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MICROBIOLOGY (252 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 253 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development     Open Access  
mSphere     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [36 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3034 journals]
  • Spatial and Temporal Control of Evolution through
           Replication–Transcription Conflicts
    • Authors: Houra Merrikh
      Pages: 515 - 521
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Houra Merrikh
      Evolution could potentially be accelerated if an organism could selectively increase the mutation rate of specific genes that are actively under positive selection. Recently, a mechanism that cells can use to target rapid evolution to specific genes was discovered. This mechanism is driven by gene orientation-dependent encounters between DNA replication and transcription machineries. These encounters increase mutagenesis in lagging-strand genes, where replication–transcription conflicts are severe. Due to the orientation and transcription-dependent nature of this process, conflict-driven mutagenesis can be used by cells to spatially (gene-specifically) and temporally (only upon transcription induction) regulate the rate of gene evolution. Here, I summarize recent findings on this topic, and discuss the implications of increasing mutagenesis rates and accelerating evolution through active mechanisms.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.008
  • Streptomyces Exploration: Competition, Volatile Communication and New
           Bacterial Behaviours
    • Authors: Stephanie E. Jones; Marie A. Elliot
      Pages: 522 - 531
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Stephanie E. Jones, Marie A. Elliot
      Streptomyces bacteria are prolific producers of specialized metabolites, and have a well studied, complex life cycle. Recent work has revealed a new type of Streptomyces growth termed ‘exploration’ – so named for the ability of explorer cells to rapidly traverse solid surfaces. Streptomyces exploration is stimulated by fungal interactions, and is associated with the production of an alkaline volatile organic compound (VOC) capable of inducing exploration by other streptomycetes. Here, we examine Streptomyces exploration from the perspectives of interkingdom interactions, pH-induced morphological switches, and VOC-mediated communication. The phenotypic diversity that can be revealed through microbial interactions and VOC exposure is providing us with insight into novel modes of microbial development, and an opportunity to exploit VOCs to stimulate desired microbial behaviours.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.001
  • The Secrets of Acinetobacter Secretion
    • Authors: Brent S. Weber; Rachel L. Kinsella; Christian M. Harding; Mario F. Feldman
      Pages: 532 - 545
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Brent S. Weber, Rachel L. Kinsella, Christian M. Harding, Mario F. Feldman
      Infections caused by the bacterial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii are a mounting concern for healthcare practitioners as widespread antibiotic resistance continues to limit therapeutic treatment options. The biological processes used by A. baumannii to cause disease are not well defined, but recent research has indicated that secreted proteins may play a major role. A variety of mechanisms have now been shown to contribute to protein secretion by A. baumannii and other pathogenic species of Acinetobacter, including a type II secretion system (T2SS), a type VI secretion system (T6SS), autotransporter, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of secretion systems in Acinetobacter species, and highlight their unique aspects that contribute to the pathogenicity and persistence of these emerging pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.005
  • Regulation Mechanisms of Viral IRES-Driven Translation
    • Authors: Kuo-Ming Lee; Chi-Jene Chen; Shin-Ru Shih
      Pages: 546 - 561
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Kuo-Ming Lee, Chi-Jene Chen, Shin-Ru Shih
      Internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs) can be found in the mRNA of many viruses as well as in cellular genes involved in the stress response, cell cycle, and apoptosis. IRES-mediated translation can occur when dominant cap-dependent translation is inhibited, and viruses can take advantage of this to subvert host translation machinery. In this review, we focus on the four major types of IRES identified in RNA viruses, and outline their distinct structural properties and requirements of translational factors. We further discuss auxiliary host factors known as IRES trans-acting factors (ITAFs), which are involved in the modulation of optimal IRES activity. Currently known strategies employed by viruses to harness ITAFs and regulate IRES activity are also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.010
  • Evolutionary Constraints Shaping Streptococcus pyogenes–Host
    • Authors: Reid V. Wilkening; Michael J. Federle
      Pages: 562 - 572
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Reid V. Wilkening, Michael J. Federle
      Research on the Gram-positive human-restricted pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) has long focused on invasive illness, the most severe manifestations of GAS infection. Recent advances in descriptions of molecular mechanisms of GAS virulence, coupled with massive sequencing efforts to isolate genomes, have allowed the field to better understand the molecular and evolutionary changes leading to pandemic strains. These findings suggest that it is necessary to rethink the dogma involving GAS pathogenesis, and that the most productive avenues for research going forward may be investigations into GAS in its ‘normal’ habitat, the nasopharynx, and its ability to either live with its host in an asymptomatic lifestyle or as an agent of superficial infections. This review will consider these advances, focusing on the natural history of GAS, the evolution of pandemic strains, and novel roles for several key virulence factors that may allow the field to better understand their physiological role.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.007
  • Transcriptional Regulation of Antiviral Interferon-Stimulated Genes
    • Authors: Wenshi Wang; Lei Xu; Junhong Su; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Qiuwei Pan
      Pages: 573 - 584
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Wenshi Wang, Lei Xu, Junhong Su, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
      Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a group of gene products that coordinately combat pathogen invasions, in particular viral infections. Transcription of ISGs occurs rapidly upon pathogen invasion, and this is classically provoked via activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) pathway, mainly by interferons (IFNs). However, a plethora of recent studies have reported a variety of non-canonical mechanisms regulating ISG transcription. These new studies are extremely important for understanding the quantitative and temporal differences in ISG transcription under specific circumstances. Because these canonical and non-canonical regulatory mechanisms are essential for defining the nature of host defense and associated detrimental proinflammatory effects, we comprehensively review the state of this rapidly evolving field and the clinical implications of recently acquired knowledge in this respect.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.001
  • Critical Streptococcus suis Virulence Factors: Are They All Really
    • Authors: Mariela Segura; Nahuel Fittipaldi; Cynthia Calzas; Marcelo Gottschalk
      Pages: 585 - 599
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7
      Author(s): Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Cynthia Calzas, Marcelo Gottschalk
      Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can be transmitted to humans by contact with diseased animals or contaminated raw pork products. This pathogen possesses a coat of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that confers protection against the immune system. Yet, the CPS is not the only virulence factor enabling this bacterium to successfully colonize, invade, and disseminate in its host leading to severe systemic diseases such as meningitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Indeed, recent research developments, cautiously inventoried in this review, have revealed over 100 ‘putative virulence factors or traits’ (surface-associated or secreted components, regulatory genes or metabolic pathways), of which at least 37 have been claimed as being ‘critical’ for virulence. In this review we discuss the current contradictions and controversies raised by this explosion of virulence factors and the future directions that may be conceived to advance and enlighten research on S. suis pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.005
  • A Chiral Pentagonal Polyhedral Framework for Characterizing Virus Capsid
    • Authors: Aditya Raguram; V. Sasisekharan; Ram Sasisekharan
      Pages: 438 - 446
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Aditya Raguram, V. Sasisekharan, Ram Sasisekharan
      Recent developments of rational strategies for the design of antiviral therapies, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have naturally relied extensively on available viral structural information. As new strategies continue to be developed, it is equally important to continue to refine our understanding and interpretation of viral structural data. There are known limitations to the traditional (Caspar–Klug) theory for describing virus capsid structures that involves subdividing a capsid into triangular subunits. In this context, we describe a more general polyhedral framework for describing virus capsid structures that is able to account for many of these limitations, including a more thorough characterization of intersubunit interfaces. Additionally, our use of pentagonal subunits instead of triangular ones accounts for the intrinsic chirality observed in all capsids. In conjunction with the existing theory, the framework presented here provides a more complete picture of a capsid’s structure and therefore can help contribute to the development of more effective antiviral strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.007
  • Can MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Reasonably Type Bacteria?
    • Authors: Marlène Sauget; Benoît Valot; Xavier Bertrand; Didier Hocquet
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Marlène Sauget, Benoît Valot, Xavier Bertrand, Didier Hocquet
      Bacterial typing is crucial to tackle the spread of bacterial pathogens but current methods are time-consuming and costly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been recently integrated into the microbiology laboratory workflow for a quick and low-cost microbial species identification. Independent research groups have successfully redirected the original function of this technology from their primary purpose to discriminate subgroups within pathogen species. However, identical bacterial subgroups could be identified by unrelated peaks by independent methods, thus limiting their robustness and exportability. We propose several guidelines that could improve the performance of MALDI-TOF MS-based typing methods for use as a first-line epidemiological tool.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.006
  • The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Antibiotic-Mediated Killing of
    • Authors: Heleen Van Acker; Tom Coenye
      Pages: 456 - 466
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Heleen Van Acker, Tom Coenye
      Recently, it was proposed that there is a common mechanism behind the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the involvement of ROS in antibiotic-mediated killing has become the subject of much debate. In the present review, we provide an overview of the data supporting the ROS hypothesis; we also present data that explain the contradictory results often obtained when studying antibiotic-induced ROS production. For this latter aspect we will focus on the importance of taking the experimental setup into consideration and on the importance of some technical aspects of the assays typically used. Finally, we discuss the link between ROS production and toxin–antitoxin modules, and present an overview of implications for treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.008
  • Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections: New Compounds, Novel
           Antimicrobial Therapies?
    • Authors: Roel M. van Harten; Rob J.L. Willems; Nathaniel I. Martin; Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Pages: 467 - 479
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Roel M. van Harten, Rob J.L. Willems, Nathaniel I. Martin, Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium and E. faecalis. These new antibacterial agents include teixobactin (targeting lipid II and lipid III), lipopeptides derived from nisin (targeting lipid II), dimeric vancomycin analogues (targeting lipid II), sortase transpeptidase inhibitors (targeting the sortase enzyme), alanine racemase inhibitors, lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibitors (targeting LtaS), various oxazolidinones (targeting the bacterial ribosome), and tarocins (interfering with teichoic acid biosynthesis). The targets of these novel compounds and mode of action make them very promising for further antimicrobial drug development and future treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Here we review current knowledge of the most favorable anti-enterococcal compounds along with their implicated modes of action and efficacy in animal models to project their possible future use in the clinical setting.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.004
  • Resource Reallocation in Bacteria by Reengineering the Gene Expression
    • Authors: Hidde de Jong; Johannes Geiselmann; Delphine Ropers
      Pages: 480 - 493
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Hidde de Jong, Johannes Geiselmann, Delphine Ropers
      Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks to control the activity of transcription and translation, and thus the growth rate, over a range of environmental conditions. Reengineering RNA polymerase and ribosomes allows modifying naturally evolved regulatory networks and thereby profoundly reorganizing the manner in which bacteria allocate resources to different cellular functions. This opens new opportunities for our fundamental understanding of microbial physiology and for a variety of applications. Recent breakthroughs in genome engineering and the miniaturization and automation of culturing methods have offered new perspectives for the reengineering of the transcription and translation machinery in bacteria as well as the development of novel in vitro and in vivo gene expression systems. We review different examples from the unifying perspective of resource reallocation, and discuss the impact of these approaches for microbial systems biology and biotechnological applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.009
  • Marine Bacterioplankton Seasonal Succession Dynamics
    • Authors: Carina Bunse; Jarone Pinhassi
      Pages: 494 - 505
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Carina Bunse, Jarone Pinhassi
      Bacterioplankton (bacteria and archaea) are indispensable regulators of global element cycles owing to their unique ability to decompose and remineralize dissolved organic matter. These microorganisms in surface waters worldwide exhibit pronounced seasonal succession patterns, governed by physicochemical factors (e.g., light, climate, and nutrient loading) that are determined by latitude and distance to shore. Moreover, we emphasize that the effects of large-scale factors are modulated regionally, and over shorter timespans (days to weeks), by biological interactions including molecule exchanges, viral lysis, and grazing. Thus the interplay and scaling between factors ultimately determine the success of particular bacterial populations. Spatiotemporal surveys of bacterioplankton community composition provide the necessary frame for interpreting how the distinct metabolisms encoded in the genomes of different bacteria regulate biogeochemical cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.013
  • Ecology of the Oral Microbiome: Beyond Bacteria
    • Authors: Jonathon L. Baker; Batbileg Bor; Melissa Agnello; Wenyuan Shi; Xuesong He
      Pages: 362 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jonathon L. Baker, Batbileg Bor, Melissa Agnello, Wenyuan Shi, Xuesong He
      Although great strides have been made in understanding the complex bacterial community inhabiting the human oral cavity, for a variety of (mainly technical) reasons the ecological contributions of oral fungi, viruses, phages, and the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group of ultrasmall bacteria have remained understudied. Several recent reports have illustrated the diversity and importance of these organisms in the oral cavity, while TM7x and Candida albicans have served as crucial paradigms for CPR species and oral fungi, respectively. A comprehensive understanding of the oral microbiota and its influence on host health and disease will require a holistic view that emphasizes interactions among different residents within the oral community, as well as their interaction with the host.

      PubDate: 2017-04-21T20:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.012
  • Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Infections: Virulence Factors, Immunity,
           and Prevention Strategies
    • Authors: Jay Vornhagen; Kristina M. Adams Waldorf; Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M. Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections. Prevention of GBS infection in pregnancy is complex and is likely influenced by multiple factors, including pathogenicity, host factors, vaginal microbiome, false-negative screening, and/or changes in antibiotic resistance. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of GBS infections during pregnancy will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we summarize and discuss important advancements in our understanding of GBS vaginal colonization, ascending infection, and preterm birth.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T23:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.013
  • The Emerging Roles of STING in Bacterial Infections
    • Authors: Fabio V. Marinho; Sulayman Benmerzoug; Sergio C. Oliveira; Bernhard Ryffel; V.F.J. Quesniaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Fabio V. Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C. Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V.F.J. Quesniaux
      The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-06-19T23:36:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.008
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 7

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
  • Antimycobacterial Metabolism: Illuminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Biology and Drug Discovery
    • Authors: Divya Awasthi; Joel S. Freundlich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Divya Awasthi, Joel S. Freundlich
      Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs. A two-pronged approach investigating the metabolism of antibacterials within both the host and bacterium is outlined and will be of value to both the chemical biology and drug discovery fields.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.007
  • Black Truffle, a Hermaphrodite with Forced Unisexual Behaviour
    • Authors: Marc-André Selosse; Laure Schneider-Maunoury; Elisa Taschen; François Rousset; Franck Richard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
      The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.010
  • Effect of CO2 on Peroxynitrite-Mediated Bacteria Killing: Response to
           Tsikas et al.
    • Authors: Alain P. Gobert; Keith T. Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.009
  • A Single Substitution Changes Zika Virus Infectivity in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: Guan-Zhu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guan-Zhu Han
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused outbreaks in the Pacific and the Americas. The mechanism underlying the recent ZIKV epidemic remains obscure. A recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of ZIKV in the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.014
  • Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Postweaning Piglets: Understanding the Keys to
    • Authors: Raphaële Gresse; Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand; Mickaël Alain Fleury; Tom Van de Wiele; Evelyne Forano; Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Weaning is a critical event in the pig’s life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition. Finally, we discuss how in vitro models of the piglet gut could be advantageously used as a complement to ex vivo and in vivo studies for the development and testing of new feed additives.

      PubDate: 2017-06-09T23:06:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.004
  • Helicobacter pylori, Its Urease and Carbonic Anhydrases, and Macrophage
           Nitric Oxide Synthase
    • Authors: Dimitrios Tsikas; Erik Hanff; Gorig Brunner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Gorig Brunner

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T23:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.002
  • Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy
    • Authors: Nicholas J.C. King; Mauro M. Teixeira; Suresh Mahalingam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nicholas J.C. King, Mauro M. Teixeira, Suresh Mahalingam
      Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection.

      PubDate: 2017-06-04T23:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.005
  • Microbiome-on-a-Chip: New Frontiers in Plant–Microbiota Research
    • Authors: Claire E. Stanley; Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Claire E. Stanley, Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic – or ‘Microbiome-on-a-Chip’ – technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant–microbiota research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.001
  • ‘Omic’ Approaches to Study Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Alvin W. Lo; Danilo G. Moriel; Minh-Duy Phan; Benjamin L. Schulz; Timothy J. Kidd; Scott A. Beatson; Mark A. Schembri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alvin W. Lo, Danilo G. Moriel, Minh-Duy Phan, Benjamin L. Schulz, Timothy J. Kidd, Scott A. Beatson, Mark A. Schembri
      Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a pathogen of major significance to global human health and is strongly associated with rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance. UPEC is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), a disease that involves a complicated pathogenic pathway of extracellular and intracellular lifestyles during interaction with the host. The application of multiple ‘omic’ technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, has provided enormous knowledge to our understanding of UPEC biology. Here we outline this progress and present a view for future developments using these exciting forefront technologies to fully comprehend UPEC pathogenesis in the context of infection.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.006
  • The Hsp90 Chaperone Network Modulates Candida Virulence Traits
    • Authors: Teresa R. O’Meara; Nicole Robbins; Leah E. Cowen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Teresa R. O’Meara, Nicole Robbins, Leah E. Cowen
      Hsp90 is a conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the folding and function of client proteins. Hsp90 function is dynamically regulated by interactions with co-chaperones and by post-translational modifications. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Hsp90 enables drug resistance and virulence by stabilizing diverse signal transducers. Here, we review studies that have unveiled regulators of Hsp90 function, as well as downstream effectors that govern the key virulence traits of morphogenesis and drug resistance. We highlight recent work mapping the Hsp90 genetic network in C. albicans under diverse environmental conditions, and how these interactions provide insight into circuitry important for drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence. Ultimately, elucidating the Hsp90 chaperone network will aid in the development of therapeutics to treat fungal disease.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.003
  • Metabolic Integration of Bacterial Endosymbionts through Antimicrobial
    • Authors: Peter Mergaert; Yoshitomo Kikuchi; Shuji Shigenobu; Eva C.M. Nowack
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Peter Mergaert, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Eva C.M. Nowack
      Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are massively produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. Among other roles, these symbiotic AMPs have the capacity to permeabilize symbiont membranes and facilitate metabolite flow across the host–symbiont interface. We propose that an ancestral role of these peptides is to facilitate metabolic exchange between the symbiotic partners through membrane permeabilization. This function may be particularly critical for integration of endosymbiont and host metabolism in interactions involving bacteria with strongly reduced genomes lacking most small metabolite transporters. Moreover, AMPs could have acted in a similar way at the onset of plastid and mitochondrion evolution, after a host cell took up a bacterium and needed to extract nutrients from it in the absence of dedicated solute transporters.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.007
  • What I Wished I Knew When Starting As a Professor: An Interview with
           Robert Abramovitch, Lark Coffey, Thomas Kehl-Fie, and Rita Tamayo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
  • Emergence of a Urogenital Pathotype of Neisseria meningitidis
    • Authors: Charlene M. Kahler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Charlene M. Kahler
      Neisseria meningitidis is the causative agent of transmissible sepsis and meningitis in humans. A urogenital pathotype of N. meningitidis as the causative agent of transmissible urethritis in the USA has been recently characterised. This pathotype belongs to clonal complex 11 and has lost capsule production but gained anaerobic growth.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.006
  • Capsid-Dependent Host Factors in HIV-1 Infection
    • Authors: Masahiro Yamashita; Alan N. Engelman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Masahiro Yamashita, Alan N. Engelman
      After invasion of a susceptible target cell, HIV-1 completes the early phase of its life cycle upon integration of reverse-transcribed viral DNA into host chromatin. The viral capsid, a conical shell encasing the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, along with its constitutive capsid protein, plays essential roles at virtually every step in the early phase of the viral life cycle. Recent work has begun to reveal how the viral capsid interacts with specific cellular proteins to promote these processes. At the same time, cellular restriction factors target the viral capsid to thwart infection. Comprehensive understanding of capsid–host interactions that promote or impede HIV-1 infection may provide unique insight to exploit for novel therapeutic interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.004
  • At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals: The Impact of Cu and Zn on
           Antibiotic Activity and Resistance
    • Authors: Keith Poole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keith Poole
      Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.010
  • Antiviral Goes Viral: Harnessing CRISPR/Cas9 to Combat Viruses in Humans
    • Authors: Jasper Adriaan Soppe; Robert Jan Lebbink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
      The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy. Here, we review recent CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches to combat specific human viruses in humans and discuss challenges that need to be overcome before CRISPR/Cas9 may be used in the clinic as an antiviral strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.005
  • The Role of ErbB Receptors in Infection
    • Authors: Jemima Ho; David L. Moyes; Mahvash Tavassoli; Julian R. Naglik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jemima Ho, David L. Moyes, Mahvash Tavassoli, Julian R. Naglik
      Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB family) possess a wide distribution and diverse functions ranging from cellular growth to migration and apoptosis. Though highly implicated in a variety of cancers, their involvement in infectious disease is less recognised. A growing body of evidence now highlights the importance of the ErbB family in a variety of infections. Their role as growth factor receptors, along with other characteristics, such as surface expression and continuous intracellular trafficking, make this receptor family ideally placed for exploitation by pathogens. Herein, we review our current understanding of the role of the ErbB family in the context of infectious disease, exploring the mechanisms that govern pathogen exploitation of this system.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.009
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
  • Live-Cell Nanoscopy in Antiadhesion Therapy
    • Authors: Joan A. Geoghegan; Timothy J. Foster; Pietro Speziale; Yves F. Dufrêne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joan A. Geoghegan, Timothy J. Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F. Dufrêne
      Live-cell nanoscopy has contributed significantly to assessing the inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by glycoconjugates and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, and of S. aureus surface attachment and cell–cell association by a synthetic peptide. This new technology shows promise for the development of antiadhesion therapies against bacterial pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T21:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.002
  • Influenza Evolution: New Insights into an Old Foe
    • Authors: Louise H. Moncla; Nicholas W. Florek; Thomas C. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Louise H. Moncla, Nicholas W. Florek, Thomas C. Friedrich
      Influenza viruses steadily evolve to escape detection by antibodies, necessitating vaccine updates. A new study uses a massively parallel approach, deep mutational scanning, to catalogue antibody escape mutations. This approach defines potential pathways of viral evolution, beyond those already observed in natural infections, and may help predict its future directions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T21:50:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.003
  • AIDS-Related Mycoses: Current Progress in the Field and Future Priorities
    • Authors: Darius Armstrong-James; Tihana Bicanic; Gordon D. Brown; Jennifer C. Hoving; Graeme Meintjes; Kirsten Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Darius Armstrong-James, Tihana Bicanic, Gordon D. Brown, Jennifer C. Hoving, Graeme Meintjes, Kirsten Nielsen
      Opportunistic fungal infections continue to take an unacceptably heavy toll on the most disadvantaged living with HIV-AIDS, and are a major driver for HIV-related deaths. At the second EMBO Workshop on AIDS-Related Mycoses, clinicians and scientists from around the world reported current progress and key priorities for improving outcomes from HIV-related mycoses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T21:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.013
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 5

      PubDate: 2017-04-21T20:49:28Z
  • The Transcription Terminator Rho: A First Bacterial Prion
    • Authors: Irantzu Pallarès; Salvador Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
      Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.008
  • Finally, Archaea Get Their CRISPR-Cas Toolbox
    • Authors: Uri Gophna; Thorsten Allers; Anita Marchfelder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
      The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.009
  • Bacterial Unculturability and the Formation of Intercellular Metabolic
    • Authors: Samay Pande; Christian Kost
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Samay Pande, Christian Kost
      The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells. Spatial colocalisation and a continuous coevolution further increase the nutritional dependency and optimise fluxes through combined metabolic networks. Thus, bacteria likely function as networks of interacting cells that reciprocally exchange nutrients and biochemical functions rather than as physiologically autonomous units.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.015
  • Short-Sighted Virus Evolution and a Germline Hypothesis for Chronic Viral
    • Authors: Katrina A. Lythgoe; Andy Gardner; Oliver G. Pybus; Joe Grove
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Katrina A. Lythgoe, Andy Gardner, Oliver G. Pybus, Joe Grove
      With extremely short generation times and high mutability, many viruses can rapidly evolve and adapt to changing environments. This ability is generally beneficial to viruses as it allows them to evade host immune responses, evolve new behaviours, and exploit ecological niches. However, natural selection typically generates adaptation in response to the immediate selection pressures that a virus experiences in its current host. Consequently, we argue that some viruses, particularly those characterised by long durations of infection and ongoing replication, may be susceptible to short-sighted evolution, whereby a virus’ adaptation to its current host will be detrimental to its onward transmission within the host population. Here we outline the concept of short-sighted viral evolution and provide examples of how it may negatively impact viral transmission among hosts. We also propose that viruses that are vulnerable to short-sighted evolution may exhibit strategies that minimise its effects. We speculate on the various mechanisms by which this may be achieved, including viral life history strategies that result in low rates of within-host evolution, or the establishment of a ‘germline’ lineage of viruses that avoids short-sighted evolution. These concepts provide a new perspective on the way in which some viruses have been able to establish and maintain global pandemics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.003
  • Moving From One to Many
    • Authors: Gail Teitzel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
  • Microbiology Managers: Managerial Training in the RItrain Project
    • Authors: R. Russell M. Paterson; Nelson Lima; Cath Brooksbank; Enrico Guarini; Markus Pasterk; Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): R. Russell M. Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.002
  • Symbiont Acquisition and Replacement as a Source of Ecological Innovation
    • Authors: Sailendharan Sudakaran; Christian Kost; Martin Kaltenpoth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
      Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect–bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood. Here we review the known ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiont gains, switches, and replacements, and identify future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of symbiosis as a major driving force of ecological adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.014
  • Are CDI Systems Multicolored, Facultative, Helping Greenbeards?
    • Authors: Elizabeth S. Danka; Erin C. Garcia; Peggy A. Cotter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Elizabeth S. Danka, Erin C. Garcia, Peggy A. Cotter
      Competitive and cooperative interactions between organisms, including bacteria, can significantly impact the composition of a community and the fitness of its members, as well as the fitness of their hosts when communities are living on or within other organisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical to the development of strategies to control microbiological communities that impact animal and plant health and also for understanding the evolution of social behaviors, which has been challenging for evolutionary biologists. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon defined by the delivery of a protein toxin to the cytoplasm of neighboring bacteria upon cell–cell contact, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless a specific immunity protein is present. CDI was first described based on observations of interbacterial killing and has been assumed to function primarily as a means of eliminating competitor cells. However, recent molecular evidence indicates that multiple levels of specificity restrict CDI toxin delivery and activity to the same bacterial strain, and that CDI system proteins can mediate cooperative behaviors among ‘self’ cells, a phenomenon called contact-dependent signaling (CDS). Here we review these recent findings and discuss potential biological and evolutionary implications of CDI system-mediated interbacterial competition and cooperation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.008
  • Interferon-I: The Pièce de Résistance of HIV-1 Transmission?
    • Authors: Damien C. Tully; Daniel T. Claiborne; Todd M. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Damien C. Tully, Daniel T. Claiborne, Todd M. Allen
      Despite the extensive viral quasispecies that develops in an individual during the course of HIV-1 infection, transmission is typically established by a single donor viral variant. Recent studies now provide insight into the phenotypic properties influencing this selection process at transmission, including the contribution of resistance to type I interferons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.010
  • Dual Immunity Concomitantly Suppresses HIV-1 Progression
    • Authors: Huma Qureshi; Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Huma Qureshi, Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) elicited in HIV-1+ elite neutralizers typically are unable to reduce viremia in the same individuals from whom they are isolated. A recent study reports the development of bnAbs in an elite controller that, along with the help of T cells, were associated with restricting HIV-1 progression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.011
  • Biofilms: Microbial Cities Wherein Flow Shapes Competition
    • Authors: Su Chuen Chew; Liang Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Su Chuen Chew, Liang Yang
      The phenotypic diversity in biofilms allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Stochastic gene expression and structural differentiation are believed to confer phenotypic diversity. However, two recent publications demonstrate how hydrodynamic flow and substrate topography can also alter the competitive outcomes of different bacterial phenotypes, increasing biofilm phenotypic variation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.007
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