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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2982 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (254 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 254 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [36 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3031 journals]
  • A Chiral Pentagonal Polyhedral Framework for Characterizing Virus Capsid
           Structures
    • Authors: Aditya Raguram; V. Sasisekharan; Ram Sasisekharan
      Pages: 438 - 446
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Aditya Raguram, V. Sasisekharan, Ram Sasisekharan
      Recent developments of rational strategies for the design of antiviral therapies, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have naturally relied extensively on available viral structural information. As new strategies continue to be developed, it is equally important to continue to refine our understanding and interpretation of viral structural data. There are known limitations to the traditional (Caspar–Klug) theory for describing virus capsid structures that involves subdividing a capsid into triangular subunits. In this context, we describe a more general polyhedral framework for describing virus capsid structures that is able to account for many of these limitations, including a more thorough characterization of intersubunit interfaces. Additionally, our use of pentagonal subunits instead of triangular ones accounts for the intrinsic chirality observed in all capsids. In conjunction with the existing theory, the framework presented here provides a more complete picture of a capsid’s structure and therefore can help contribute to the development of more effective antiviral strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.007
       
  • Can MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Reasonably Type Bacteria?
    • Authors: Marlène Sauget; Benoît Valot; Xavier Bertrand; Didier Hocquet
      Pages: 447 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Marlène Sauget, Benoît Valot, Xavier Bertrand, Didier Hocquet
      Bacterial typing is crucial to tackle the spread of bacterial pathogens but current methods are time-consuming and costly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been recently integrated into the microbiology laboratory workflow for a quick and low-cost microbial species identification. Independent research groups have successfully redirected the original function of this technology from their primary purpose to discriminate subgroups within pathogen species. However, identical bacterial subgroups could be identified by unrelated peaks by independent methods, thus limiting their robustness and exportability. We propose several guidelines that could improve the performance of MALDI-TOF MS-based typing methods for use as a first-line epidemiological tool.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.006
       
  • The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Antibiotic-Mediated Killing of
           Bacteria
    • Authors: Heleen Van Acker; Tom Coenye
      Pages: 456 - 466
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Heleen Van Acker, Tom Coenye
      Recently, it was proposed that there is a common mechanism behind the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the involvement of ROS in antibiotic-mediated killing has become the subject of much debate. In the present review, we provide an overview of the data supporting the ROS hypothesis; we also present data that explain the contradictory results often obtained when studying antibiotic-induced ROS production. For this latter aspect we will focus on the importance of taking the experimental setup into consideration and on the importance of some technical aspects of the assays typically used. Finally, we discuss the link between ROS production and toxin–antitoxin modules, and present an overview of implications for treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.008
       
  • Multidrug-Resistant Enterococcal Infections: New Compounds, Novel
           Antimicrobial Therapies?
    • Authors: Roel M. van Harten; Rob J.L. Willems; Nathaniel I. Martin; Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Pages: 467 - 479
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Roel M. van Harten, Rob J.L. Willems, Nathaniel I. Martin, Antoni P.A. Hendrickx
      Over the past two decades infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria have escalated world-wide, affecting patient morbidity, mortality, and health care costs. Among these bacteria, Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis represent opportunistic nosocomial pathogens that cause difficult-to-treat infections because of intrinsic and acquired resistance to a plethora of antibiotics. In recent years, a number of novel antimicrobial compound classes have been discovered and developed that target Gram-positive bacteria, including E. faecium and E. faecalis. These new antibacterial agents include teixobactin (targeting lipid II and lipid III), lipopeptides derived from nisin (targeting lipid II), dimeric vancomycin analogues (targeting lipid II), sortase transpeptidase inhibitors (targeting the sortase enzyme), alanine racemase inhibitors, lipoteichoic acid synthesis inhibitors (targeting LtaS), various oxazolidinones (targeting the bacterial ribosome), and tarocins (interfering with teichoic acid biosynthesis). The targets of these novel compounds and mode of action make them very promising for further antimicrobial drug development and future treatment of Gram-positive bacterial infections. Here we review current knowledge of the most favorable anti-enterococcal compounds along with their implicated modes of action and efficacy in animal models to project their possible future use in the clinical setting.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.004
       
  • Resource Reallocation in Bacteria by Reengineering the Gene Expression
           Machinery
    • Authors: Hidde de Jong; Johannes Geiselmann; Delphine Ropers
      Pages: 480 - 493
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Hidde de Jong, Johannes Geiselmann, Delphine Ropers
      Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks to control the activity of transcription and translation, and thus the growth rate, over a range of environmental conditions. Reengineering RNA polymerase and ribosomes allows modifying naturally evolved regulatory networks and thereby profoundly reorganizing the manner in which bacteria allocate resources to different cellular functions. This opens new opportunities for our fundamental understanding of microbial physiology and for a variety of applications. Recent breakthroughs in genome engineering and the miniaturization and automation of culturing methods have offered new perspectives for the reengineering of the transcription and translation machinery in bacteria as well as the development of novel in vitro and in vivo gene expression systems. We review different examples from the unifying perspective of resource reallocation, and discuss the impact of these approaches for microbial systems biology and biotechnological applications.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.009
       
  • Marine Bacterioplankton Seasonal Succession Dynamics
    • Authors: Carina Bunse; Jarone Pinhassi
      Pages: 494 - 505
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6
      Author(s): Carina Bunse, Jarone Pinhassi
      Bacterioplankton (bacteria and archaea) are indispensable regulators of global element cycles owing to their unique ability to decompose and remineralize dissolved organic matter. These microorganisms in surface waters worldwide exhibit pronounced seasonal succession patterns, governed by physicochemical factors (e.g., light, climate, and nutrient loading) that are determined by latitude and distance to shore. Moreover, we emphasize that the effects of large-scale factors are modulated regionally, and over shorter timespans (days to weeks), by biological interactions including molecule exchanges, viral lysis, and grazing. Thus the interplay and scaling between factors ultimately determine the success of particular bacterial populations. Spatiotemporal surveys of bacterioplankton community composition provide the necessary frame for interpreting how the distinct metabolisms encoded in the genomes of different bacteria regulate biogeochemical cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.013
       
  • Ecology of the Oral Microbiome: Beyond Bacteria
    • Authors: Jonathon L. Baker; Batbileg Bor; Melissa Agnello; Wenyuan Shi; Xuesong He
      Pages: 362 - 374
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 5
      Author(s): Jonathon L. Baker, Batbileg Bor, Melissa Agnello, Wenyuan Shi, Xuesong He
      Although great strides have been made in understanding the complex bacterial community inhabiting the human oral cavity, for a variety of (mainly technical) reasons the ecological contributions of oral fungi, viruses, phages, and the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group of ultrasmall bacteria have remained understudied. Several recent reports have illustrated the diversity and importance of these organisms in the oral cavity, while TM7x and Candida albicans have served as crucial paradigms for CPR species and oral fungi, respectively. A comprehensive understanding of the oral microbiota and its influence on host health and disease will require a holistic view that emphasizes interactions among different residents within the oral community, as well as their interaction with the host.

      PubDate: 2017-04-21T20:49:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.012
       
  • Rules of Engagement: The Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae
    • Authors: Avatar Joshi; Benjamin Kostiuk; Andrew Rogers; Jennifer Teschler; Stefan Pukatzki; Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Pages: 267 - 279
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Avatar Joshi, Benjamin Kostiuk, Andrew Rogers, Jennifer Teschler, Stefan Pukatzki, Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer. This review details the recent insights regarding the structure and function of the T6SS as well as the diverse signals and regulatory pathways that control its activation in V. cholerae.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.003
       
  • The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced
           by Soil Bacteria
    • Authors: Olaf Tyc; ; Chunxu Song; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Michiel Vos; Paolina Garbeva
      Pages: 280 - 292
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Olaf Tyc , Chunxu Song, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Michiel Vos, Paolina Garbeva
      The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding the physicochemical properties of bacterial metabolites, the factors that govern their production and ecological roles. Interspecific interactions and competitor sensing are among the main biotic factors affecting the production of bacterial secondary metabolites. Many soil bacteria produce both volatile and soluble compounds. In contrast to soluble compounds, volatile organic compounds can diffuse easily through air- and gas-filled pores in the soil and likely play an important role in long-distance microbial interactions. In this review we provide an overview of the most important soluble and volatile classes of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria, their ecological roles, and their possible synergistic effects.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.002
       
  • The DSF Family of Quorum Sensing Signals: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and
           Turnover
    • Authors: Lian Zhou; Lian-Hui Zhang; Miguel Cámara; Ya-Wen He
      Pages: 293 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Lian Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang, Miguel Cámara, Ya-Wen He
      The diffusible signaling factor (DSF)-based quorum sensing (QS) system has emerged as a widely conserved cell–cell communication mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria. Typically, signals from the DSF family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids which regulate diverse biological functions. Recently, substantial progress has been made on the characterization of new members of this family of signals. There have also been new developments in the understanding of the biosynthesis of these molecules where dual enzymatic activities of the DSF synthase and the use of various substrates have been described. The recent discovery of a naturally occurring DSF turnover mechanism and its regulation provides a new dimension in our understanding of how DSF-dependent microorganisms modulate virulence gene expression in response to changes in the surrounding environment.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.013
       
  • From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus
           mirabilis
    • Authors: Allison N. Norsworthy; Melanie M. Pearson
      Pages: 304 - 315
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4
      Author(s): Allison N. Norsworthy, Melanie M. Pearson
      Proteus mirabilis is a model organism for urease-producing uropathogens. These diverse bacteria cause infection stones in the urinary tract and form crystalline biofilms on indwelling urinary catheters, frequently leading to polymicrobial infection. Recent work has elucidated how P. mirabilis causes all of these disease states. Particularly exciting is the discovery that this bacterium forms large clusters in the bladder lumen that are sites for stone formation. These clusters, and other steps of infection, require two virulence factors in particular: urease and MR/P fimbriae. Highlighting the importance of MR/P fimbriae is the cotranscribed regulator, MrpJ, which globally controls virulence. Overall, P. mirabilis exhibits an extraordinary lifestyle, and further probing will answer exciting basic microbiological and clinically relevant questions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.015
       
  • Capsid-Dependent Host Factors in HIV-1 Infection
    • Authors: Masahiro Yamashita; Alan N. Engelman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Masahiro Yamashita, Alan N. Engelman
      After invasion of a susceptible target cell, HIV-1 completes the early phase of its life cycle upon integration of reverse-transcribed viral DNA into host chromatin. The viral capsid, a conical shell encasing the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, along with its constitutive capsid protein, plays essential roles at virtually every step in the early phase of the viral life cycle. Recent work has begun to reveal how the viral capsid interacts with specific cellular proteins to promote these processes. At the same time, cellular restriction factors target the viral capsid to thwart infection. Comprehensive understanding of capsid–host interactions that promote or impede HIV-1 infection may provide unique insight to exploit for novel therapeutic interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.004
       
  • At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals: The Impact of Cu and Zn on
           Antibiotic Activity and Resistance
    • Authors: Keith Poole
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keith Poole
      Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.010
       
  • Antiviral Goes Viral: Harnessing CRISPR/Cas9 to Combat Viruses in Humans
    • Authors: Jasper Adriaan Soppe; Robert Jan Lebbink
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
      The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy. Here, we review recent CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches to combat specific human viruses in humans and discuss challenges that need to be overcome before CRISPR/Cas9 may be used in the clinic as an antiviral strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.005
       
  • The Role of ErbB Receptors in Infection
    • Authors: Jemima Ho; David L. Moyes; Mahvash Tavassoli; Julian R. Naglik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jemima Ho, David L. Moyes, Mahvash Tavassoli, Julian R. Naglik
      Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB family) possess a wide distribution and diverse functions ranging from cellular growth to migration and apoptosis. Though highly implicated in a variety of cancers, their involvement in infectious disease is less recognised. A growing body of evidence now highlights the importance of the ErbB family in a variety of infections. Their role as growth factor receptors, along with other characteristics, such as surface expression and continuous intracellular trafficking, make this receptor family ideally placed for exploitation by pathogens. Herein, we review our current understanding of the role of the ErbB family in the context of infectious disease, exploring the mechanisms that govern pathogen exploitation of this system.

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T22:46:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.009
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 6


      PubDate: 2017-05-15T22:17:00Z
       
  • Live-Cell Nanoscopy in Antiadhesion Therapy
    • Authors: Joan A. Geoghegan; Timothy J. Foster; Pietro Speziale; Yves F. Dufrêne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joan A. Geoghegan, Timothy J. Foster, Pietro Speziale, Yves F. Dufrêne
      Live-cell nanoscopy has contributed significantly to assessing the inhibition of adhesion of uropathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus by glycoconjugates and monoclonal antibodies, respectively, and of S. aureus surface attachment and cell–cell association by a synthetic peptide. This new technology shows promise for the development of antiadhesion therapies against bacterial pathogens.

      PubDate: 2017-05-10T21:57:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.002
       
  • Influenza Evolution: New Insights into an Old Foe
    • Authors: Louise H. Moncla; Nicholas W. Florek; Thomas C. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Louise H. Moncla, Nicholas W. Florek, Thomas C. Friedrich
      Influenza viruses steadily evolve to escape detection by antibodies, necessitating vaccine updates. A new study uses a massively parallel approach, deep mutational scanning, to catalogue antibody escape mutations. This approach defines potential pathways of viral evolution, beyond those already observed in natural infections, and may help predict its future directions.

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T21:50:34Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.003
       
  • AIDS-Related Mycoses: Current Progress in the Field and Future Priorities
    • Authors: Darius Armstrong-James; Tihana Bicanic; Gordon D. Brown; Jennifer C. Hoving; Graeme Meintjes; Kirsten Nielsen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Darius Armstrong-James, Tihana Bicanic, Gordon D. Brown, Jennifer C. Hoving, Graeme Meintjes, Kirsten Nielsen
      Opportunistic fungal infections continue to take an unacceptably heavy toll on the most disadvantaged living with HIV-AIDS, and are a major driver for HIV-related deaths. At the second EMBO Workshop on AIDS-Related Mycoses, clinicians and scientists from around the world reported current progress and key priorities for improving outcomes from HIV-related mycoses.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T21:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.013
       
  • Protein Acetylation and Its Role in Bacterial Virulence
    • Authors: Jie Ren; Yu Sang; Jie Lu; Yu-Feng Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Jie Lu, Yu-Feng Yao
      Protein acetylation is a universal post-translational modification which is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This process is achieved enzymatically by the protein acetyltransferase Pat, and nonenzymatically by metabolic intermediates (e.g., acetyl phosphate) in bacteria. Protein acetylation plays a role in bacterial chemotaxis, metabolism, DNA replication, and other cellular processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that protein acetylation might be involved in bacterial virulence because a number of bacterial virulence factors are acetylated. In this review, we summarize the progress in understanding bacterial protein acetylation and discuss how it mediates bacterial virulence.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T21:25:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.001
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 5


      PubDate: 2017-04-21T20:49:28Z
       
  • Cell Death Pathway That Monitors Spore Morphogenesis
    • Authors: Amanda R. Decker; Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Amanda R. Decker, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required. Recently, a quality control pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis which monitors the assembly of the spore envelope and specifically eliminates, through cell lysis, sporulating cells that assemble the envelope incorrectly. Here, we review the use of checkpoints that govern the entry into sporulation in B. subtilis and discuss how the use of regulated cell death pathways during bacterial development may help maintain the fidelity of the sporulation program in the species.

      PubDate: 2017-04-14T20:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.005
       
  • The Transcription Terminator Rho: A First Bacterial Prion
    • Authors: Irantzu Pallarès; Salvador Ventura
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Irantzu Pallarès, Salvador Ventura
      Traditionally associated with neurodegenerative diseases, prions are increasingly recognized for their potential to confer beneficial traits on eukaryotic organisms. The discovery of the first bacterial prion suggests that the sustained mechanism of prion assembly is an ancient molecular tool aimed at providing fast and persistent adaptation to changing environments.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.008
       
  • Finally, Archaea Get Their CRISPR-Cas Toolbox
    • Authors: Uri Gophna; Thorsten Allers; Anita Marchfelder
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Uri Gophna, Thorsten Allers, Anita Marchfelder
      The majority of archaea encode CRISPR-Cas systems but only a few CRISPR-Cas-based genetic tools have been developed for organisms from this domain. Nayak and Metcalf have harnessed a bacterial Cas9 protein for genome editing in Methanosarcina acetivorans, enabling efficient gene deletion and replacement.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.009
       
  • Bacterial Unculturability and the Formation of Intercellular Metabolic
           Networks
    • Authors: Samay Pande; Christian Kost
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Samay Pande, Christian Kost
      The majority of known bacterial species cannot be cultivated under laboratory conditions. Here we argue that the adaptive emergence of obligate metabolic interactions in natural bacterial communities can explain this pattern. Bacteria commonly release metabolites into the external environment. Accumulating pools of extracellular metabolites create an ecological niche that benefits auxotrophic mutants, which have lost the ability to autonomously produce the corresponding metabolites. In addition to a diffusion-based metabolite transfer, auxotrophic cells can use contact-dependent means to obtain nutrients from other co-occurring cells. Spatial colocalisation and a continuous coevolution further increase the nutritional dependency and optimise fluxes through combined metabolic networks. Thus, bacteria likely function as networks of interacting cells that reciprocally exchange nutrients and biochemical functions rather than as physiologically autonomous units.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.015
       
  • Short-Sighted Virus Evolution and a Germline Hypothesis for Chronic Viral
           Infections
    • Authors: Katrina A. Lythgoe; Andy Gardner; Oliver G. Pybus; Joe Grove
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Katrina A. Lythgoe, Andy Gardner, Oliver G. Pybus, Joe Grove
      With extremely short generation times and high mutability, many viruses can rapidly evolve and adapt to changing environments. This ability is generally beneficial to viruses as it allows them to evade host immune responses, evolve new behaviours, and exploit ecological niches. However, natural selection typically generates adaptation in response to the immediate selection pressures that a virus experiences in its current host. Consequently, we argue that some viruses, particularly those characterised by long durations of infection and ongoing replication, may be susceptible to short-sighted evolution, whereby a virus’ adaptation to its current host will be detrimental to its onward transmission within the host population. Here we outline the concept of short-sighted viral evolution and provide examples of how it may negatively impact viral transmission among hosts. We also propose that viruses that are vulnerable to short-sighted evolution may exhibit strategies that minimise its effects. We speculate on the various mechanisms by which this may be achieved, including viral life history strategies that result in low rates of within-host evolution, or the establishment of a ‘germline’ lineage of viruses that avoids short-sighted evolution. These concepts provide a new perspective on the way in which some viruses have been able to establish and maintain global pandemics.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T20:35:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.003
       
  • Integrating Lung Physiology, Immunology, and Tuberculosis
    • Authors: Jordi B. Torrelles; Larry S. Schlesinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jordi B. Torrelles, Larry S. Schlesinger
      Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly ‘attacked’ by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several ‘interaction points’ (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection. These interactions are critical, not only from a pathogenesis perspective but also in considering the effectiveness of therapies and vaccines in the lungs. Here we discuss emerging views on immunologic interactions occurring in the lungs for M. tuberculosis and their impact on infection and persistence.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.007
       
  • Moving From One to Many
    • Authors: Gail Teitzel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel


      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
       
  • Shapeshifting to Survive: Shape Determination and Regulation in
           Caulobacter crescentus
    • Authors: Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel; Erin D. Goley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D. Goley
      Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge. Here, we have summarized recent advances that have been made to understand morphology in the dimorphic Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.006
       
  • Microbiology Managers: Managerial Training in the RItrain Project
    • Authors: R. Russell M. Paterson; Nelson Lima; Cath Brooksbank; Enrico Guarini; Markus Pasterk; Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): R. Russell M. Paterson, Nelson Lima, Cath Brooksbank, Enrico Guarini, Markus Pasterk, Marialuisa Lavitrano
      Leaders of research infrastructures (RIs) in Europe who are scientists require competencies in management. RItrain has addressed this issue by identifying skills required, locating relevant courses and finding gaps, whilst establishing a Master of Management programme. We describe how one contributing microbiology RI determined the most relevant skills.

      PubDate: 2017-03-31T20:27:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
       
  • Bacteria–Bacteriophage Coevolution in the Human Gut: Implications for
           Microbial Diversity and Functionality
    • Authors: Pauline D. Scanlan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pauline D. Scanlan
      Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria–bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind – the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria–phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes. I then examine the evidence and discuss the potential role of AC in driving observed patterns of intra- and interindividual variation in the gut microbiome together with detailing the potential functional consequences of such AC-driven microbial variation for human health and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.012
       
  • Sweet New Roles for Protein Glycosylation in Prokaryotes
    • Authors: Jerry Eichler; Michael Koomey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
      Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea. Recent efforts have begun to elucidate some of these prokaryote-specific roles, which are addressed in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.001
       
  • Symbiont Acquisition and Replacement as a Source of Ecological Innovation
    • Authors: Sailendharan Sudakaran; Christian Kost; Martin Kaltenpoth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sailendharan Sudakaran, Christian Kost, Martin Kaltenpoth
      Nutritional symbionts play a major role in the ecology and evolution of insects. The recent accumulation of knowledge on the identity, function, genomics, and phylogenetic relationships of insect–bacteria symbioses provides the opportunity to assess the effects of symbiont acquisitions and replacements on the shift into novel ecological niches and subsequent lineage diversification. The megadiverse insect order Hemiptera presents a particularly large diversity of symbiotic associations that has frequently undergone shifts in symbiont localization and identity, which have contributed to the exploitation of nutritionally imbalanced diets such as plant saps or vertebrate blood. Here we review the known ecological and evolutionary implications of symbiont gains, switches, and replacements, and identify future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of symbiosis as a major driving force of ecological adaptation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-24T19:02:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.014
       
  • Are CDI Systems Multicolored, Facultative, Helping Greenbeards?
    • Authors: Elizabeth S. Danka; Erin C. Garcia; Peggy A. Cotter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Elizabeth S. Danka, Erin C. Garcia, Peggy A. Cotter
      Competitive and cooperative interactions between organisms, including bacteria, can significantly impact the composition of a community and the fitness of its members, as well as the fitness of their hosts when communities are living on or within other organisms. Understanding the underlying mechanisms is critical to the development of strategies to control microbiological communities that impact animal and plant health and also for understanding the evolution of social behaviors, which has been challenging for evolutionary biologists. Contact-dependent growth inhibition (CDI) is a phenomenon defined by the delivery of a protein toxin to the cytoplasm of neighboring bacteria upon cell–cell contact, resulting in growth inhibition or death unless a specific immunity protein is present. CDI was first described based on observations of interbacterial killing and has been assumed to function primarily as a means of eliminating competitor cells. However, recent molecular evidence indicates that multiple levels of specificity restrict CDI toxin delivery and activity to the same bacterial strain, and that CDI system proteins can mediate cooperative behaviors among ‘self’ cells, a phenomenon called contact-dependent signaling (CDS). Here we review these recent findings and discuss potential biological and evolutionary implications of CDI system-mediated interbacterial competition and cooperation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.008
       
  • Interferon-I: The Pièce de Résistance of HIV-1 Transmission?
    • Authors: Damien C. Tully; Daniel T. Claiborne; Todd M. Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Damien C. Tully, Daniel T. Claiborne, Todd M. Allen
      Despite the extensive viral quasispecies that develops in an individual during the course of HIV-1 infection, transmission is typically established by a single donor viral variant. Recent studies now provide insight into the phenotypic properties influencing this selection process at transmission, including the contribution of resistance to type I interferons.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.010
       
  • Bioengineered 3D Models for Studying Human Cell–Tuberculosis
           Interactions
    • Authors: Sulayman Benmerzoug; Valerie F.J. Quesniaux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sulayman Benmerzoug, Valerie F.J. Quesniaux
      In vivo animal models have intrinsic limitations for studying relationships between tuberculosis and its host and there is a need for alternative, in vitro cellular models. A microsphere-based 3D in vitro culture system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected human blood mononuclear cells was reported to address specific aspects of host–pathogen interactions.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.009
       
  • Dual Immunity Concomitantly Suppresses HIV-1 Progression
    • Authors: Huma Qureshi; Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Huma Qureshi, Jayanta Bhattacharya
      Broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) elicited in HIV-1+ elite neutralizers typically are unable to reduce viremia in the same individuals from whom they are isolated. A recent study reports the development of bnAbs in an elite controller that, along with the help of T cells, were associated with restricting HIV-1 progression.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.011
       
  • Genome Surfing As Driver of Microbial Genomic Diversity
    • Authors: Mallory J. Choudoir; Kevin Panke-Buisse; Cheryl P. Andam; Daniel H. Buckley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mallory J. Choudoir, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Cheryl P. Andam, Daniel H. Buckley
      Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.006
       
  • Critical Streptococcus suis Virulence Factors: Are They All Really
           Critical?
    • Authors: Mariela Segura; Nahuel Fittipaldi; Cynthia Calzas; Marcelo Gottschalk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mariela Segura, Nahuel Fittipaldi, Cynthia Calzas, Marcelo Gottschalk
      Streptococcus suis is an important swine pathogen that can be transmitted to humans by contact with diseased animals or contaminated raw pork products. This pathogen possesses a coat of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that confers protection against the immune system. Yet, the CPS is not the only virulence factor enabling this bacterium to successfully colonize, invade, and disseminate in its host leading to severe systemic diseases such as meningitis and toxic shock-like syndrome. Indeed, recent research developments, cautiously inventoried in this review, have revealed over 100 ‘putative virulence factors or traits’ (surface-associated or secreted components, regulatory genes or metabolic pathways), of which at least 37 have been claimed as being ‘critical’ for virulence. In this review we discuss the current contradictions and controversies raised by this explosion of virulence factors and the future directions that may be conceived to advance and enlighten research on S. suis pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-03-10T15:45:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.005
       
  • Collective Infectious Units in Viruses
    • Authors: Rafael
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rafael Sanjuán
      Increasing evidence indicates that viruses do not simply propagate as independent virions among cells, organs, and hosts. Instead, viral spread is often mediated by structures that simultaneously transport groups of viral genomes, such as polyploid virions, aggregates of virions, virion-containing proteinaceous structures, secreted lipid vesicles, and virus-induced cell–cell contacts. These structures increase the multiplicity of infection, independently of viral population density and transmission bottlenecks. Collective infectious units may contribute to the maintenance of viral genetic diversity, and could have implications for the evolution of social-like virus–virus interactions. These may include various forms of cooperation such as immunity evasion, genetic complementation, division of labor, and relaxation of fitness trade-offs, but also noncooperative interactions such as negative dominance and interference, potentially leading to conflict.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
       
  • KSHV microRNAs: Tricks of the Devil
    • Authors: Jie Qin; Wan Li; Shou-Jiang Gao; Chun Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
      Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 3


      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
       
  • Biofilms: Microbial Cities Wherein Flow Shapes Competition
    • Authors: Su Chuen Chew; Liang Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Su Chuen Chew, Liang Yang
      The phenotypic diversity in biofilms allows bacteria to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Stochastic gene expression and structural differentiation are believed to confer phenotypic diversity. However, two recent publications demonstrate how hydrodynamic flow and substrate topography can also alter the competitive outcomes of different bacterial phenotypes, increasing biofilm phenotypic variation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-05T14:42:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.007
       
  • Picking the Survivor! CRISPR Reveals HIV Dependency Factors
    • Authors: Kerstin Schott; Renate König
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kerstin Schott, Renate König
      A new study employs genome-wide loss-of-function CRISPR/Cas9 screening to identify three novel factors for HIV-1 entry. The factors represent promising targets for therapeutics as they are essential for HIV-1 infection, but dispensable for cell survival. The involved pathways were validated in primary CD4+ T cells, target cells for HIV-1.

      PubDate: 2017-02-26T12:44:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.004
       
  • RNA Chaperones Step Out of Hfq’s Shadow
    • Authors: Laetitia Attaiech; J.N. Mark Glover; Xavier Charpentier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Laetitia Attaiech, J.N. Mark Glover, Xavier Charpentier
      The stability and function of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) often require a specialized RNA-binding protein called an RNA chaperone. Recent findings show that proteins containing a ProQ/FinO domain constitute a new class of RNA chaperones that could play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation throughout bacterial species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.006
       
  • Cultivation-Free Raman Spectroscopic Investigations of Bacteria
    • Authors: Björn Lorenz; Christina Wichmann; Stephan Stöckel; Petra Rösch; Jürgen Popp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Björn Lorenz, Christina Wichmann, Stephan Stöckel, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp
      Raman spectroscopy is currently advertised as a hot and ambitious technology that has all of the features needed to characterize and identify bacteria. Raman spectroscopy is rapid, easy to use, noninvasive, and it could complement established microbiological and biomolecular methods in the near future. To bring this vision closer to reality, ongoing research is being conducted on spectral fingerprinting. This can yield a wealth of information, from even single bacteria from various habitats which can be further improved by combining Raman spectroscopy with methods such as stable isotope probing to elucidate microbial interactions. In conjunction with extensive statistical analysis, Raman spectroscopy will allow identification of (non)pathogenic bacteria at different taxonomic levels.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.002
       
  • Step by Step, Cell by Cell: Quantification of the Bacterial Cell Cycle
    • Authors: Matteo Osella; Sander J. Tans; Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Matteo Osella, Sander J. Tans, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      The Escherichia coli cell cycle is a classic, but we are still missing some of its essential aspects. The reason is that our knowledge is mostly based on population data, and our grasp of the behavior of single cells is still very limited. Today, new dynamic single-cell data promise to overcome this barrier. Existing data from single cells have already led to findings and hypotheses that challenge standard views, and have raised new questions. Here, we review these recent developments and propose that a systematic exploration of the correlation patterns between ‘cell-cycle intervals’ defined by key molecular events measured in many single cells could lead to a quantitative characterization of the cell cycle in terms of inherent stochasticity and homeostatic controls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.005
       
  • The Peculiar Functions of the Bacterial Extracellular Matrix
    • Authors: Anna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anna Dragoš, Ákos T. Kovács
      A biofilm is a common life form where bacterial cells crowd together surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Traditionally, the ECM is considered as a structural material that glues and shields the biofilm cells. Here we describe alternative functions of the ECM, highlighting how it benefits microbes beyond the biofilms. Next to protecting free-living cells, the ECM participates in signaling, migration, and genetic exchange either being freely shared with other species or being exclusive to siblings. Considering the structural and recently discovered functions of the ECM, we also attempt to revise its role in sociomicrobiology. In the light of recent findings, the canonical view on ECM as a passive structural material of biofilms should be revisited.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
       
  • Helicobacter pylori: A Paradigm Pathogen for Subverting Host Cell Signal
           Transmission
    • Authors: Michael Naumann; Olga Sokolova; Nicole Tegtmeyer; Steffen Backert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michael Naumann, Olga Sokolova, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert
      Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa in the human stomach and represents a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex impact of H. pylori on manipulating host signalling networks, that is, by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS). We show that H. pylori infections reflect a paradigm for interspecies contact-dependent molecular communication, which includes the disruption of cell–cell junctions and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as well as proinflammatory, cell cycle-related, proliferative, antiapoptotic, and DNA damage responses. The contribution of these altered signalling cascades to disease outcome is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T01:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.004
       
 
 
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