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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2738 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (229 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Partially Free  
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cell Medicine     Open Access  
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access  
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Fems Immunology & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 6)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 3.65]   [H-I: 122]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2589 journals]
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
       
  • The essential features and modes of bacterial polar growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Todd A. Cameron , John R. Zupan , Patricia C. Zambryski
      Polar growth represents a surprising departure from the canonical dispersed cell growth model. However, we know relatively little of the underlying mechanisms governing polar growth or the requisite suite of factors that direct polar growth. Underscoring how classic doctrine can be turned on its head, the peptidoglycan layer of polar-growing bacteria features unusual crosslinks and in some species the quintessential cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ are recruited to the growing poles. Remarkably, numerous medically important pathogens utilize polar growth, accentuating the need for intensive research in this area. Here we review models of polar growth in bacteria based on recent research in the Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales, with emphasis on Mycobacterium and Agrobacterium species.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
       
  • The role of flagella in Clostridium difficile pathogenicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Emma Stevenson , Nigel P. Minton , Sarah A. Kuehne
      Clostridium difficile is widely publicised as a problem in the health-care system. Disruption of the normal gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy allows C. difficile to colonise the colon. On colonisation, C. difficile produces two toxins that lead to disease, with symptoms ranging from mild-to-severe diarrhoea, to fulminant and often fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). How C. difficile establishes initial colonisation of the host is an area of active investigation. Recently there has been increased research into the role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and adherence. Novel research has also elucidated a more complex role of flagella in C. difficile virulence pertaining to the regulation of toxin gene expression. This review focuses on new insights into the specific role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and toxin gene expression.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
       
  • Axonal spread of neuroinvasive viral infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Matthew P. Taylor , Lynn W. Enquist
      Neuroinvasive viral infections invade the nervous system, often eliciting serious disease and death. Members of four viral families are both neuroinvasive and capable of transmitting progeny virions or virion components within the long neuronal extensions known as axons. Axons provide physical structures that enable viral infection to spread within the host while avoiding extracellular immune responses. Technological advances in the analysis of in vivo neural circuits, neuronal culturing, and live imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins have enabled an unprecedented view into the steps of virion assembly, transport, and egress involved in axonal spread. In this review we summarize the literature supporting anterograde (axon to cell) spread of viral infection, describe the various strategies of virion transport, and discuss the effects of spread on populations of neuroinvasive viruses.


      PubDate: 2015-01-30T06:39:36Z
       
  • Innovative techniques, sensors, and approaches for imaging biofilms at
           different scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas R. Neu , John R. Lawrence
      Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales.


      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:02:32Z
       
  • HIV-1 adaptation to HLA: a window into virus–host immune
           interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan M. Carlson , Anh Q. Le , Aniqa Shahid , Zabrina L. Brumme
      HIV-1 develops specific mutations within its genome that allow it to escape detection by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted immune responses, notably those of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). HLA thus represents a major force driving the evolution and diversification of HIV-1 within individuals and at the population level. Importantly, the study of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA also represents an opportunity to identify what qualities constitute an effective immune response, how the virus in turn adapts to these pressures, and how we may harness this information to design HIV-1 vaccines that stimulate effective cellular immunity.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T05:13:10Z
       
  • The bacterial flagellar motor and its structural diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tohru Minamino , Katsumi Imada
      The bacterial flagellum is a reversible rotary motor powered by an electrochemical-potential difference of specific ions across the cytoplasmic membrane. The H + -driven motor of Salmonella spins at ∼300Hz, whereas the Na+-driven motor of marine Vibrio spp. can rotate much faster, up to 1700Hz. A highly conserved motor structure consists of the MS ring, C ring, rod, and export apparatus. The C ring and the export apparatus show dynamic properties for exerting their functional activities. Various additional structures surrounding the conserved motor structure are observed in different bacterial species. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the structure, function, and assembly of the flagellar motor in Salmonella and marine Vibrio.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T05:13:10Z
       
  • Transmission of antimicrobial resistance in resource-poor healthcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jodi A. Lindsay
      Inter-patient transfer of antimicrobial resistant pathogens is more common in resource-poor healthcare settings. In this age of global resistance, what contributes to the spread of antimicrobial resistant clones'


      PubDate: 2015-01-17T04:27:46Z
       
  • The general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anne Francez-Charlot , Andreas Kaczmarczyk , Hans-Martin Fischer , Julia A. Vorholt
      The general stress response (GSR) is a widely conserved response that allows bacteria to cope with a multitude of stressful conditions. In the past years the PhyR–NepR–σEcfG cascade was identified as the core pathway regulating the GSR in Alphaproteobacteria, in which it also plays an important role in bacteria–host interactions. The regulatory system is composed of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σEcfG, its anti-sigma factor NepR (for negative regulator of the PhyR response), and the anti-sigma factor antagonist PhyR (phyllosphere regulator). The three proteins function via a partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by PhyR phosphorylation, termed ‘sigma factor mimicry’. This review will cover core features of the pathway, its physiological role, and summarize recent advances towards understanding of the partner-switching mechanism and of the two-component signaling pathways controlling the GSR.


      PubDate: 2015-01-12T03:51:02Z
       
  • Bats as ‘special’ reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cara E. Brook , Andrew P. Dobson
      The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask ‘Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens'’ We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable ‘special’ tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as ‘white-nose syndrome’ (WNS).


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Mx GTPases: dynamin-like antiviral machines of innate immunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Otto Haller , Peter Staeheli , Martin Schwemmle , Georg Kochs
      The Mx dynamin-like GTPases are key antiviral effector proteins of the type I and type III interferon (IFN) systems. They inhibit several different viruses by blocking early steps of the viral replication cycle. We focus on new structural and functional insights and discuss recent data revealing that human MxA (MX1) provides a safeguard against introduction of avian influenza A viruses (FLUAV) into the human population. The related human MxB (MX2) serves as restriction factor for HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Virological features associated with the development of broadly
           neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Penny L. Moore , Carolyn Williamson , Lynn Morris
      The development of a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains a global public health priority. This will likely require the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) able to block infection by diverse viral strains from across the world. Understanding the pathway to neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected humans will provide insights into how bNAb lineages arise, a process that probably involves a combination of host and viral factors. Here, we focus on the role of viral characteristics and evolution in shaping bNAbs during HIV-1 infection, and describe how these findings may be translated into novel vaccine strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the
           human–animal interface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Martha I. Nelson , Amy L. Vincent
      The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest ‘reverse zoonosis’ of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human–animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Success in incorporating horizontally transferred genes: the H-NS protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mario Hüttener , Sonia Paytubi , Antonio Juárez
      The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS silences unwanted expression of acquired foreign DNA. Ali and colleagues recently identified which horizontally-acquired genes are targeted by H-NS in Salmonella to avoid fitness loss. The reported data strengthen our view about the role of H-NS in bacterial evolution driven by horizontal gene transfer.


      PubDate: 2015-01-03T02:38:15Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-12-24T01:59:18Z
       
  • Multidrug resistance genes in staphylococci from animals that confer
           resistance to critically and highly important antimicrobial agents in
           human medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sarah Wendlandt , Jianzhong Shen , Kristina Kadlec , Yang Wang , Beibei Li , Wan-Jiang Zhang , Andrea T. Feßler , Congming Wu , Stefan Schwarz
      Most antimicrobial resistance genes known so far to occur in staphylococci of animal origin confer resistance to a specific class of antimicrobial agents or to selected members within such a class. However, there are also a few examples of multidrug resistance (MDR) genes that confer resistance to antimicrobial agents of different classes by either target site methylation or active efflux via ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. The present review provides an overview of these MDR genes with particular reference to those genes involved in resistance to critically or highly important antimicrobial agents used in human and veterinary medicine. Moreover, their location on mobile genetic elements and colocated resistance genes, which may play a role in coselection and persistence of the MDR genes, are addressed.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Diversity and disease pathogenesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Digby F. Warner , Anastasia Koch , Valerie Mizrahi
      The increasing availability of whole-genome sequence (WGS) data for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes tuberculosis (TB), suggests that circulating genotypes have been molded by three dominant evolutionary forces: long-term persistence within the human population, which requires a core programme of infection, disease, and transmission; selective pressure on specific genomic loci, which provides evidence of lineage-specific adaptation to host populations; and drug exposure, which has driven the rapid emergence of resistant isolates following the global implementation of anti-TB chemotherapy. Here, we provide an overview of these factors in considering the implications of genotypic diversity for disease pathogenesis, vaccine efficacy, and drug treatment.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • A race for an Ebola vaccine: promises and obstacles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher L. Cooper , Sina Bavari
      While several impeding factors have limited Ebola vaccine development, the current epidemic has provided a surge which may lead to a record pace for a vaccine against Ebola. Consequently, multiple FDA trials are currently underway using two promising vaccine platforms; one has recently demonstrated durable immunity within non-human primates.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guoqing Niu , Huarong Tan
      The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • HIV: a vicTIM
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jiri Vlach , Jamil S. Saad
      TIM proteins are known to promote viral entry into host cells. Unexpectedly, a recent study has shown that TIM proteins also inhibit HIV-1 release from the host cell by directly binding to phosphatidylserine exposed on the virus surface, providing details on a new role of TIM proteins in HIV replication.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Bacterial microcompartments and the modular construction of microbial
           metabolism
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cheryl A. Kerfeld , Onur Erbilgin
      Bacterial microcompartments (BMCs) are protein-bound organelles predicted to be present across 23 bacterial phyla. BMCs facilitate carbon fixation as well as the aerobic and anaerobic catabolism of a variety of organic compounds. These functions have been linked to ecological nutrient cycling, symbiosis, pathogenesis, and cardiovascular disease. Within bacterial cells, BMCs are metabolic modules that can be further dissociated into their constituent structural and functional protein domains. Viewing BMCs as genetic, structural, functional, and evolutionary modules provides a framework for understanding both BMC-mediated metabolism and for adapting their architectures for applications in synthetic biology.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 11




      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Behavioral insights on big data: using social media for predicting
           biomedical outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 11
      Author(s): Sean D. Young
      Social media ‘big data’ can provide valuable insights about people's behaviors, such as their likelihood of engaging in risk behaviors or contracting a disease. Although in its infancy, advancing this research provides the promise of predicting health-related behaviors to promptly prepare for and respond to public health emergencies and epidemics.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Why doesn’t Mycobacterium tuberculosis spread in animals'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marcel A. Behr , Stephen V. Gordon



      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • On the early dynamics and spread of HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Brittany Rife , Marco Salemi
      Until recently, the origin of the HIV-1 group M pandemic largely remained a scientific mystery. The use of comprehensive evolutionary analyses has revealed a unique story regarding viral migration, starting in the 1920s in Kinshasa, and the social and infrastructural changes associated with the early spread of this deadly virus.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Light-driven ion-translocating rhodopsins in marine bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keiichi Inoue , Yoshitaka Kato , Hideki Kandori
      Microbial rhodopsins are the photoreceptive membrane proteins found in diverse microorganisms from within Archaea, Eubacteria, and eukaryotes. They have a heptahelical transmembrane structure that binds to an all-trans retinal chromophore. Since 2000, thousands of proteorhodopsins, genes of light-driven proton pump rhodopsins, have been identified from various species of marine bacteria. This suggests that they are used for the conversion of light into chemical energy, contributing to carbon circulation related to ATP synthesis in the ocean. Furthermore, novel types of rhodopsin (sodium and chloride pumps) have recently been discovered. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of ion-transporting rhodopsins of marine bacteria, based mainly on biophysical and biochemical research.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Solving the etiology of dental caries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aurea Simón-Soro , Alex Mira
      For decades, the sugar-fermenting, acidogenic species Streptococcus mutans has been considered the main causative agent of dental caries and most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have been targeted toward this microorganism. However, recent DNA- and RNA-based studies from carious lesions have uncovered an extraordinarily diverse ecosystem where S. mutans accounts only a tiny fraction of the bacterial community. This supports the concept that consortia formed by multiple microorganisms act collectively, probably synergistically, to initiate and expand the cavity. Thus, antimicrobial therapies are not expected to be effective in the treatment of caries and other polymicrobial diseases that do not follow classical Koch's postulates.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • The end of Nef's tether
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ruth Serra-Moreno
      Tetherin represents an important barrier for successful cross-species transmissions of primate lentiviruses. HIV-1 overcame this obstacle by using Vpu as a countermeasure. However, Kluge and collaborators now show that HIV-1 group O uses Nef to antagonize tetherin, and that this activity may have contributed to its spread in West-Central Africa.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Can chatter between microbes prevent cholera'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Jessica A. Thompson , Rita Almeida Oliveira , Karina B. Xavier
      Tackling the global rise in antibiotic resistance requires new therapies against infectious microbes. A recent microbiome study identified commensal gut bacteria that reduce colonisation by the cholera pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. This antagonistic interaction might be mediated by quorum sensing, suggesting that these natural microbe–microbe interactions can help prevent infectious disease.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Changing academic culture to improve undergraduate STEM education
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 12
      Author(s): Erica L. Suchman
      Improving undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) education requires faculty with the skills, resources, and time to create active learning environments that foster student engagement. Current faculty hiring, promotion, and tenure practices at many universities do not measure, reward, nor encourage faculty pursuit of these skills. A cultural change is needed to foster improvement.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Understanding carbon catabolite repression in Escherichia coli using
           quantitative models
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): A. Kremling , J. Geiselmann , D. Ropers , H. de Jong
      Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) controls the order in which different carbon sources are metabolized. Although this system is one of the paradigms of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. CCR involves the coordination of different subsystems of the cell that are responsible for the uptake of carbon sources, their breakdown for the production of energy and precursors, and the conversion of the latter to biomass. The complexity of this integrated system, with regulatory mechanisms cutting across metabolism, gene expression, and signaling, and that are subject to global physical and physiological constraints, has motivated important modeling efforts over the past four decades, especially in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli. Different hypotheses concerning the dynamic functioning of the system have been explored by a variety of modeling approaches. We review these studies and summarize their contributions to the quantitative understanding of CCR, focusing on diauxic growth in E. coli. Moreover, we propose a highly simplified representation of diauxic growth that makes it possible to bring out the salient features of the models proposed in the literature and confront and compare the explanations they provide.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Elite control of HIV: is this the right model for a functional cure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Leslie R. Cockerham , Hiroyu Hatano
      A cure for HIV is still greatly needed and has become a global research priority. A unique subset of HIV-infected individuals who spontaneously control HIV exists, and these are known as ‘elite controllers’. They may represent a natural model for a ‘functional cure’ in which there is long term control of viral replication and remission from symptoms of HIV infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. However, controllers have evidence of ongoing inflammation, CD4+ T cell depletion, and perhaps even inflammation-associated cardiovascular disease, suggesting that this natural long term virologic control may be coming at an immunologic and clinical cost. These individuals may continue to provide continued insights into mechanisms of host control; however, they may not represent the best model of a functional cure, if we believe that a cure should require a disease-free (and not just a treatment-free) state.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Cell-size maintenance: universal strategy revealed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Suckjoon Jun , Sattar Taheri-Araghi
      How cells maintain a stable size has fascinated scientists since the beginning of modern biology, but has remained largely mysterious. Recently, however, the ability to analyze single bacteria in real time has provided new, important quantitative insights into this long-standing question in cell biology.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • The demographic determinants of human microbiome health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvie Estrela , Marvin Whiteley , Sam P. Brown
      The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to have a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (i.e., growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multispecies interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here, we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Bridging the gap between viable but non-culturable and antibiotic
           persistent bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mesrop Ayrapetyan , Tiffany C. Williams , James D. Oliver
      Microbial dormancy is a widespread phenomenon employed by bacteria to evade environmental threats including antibiotics. This intrinsic mechanism of antibiotic tolerance has drawn special attention to the role of dormancy in human disease, particularly in regards to recurrent infections. Two dormancy states, the viable but non-culturable state and bacterial persistence, both produce antibiotic-tolerant populations capable of withstanding prolonged lethal treatment. Currently described as two distinct forms of dormancy, they are rarely discussed in the same context. We argue here that these two dormant states are closely related phenomena which are part of a shared ‘dormancy continuum’. This discussion is intended to stimulate discourse about these seemingly different but very similar dormant states.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francesca Di Giallonardo , Edward C. Holmes
      Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia's ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterized by a lack of transmission to nontarget host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Arthritogenic alphaviruses: new insights into arthritis and bone pathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Weiqiang Chen , Suan-Sin Foo , Natalie A. Sims , Lara J. Herrero , Nicole C. Walsh , Suresh Mahalingam
      Arthritogenic alphaviral infection begins as a febrile illness and often progresses to joint pain and rheumatic symptoms that are described as polyarthritis. Alphaviral arthritis and classical arthritides share many similar cellular and immune mediators involved in their pathogenesis. Recent in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that bone loss resulting from increased expression of bone resorption mediators may accompany alphaviral infection. In addition, several longitudinal studies have reported more severe and delayed recovery of alphaviral disease in patients with pre-existing arthritic conditions. This review aims to provide insights into alphavirus-induced bone loss and focuses on aspects of disease exacerbation in patients with underlying arthritis and on possible therapeutic targets.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • Response of host inflammasomes to viral infection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): I-Yin Chen , Takeshi Ichinohe
      Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that induce downstream immune responses to specific pathogens, environmental stimuli, and host cell damage. Components of specific viruses activate different inflammasomes; for example, the influenza A virus M2 protein and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) 2B protein activate the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family pyrin domain (PYD)-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, whereas viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) activates the retinoic acid inducible gene-I (RIG-I) inflammasome. Once activated in response to viral infection, inflammasomes induce the activation of caspases and the release of mature forms of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18. Here we review the association between viral infection and inflammasome activation. Identifying the mechanisms underlying virus-induced inflammasome activation is important if we are to develop novel therapeutic strategies to target viruses.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • A novel reverse genetics system for human norovirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 11
      Author(s): Stefan Taube , Christiane E. Wobus
      Human noroviruses cause significant morbidity, mortality, and economic losses worldwide. The inability to grow human noroviruses in cell culture has hampered our collective understanding of virus–host interactions and development of therapeutics. A newly described single-plasmid reverse genetics system for noroviruses has the potential to facilitate basic and applied research.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
  • What role does the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator system play
           during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kimberley L. Painter , Aishwarya Krishna , Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj , Andrew M. Edwards
      Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacteremia, which frequently results in serious secondary infections such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. The ability of S. aureus to cause such a wide range of infections has been ascribed to its huge armoury of different virulence factors, many of which are under the control of the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator (Agr) system. However, a significant fraction of S. aureus bacteremia cases are caused by agr-defective isolates, calling into question the role of Agr in invasive staphylococcal infections. This review draws on recent work to define the role of Agr during bacteremia and explain why the loss of this major virulence regulator is sometimes a price worth paying for S. aureus.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T23:16:48Z
       
  • Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic
           decoding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Liang Chen , Barun Mathema , Kalyan D. Chavda , Frank R. DeLeo , Robert A. Bonomo , Barry N. Kreiswirth
      Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of bla KPC involves both horizontal transfer of bla KPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that are contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and we identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T23:16:48Z
       
  • Candida albicans hyphal initiation and elongation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yang Lu , Chang Su , Haoping Liu
      The fungus Candida albicans is a benign member of the mucosal microbiota, but can cause mucosal infections and life-threatening disseminated invasive infections in susceptible individuals. The ability to switch between yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal growth forms (polymorphism) is one of the most investigated virulence attributes of C. albicans. Recent studies suggest that hyphal development in C. albicans requires two temporally linked regulations for initiation and maintenance of the hyphal transcriptional program. Hyphal initiation requires a rapid but temporary disappearance of the Nrg1 transcriptional repressor of hyphal morphogenesis. Hyphal maintenance requires active sensing of the surrounding environment, leading to exclusion of Nrg1 binding to promoters of hypha-specific genes or reduced NRG1 expression. We discuss recent advances in understanding the complex transcriptional regulation of hyphal gene expression. These provide molecular mechanisms underpinning the phenotypic plasticity of C. albicans polymorphism.


      PubDate: 2014-09-25T22:23:19Z
       
  • Pandemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tokiko Watanabe , Shinji Watanabe , Eileen A. Maher , Gabriele Neumann , Yoshihiro Kawaoka
      Avian influenza viruses rarely infect humans, but the recently emerged avian H7N9 influenza viruses have caused sporadic infections in humans in China, resulting in 440 confirmed cases with 122 fatalities as of 16 May 2014. In addition, epidemiologic surveys suggest that there have been asymptomatic or mild human infections with H7N9 viruses. These viruses replicate efficiently in mammals, show limited transmissibility in ferrets and guinea pigs, and possess mammalian-adapting amino acid changes that likely contribute to their ability to infect mammals. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of the novel H7N9 viruses and assess their pandemic potential.


      PubDate: 2014-09-25T22:23:19Z
       
  • Reovirus FAST proteins: virus-encoded cellular fusogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marta Ciechonska , Roy Duncan
      Reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins are the only known nonenveloped virus fusogens and are dedicated to inducing cell-to-cell, not virus–cell, membrane fusion. Numerous structural and functional attributes distinguish this novel family of viral fusogens from all enveloped virus membrane fusion proteins. Both families of viral fusogens play key roles in virus dissemination and pathogenicity, but employ different mechanisms to mediate membrane apposition and merger. However, convergence of these distinct families of viral membrane fusion proteins on common pathways needed for pore expansion and syncytium formation suggests syncytiogenesis represents a cellular response to the presence of cell–cell fusion pores. Together, FAST proteins and enveloped virus fusion proteins provide exceptional insights into the ubiquitous process of cell–cell membrane fusion and syncytium formation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-21T22:04:57Z
       
  • Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandra L. McLellan , A. Murat Eren
      Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals, and some strains appear to be associated with particular host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T20:49:48Z
       
  • Variability of the transporter gene complement in ammonia-oxidizing
           archaea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pierre Offre , Melina Kerou , Anja Spang , Christa Schleper
      Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are a widespread and abundant component of microbial communities in many different ecosystems. The extent of physiological differences between individual AOA is, however, unknown. Here, we compare the transporter gene complements of six AOA, from four different environments and two major clades, to assess their potential for substrate uptake and efflux. Each of the corresponding AOA genomes encode a unique set of transporters and although the composition of AOA transporter complements follows a phylogenetic pattern, few transporter families are conserved in all investigated genomes. A comparison of ammonia transporters encoded by archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers highlights the variance among AOA lineages as well as their distinction from the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and suggests differential ecological adaptations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Microbial priming of plant and animal immunity: symbionts as developmental
           signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marc-André Selosse , Alain Bessis , María J. Pozo
      The functional similarity between root and gut microbiota, both contributing to the nutrition and protection of the host, is often overlooked. A central mechanism for efficient protection against pathogens is defense priming, the preconditioning of immunity induced by microbial colonization after germination or birth. Microbiota have been recruited several times in evolution as developmental signals for immunity maturation. Because there is no evidence that microbial signals are more relevant than endogenous ones, we propose a neutral scenario for the evolution of this dependency: any hypothetic endogenous signal can be lost because microbial colonization, reliably occurring at germination or birth, can substitute for it, and without either positive selection or the acquisition of new functions. Dependency of development on symbiotic signals can thus evolve by contingent irreversibility.


      PubDate: 2014-08-14T19:46:06Z
       
  • Glycan receptor specificity as a useful tool for characterization and
           surveillance of influenza A virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rahul Raman , Kannan Tharakaraman , Zachary Shriver , Akila Jayaraman , V. Sasisekharan , Ram Sasisekharan
      Influenza A viruses are rapidly evolving pathogens with the potential for novel strains to emerge and result in pandemic outbreaks in humans. Some avian-adapted subtypes have acquired the ability to bind to human glycan receptors and cause severe infections in humans but have yet to adapt to and transmit between humans. The emergence of new avian strains and their ability to infect humans has confounded their distinction from circulating human virus strains through linking receptor specificity to human adaptation. Herein we review the various structural and biochemical analyses of influenza hemagglutinin–glycan receptor interactions. We provide our perspectives on how receptor specificity can be used to monitor evolution of the virus to adapt to human hosts so as to facilitate improved surveillance and pandemic preparedness.


      PubDate: 2014-08-09T19:38:40Z
       
  • Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at
           multiple levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alistair J.P. Brown , Gordon D. Brown , Mihai G. Netea , Neil A.R. Gow
      Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, stress adaptation, and cell wall remodelling, influence commensalism and infection. Therefore, current concepts of Candida–host interactions must be extended to include the impact of metabolic adaptation upon pathogenicity and immunogenicity.


      PubDate: 2014-08-01T18:54:14Z
       
 
 
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