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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2541 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1298 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (200 journals)                  1 2     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (6 followers)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (2 followers)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (11 followers)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (11 followers)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (3 followers)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (8 followers)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (12 followers)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (2 followers)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (1 follower)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (4 followers)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (18 followers)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (8 followers)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (20 followers)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (22 followers)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Biomedical Research     Open Access   (3 followers)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (2 followers)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (1 follower)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (5 followers)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Partially Free  
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (4 followers)
Cell Medicine     Open Access  
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access  
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (1 follower)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (9 followers)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (9 followers)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access  
Continental Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (3 followers)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (11 followers)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (1 follower)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (1 follower)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (3 followers)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (7 followers)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (5 followers)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal  
Fems Immunology & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (6 followers)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (12 followers)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (15 followers)
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (2 followers)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access   (1 follower)
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (1 follower)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (5 followers)
International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Open Access   (4 followers)
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (1 follower)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (5 followers)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (10 followers)
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (1 follower)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (4 followers)
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (3 followers)
International Microbiology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access  
Iranian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
ISRN Cell Biology     Open Access   (2 followers)
ISRN Microbiology     Open Access   (2 followers)
ISRN Molecular Biology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (1 follower)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (5 followers)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (2 followers)

        1 2     

Trends in Microbiology    [11 followers]  Follow    
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2556 journals]   [SJR: 3.65]   [H-I: 122]
  • Exploring bacterial epigenomics in the next-generation sequencing era: a
           new approach for an emerging frontier
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Poyin Chen , Richard Jeannotte , Bart C. Weimer
      Epigenetics has an important role for the success of foodborne pathogen persistence in diverse host niches. Substantial challenges exist in determining DNA methylation to situation-specific phenotypic traits. DNA modification, mediated by restriction-modification systems, functions as an immune response against antagonistic external DNA, and bacteriophage-acquired methyltransferases (MTase) and orphan MTases – those lacking the cognate restriction endonuclease – facilitate evolution of new phenotypes via gene expression modulation via DNA and RNA modifications, including methylation and phosphorothioation. Recent establishment of large-scale genome sequencing projects will result in a significant increase in genome availability that will lead to new demands for data analysis including new predictive bioinformatics approaches that can be verified with traditional scientific rigor. Sequencing technologies that detect modification coupled with mass spectrometry to discover new adducts is a powerful tactic to study bacterial epigenetics, which is poised to make novel and far-reaching discoveries that link biological significance and the bacterial epigenome.


      PubDate: 2014-04-12T16:04:27Z
       
  • Marine metaproteomics: deciphering the microbial metabolic food web
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Timothy J. Williams , Ricardo Cavicchioli
      Metaproteomics can be applied to marine systems to discover metabolic processes in the ocean. This review describes current breakthroughs regarding marine microbes in the areas of microbial procurement of nutrients, important and previously unrecognized metabolic processes, functional roles for proteins with previously unknown functions, and intricate networks of metabolic interactions between symbiotic microbes and their hosts. By recognizing that metaproteomics empowers our understanding of the roles that marine microbes play in global biogeochemical cycles, the achievements to date from this advancing field highlight the enormous potential that the future holds.


      PubDate: 2014-04-12T16:04:27Z
       
  • Harnessing the power of omics in microbiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel



      PubDate: 2014-04-07T16:18:01Z
       
  • Overcoming the current deadlock in antibiotic research
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 4
      Author(s): Till F. Schäberle , Ingrid M. Hack
      Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are on the rise, making it harder to treat bacterial infections. The situation is aggravated by the shrinking of the antibiotic development pipeline. To finance urgently needed incentives for antibiotic research, creative financing solutions are needed. Public–private partnerships (PPPs) are a successful model for moving forward.


      PubDate: 2014-04-02T06:03:40Z
       
  • Phylogeny, culturing, and metagenomics of the human gut microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alan W. Walker , Sylvia H. Duncan , Petra Louis , Harry J. Flint
      The human intestinal tract is colonised by a complex community of microbes, which can have major impacts on host health. Recent research on the gut microbiota has largely been driven by the advent of modern sequence-based techniques, such as metagenomics. Although these are powerful and valuable tools, they have limitations. Traditional culturing and phylogeny can mitigate some of these limitations, either by expanding reference databases or by assigning functionality to specific microbial lineages. As such, culture and phylogeny will continue to have crucially important roles in human microbiota research, and will be required for the development of novel therapeutics.


      PubDate: 2014-04-02T06:03:40Z
       
  • Anthrax lethal and edema toxins in anthrax pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shihui Liu , Mahtab Moayeri , Stephen H. Leppla
      The pathophysiological effects resulting from many bacterial diseases are caused by exotoxins released by the bacteria. Bacillus anthracis, a spore-forming bacterium, is such a pathogen, causing anthrax through a combination of bacterial infection and toxemia. B. anthracis causes natural infection in humans and animals and has been a top bioterrorism concern since the 2001 anthrax attacks in the USA. The exotoxins secreted by B. anthracis use capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2) as the major toxin receptor and play essential roles in pathogenesis during the entire course of the disease. This review focuses on the activities of anthrax toxins and their roles in initial and late stages of anthrax infection.


      PubDate: 2014-04-02T06:03:40Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2014-04-02T06:03:40Z
       
  • Ménage à trois: an evolutionary interplay between human
           papillomavirus, a tumor, and a woman
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Natalia Shulzhenko , Heidi Lyng , Gerdine F. Sanson , Andrey Morgun
      Cervical cancer is the third most common cancer in women with human papillomavirus (HPV) being a key etiologic factor of this devastating disease. In this article, we describe modern advances in the genomics and transcriptomics of cervical cancer that led to uncovering the key gene drivers. We also introduce, herein, a model of cervical carcinogenesis that explains how the interplay between virus, tumor, and woman results in the selection of clones that simultaneously harbor genomic amplifications for genes that drive cell cycle, antiviral response, and inhibit cell differentiation. The new model may help researchers understand the controversies in antiviral therapy and immunogenetics of this cancer and may provide a basis for future research directions in early diagnostics and personalization of therapy.


      PubDate: 2014-03-27T15:42:34Z
       
  • Will omics help to cure the flu'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Stephan Ludwig
      Influenza virus infections are still a major burden to mankind and our antiviral arsenal against these pathogens is limited. The cellular responses to infection might provide novel targets for intervention strategies. Josset et al. combined comparative transcriptome analysis with literature-based prediction tools for in silico identification of novel host-directed drugs.


      PubDate: 2014-03-27T15:42:34Z
       
  • Single cell genomics of deep ocean bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Weizhou Zhao , Siv G.E. Andersson
      SAR11 is one of the most abundant bacterioplanktons in the upper surface waters of the oceans. In a recent issue of The ISME Journal, Thrash and colleagues present the genomes of four single SAR11 cells isolated from the deep oceans that are enriched in genes for membrane biosynthetic functions.


      PubDate: 2014-03-27T15:42:34Z
       
  • Exploiting gut bacteriophages for human health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marion Dalmasso , Colin Hill , R. Paul Ross
      The human gut contains approximately 1015 bacteriophages (the ‘phageome’), probably the richest concentration of biological entities on earth. Mining and exploiting these potential ‘agents of change’ is an attractive prospect. For many years, phages have been used to treat bacterial infections in humans and more recently have been approved to reduce pathogens in the food chain. Phages have also been studied as drug or vaccine delivery vectors to help treat and prevent diseases such as cancer and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Individual phageomes vary depending on age and health, thus providing a useful biomarker of human health as well as suggesting potential interventions targeted at the gut microbiota.


      PubDate: 2014-03-22T15:25:46Z
       
  • Supersize me: how whole-genome sequencing and big data are transforming
           epidemiology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rowland R. Kao , Daniel T. Haydon , Samantha J. Lycett , Pablo R. Murcia
      In epidemiology, the identification of ‘who infected whom’ allows us to quantify key characteristics such as incubation periods, heterogeneity in transmission rates, duration of infectiousness, and the existence of high-risk groups. Although invaluable, the existence of many plausible infection pathways makes this difficult, and epidemiological contact tracing either uncertain, logistically prohibitive, or both. The recent advent of next-generation sequencing technology allows the identification of traceable differences in the pathogen genome that are transforming our ability to understand high-resolution disease transmission, sometimes even down to the host-to-host scale. We review recent examples of the use of pathogen whole-genome sequencing for the purpose of forensic tracing of transmission pathways, focusing on the particular problems where evolutionary dynamics must be supplemented by epidemiological information on the most likely timing of events as well as possible transmission pathways. We also discuss potential pitfalls in the over-interpretation of these data, and highlight the manner in which a confluence of this technology with sophisticated mathematical and statistical approaches has the potential to produce a paradigm shift in our understanding of infectious disease transmission and control.


      PubDate: 2014-03-22T15:25:46Z
       
  • Archaeal viruses and bacteriophages: comparisons and contrasts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maija K. Pietilä , Tatiana A. Demina , Nina S. Atanasova , Hanna M. Oksanen , Dennis H. Bamford
      Isolated archaeal viruses comprise only a few percent of all known prokaryotic viruses. Thus, the study of viruses infecting archaea is still in its early stages. Here we summarize the most recent discoveries of archaeal viruses utilizing a virion-centered view. We describe the known archaeal virion morphotypes and compare them to the bacterial counterparts, if such exist. Viruses infecting archaea are morphologically diverse and present some unique morphotypes. Although limited in isolate number, archaeal viruses reveal new insights into the viral world, such as deep evolutionary relationships between viruses that infect hosts from all three domains of life.


      PubDate: 2014-03-17T15:04:01Z
       
  • Loop de loop: viral RNA evades IFIT1 targeting
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Justin A. Roby , Brian D. Clarke , Alexander A. Khromykh
      In a landmark finding published in Science, Hyde et al. have demonstrated that a hairpin RNA structure adjacent to the 5′ cap of alphavirus genomic RNA confers the ability of these viruses to evade restriction by the interferon-induced host protein IFIT1.


      PubDate: 2014-03-17T15:04:01Z
       
  • Ordering microbial diversity into ecologically and genetically cohesive
           units
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): B. Jesse Shapiro , Martin F. Polz
      We propose that microbial diversity must be viewed in light of gene flow and selection, which define units of genetic similarity, and of phenotype and ecological function, respectively. We discuss to what extent ecological and genetic units overlap to form cohesive populations in the wild, based on recent evolutionary modeling and on evidence from some of the first microbial populations studied with genomics. These show that if recombination is frequent and selection moderate, ecologically adaptive mutations or genes can spread within populations independently of their original genomic background (gene-specific sweeps). Alternatively, if the effect of recombination is smaller than selection, genome-wide selective sweeps should occur. In both cases, however, distinct units of overlapping ecological and genotypic similarity will form if microgeographic separation, likely involving ecological tradeoffs, induces barriers to gene flow. These predictions are supported by (meta)genomic data, which suggest that a ‘reverse ecology’ approach, in which genomic and gene flow information is used to make predictions about the nature of ecological units, is a powerful approach to ordering microbial diversity.


      PubDate: 2014-03-17T15:04:01Z
       
  • Long-lived reservoirs of HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas D. Zaikos , Kathleen L. Collins
      HIV-1 persistence in long-lived cellular reservoirs remains a major barrier to a cure. In a recent Nature Medicine paper, Buzon et al. identify memory T cells with stem cell-like properties (TSCM) that harbor infectious provirus and that likely contribute to HIV-1 persistence.


      PubDate: 2014-03-17T15:04:01Z
       
  • How yeast can be used as a genetic platform to explore virus–host
           interactions: from ‘omics’ to functional studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Peter D. Nagy , Judit Pogany , Jing-Yi Lin
      The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an advanced model organism that has emerged as an effective host to gain insights into the intricate interactions of viruses with host cells. RNA viruses have limited coding potential and need to coopt numerous host cellular factors to facilitate their replication. To identify the host factors subverted by viruses, high-throughput genomics and global proteomics approaches have been performed with plant viruses such as brome mosaic virus (BMV) and tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV). Accordingly, several hundred susceptibility and restriction factors for BMV and TBSV have been identified using yeast as a model host. Amazingly, host factors affecting viral genetic recombination and evolution have also been identified in genome-wide screens in yeast. The roles of many yeast host factors involved in various steps of the viral replication process have been validated by exploiting the orthologous genes in plant hosts. This Opinion summarizes the advantages of using simple viruses and yeast model host to advance our general understanding of virus–host interactions. The knowledge gained on host factors could lead to novel specific or broad-range resistance and antiviral tools against viruses.


      PubDate: 2014-03-17T15:04:01Z
       
  • Different paths to pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan P. Allen , Egon A. Ozer , Alan R. Hauser
      In a recent issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Elsen and colleagues identify a novel hemolysin in a highly virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain that lacks a type III secretion system. Their analysis provides another example of how individual strains of P. aeruginosa utilize different virulence mechanisms to cause severe infections.


      PubDate: 2014-03-12T14:41:27Z
       
  • Spectinamides: a challenge, a proof, and a suggestion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Miguel Viveiros , Marco Pieroni
      New drugs and shorter regimens are needed to fight resistant forms of tuberculosis. Screening of chemical libraries for mining hit compounds is the common approach to find new antituberculars. A new medicinal chemistry and biology directed research rational has recently been successfully described by Lee and coworkers in Nature Medicine.


      PubDate: 2014-03-12T14:41:27Z
       
  • Comparative analysis of the molecular mechanisms of recombination in
           hepatitis C virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Andrea Galli , Jens Bukh
      Genetic recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism for RNA viruses. The significance of this phenomenon for hepatitis C virus (HCV) has recently become evident, with the identification of circulating recombinant forms in HCV-infected individuals and by novel data from studies permitted by advances in HCV cell culture systems and genotyping protocols. HCV is readily able to produce viable recombinants, using replicative and non-replicative molecular mechanisms. However, our knowledge of the required molecular mechanisms remains limited. Understanding how HCV recombines might be instrumental for a better monitoring of global epidemiology, to clarify the virus evolution, and evaluate the impact of recombinant forms on the efficacy of oncoming combination drug therapies. For the latter, frequency and location of recombination events could affect the efficacy of multidrug regimens. This review will focus on current data available on HCV recombination, also in relation to more detailed data from other RNA viruses.


      PubDate: 2014-03-12T14:41:27Z
       
  • New insights into the crosstalk between Shigella and T lymphocytes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Wilmara Salgado-Pabón , Christoph Konradt , Philippe J. Sansonetti , Armelle Phalipon
      Subversion of host immune responses is the key infection strategy employed by most, if not all, human pathogens. Modulation of the host innate response by pathogens has been vastly documented. Yet, especially for bacterial infections, it was only recently that cells of the adaptive immune response were recognized as targets of bacterial weapons such as the type III secretion system (T3SS) and its effector proteins. In this review, we focus on the recent advances made in the understanding of how the enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri interferes with the host adaptive response by targeting T lymphocytes, especially their migration capacities.


      PubDate: 2014-03-07T14:34:18Z
       
  • Functional and phylogenetic assembly of microbial communities in the human
           microbiome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Afrah Shafquat , Regina Joice , Sheri L. Simmons , Curtis Huttenhower
      Microbial communities associated with the human body, that is, the human microbiome, are complex ecologies critical for normal development and health. The taxonomic and phylogenetic composition of these communities tends to significantly differ among individuals, precluding the definition of a simple, shared set of ‘core’ microbes. Here, we review recent evidence and ecological theory supporting the assembly of host-associated microbial communities in terms of functional traits rather than specific organisms. That is, distinct microbial species may be responsible for specific host-associated functions and phenotypes in distinct hosts. We discuss how ecological processes (selective and stochastic forces) governing the assembly of metazoan communities can be adapted to describe microbial ecologies in host-associated environments, resulting in both niche-specific and ‘core’ metabolic and other pathways maintained throughout the human microbiome. The extent to which phylogeny and functional traits are linked in host-associated microbes, as opposed to unlinked by mechanisms, such as lateral transfer, remains to be determined. However, the definition of these functional assembly rules within microbial communities using controlled model systems and integrative ‘omics’ represents a fruitful opportunity for molecular systems ecology.


      PubDate: 2014-03-07T14:34:18Z
       
  • GSK3β and the control of infectious bacterial diseases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Huizhi Wang , Akhilesh Kumar , Richard J. Lamont , David A. Scott
      Glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) has been shown to be a crucial mediator of the intensity and direction of the innate immune system response to bacterial stimuli. This review focuses on: (i) the central role of GSK3β in the regulation of pathogen-induced inflammatory responses through the regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production, (ii) the extensive ongoing efforts to exploit GSK3β for its therapeutic potential in the control of infectious diseases, and (iii) the increasing evidence that specific pathogens target GSK3β-related pathways for immune evasion. A better understanding of complex bacteria–GSK3β interactions is likely to lead to more effective anti-inflammatory interventions and novel targets to circumvent pathogen colonization and survival.


      PubDate: 2014-03-07T14:34:18Z
       
  • Bat-derived influenza-like viruses H17N10 and H18N11
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ying Wu , Yan Wu , Boris Tefsen , Yi Shi , George F. Gao
      Shorebirds and waterfowls are believed to be the reservoir hosts for influenza viruses, whereas swine putatively act as mixing vessels. The recent identification of two influenza-like virus genomes (designated H17N10 and H18N11) from bats has challenged this notion. A crucial question concerns the role bats might play in influenza virus ecology. Structural and functional studies of the two major surface envelope proteins, hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA), demonstrate that neither has canonical HA or NA functions found in influenza viruses. However, putative functional modules and domains in other encoded proteins are conserved, and the N-terminal domain of the H17N10 polymerase subunit PA has a classical structure and function. Therefore, potential genomic reassortments of such influenza-like viruses with canonical influenza viruses cannot be excluded at this point and should be assessed.


      PubDate: 2014-03-02T14:07:15Z
       
  • AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 3
      Author(s): Gordon D. Brown , Graeme Meintjes , Jay K. Kolls , Clive Gray , William Horsnell
      The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.


      PubDate: 2014-03-02T14:07:15Z
       
  • To acquire or resist: the complex biological effects of CRISPR–Cas
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joseph Bondy-Denomy , Alan R. Davidson
      Prokaryotic CRISPR–Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat–CRISPR associated) systems provide a sophisticated adaptive immune system that offers protection against foreign DNA. These systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes and exert an important influence on bacterial behavior and evolution. However, interpreting the biological effects of a CRISPR–Cas system within a given species can be complicated because the outcome of rejecting foreign DNA does not always provide a fitness advantage, as foreign DNA uptake is sometimes beneficial. To address these issues, here we review data pertaining to the potential in vivo costs and benefits of CRISPR–Cas systems, novel functions for these systems, and how they may be inactivated.


      PubDate: 2014-03-02T14:07:15Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2014-03-02T14:07:15Z
       
  • Molecular mechanisms of antimicrobial tolerance and resistance in
           bacterial and fungal biofilms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Heleen Van Acker , Patrick Van Dijck , Tom Coenye
      The formation of microbial biofilms is an important reason for failure of antimicrobial therapy. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the survival of biofilm cells are still not completely understood. In this review we discuss three mechanisms that play an important role in biofilm survival: (i) biofilm-specific protection against oxidative stress; (ii) biofilm-specific expression of efflux pumps; and (iii) protection provided by matrix polysaccharides. We demonstrate that these mechanisms are found both in bacterial and fungal biofilms and are often surprisingly similar between distantly related organisms. In addition, we give an overview of the data that suggests that these mechanisms may not be independent.


      PubDate: 2014-03-02T14:07:15Z
       
  • Omics approaches in food safety: fulfilling the promise'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Teresa M. Bergholz , Andrea I. Moreno Switt , Martin Wiedmann
      Genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics are rapidly transforming our approaches to the detection, prevention, and treatment of foodborne pathogens. Microbial genome sequencing in particular has evolved from a research tool into an approach that can be used to characterize foodborne pathogen isolates as part of routine surveillance systems. Genome sequencing efforts will not only improve outbreak detection and source tracking, but will also create large amounts of foodborne pathogen genome sequence data, which will be available for data-mining efforts that could facilitate better source attribution and provide new insights into foodborne pathogen biology and transmission. Although practical uses and application of metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics data and associated tools are less prominent, these tools are also starting to yield practical food safety solutions.


      PubDate: 2014-02-25T13:48:09Z
       
  • A novel membrane fusion protein family in Flaviviridae'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yue Li , Yorgo Modis
      Enveloped viruses must fuse their lipid membrane to a cellular membrane to deliver their genome into the cytoplasm for replication. Viral envelope proteins catalyze this critical membrane fusion event. They fall into three distinct structural classes. In 2013, envelope proteins from a pestivirus and hepatitis C virus were found to have two distinct novel folds. This was unexpected because these viruses are in the same family as flaviviruses, which have class II fusion proteins. We propose that the membrane fusion machinery of the closely related pestiviruses and hepatitis C virus defines a new structural class. This and other recently identified structural relationships between viral fusion proteins shift the paradigm for how these proteins evolved.


      PubDate: 2014-02-25T13:48:09Z
       
  • Programmed necrosis in microbial pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Haripriya Sridharan , Jason W. Upton
      Programmed cell death is an important facet of hostpathogen interactions. Although apoptosis has long been implicated as the major form of programmed cell death in host defense, the past decade has seen the emergence of other forms of regulated death, including programmed necrosis. While the molecular mechanisms of programmed necrosis continue to be unveiled, an increasing number of viral and bacterial pathogens induce this form of death in host cells, with important consequences for infection, control, and pathogenesis. Moreover, pathogen strategies to manipulate or utilize this pathway are now being discovered. In this review, we focus on a variety of viral and bacterial pathogens where a role for programmed necrosis is starting to be appreciated. In particular, we focus on the mechanistic details of how the host or the pathogen might appropriate this pathway for its own benefit.


      PubDate: 2014-02-25T13:48:09Z
       
  • A neglected epidemic: fungal infections in HIV/AIDS
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Darius Armstrong-James , Graeme Meintjes , Gordon D. Brown
      Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) are a major cause of HIV-related mortality globally. Despite widespread rollout of combined antiretroviral therapy, there are still up to 1 million deaths annually from IFIs, accounting for 50% of all AIDS-related death. A historic failure to focus efforts on the IFIs that kill so many HIV patients has led to fundamental flaws in the management of advanced HIV infection. This review, based on the EMBO AIDS-Related Mycoses Workshop in Cape Town in July 2013, summarizes the current state of the-art in AIDS-related mycoses, and the key action points required to improve outcomes from these devastating infections.


      PubDate: 2014-02-16T04:38:21Z
       
  • Cytoplasmic access by intracellular bacterial pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jennifer Fredlund , Jost Enninga
      Entry into host cells is a strategy widely used by bacterial pathogens, after which they either remain within membrane-bound compartments or rupture the endocytic vacuole to reach the cytoplasm. During recent years, cytoplasmic access has been documented for an increasing number of pathogens. Here we review how classical cytoplasmic bacterial pathogens rupture their endocytic vacuoles as well as the mechanisms used to accomplish this task by bacterial species for which host cytoplasmic localization has only recently been identified. We also discuss the consequences for pathogenesis resulting from this change in intracellular localization, with a particular focus on the role of the host. What emerges is that cytoplasmic access plays an important role in the pathophysiology of an increasing number of intracellular bacterial pathogens.


      PubDate: 2014-02-16T04:38:21Z
       
  • Streptococcus pneumoniae, le transformiste
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Calum Johnston , Nathalie Campo , Matthieu J. Bergé , Patrice Polard , Jean-Pierre Claverys
      Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is an important human pathogen. Natural genetic transformation, which was discovered in this species, involves internalization of exogenous single-stranded DNA and its incorporation into the chromosome. It allows acquisition of pathogenicity islands and antibiotic resistance and promotes vaccine escape via capsule switching. This opinion article discusses how recent advances regarding several facets of pneumococcal transformation support the view that the process has evolved to maximize plasticity potential in this species, making the pneumococcus le transformiste of the bacterial kingdom and providing an advantage in the constant struggle between this pathogen and its host.


      PubDate: 2014-02-05T22:28:34Z
       
  • Hiding behind the mycobacterial cell wall
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Howard H. Song , Jun Liu
      A recent study has found that pathogenic mycobacteria employ two structurally related cell wall lipids to coordinately recruit macrophages permissive to infection and intracellular replication, all the while inhibiting the recruitment of macrophages with enhanced bactericidal activity. These findings suggest a novel mechanism of immune evasion.


      PubDate: 2014-01-31T14:25:57Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2014-01-31T14:25:57Z
       
  • Do we need a new vaccine to control the re-emergence of pertussis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 2
      Author(s): Kingston H.G. Mills , Pádraig J. Ross , Aideen C. Allen , Mieszko M. Wilk
      Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough and is re-emerging in developed countries despite widespread immunization with acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa), which are less effective than the whole cell vaccines that they replaced. Efficacy of Pa could be improved by switching from alum to alternative adjuvants that generate more potent cell mediated immunity.


      PubDate: 2014-01-31T14:25:57Z
       
  • Global spread of dengue virus types: mapping the 70 year history
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jane P. Messina , Oliver J. Brady , Thomas W. Scott , Chenting Zou , David M. Pigott , Kirsten A. Duda , Samir Bhatt , Leah Katzelnick , Rosalind E. Howes , Katherine E. Battle , Cameron P. Simmons , Simon I. Hay
      Since the first isolation of dengue virus (DENV) in 1943, four types have been identified. Global phenomena such as urbanization and international travel are key factors in facilitating the spread of dengue. Documenting the type-specific record of DENV spread has important implications for understanding patterns in dengue hyperendemicity and disease severity as well as vaccine design and deployment strategies. Existing studies have examined the spread of DENV types at regional or local scales, or described phylogeographic relationships within a single type. Here we summarize the global distribution of confirmed instances of each DENV type from 1943 to 2013 in a series of global maps. These show the worldwide expansion of the types, the expansion of disease hyperendemicity, and the establishment of an increasingly important infectious disease of global public health significance.


      PubDate: 2014-01-27T13:50:04Z
       
  • Alphaproteobacteria species as a source and target of lateral sequence
           transfers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Phuong Thi Le , Pierre Pontarotti , Didier Raoult
      Alphaproteobacterial genomes show a remarkable genome plasticity linked with different lifestyles (intracellular, facultative, and free-living). They represent the major source of the genome repertoire of mitochondria, and their genes (specifically those of Wolbachia) have been massively transferred into their modern eukaryotic hosts, such as arthropods and nematodes. Conversely, other organisms (bacteria, viruses, archaea, and eukaryotes) and selfish DNA have contributed to their genomes. This bidirectional lateral sequence transfer explains the mosaic nature of their genomes. In contrast to those living in allopatry, alphaproteobacteria living in sympatry (in protist cells such as in the environment) favor lateral sequence transfer. Evidence shows that intracellular transfer of the type IV secretion system might have played a critical role in the evolution of these alphaproteobacteria.


      PubDate: 2014-01-22T13:36:10Z
       
  • Interactions in multispecies biofilms: do they actually matter'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mette Burmølle , Dawei Ren , Thomas Bjarnsholt , Søren J. Sørensen
      The recent focus on complex bacterial communities has led to the recognition of interactions across species boundaries. This is particularly pronounced in multispecies biofilms, where synergistic interactions impact the bacterial distribution and overall biomass produced. Importantly, in a number of settings, the interactions in a multispecies biofilm affect its overall function, physiology, or surroundings, by resulting in enhanced resistance, virulence, or degradation of pollutants, which is of significant importance to human health and activities. The underlying mechanisms causing these synergistic effects are to some extent characterized at the molecular and evolutionary levels, and further exploration is now possible due to the enhanced resolution and higher throughput of available techniques.


      PubDate: 2014-01-18T13:21:31Z
       
  • Emerging roles of immunostimulatory oral bacteria in periodontitis
           development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yizu Jiao , Mizuho Hasegawa , Naohiro Inohara
      Periodontitis is a common dental disease which results in irreversible alveolar bone loss around teeth, and subsequent tooth loss. Previous studies have focused on bacteria that damage the host and the roles of commensals to facilitate their colonization. Although some immune responses targeting oral bacteria protect the host from alveolar bone loss, recent studies show that particular host defense responses to oral bacteria can induce alveolar bone loss. Host-damaging and immunostimulatory oral bacteria cooperatively induce bone loss by inducing gingival damage followed by immunostimulation. In mouse models of experimental periodontitis induced by either Porphyromonas gingivalis or ligature, γ-proteobacteria accumulate and stimulate host immune responses to induce host damage. Here we review the differential roles of individual bacterial groups in promoting bone loss through the induction of host damage and immunostimulation.


      PubDate: 2014-01-14T15:53:57Z
       
  • Planting the seed: target recognition of short guide RNAs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tim Künne , Daan C. Swarts , Stan J.J. Brouns
      Small guide RNAs play important roles in cellular processes such as regulation of gene expression and host defense against invading nucleic acids. The mode of action of small RNAs relies on protein-assisted base pairing of the guide RNA with target mRNA or DNA to interfere with their transcription, translation, or replication. Several unrelated classes of small noncoding RNAs have been identified including eukaryotic RNA silencing-associated small RNAs, prokaryotic small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs), and prokaryotic CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) RNAs (crRNAs). All three groups identify their target sequence by base pairing after finding it in a pool of millions of other nucleotide sequences in the cell. In this complicated target search process, a region of 6–12 nucleotides (nt) of the small RNA termed the ‘seed’ plays a critical role. We review the concept of seed sequences and discuss its importance for initial target recognition and interference.


      PubDate: 2014-01-14T15:53:57Z
       
  • Entrapment exploited
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jos A.G. van Strijp , Suzan H.M. Rooijakkers
      In their recent paper in Science, Thammavongsa et al. demonstrate how Staphylococcus aureus degrades the DNA of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) into 2′-deoxy-adenosine, which causes incoming macrophages to go into apoptosis, thereby increasing the chance for the bacterium to survive in an abscess.


      PubDate: 2014-01-02T15:41:21Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2014-01-02T15:41:21Z
       
  • HCV-like IRESs sequester eIF3: advantage virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Debjit Khan , Prasanna Bhat , Saumitra Das
      In a recent Nature paper, Hashem et al. attempted to probe deeper into the elusive role of eIF3 in translation initiation of viruses with hepatitis C virus-like internal ribosome entry sites (IRESs), but instead uncovered a surprising role of these IRESs in displacing eIF3 from the 40S subunit, favoring viral translation.


      PubDate: 2014-01-02T15:41:21Z
       
  • Chaperone fusion proteins aid entropy-driven maturation of class II viral
           fusion proteins
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Peng Ge , Z. Hong Zhou
      Class II viral fusion proteins are present on the envelope of flaviviruses and togaviruses, viruses that often cause tropical and subtropical diseases. These proteins use a second membrane protein as a molecular chaperone to assist their folding and to ensure proper function during viral assembly, maturation, and infection. Recent progress in structural studies of dengue viruses has revealed how the chaperone pre-membrane (prM) protein guides viral maturation and how pH is sensed in both the maturation and infection processes. Drastic conformation changes and reorganization of these viral membrane proteins occur during the transition from their metastable to stable structural states in a unidirectional, entropy-driven process.


      PubDate: 2013-12-29T14:41:24Z
       
  • Bacterial toxins and small molecules elucidate endosomal trafficking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Louise H. Slater , Anne E. Clatworthy , Deborah T. Hung
      Bacterial toxins and small molecules are useful tools for studying eukaryotic cell biology. In a recent issue of PNAS, Gillespie and colleagues describe a novel small molecule inhibitor of bacterial toxins and virus trafficking through the endocytic pathway, 4-bromobenzaldehyde N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)semicarbazone (EGA), that prevents transport from early to late endosomes.


      PubDate: 2013-12-26T14:36:00Z
       
  • Bacterial virulence and Fis: adapting regulatory networks to the host
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alexandre Duprey , Sylvie Reverchon , William Nasser
      Pathogenic bacteria have to cope with adverse conditions, such as the host environment and host defense reactions. To adapt quickly to environmental changes, pathogens have developed complex regulatory networks that ensure adequate expression of their virulence genes. Recent evidence suggests that Fis, an abundant nucleoid-associated protein transiently produced during early exponential growth, plays a major role in these networks in several pathogenic bacteria. This review focuses on two enterobacteria, Salmonella enterica and Dickeya dadantii, that inhabit distinct ecological niches to illustrate how Fis uses different strategies to coordinate virulence gene expression, depending on the bacterial lifestyle.


      PubDate: 2013-12-26T14:36:00Z
       
  • Spatiotemporal organization of microbial cells by protein concentration
           gradients
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniela Kiekebusch , Martin Thanbichler
      The formation of protein concentration gradients is an effective means to restrict the activity of regulatory factors in space, thereby critically contributing to the spatiotemporal organization of biological systems. Although widely observed for extracellular proteins involved in tissue patterning, the implementation of this regulatory strategy was thought to be impossible in single, micron-sized cells. Recently, however, several intracellular proteins were shown to establish gradient-like distribution patterns, thereby relaying positional information to their downstream targets. In this review, we discuss gradient-forming systems from different microbial species, with an emphasis on their mode of action and the common principles that underlie their function.


      PubDate: 2013-12-17T13:51:19Z
       
  • Peek-a-boo: membrane hijacking and the pathogenesis of viral hepatitis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2013
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zongdi Feng , Stanley M. Lemon
      Historically, animal viruses have been classified on the basis of the presence or absence of an envelope – an external lipid bilayer membrane typically carrying one or more viral glycoproteins. However, growing evidence indicates that some ‘non-enveloped’ viruses circulate in the blood of infected individuals enveloped in host-derived membranes that provide protection from neutralizing antibodies. In this opinion article, we discuss this novel strategy for virus survival and consider how it contributes to the pathogenesis of acute viral hepatitis. The acquisition of an envelope by non-enveloped viruses profoundly influences their interaction with the host at both the cellular and system level and challenges how we think about vaccine protection against these infections.


      PubDate: 2013-11-19T20:12:13Z
       
 
 
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