George F. Gao, Jiyong Zhou, Xiufan Liu
      H7N9 influenza viruses were first isolated in 2013 and continue to cause human infections. H7N9 infections represent an ongoing public health threat that has resulted in 1344 cases with 511 deaths as of April 9, 2017. This highlights the continued threat posed by the current poultry trade and live poultry market system in China. Until now, there have been five H7N9 influenza epidemic waves in China; however, the steep increase in the number of humans infected with H7N9 viruses observed in the fifth wave, beginning in October 2016, the spread into western provinces, and the emergence of highly pathogenic (HP) H7N9 influenza outbreaks in chickens and infection in humans have caused domestic and international concern. In this review, we summarize and compare the different waves of H7N9 regarding their epidemiology, pathogenesis, evolution, and characteristic features, and speculate on factors behind the recent increase in the number of human cases and sudden outbreaks in chickens. The continuous evolution of the virus poses a long-term threat to public health and the poultry industry, and thus it is imperative to strengthen prevention and control strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-08-04T00:50:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.008
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8


      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
       
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer and Ecosystem Function Dynamics
    • Authors: Maarten van de Guchte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maarten van de Guchte
      Horizontal gene transfer can provide bacteria with new functions that confer an important competitive advantage, and is therefore likely to affect the dynamics of bacterial ecosystems. Two studies by Wolfe et al. and Bonham et al. prepare the way to study this hypothesis in a model ecosystem with reproducible properties.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.002
       
  • Do Shoot the Messenger: PASTA Kinases as Virulence Determinants and
           Antibiotic Targets
    • Authors: Daniel A. Pensinger; Adam J. Schaenzer; John-Demian Sauer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniel A. Pensinger, Adam J. Schaenzer, John-Demian Sauer
      All domains of life utilize protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of signal transduction. In bacteria, protein phosphorylation was classically thought to be mediated exclusively by histidine kinases as part of two-component signaling systems. However, it is now well appreciated that eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) control essential processes in bacteria. A subset of eSTKs are single-pass transmembrane proteins that have extracellular penicillin-binding-protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated (PASTA) domains which bind muropeptides. In a variety of important pathogens, PASTA kinases have been implicated in regulating biofilms, antibiotic resistance, and ultimately virulence. Although there are limited examples of direct regulation of virulence factors, PASTA kinases are critical for virulence due to their roles in regulating bacterial physiology in the context of stress. This review focuses on the role of PASTA kinases in virulence for a variety of important Gram-positive pathogens and concludes with a discussion of current efforts to develop kinase inhibitors as novel antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.010
       
  • Navigating the Gut Buffet: Control of Polysaccharide Utilization in
           Bacteroides spp.
    • Authors: Nathan D. Schwalm; Eduardo A. Groisman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nathan D. Schwalm, Eduardo A. Groisman
      Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions. The regulators and mechanisms controlling carbohydrate utilization are often unique to these gut-dwelling bacteria, and do not conform to those of model organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.009
       
  • Impact of the Microbiota on Bacterial Infections during Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Jessica Galloway-Peña; Chelcy Brumlow; Samuel Shelburne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
      Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy. An increased knowledge of the interplay between potential pathogens, protective commensals, and the host immune system may facilitate the development of novel biomarkers or therapeutics that could help ameliorate the toll that infections take during the treatment of cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.006
       
  • The Other Microeukaryotes of the Coral Reef Microbiome
    • Authors: T.D. Ainsworth; A.J. Fordyce; E.F. Camp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): T.D. Ainsworth, A.J. Fordyce, E.F. Camp
      In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral–microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function. Here, we outline the roles of eukaryotic microbes in marine systems and their contribution to ecosystem change, and discuss the microeukaryotic microbiome of corals and coral reefs.

      PubDate: 2017-07-17T00:09:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.007
       
  • Natural-Product Antibiotics: Cues for Modulating Bacterial Biofilm
           Formation
    • Authors: Loni Townsley; Elizabeth A. Shank
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Loni Townsley, Elizabeth A. Shank
      Cell–cell communication enables bacteria to coordinate their behavior through the production, recognition, and response to chemical signals produced by their microbial neighbors. An important example of coordinated behavior in bacteria is biofilm formation, where individual cells organize into highly complex, matrix-encased communities that differentiate into distinct cell types and divide labor among individual cells. Bacteria rely on environmental cues to influence biofilm development, including chemical cues produced by other microbes. A multitude of recent studies have demonstrated that natural-product antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations can impact biofilm formation in neighboring microbes, supporting the hypothesis that these compounds may have evolved as signaling molecules that mediate cell–cell interactions. In this review we discuss the role of antibiotics in modulating biofilm formation and interspecies communication in bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T23:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.003
       
  • Unravelling HIV-1 Latency, One Cell at a Time
    • Authors: Yik Lim Kok; Angela Ciuffi; Karin J. Metzner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yik Lim Kok, Angela Ciuffi, Karin J. Metzner
      A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies – genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics – will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency.

      PubDate: 2017-07-06T23:53:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.002
       
  • What Does Not Kill You Makes You Stronger
    • Authors: Miles T. Wetherington; Juan E. Keymer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Miles T. Wetherington, Juan E. Keymer
      Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.005
       
  • Antiviral Strategies against PRRSV Infection
    • Authors: Taofeng Du; Yuchen Nan; Shuqi Xiao; Qin Zhao; En-Min Zhou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, En-Min Zhou
      PRRSV (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) is a major economically significant pathogen that has adversely impacted the global swine industry for almost 30 years. Currently PRRSV is estimated to cause losses of almost US$600 million per year in the USA. Except for new mutants that continually emerge during PRRSV outbreaks, our understanding of the virology, origin, and evolution of PRRSV and the host's immune response are largely inadequate. Such limited knowledge impedes development of effective methods to eradicate this virus. In this review, we systematically describe recent advances in anti-PRRSV research, especially focusing on those techniques with the potential to transform current anti-PRRSV strategies. Furthermore, a combination of these new techniques may provide creative insights to guide future PRRSV control and prevention.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.001
       
  • Ecological Insights into the Dynamics of Plant Biomass-Degrading Microbial
           Consortia
    • Authors: Diego Javier Jiménez; Francisco Dini-Andreote; Kristen M. DeAngelis; Steven W. Singer; Joana Falcão Salles; Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Diego Javier Jiménez, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Kristen M. DeAngelis, Steven W. Singer, Joana Falcão Salles, Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Plant biomass (PB) is an important resource for biofuel production. However, the frequent lack of efficiency of PB saccharification is still an industrial bottleneck. The use of enzyme cocktails produced from PB-degrading microbial consortia (PB-dmc) is a promising approach to optimize this process. Nevertheless, the proper use and manipulation of PB-dmc depends on a sound understanding of the ecological processes and mechanisms that exist in these communities. This Opinion article provides an overview of arguments as to how spatiotemporal nutritional fluxes influence the successional dynamics and ecological interactions (synergism versus competition) between populations in PB-dmc. The themes of niche occupancy, ‘sugar cheaters’, minimal effective consortium, and the Black Queen Hypothesis are raised as key subjects that foster our appraisal of such systems. Here we provide a conceptual framework that describes the critical topics underpinning the ecological basis of PB-dmc, giving a solid foundation upon which further prospective experimentation can be developed.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.012
       
  • The Role of the Fungal Cell Wall in the Infection of Plants
    • Authors: Ivey Geoghegan; Gero Steinberg; Sarah Gurr
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
      The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors − such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations. It highlights what is known about the phytopathogenic fungal wall and what needs to be discovered.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.015
       
  • Micronutrient Deficiencies and the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Authors: Núria Mach; Allison Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Núria Mach, Allison Clark
      Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.004
       
  • Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Jakob Haaber; José R. Penadés; Hanne Ingmer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jakob Haaber, José R. Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
      Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.011
       
  • Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Infections: Virulence Factors, Immunity,
           and Prevention Strategies
    • Authors: Jay Vornhagen; Kristina M. Adams Waldorf; Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M. Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections. Prevention of GBS infection in pregnancy is complex and is likely influenced by multiple factors, including pathogenicity, host factors, vaginal microbiome, false-negative screening, and/or changes in antibiotic resistance. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of GBS infections during pregnancy will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we summarize and discuss important advancements in our understanding of GBS vaginal colonization, ascending infection, and preterm birth.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T23:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.013
       
  • The Emerging Roles of STING in Bacterial Infections
    • Authors: Fabio V. Marinho; Sulayman Benmerzoug; Sergio C. Oliveira; Bernhard Ryffel; V.F.J. Quesniaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Fabio V. Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C. Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V.F.J. Quesniaux
      The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T23:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.008
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7


      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
       
  • Antimycobacterial Metabolism: Illuminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Biology and Drug Discovery
    • Authors: Divya Awasthi; Joel S. Freundlich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Divya Awasthi, Joel S. Freundlich
      Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs. A two-pronged approach investigating the metabolism of antibacterials within both the host and bacterium is outlined and will be of value to both the chemical biology and drug discovery fields.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.007
       
  • Black Truffle, a Hermaphrodite with Forced Unisexual Behaviour
    • Authors: Marc-André Selosse; Laure Schneider-Maunoury; Elisa Taschen; François Rousset; Franck Richard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
      The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.010
       
  • Effect of CO2 on Peroxynitrite-Mediated Bacteria Killing: Response to
           Tsikas et al.
    • Authors: Alain P. Gobert; Keith T. Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson


      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.009
       
  • A Single Substitution Changes Zika Virus Infectivity in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: Guan-Zhu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guan-Zhu Han
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused outbreaks in the Pacific and the Americas. The mechanism underlying the recent ZIKV epidemic remains obscure. A recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of ZIKV in the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.014
       
  • Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Postweaning Piglets: Understanding the Keys to
           Health
    • Authors: Raphaële Gresse; Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand; Mickaël Alain Fleury; Tom Van de Wiele; Evelyne Forano; Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Weaning is a critical event in the pig’s life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition. Finally, we discuss how in vitro models of the piglet gut could be advantageously used as a complement to ex vivo and in vivo studies for the development and testing of new feed additives.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T23:06:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.004
       
  • Helicobacter pylori, Its Urease and Carbonic Anhydrases, and Macrophage
           Nitric Oxide Synthase
    • Authors: Dimitrios Tsikas; Erik Hanff; Gorig Brunner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Gorig Brunner


      PubDate: 2017-06-04T23:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.002
       
  • Microbiome-on-a-Chip: New Frontiers in Plant–Microbiota Research
    • Authors: Claire E. Stanley; Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Claire E. Stanley, Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic – or ‘Microbiome-on-a-Chip’ – technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant–microbiota research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.001
       
  • What I Wished I Knew When Starting As a Professor: An Interview with
           Robert Abramovitch, Lark Coffey, Thomas Kehl-Fie, and Rita Tamayo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology


      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
       
  • Emergence of a Urogenital Pathotype of Neisseria meningitidis
    • Authors: Charlene M. Kahler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Charlene M. Kahler
      Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of transmissible sepsis and meningitis in humans. A urogenital pathotype of N. meningitidis as the causative agent of transmissible urethritis in the USA has been recently characterised. This pathotype belongs to clonal complex 11 and has lost capsule production but gained anaerobic growth.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.006
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
       
  • Live-Cell Nanoscopy in Antiadhesion Therapy
    • Authors: Joan A. Geoghegan; Timothy J. Foster; Pietro Speziale; Yves F. Dufrêne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joan A. Geoghegan, Timothy J. Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F. Dufrêne
      Live-cell nanoscopy has contributed significantly to assessing the inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by glycoconjugates and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, and of S. aureus surface attachment and cell–cell association by a synthetic peptide. This new technology shows promise for the development of antiadhesion therapies against bacterial pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T21:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.002
       
  • Influenza Evolution: New Insights into an Old Foe
    • Authors: Louise H. Moncla; Nicholas W. Florek; Thomas C. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Louise H. Moncla, Nicholas W. Florek, Thomas C. Friedrich
      Influenza viruses steadily evolve to escape detection by antibodies, necessitating vaccine updates. A new study uses a massively parallel approach, deep mutational scanning, to catalogue antibody escape mutations. This approach defines potential pathways of viral evolution, beyond those already observed in natural infections, and may help predict its future directions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T21:50:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.003
       
  • AIDS-Related Mycoses: Current Progress in the Field and Future Priorities
    • Authors: Darius Armstrong-James; Tihana Bicanic; Gordon D. Brown; Jennifer C. Hoving; Graeme Meintjes; Kirsten Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Darius Armstrong-James, Tihana Bicanic, Gordon D. Brown, Jennifer C. Hoving, Graeme Meintjes, Kirsten Nielsen
      Opportunistic fungal infections continue to take an unacceptably heavy toll on the most disadvantaged living with HIV-AIDS, and are a major driver for HIV-related deaths. At the second EMBO Workshop on AIDS-Related Mycoses, clinicians and scientists from around the world reported current progress and key priorities for improving outcomes from HIV-related mycoses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T21:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.013
       
  • The Transcription Terminator Rho: A First Bacterial Prion
    • Authors: Irantzu Pallarès; Salvador Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
      Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.008
       
  • Finally, Archaea Get Their CRISPR-Cas Toolbox
    • Authors: Uri Gophna; Thorsten Allers; Anita Marchfelder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
      The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.009
       
  • Microbiology Managers: Managerial Training in the RItrain Project
    • Authors: R. Russell M. Paterson; Nelson Lima; Cath Brooksbank; Enrico Guarini; Markus Pasterk; Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): R. Russell M. Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.002
       
 
 
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