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MICROBIOLOGY (234 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cell Medicine     Open Access  
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access  
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [16 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2586 journals]
  • AI-2 to the rescue against antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhongke Sun , Verena Grimm , Christian U. Riedel
      The downside of antibiotic treatment of infectious diseases is a disturbed intestinal microbiota leading to reduced resistance against pathogen colonization. Work by Thompson et al. now suggests that antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis can partially be counterbalanced by artificially increasing the levels of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a well-known bacterial communication molecule.

      PubDate: 2015-04-23T00:36:39Z
  • Nitrogen cycling in corals: the key to understanding holobiont
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nils Rädecker , Claudia Pogoreutz , Christian R. Voolstra , Jörg Wiedenmann , Christian Wild
      Corals are animals that form close mutualistic associations with endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Together they provide the calcium carbonate framework of coral reef ecosystems. The importance of the microbiome (i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) to holobiont functioning has only recently been recognized. Given that growth and density of Symbiodinium within the coral host is highly dependent on nitrogen availability, nitrogen-cycling microbes may be of fundamental importance to the stability of the coral–algae symbiosis and holobiont functioning, in particular under nutrient-enriched and -depleted scenarios. We summarize what is known about nitrogen cycling in corals and conclude that disturbance of microbial nitrogen cycling may be tightly linked to coral bleaching and disease.

      PubDate: 2015-04-12T06:07:37Z
  • Who determines the outcomes of HBV exposure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Baohong Wang , Lanjuan Li
      Until recently, the reason for age-dependent immune clearance of hepatitis B virus remained elusive. A new study has revealed that establishment of the commensal gut microbiota could modulate the liver immunity phenotype in a hydrodynamic transfection mouse model, suggesting that natural gut–liver interactions can help achieve rapid viral clearance.

      PubDate: 2015-04-10T05:56:18Z
  • Staphylococcus aureus infections: transmission within households and the
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Justin Knox , Anne-Catrin Uhlemann , Franklin D. Lowy
      Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, are now major community-based pathogens worldwide. The basis for this is multifactorial and includes the emergence of epidemic clones with enhanced virulence, antibiotic resistance, colonization potential, or transmissibility. Household reservoirs of these unique strains are crucial to their success as community-based pathogens. Staphylococci become resident in households, either as colonizers or environmental contaminants, increasing the risk for recurrent infections. Interactions of household members with others in different households or at community sites, including schools and daycare facilities, have a critical role in the ability of these strains to become endemic. Colonization density at these sites appears to have an important role in facilitating transmission. The integration of research tools, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS), mathematical modeling, and social network analysis, has provided additional insight into the transmission dynamics of these strains. Thus far, interventions designed to reduce recurrent infections among household members have had limited success, likely due to the multiplicity of potential sources for recolonization. The development of better strategies to reduce the number of household-based infections will depend on greater insight into the different factors that contribute to the success of these uniquely successful epidemic clones of S. aureus.

      PubDate: 2015-04-10T05:56:18Z
  • Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): José A. Fernández-Romero , Carolyn Deal , Betsy C. Herold , John Schiller , Dorothy Patton , Thomas Zydowsky , Joe Romano , Christopher D. Petro , Manjulaa Narasimhan
      Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV Research for Prevention (R4P) conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today, new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Sticky microbes: forces in microbial cell adhesion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yves F. Dufrêne
      Understanding the fundamental forces involved in the adhesion of microbial cells is important not only in microbiology, to elucidate cellular functions (such as ligand-binding or biofilm formation), but also in medicine (biofilm infections) and biotechnology (cell aggregation). Rapid progress in atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has made it possible to measure the forces driving cell–cell and cell–substrate interactions on a single cell basis. A living cell is attached to the AFM probe, thereby enabling researchers to measure the interaction forces between the cell and a target surface. Recent advances in our understanding of the forces driving cell adhesion and biofilm formation are discussed, with a focus on pathogens. These studies provide compelling evidence that, upon contact with a surface, cell adhesion components display a variety of mechanical responses that are important for cell adhesion.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Temporal patterns of rarity provide a more complete view of microbial
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ashley Shade , Jack A. Gilbert
      Recently, conditionally rare taxa (CRTs) – those taxa that are typically in very low abundance but occasionally achieve prevalence – were shown to contribute to patterns of microbial diversity because their collective dynamics explained a large proportion of temporal variability in microbial community structure. Here the benefits and challenges of characterizing the presence and interpreting the role of CRTs are further explored, along with questions about CRT ecology. We also introduce a conceptual model for thinking about microbial taxa as dynamic components along the dimensions of occurrence and abundance. Accounting for CRTs in interpretations of microbial ecological dynamics is essential if we are to understand community stability and ecoevolutionary interactions.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Fueling type III secretion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pei-Chung Lee , Arne Rietsch
      Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are complex nanomachines that export proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm across the cell envelope in a single step. They are at the core of the machinery used to assemble the bacterial flagellum, and the needle complex many Gram-negative pathogens use to inject effector proteins into host cells and cause disease. Several models have been put forward to explain how this export is energized, and the mechanism has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we present an overview of these models and discuss their relative merits. Recent evidence suggests that the proton motive force (pmf) is the primary energy source for type III secretion, although contribution from refolding of secreted proteins has not been ruled out. The mechanism by which the pmf is converted to protein export remains enigmatic.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • HIV cell-to-cell transmission: effects on pathogenesis and antiretroviral
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Luis M. Agosto , Pradeep D. Uchil , Walther Mothes
      HIV spreads more efficiently in vitro when infected cells directly contact uninfected cells to form virological synapses. A hallmark of virological synapses is that viruses can be transmitted at a higher multiplicity of infection (MOI) that, in vitro, results in a higher number of proviruses. Whether HIV also spreads by cell–cell contact in vivo is a matter of debate. Here we discuss recent data that suggest that contact-mediated transmission largely manifests itself in vivo as CD4+ T cell depletion. The assault of a cell by a large number of incoming particles is likely to be efficiently sensed by the innate cellular surveillance to trigger cell death. The large number of particles transferred across virological synapses has also been implicated in reduced efficacy of antiretroviral therapies. Thus, antiretroviral therapies must remain effective against the high MOI observed during cell-to-cell transmission to inhibit both viral replication and the pathogenesis associated with HIV infection.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Following the equator: division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Marc Bramkamp
      The mechanisms that spatially regulate cytokinesis are more diverse than initially thought. In two recent publications a positive regulator of FtsZ positioning has been identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae. MapZ (LocZ) connects the division machinery with cell wall elongation, providing a simple mechanism to ensure correct division site selection.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher W. Jones , Judith P. Armitage
      For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Resistance is not futile: gliotoxin biosynthesis, functionality and
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Stephen K. Dolan , Grainne O’Keeffe , Gary W. Jones , Sean Doyle
      Gliotoxin biosynthesis is encoded by the gli gene cluster in Aspergillus fumigatus. The biosynthesis of gliotoxin is influenced by a suite of transcriptionally-active regulatory proteins and a bis-thiomethyltransferase. A self-protection system against gliotoxin is present in A. fumigatus. Several additional metabolites are also produced via the gliotoxin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the biosynthesis of unrelated natural products appears to be influenced either by gliotoxin or by the activity of specific reactions within the biosynthetic pathway. The activity of gliotoxin against animal cells and fungi, often mediated by interference with redox homeostasis or protein modification, is revealing new metabolic interactions within eukaryotic systems. Nature has provided a most useful natural product with which to reveal some of its many molecular secrets.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Assembly and operation of bacterial tripartite multidrug efflux pumps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dijun Du , Hendrik W. van Veen , Ben F. Luisi
      Microorganisms encode several classes of transmembrane pumps that can expel an enormous range of toxic substances, thereby improving their fitness in harsh environments and contributing to resistance against antimicrobial agents. In Gram-negative bacteria these pumps can take the form of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds across the cell envelope. We describe recent structural and functional data that have provided insights into the transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular machines.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Does chronic infection in retroviruses have a sense'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Benoit Barbeau , Jean-Michel Mesnard
      Over recent years, retroviral gene expression has been shown to depend on a promoter that is bidirectional. This promoter activity is likely to occur at either end of the retroviral genome and has important consequences at the level of retroviral gene expression. This review focuses on the recent discovery of retroviral antisense genes termed HBZ [in human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)] and ASP (in HIV-1) in terms of their function and the regulation of their expression, both of which are interconnected with the expression and function of other viral proteins. Emphasis is also given to the potential implication of these proteins in the maintenance of chronic infection in infected individuals. In light of recent findings, the discovery of these new genes opens a new avenue for the future treatment of HTLV-1- and HIV-1-infected individuals.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Architectural plan of transcriptional regulation in Mycobacterium
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Priyanka Baloni , Nagasuma Chandra
      Transcriptional regulation enables adaptation in bacteria. Typically, only a few transcriptional events are well understood, leaving many others unidentified. The recent genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding sites in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has changed this by deciphering a molecular road-map of transcriptional control, indicating active events and their immediate downstream effects.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Is selection relevant in the evolutionary emergence of drug
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Troy Day , Silvie Huijben , Andrew F. Read
      The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens is often considered a canonical case of evolution by natural selection. Here we argue that the strength of selection can be a poor predictor of the rate of resistance emergence. It is possible for a resistant strain to be under negative selection and still emerge in an infection or spread in a population. Measuring the right parameters is a necessary first step toward the development of evidence-based resistance-management strategies. We argue that it is the absolute fitness of the resistant strains that matters most and that a primary determinant of the absolute fitness of a resistant strain is the ecological context in which it finds itself.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • A fantastic voyage for sliding bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joshua D. Shrout
      A recent study showed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exhibits sliding motility under magnesium-limited conditions. Overall, bacteria that exhibit this passive surface movement described as sliding share few common traits. This discovery provides an opportunity to revisit and better characterize appendage-independent bacterial motility.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • The great microbial beauty Philosophy of Microbiology by Maureen
           O’Malley, Cambridge University Press, 2014. US$95.00/31.99, hbk/pbk
           (277 pp.) ISBN 978-1-107-62150-3
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vittorio Capozzi , Pasquale Russo , Giuseppe Spano

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Detecting virulence and drug-resistance mycobacterial phenotypes in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Graham S. Timmins
      Bacterial phenotypes are predominantly studied in culture because detection of their specific metabolic pathways in the host is challenging. Development of stable-isotope breath tests, allowing in situ phenotype analyses, may endow diagnostics with new modalities based upon direct monitoring of in vivo microbial metabolism and host–pathogen phenotypic interactions.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Are nematodes a missing link in the confounded ecology of the
           entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lifang Ruan , Neil Crickmore , Donghai Peng , Ming Sun
      Bacillus thuringiensis, which is well known as an entomopathogen, has been accepted by the public as a safe bioinsecticide. The natural ecology of this bacterium has never been particularly clear, with views ranging from it being an obligate pathogen to an opportunist pathogen that can otherwise exist as a soil saprophyte or a plant endophyte. This confusion has recently led to it being considered as an environmental pathogen that has evolved to occupy a diverse set of environmental niches in which it can thrive without needing a host. A significant driving force behind this classification is the fact that B. thuringiensis is found in high numbers in environments that are not occupied by the insect hosts to which it is pathogenic. It is our opinion that the ubiquitous presence of this bacterium in the environment is the result of a variety of vectoring systems, particularly those that include nematodes.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Collateral sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Csaba Pál , Balázs Papp , Viktória Lázár
      Understanding how evolution of microbial resistance towards a given antibiotic influences susceptibility to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining laboratory evolution, genome sequencing, and functional analyses, recent works have charted the map of evolutionary trade-offs between antibiotics and have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, mutations that caused multidrug resistance in bacteria simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to many other unrelated drugs (collateral sensitivity). Here, we explore how this emerging research sheds new light on resistance mechanisms and the way it could be exploited for the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Structural biology of the Gram-negative bacterial conjugation systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aravindan Ilangovan , Sarah Connery , Gabriel Waksman
      Conjugation, the process by which plasmid DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another, is mediated by type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). T4SSs are versatile systems that can transport not only DNA, but also toxins and effector proteins. Conjugative T4SSs comprise 12 proteins named VirB1–11 and VirD4 that assemble into a large membrane-spanning exporting machine. Before being transported, the DNA substrate is first processed on the cytoplasmic side by a complex called the relaxosome. The substrate is then targeted to the T4SS for export into a recipient cell. In this review, we describe the recent progress made in the structural biology of both the relaxosome and the T4SS.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Signaling and sensory adaptation in Escherichia coli chemoreceptors: 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): John S. Parkinson , Gerald L. Hazelbauer , Joseph J. Falke
      Motile Escherichia coli cells track gradients of attractant and repellent chemicals in their environment with transmembrane chemoreceptor proteins. These receptors operate in cooperative arrays to produce large changes in the activity of a signaling kinase, CheA, in response to small changes in chemoeffector concentration. Recent research has provided a much deeper understanding of the structure and function of core receptor signaling complexes and the architecture of higher-order receptor arrays, which, in turn, has led to new insights into the molecular signaling mechanisms of chemoreceptor networks. Current evidence supports a new view of receptor signaling in which stimulus information travels within receptor molecules through shifts in the dynamic properties of adjoining structural elements rather than through a few discrete conformational states.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Muriel Derrien , Johan E.T. van Hylckama Vlieg
      The human gut contains a highly diverse microbial community that is essentially an open ecosystem, despite being deeply embedded within the human body. Food-associated fermentative bacteria, including probiotics, are major sources of ingested bacteria that may temporarily complement resident microbial communities, thus forming part of our transient microbiome. Here, we review data on the fate and activity of ingested bacteria and, in particular, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their impact on the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome with a focus on data from clinical studies. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms involved and the potential impact on the host's health.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Chris S. Earl , Shi-qi An , Robert P. Ryan
      During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Towards an HIV-1 cure: measuring the latent reservoir
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Katherine M. Bruner , Nina N. Hosmane , Robert F. Siliciano
      The latent reservoir (LR) of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells serves as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. While many PCR- and culture-based assays have been used to measure the size of the LR, correlation between results of different assays is poor and recent studies indicate that no available assay provides an accurate measurement of reservoir size. The discrepancies between assays are a hurdle to clinical trials that aim to measure the efficacy of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to measuring the LR.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Harnessing CRISPR–Cas systems for bacterial genome editing
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kurt Selle , Rodolphe Barrangou
      Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR–Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR–Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Revisiting phage therapy: new applications for old resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Franklin L. Nobrega , Ana Rita Costa , Leon D. Kluskens , Joana Azeredo
      The success of phage therapy is dependent on the development of strategies able to overcome the limitations of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents, the creation of an adequate regulatory framework, the implementation of safety protocols, and acceptance by the general public. Many approaches have been proposed to circumvent phages’ intrinsic limitations but none have proved to be completely satisfactory. In this review we present the major hurdles of phage therapy and the solutions proposed to circumvent them. A thorough discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of these solutions is provided and special attention is given to the genetic modification of phages as an achievable strategy to shape bacteriophages to exhibit desirable biological properties.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Meningitis in adolescents: the role of commensal microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): James W.B. Moir
      The pathogen Neisseria meningitidis causes disease amongst infants and adolescents/young adults. Here we argue that disease amongst adolescents is due largely to interaction between N. meningitidis and other members of the upper respiratory tract microbiota, through a metabolic interaction involving exchange of propionic acid.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Enterovirus replication: go with the (counter)flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jules Nchoutmboube , Lauren A. Ford-Siltz , George A. Belov
      All (+)RNA viruses replicate on distinct membranous domains; however, how they induce and maintain their unique lipid composition is largely unknown. Two recent studies reveal that enteroviruses harness the PI4P–cholestrol exchange cycle driven by OSBP1 protein and PI4 kinase(s), and that blocking the dynamic lipid flow inhibits virus replication.

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • The power of movement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
  • The essential features and modes of bacterial polar growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Todd A. Cameron , John R. Zupan , Patricia C. Zambryski
      Polar growth represents a surprising departure from the canonical dispersed cell growth model. However, we know relatively little of the underlying mechanisms governing polar growth or the requisite suite of factors that direct polar growth. Underscoring how classic doctrine can be turned on its head, the peptidoglycan layer of polar-growing bacteria features unusual crosslinks and in some species the quintessential cell division proteins FtsA and FtsZ are recruited to the growing poles. Remarkably, numerous medically important pathogens utilize polar growth, accentuating the need for intensive research in this area. Here we review models of polar growth in bacteria based on recent research in the Actinomycetales and Rhizobiales, with emphasis on Mycobacterium and Agrobacterium species.

      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
  • The role of flagella in Clostridium difficile pathogenicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Emma Stevenson , Nigel P. Minton , Sarah A. Kuehne
      Clostridium difficile is widely publicised as a problem in the health-care system. Disruption of the normal gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy allows C. difficile to colonise the colon. On colonisation, C. difficile produces two toxins that lead to disease, with symptoms ranging from mild-to-severe diarrhoea, to fulminant and often fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). How C. difficile establishes initial colonisation of the host is an area of active investigation. Recently there has been increased research into the role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and adherence. Novel research has also elucidated a more complex role of flagella in C. difficile virulence pertaining to the regulation of toxin gene expression. This review focuses on new insights into the specific role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and toxin gene expression.

      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
  • Innovative techniques, sensors, and approaches for imaging biofilms at
           different scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas R. Neu , John R. Lawrence
      Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales.

      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:02:32Z
  • HIV-1 adaptation to HLA: a window into virus–host immune
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan M. Carlson , Anh Q. Le , Aniqa Shahid , Zabrina L. Brumme
      HIV-1 develops specific mutations within its genome that allow it to escape detection by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted immune responses, notably those of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). HLA thus represents a major force driving the evolution and diversification of HIV-1 within individuals and at the population level. Importantly, the study of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA also represents an opportunity to identify what qualities constitute an effective immune response, how the virus in turn adapts to these pressures, and how we may harness this information to design HIV-1 vaccines that stimulate effective cellular immunity.

      PubDate: 2015-01-22T05:13:10Z
  • Transmission of antimicrobial resistance in resource-poor healthcare
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jodi A. Lindsay
      Inter-patient transfer of antimicrobial resistant pathogens is more common in resource-poor healthcare settings. In this age of global resistance, what contributes to the spread of antimicrobial resistant clones'

      PubDate: 2015-01-17T04:27:46Z
  • The general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anne Francez-Charlot , Andreas Kaczmarczyk , Hans-Martin Fischer , Julia A. Vorholt
      The general stress response (GSR) is a widely conserved response that allows bacteria to cope with a multitude of stressful conditions. In the past years the PhyR–NepR–σEcfG cascade was identified as the core pathway regulating the GSR in Alphaproteobacteria, in which it also plays an important role in bacteria–host interactions. The regulatory system is composed of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σEcfG, its anti-sigma factor NepR (for negative regulator of the PhyR response), and the anti-sigma factor antagonist PhyR (phyllosphere regulator). The three proteins function via a partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by PhyR phosphorylation, termed ‘sigma factor mimicry’. This review will cover core features of the pathway, its physiological role, and summarize recent advances towards understanding of the partner-switching mechanism and of the two-component signaling pathways controlling the GSR.

      PubDate: 2015-01-12T03:51:02Z
  • Bats as ‘special’ reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cara E. Brook , Andrew P. Dobson
      The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask ‘Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens'’ We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable ‘special’ tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as ‘white-nose syndrome’ (WNS).

      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
  • Mx GTPases: dynamin-like antiviral machines of innate immunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Otto Haller , Peter Staeheli , Martin Schwemmle , Georg Kochs
      The Mx dynamin-like GTPases are key antiviral effector proteins of the type I and type III interferon (IFN) systems. They inhibit several different viruses by blocking early steps of the viral replication cycle. We focus on new structural and functional insights and discuss recent data revealing that human MxA (MX1) provides a safeguard against introduction of avian influenza A viruses (FLUAV) into the human population. The related human MxB (MX2) serves as restriction factor for HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses.

      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
  • Virological features associated with the development of broadly
           neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Penny L. Moore , Carolyn Williamson , Lynn Morris
      The development of a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains a global public health priority. This will likely require the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) able to block infection by diverse viral strains from across the world. Understanding the pathway to neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected humans will provide insights into how bNAb lineages arise, a process that probably involves a combination of host and viral factors. Here, we focus on the role of viral characteristics and evolution in shaping bNAbs during HIV-1 infection, and describe how these findings may be translated into novel vaccine strategies.

      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
  • Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the
           human–animal interface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Martha I. Nelson , Amy L. Vincent
      The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest ‘reverse zoonosis’ of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human–animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts.

      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
  • Success in incorporating horizontally transferred genes: the H-NS protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mario Hüttener , Sonia Paytubi , Antonio Juárez
      The nucleoid-associated protein H-NS silences unwanted expression of acquired foreign DNA. Ali and colleagues recently identified which horizontally-acquired genes are targeted by H-NS in Salmonella to avoid fitness loss. The reported data strengthen our view about the role of H-NS in bacterial evolution driven by horizontal gene transfer.

      PubDate: 2015-01-03T02:38:15Z
  • A race for an Ebola vaccine: promises and obstacles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher L. Cooper , Sina Bavari
      While several impeding factors have limited Ebola vaccine development, the current epidemic has provided a surge which may lead to a record pace for a vaccine against Ebola. Consequently, multiple FDA trials are currently underway using two promising vaccine platforms; one has recently demonstrated durable immunity within non-human primates.

      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
  • Solving the etiology of dental caries
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aurea Simón-Soro , Alex Mira
      For decades, the sugar-fermenting, acidogenic species Streptococcus mutans has been considered the main causative agent of dental caries and most diagnostic and therapeutic strategies have been targeted toward this microorganism. However, recent DNA- and RNA-based studies from carious lesions have uncovered an extraordinarily diverse ecosystem where S. mutans accounts only a tiny fraction of the bacterial community. This supports the concept that consortia formed by multiple microorganisms act collectively, probably synergistically, to initiate and expand the cavity. Thus, antimicrobial therapies are not expected to be effective in the treatment of caries and other polymicrobial diseases that do not follow classical Koch's postulates.

      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
  • Elite control of HIV: is this the right model for a functional cure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Leslie R. Cockerham , Hiroyu Hatano
      A cure for HIV is still greatly needed and has become a global research priority. A unique subset of HIV-infected individuals who spontaneously control HIV exists, and these are known as ‘elite controllers’. They may represent a natural model for a ‘functional cure’ in which there is long term control of viral replication and remission from symptoms of HIV infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. However, controllers have evidence of ongoing inflammation, CD4+ T cell depletion, and perhaps even inflammation-associated cardiovascular disease, suggesting that this natural long term virologic control may be coming at an immunologic and clinical cost. These individuals may continue to provide continued insights into mechanisms of host control; however, they may not represent the best model of a functional cure, if we believe that a cure should require a disease-free (and not just a treatment-free) state.

      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
  • The demographic determinants of human microbiome health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvie Estrela , Marvin Whiteley , Sam P. Brown
      The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to have a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (i.e., growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multispecies interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here, we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health.

      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
  • Viral biocontrol: grand experiments in disease emergence and evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francesca Di Giallonardo , Edward C. Holmes
      Although viral emergence is commonly associated with cross-species transmission, the processes and determinants of viral evolution in a novel host environment are poorly understood. We address key questions in virus emergence and evolution using data generated from two unique natural experiments: the deliberate release of myxoma virus (MYXV) and rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV) as biological control (biocontrol) agents against the European rabbit in Australia, and which have been of enormous benefit to Australia's ecosystem and agricultural industries. Notably, although virulence evolution in MYXV and RHDV followed different trajectories, a strongly parallel evolutionary process was observed in Australia and Europe. These biocontrol agents were also characterized by a lack of transmission to nontarget host species, suggesting that there are major barriers to successful emergence.

      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
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