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MICROBIOLOGY (254 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access  
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access  
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [30 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3038 journals]
  • Staphylococcus aureus Pathogenesis: The Importance of Reduced Cytotoxicity
    • Authors: Mark S. Smeltzer
      Pages: 681 - 682
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9
      Author(s): Mark S. Smeltzer
      Toxin production clearly contributes to the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus, but that does not mean it is always in the best interest of the pathogen. Indeed, the ability to limit toxin production may provide an important mechanism for persistence, dissemination, and development of invasive disease within an individual human host.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.003
  • Bap: A New Type of Functional Amyloid
    • Authors: Patrick Di Martino
      Pages: 682 - 684
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9
      Author(s): Patrick Di Martino
      Bacteria can build a biofilm matrix scaffold from exopolysaccharides or proteins, and DNA. In a recent report, Taglialegna and colleagues show that pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus produces a protein scaffold based on amyloid assembly of fragments from the biofilm-associated protein. Amyloidogenesis occurs in response to environmental signals.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.004
  • Natural Products and the Gene Cluster Revolution
    • Authors: Paul R. Jensen
      Pages: 968 - 977
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12
      Author(s): Paul R. Jensen
      Genome sequencing has created unprecedented opportunities for natural-product discovery and new insight into the diversity and distributions of natural-product biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs). These gene collectives are highly evolved for horizontal exchange, thus providing immediate opportunities to test the effects of small molecules on fitness. The marine actinomycete genus Salinispora maintains extraordinary levels of BGC diversity and has become a useful model for studies of secondary metabolism. Most Salinispora BGCs are observed infrequently, resulting in high population-level diversity while conforming to constraints associated with maximum genome size. Comparative genomics is providing a mechanism to assess secondary metabolism in the context of evolution and evidence that some products represent ecotype-defining traits while others appear selectively neutral.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.006
  • Effects of Sialic Acid Modifications on Virus Binding and Infection
    • Authors: Brian R. Wasik; Karen N. Barnard; Colin R. Parrish
      Pages: 991 - 1001
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12
      Author(s): Brian R. Wasik, Karen N. Barnard, Colin R. Parrish
      Sialic acids (Sias) are abundantly displayed on the surfaces of vertebrate cells, and particularly on all mucosal surfaces. Sias interact with microbes of many types, and are the targets of specific recognition by many different viruses. They may mediate virus binding and infection of cells, or alternatively can act as decoy receptors that bind virions and block virus infection. These nine-carbon backbone monosaccharides naturally occur in many different modified forms, and are attached to underlying glycans through varied linkages, creating significant diversity in the pathogen receptor forms. Here we review the current knowledge regarding the distribution of modified Sias in different vertebrate hosts, tissues, and cells, their effects on viral pathogens where those have been examined, and outline unresolved questions.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.005
  • Hard-Wired Control of Bacterial Processes by Chromosomal Gene Location
    • Authors: Jelle Slager; Jan-Willem Veening
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 10
      Author(s): Jelle Slager, Jan-Willem Veening
      Bacterial processes, such as stress responses and cell differentiation, are controlled at many different levels. While some factors, such as transcriptional regulation, are well appreciated, the importance of chromosomal gene location is often underestimated or even completely neglected. A combination of environmental parameters and the chromosomal location of a gene determine how many copies of its DNA are present at a given time during the cell cycle. Here, we review bacterial processes that rely, completely or partially, on the chromosomal location of involved genes and their fluctuating copy numbers. Special attention will be given to the several different ways in which these copy-number fluctuations can be used for bacterial cell fate determination or coordination of interdependent processes in a bacterial cell.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T03:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.003
  • How Our Other Genome Controls Our Epi-Genome
    • Authors: Antonella Celluzzi; Andrea Masotti
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 10
      Author(s): Antonella Celluzzi, Andrea Masotti
      Eukaryotes and prokaryotes produce extracellular nanovescicles that contain RNAs and other molecules that they exploit to communicate. Recently, inter-kingdom crosstalk was demonstrated between humans and bacteria through fecal microRNAs. We suggest here how bacteria interact with humans via RNAs within membrane vesicles to alter our epigenome, thus filling the gap and closing the circle. At the same time, there are indications that there could be a wider inter-kingdom communication network that might encompass all known kingdoms. Now that the connection with our other genome has been established, we also should begin to explore the ‘social’ network that we have around us.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T03:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.05.005
  • Antibiotic Methylation: A New Mechanism of Antimicrobial Resistance
    • Authors: Kerri M. Malone; Stephen V. Gordon
      Pages: 771 - 772
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kerri M. Malone, Stephen V. Gordon
      In new research on Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, Warrier and colleagues have discovered a novel mode of bacterial drug resistance, namely antibiotic inactivation via N-methylation.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T23:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.003
  • The Bacterial Microbiome and Virome Milestones of Infant Development
    • Authors: Efrem S. Lim; David Wang; Lori R. Holtz
      Pages: 801 - 810
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 10
      Author(s): Efrem S. Lim, David Wang, Lori R. Holtz
      The human gut harbors a complex community of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protists, and other microorganisms (collectively termed the microbiome) that impact health and disease. Emerging studies indicate that the gut bacterial microbiome and virome play an important role in healthy infant development. In turn, the composition of the microbiome during development can be influenced by factors such as dietary, environmental, and maternal conditions. As such, the microbiome trajectory during early infancy could be predictors of healthy development. Conversely, adverse early events in life may have consequences later in life. This review focuses on our understanding of the bacterial microbiome and virome during early development, conditions that might influence these processes, and their long-term implications for infant health.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T03:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.001
  • The Ecology and Evolution of Microbial Competition
    • Authors: Melanie Ghoul; Sara Mitri
      Pages: 833 - 845
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Melanie Ghoul, Sara Mitri
      Microbes are typically surrounded by different strains and species with whom they compete for scarce nutrients and limited space. Given such challenging living conditions, microbes have evolved many phenotypes with which they can outcompete and displace their neighbours: secretions to harvest resources, loss of costly genes whose products can be obtained from others, stabbing and poisoning neighbouring cells, or colonising spaces while preventing others from doing so. These competitive phenotypes appear to be common, although evidence suggests that, over time, competition dies down locally, often leading to stable coexistence of genetically distinct lineages. Nevertheless, the selective forces acting on competition and the resulting evolutionary fates of the different players depend on ecological conditions in a way that is not yet well understood. Here, we highlight open questions and theoretical predictions of the long-term dynamics of competition that remain to be tested. Establishing a clearer understanding of microbial competition will allow us to better predict the behaviour of microbes, and to control and manipulate microbial communities for industrial, environmental, and medical purposes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.011
  • Microbes Dress for Success: Tolerance or Resistance?
    • Authors: Janelle S. Ayres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Janelle S. Ayres
      The intestinal microbiota performs essential functions for host physiology, but the specific constituents and the microbial factors required to promote host health remain largely unknown. A study by Rangan et al. suggests that members of the microbiota can modify microbial associated molecular patterns to promote host defense against invading pathogens.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T19:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.006
  • The Enigmatic Esx Proteins: Looking Beyond Mycobacteria
    • Authors: Meera Unnikrishnan; Chrystala Constantinidou; Tracy Palmer; Mark J. Pallen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Meera Unnikrishnan, Chrystala Constantinidou, Tracy Palmer, Mark J. Pallen
      Bacteria export proteins across membranes using a range of transport machineries. Type VII secretion systems (T7SSs), originally described in mycobacteria, are now known to be widespread across diverse bacterial phyla. Recent studies have characterized secretion components and mechanisms of type VII secretion in pathogenic and environmental bacteria. A variety of functions have been attributed to T7SS substrates, including interactions with eukaryotes and with other bacteria. Here, we evaluate the growing body of knowledge on T7SSs, with focus on the nonmycobacterial systems, reviewing their phylogenetic distribution, structure and function in diverse settings.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T19:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.004
  • ‘Patient 0’ and the Origin of HIV/AIDS in America
    • Authors: Zhen Gong; Xiaoyu Xu; Guan-Zhu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhen Gong, Xiaoyu Xu, Guan-Zhu Han
      The origin of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in North America remains contentious. A recent study uses phylogenetic and historical approaches to investigate the early history of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North America and shows that ‘Patient 0’ is not the source of the North American HIV/AIDS epidemic.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.005
  • Colonization of Black Smokers by Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms
    • Authors: Reinhard Wirth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Reinhard Wirth
      Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario – based on various experimental data – for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements. After reaching an optimal temperature region they scan the surface via a zigzag seek-movement and adhere via their flagella at a suitable place, building up biofilms.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.002
  • Microbiological Research Under the Nagoya Protocol: Facts and Fiction
    • Authors: Jörg Overmann; Amber Hartman Scholz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jörg Overmann, Amber Hartman Scholz
      The Nagoya Protocol is based on concepts of biological diversity that are hardly applicable to microorganisms. Because of this incongruence, the Nagoya Protocol threatens future microbial research, potentially defeating its original purpose. Countries with appropriate regulations can promote science and their bioeconomy through international collaboration and simultaneously gain a competitive advantage.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.001
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
  • Driving Apart and Segregating Genomes in Archaea
    • Authors: Daniela
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12
      Author(s): Daniela Barillà
      Genome segregation is a fundamental biological process in organisms from all domains of life. How this stage of the cell cycle unfolds in Eukarya has been clearly defined and considerable progress has been made to unravel chromosome partition in Bacteria. The picture is still elusive in Archaea. The lineages of this domain exhibit different cell-cycle lifestyles and wide-ranging chromosome copy numbers, fluctuating from 1 up to 55. This plurality of patterns suggests that a variety of mechanisms might underpin disentangling and delivery of DNA molecules to daughter cells. Here I describe recent developments in archaeal genome maintenance, including investigations of novel genome segregation machines that point to unforeseen bacterial and eukaryotic connections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
  • Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change
    • Authors: Craig Baker-Austin; Joaquin Trinanes; Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona; Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Craig Baker-Austin, Joaquin Trinanes, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
      There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria – vibrios – are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T15:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.008
  • Adaptor Proteins of Type VI Secretion System Effectors
    • Authors: Daniel Unterweger; Benjamin Kostiuk; Stefan Pukatzki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniel Unterweger, Benjamin Kostiuk, Stefan Pukatzki
      Bacteria use the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to kill neighboring cells. One key feature of the T6SS is the secretion of diverse effectors. Here, we discuss six publications that describe three superfamilies of T6SS proteins, each dedicated to mediate the secretion of cognate effectors.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T15:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.10.003
  • Protecting from Envelope Stress: Variations on the Phage-Shock-Protein
    • Authors: Riccardo Manganelli; Maria Laura Gennaro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro
      During envelope stress, critical inner-membrane functions are preserved by the phage-shock-protein (Psp) system, a stress response that emerged from work with Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. Reciprocal regulatory interactions and multiple effector functions are well documented in these organisms. Searches for the Psp system across phyla reveals conservation of only one protein, PspA. However, examination of Firmicutes and Actinobacteria reveals that PspA orthologs associate with non-orthologous regulatory and effector proteins retaining functions similar to those in Gram-negative counterparts. Conservation across phyla emphasizes the long-standing importance of the Psp system in prokaryotes, while inter- and intra-phyla variations within the system indicate adaptation to different cell envelope structures, bacterial lifestyles, and/or bacterial morphogenetic strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T15:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.10.001
  • Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes
    • Authors: Diego Forni; Rachele Cagliani Mario Clerici Manuela Sironi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
      Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are zoonotic pathogens that originated in wild animals. HCoVs have large genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ in number and sequence even among closely related CoVs. Thus, in addition to recombination and mutation, HCoV genomes evolve through gene gains and losses. In this review we summarize recent findings on the molecular evolution of HCoV genomes, with special attention to recombination and adaptive events that generated new viral species and contributed to host shifts and to HCoV emergence.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Major Differences Brushed Aside
    • Authors: Gintautas Tamulaitis; Venclovas Virginijus Siksnys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gintautas Tamulaitis, Česlovas Venclovas, Virginijus Siksnys
      For a long time the mechanism of immunity provided by the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems appeared to be inconsistent: the Type III-A Csm complex of Staphylococcus epidermidis was first reported to target DNA while Type III-B Cmr complexes were shown to target RNA. This long-standing conundrum has now been resolved by finding that the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems are both RNases and target RNA-activated DNA nucleases. The immunity is achieved by coupling binding and cleavage of RNA transcripts to the degradation of invading DNA. The base-pairing potential between the target RNA and the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) 5′-handle seems to play an important role in discriminating self and non-self nucleic acids; however, the detailed mechanism remains to be uncovered.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • NKp46 Is an NK cell Fungicidal Pattern Recognition Receptor
    • Authors: Shu Shun; Christopher Mody
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shu Shun Li, Christopher H. Mody
      Natural killer (NK) cells are an important contributor to innate host defense because of their role in direct microbial recognition and killing. Vitenshtein et al. make an important contribution by demonstrating that NK cells kill Candida glabrata using the NK activating receptor, NKp46, which recognizes the Epa adhesins.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • Does Sequence Conservation Provide Evidence for Biological Function'
    • Authors: Seila Omer; Timothy Harlow Johann Peter Gogarten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Seila Omer, Timothy J. Harlow, Johann Peter Gogarten
      Finding a signature of purifying selection in a gene is usually interpreted as evidence for the gene providing a function that is targeted by natural selection. This opinion offers a very different hypothesis: purifying selection may be due to removing harmful mutations from the population, that is, the gene and its encoded protein become harmful after a mutation occurred, possibly because the mutated protein interferes with the translation machinery, or because of toxicity of the misfolded protein. Finding a signature of purifying selection should not automatically be considered proof of the gene's selectable function.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • Rethinking Diet to Aid Human–Microbe Symbiosis
    • Authors: Muriel Derrien; Patrick Veiga
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Muriel Derrien, Patrick Veiga
      The spread of the Western lifestyle has been accompanied by microbial changes thought to underlie the emergence of chronic, nontransmissible, immune-related diseases. The past decade has seen the unprecedented development of therapies for ‘replenishing’ the microbiota of sick individuals. However, functional and ecological solutions helping the host and the gut microbiota to cope with the ecological stressors of modern life are still lacking. In this review, we discuss how recent advances in gut microbiome science are leading to the identification of microbe-derived and health-relevant metabolites. These molecules will guide the selection of the next-generation of probiotics and dietary recommendations, which should also take the resident gut microbiota into account, to optimise efficacy. These solutions for maintaining a well-functioning gut ecosystem and promoting good health should be customised, palatable, and as widely accessible as possible.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • Sugar Coating the Envelope: Glycoconjugates for Microbe–Host
    • Authors: Hanne L.P.; Tytgat Willem Vos
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 11
      Author(s): Hanne L.P. Tytgat, Willem M. de Vos
      Tremendous progress has been made on mapping the mainly bacterial members of the human intestinal microbiota. Knowledge on what is out there, or rather what is inside, needs to be complemented with insight on how these bacteria interact with their biotic environment. Bacterial glycoconjugates, that is, the collection of all glycan-modified molecules, are ideal modulators of such interactions. Their enormous versatility and diversity results in a species-specific glycan barcode, providing a range of ligands for host interaction. Recent reports on the functional importance of glycosylation of important bacterial ligands in beneficial and pathogenic species underpin this. Glycoconjugates, and glycoproteins in particular, are an underappreciated, potentially crucial, factor in understanding bacteria–host interactions of old friends and foes.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
  • A Structural and Mathematical Modeling Analysis of the Likelihood of
           Antibody-Dependent Enhancement in Influenza
    • Authors: Boopathy Ramakrishnan; Karthik Viswanathan; Kannan Tharakaraman; Vlado Dančík; Rahul Raman; Gregory J. Babcock; Zachary Shriver; Ram Sasisekharan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Karthik Viswanathan, Kannan Tharakaraman, Vlado Dančík, Rahul Raman, Gregory J. Babcock, Zachary Shriver, Ram Sasisekharan
      Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) for viral infections, such as HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza, are increasingly entering clinical development. For influenza, most neutralizing antibodies target influenza virus hemagglutinin. These bNAbs represent an emerging, promising modality for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza due to their multiple mechanisms of antiviral action and generally safe profile. Preclinical work in other viral diseases, such as dengue, has demonstrated the potential for antibody-based therapies to enhance viral uptake, leading to enhanced viremia and worsening of disease. This phenomenon is referred to as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). In the context of influenza, ADE has been used to explain several preclinical and clinical phenomena. Using structural and viral kinetics modeling, we assess the role of ADE in the treatment of influenza with a bNAb.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T08:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.003
  • Architecture of a Species: Phylogenomics of Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Paul J. Planet; Apurva Narechania; Liang Chen; Barun Mathema; Sam Boundy; Gordon Archer; Barry Kreiswirth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Paul J. Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
      A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions. The establishment of hegemony of particular clones appears to be a dynamic process of successive waves of replacement of the previously dominant clone. Here we review the phylogenomic structure of a diverse range of S. aureus, including both MRSA and MSSA. We consider the utility of the concept of the ‘core’ genome and the impact of recombination and horizontal transfer. We argue that whole-genome surveillance of S. aureus populations could lead to better forecasting of antibiotic resistance and virulence of emerging clones, and a better understanding of the elusive biological factors that determine repeated strain replacement.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T08:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.009
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae Population Genomics and Antimicrobial-Resistant
    • Authors: Kelly L. Wyres; Kathryn E. Holt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kelly L. Wyres, Kathryn E. Holt
      Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) has emerged as a major global public health problem. While resistance can occur across a broad range of Kp clones, a small number have become globally distributed and commonly cause outbreaks in hospital settings. Here we describe recent comparative genomics investigations that have shed light on Kp population structure and the evolution of antimicrobial-resistant clones. These studies provide the basic framework within which genomic epidemiology and evolution can be understood, but have merely scratched the surface of what can and should be explored. We assert that further large-scale comparative and functional genomics studies are urgently needed to better understand the biology of this clinically important bacterium.

      PubDate: 2016-10-14T08:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.007
  • Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes
    • Authors: Daniela Araújo; Mariana Henriques; Sónia Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniela Araújo, Mariana Henriques, Sónia Silva
      Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T07:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.004
  • Health Disparities and the Microbiome
    • Authors: Keisha Findley; David R. Williams; Elizabeth A. Grice; Vence L. Bonham
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keisha Findley, David R. Williams, Elizabeth A. Grice, Vence L. Bonham
      An individual's microbiome is likely to be an important contributor to certain health disparity diseases and conditions. We present a framework to study the role of the microbiome and the multiple factors that are likely to influence differences in disease predisposition, onset, and progression at the individual and population level.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T07:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.001
  • Chlamydial Plasmid-Dependent Pathogenicity
    • Authors: Guangming Zhong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guangming Zhong
      Most Chlamydia species carry a 7.5kb plasmid encoding eight open reading frames conventionally called plasmid glycoproteins 1–8 or pGP1–8. Although the plasmid is not critical for chlamydial growth in vitro, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is clearly demonstrated in the genital tracts of mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum, a model for investigating the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Plasmid-free C. trachomatis is also attenuated in both the mouse genital tract and nonhuman primate ocular tissue. Deficiency in pGP3 alone, which is regulated by pGP4, largely reproduced the in vivo but not in vitro phenotypes of the plasmid-free organisms, suggesting that pGP3 is a key in vivo virulence factor. The positive and negative regulations of some chromosomal genes by pGP4 and pGP5, respectively, may allow the plasmid to promote chlamydial adaptation to varied animal tissue environments. The focus of this review is to summarize the progress on the pathogenic functions of the plasmid-encoded open reading frames, which may motivate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenicity and development of medical utility of the chlamydial plasmid system.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T07:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.006
  • Meningococcal Biofilm Formation: Let's Stick Together
    • Authors: Jesús Arenas; Jan Tommassen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jesús Arenas, Jan Tommassen
      Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an essential constituent of the extracellular matrix of biofilms of many microorganisms. In spite of many studies, it has long remained unclear how exactly eDNA exerts its role in biofilm formation. Here, we describe recent advances that have been made in understanding biofilm formation in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Several cell-surface-exposed proteins have been identified that bind DNA and other negatively charged polymers, such as heparin, by electrostatic interactions. By virtue of these proteins, eDNA can act as an adhesive that binds the bacteria together. We provide examples that indicate that the mechanism of binding eDNA via DNA/heparin-binding proteins is a conserved feature in biofilms of many different microorganisms, including fungi.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T07:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.005
  • Bacteria Are Smartphones and Mobile Genes Are Apps
    • Authors: J. Peter W. Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): J. Peter W. Young
      Bacterial core and accessory genome components are analogous to the operating system and applications of smartphones. The core genome provides stable taxonomy and species lists, but phenotypes reflect the mobile pool of accessory genes. This suggests changes to the ways we define bacterial species and describe bacterial communities.

      PubDate: 2016-09-25T04:03:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.002
  • RNA Regulators: Formidable Modulators of Yersinia Virulence
    • Authors: Aaron M. Nuss; Ann Kathrin Heroven; Petra Dersch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aaron M. Nuss, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
      A large repertoire of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms, including a plethora of cis- and trans-acting noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), sensory RNA elements, regulatory RNA-binding proteins, and RNA-degrading enzymes have been uncovered lately as key players in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and virulence of the genus Yersinia. Many of them are strictly controlled in response to fluctuating environmental conditions sensed during the course of the infection, and certain riboregulators have already been shown to be crucial for virulence. Some of them are highly conserved among the family Enterobacteriaceae, while others are genus-, species-, or strain-specific and could contribute to the difference in Yersinia pathogenicity. Importantly, the analysis of Yersinia riboregulators has not only uncovered crucial elements and regulatory mechanisms governing host–pathogen interactions, it also revealed exciting new venues for the design of novel anti-infectives.

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T03:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.006
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 10

      PubDate: 2016-09-21T03:18:41Z
  • Microbial Genomics of Ancient Plagues and Outbreaks
    • Authors: Cheryl P. Andam; Colin J. Worby; Qiuzhi Chang; Michael G. Campana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cheryl P. Andam, Colin J. Worby, Qiuzhi Chang, Michael G. Campana
      The recent use of next-generation sequencing methods to investigate historical disease outbreaks has provided us with an unprecedented ability to address important and long-standing questions in epidemiology, pathogen evolution, and human history. In this review, we present major findings that illustrate how microbial genomics has provided new insights into the nature and etiology of infectious diseases of historical importance, such as plague, tuberculosis, and leprosy. Sequenced isolates collected from archaeological remains also provide evidence for the timing of historical evolutionary events as well as geographic spread of these pathogens. Elucidating the genomic basis of virulence in historical diseases can provide relevant information on how we can effectively understand the emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases today and in the future.

      PubDate: 2016-09-11T00:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.004
  • Biomimetic Salmonella: A Next-Generation Therapeutic Vector'
    • Authors: Sebastian Felgner; Dino Kocijancic; Vinay Pawar; Siegfried Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sebastian Felgner, Dino Kocijancic, Vinay Pawar, Siegfried Weiss
      Designing bacterial vectors for cancer therapy represents a major challenge. Recent studies have explored novel strategies to balance benefit and safety. A study by Mercado-Lubo et al. has developed a next-generation concept combining bacterial properties with nanoparticles, demonstrating efficacy in combination with chemotherapeutics.

      PubDate: 2016-09-11T00:36:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.007
  • Color Me Infected: Painting Cellular Chromatin with a Viral Histone Mimic
    • Authors: Cason R. King; Tanner M. Tessier; Joe S. Mymryk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cason R. King, Tanner M. Tessier, Joe S. Mymryk
      Viruses manipulate cellular chromatin to create a favourable milieu for infection. In several cases, virally-encoded proteins structurally mimic cellular histones to molecularly rewire the host cell. A recent study identified a novel mechanism whereby adenovirus protein VII, a viral histone, binds and manipulates host cell chromatin to suppress inflammatory signalling.

      PubDate: 2016-09-05T23:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.005
  • Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance
    • Authors: Gerard D. Wright
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gerard D. Wright
      Rooted in the mechanism of action of antibiotics and subject to bacterial evolution, antibiotic resistance is difficult and perhaps impossible to overcome. Nevertheless, strategies can be used to minimize the emergence and impact of resistance. Antibiotic adjuvants offer one such approach. These are compounds that have little or no antibiotic activity themselves but act to block resistance or otherwise enhance antibiotic action. Antibiotic adjuvants are therefore delivered in combination with antibiotics and can be divided into two groups: Class I agents that act on the pathogen, and Class II agents that act on the host. Adjuvants offer a means to both suppress the emergence of resistance and rescue the activity of existing drugs, offering an orthogonal strategy complimentary to new antibiotic discovery

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.008
  • On the Origin of CRISPR-Cas Technology: From Prokaryotes to Mammals
    • Authors: Francisco J.M. Mojica; Lluis Montoliu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francisco J.M. Mojica, Lluis Montoliu
      Clustered regularly-interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) sequences cooperate with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins to form the basis of CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems in prokaryotes. For more than 20 years, these systems were of interest only to specialists, mainly molecular microbiologists, who tried to understand the properties of this unique defense mechanism. In 2012, the potential of CRISPR-Cas systems was uncovered and these were presented as genome-editing tools with an outstanding capacity to trigger targeted genetic modifications that can be applied to virtually any organism. Shortly thereafter, in early 2013, these tools were shown to efficiently drive specific modification of mammalian genomes. This review attempts to summarize, in a comprehensive manner, the key events and milestones that brought CRISPR-Cas technology from prokaryotes to mammals.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.005
  • Emerging Technologies for Gut Microbiome Research
    • Authors: Jason W. Arnold; Jeffrey Roach; M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jason W. Arnold, Jeffrey Roach, M. Andrea Azcarate-Peril
      Understanding the importance of the gut microbiome on modulation of host health has become a subject of great interest for researchers across disciplines. As an intrinsically multidisciplinary field, microbiome research has been able to reap the benefits of technological advancements in systems and synthetic biology, biomaterials engineering, and traditional microbiology. Gut microbiome research has been revolutionized by high-throughput sequencing technology, permitting compositional and functional analyses that were previously an unrealistic undertaking. Emerging technologies, including engineered organoids derived from human stem cells, high-throughput culturing, and microfluidics assays allowing for the introduction of novel approaches, will improve the efficiency and quality of microbiome research. Here, we discuss emerging technologies and their potential impact on gut microbiome studies.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.008
  • Virocell Metabolism: Metabolic Innovations During Host–Virus
           Interactions in the Ocean
    • Authors: Shilo Rosenwasser; Carmit Ziv; Shiri Graff van Creveld; Assaf Vardi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shilo Rosenwasser, Carmit Ziv, Shiri Graff van Creveld, Assaf Vardi
      Marine viruses are considered to be major ecological, evolutionary, and biogeochemical drivers of the marine environment, responsible for nutrient recycling and determining species composition. Viruses can re-shape their host's metabolic network during infection, generating the virocell–a unique metabolic state that supports their specific requirement. Here we discuss the concept of ‘virocell metabolism’ and its formation by rewiring of host-encoded metabolic networks, or by introducing virus-encoded auxiliary metabolic genes which provide the virocell with novel metabolic capabilities. The ecological role of marine viruses is commonly assessed by their relative abundance and phylogenetic diversity, lacking the ability to assess the dynamics of active viral infection. The new ability to define a unique metabolic state of the virocell will expand the current virion-centric approaches in order to quantify the impact of marine viruses on microbial food webs.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.006
  • Antibiotic Adjuvants: Rescuing Antibiotics from Resistance
    • Authors: Gerard D. Wright
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gerard D. Wright

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.008
  • A Step Forward to Empower Global Microbiome Research Through Local
    • Authors: Victor S. Pylro; Tsai S. Mui; Jorge L.M. Rodrigues; Fernando D. Andreote; Luiz F.W. Roesch
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Victor S. Pylro, Tsai S. Mui, Jorge L.M. Rodrigues, Fernando D. Andreote, Luiz F.W. Roesch

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.007
  • Thiol-Disulfide Exchange in Gram-Positive Firmicutes
    • Authors: Lauren Davey; Scott A. Halperin; Song F. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lauren Davey, Scott A. Halperin, Song F. Lee
      Extracytoplasmic thiol-disulfide oxidoreductases (TDORs) catalyze the oxidation, reduction, and isomerization of protein disulfide bonds. Although these processes have been characterized in Gram-negative bacteria, the majority of Gram-positive TDORs have only recently been discovered. Results from recent studies have revealed distinct trends in the types of TDOR used by different groups of Gram-positive bacteria, and in their biological functions. Actinobacteria TDORs can be essential for viability, while Firmicute TDORs influence various physiological processes, including protein stability, oxidative stress resistance, bacteriocin production, and virulence. In this review we discuss the diverse extracytoplasmic TDORs used by Gram-positive bacteria, with a focus on Gram-positive Firmicutes.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.010
  • Marine Non-Cyanobacterial Diazotrophs: Moving beyond Molecular Detection
    • Authors: Deniz Bombar; Ryan W. Paerl; Lasse Riemann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Deniz Bombar, Ryan W. Paerl, Lasse Riemann
      The nitrogen input through biological N2 fixation is essential for life in vast areas of the global ocean. The belief is that cyanobacteria are the only relevant N2-fixing (diazotrophic) organisms. It has, however, now become evident that non-cyanobacterial diazotrophs, bacteria and archaea with ecologies fundamentally distinct from those of cyanobacteria, are widespread and occasionally fix N2 at significant rates. The documentation of a globally relevant nitrogen input from these diazotrophs would constitute a new paradigm for research on oceanic nitrogen cycling. Here we highlight the need for combining rate measurements and molecular analyses of field samples with cultivation studies in order to clarify the ecology of non-cyanobacteria and their contribution to marine N2 fixation on local and global scales.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.07.002
  • Host–Bacterial Crosstalk Determines Staphylococcus aureus Nasal
    • Authors: Michelle E. Mulcahy; Rachel M. McLoughlin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michelle E. Mulcahy, Rachel M. McLoughlin
      Staphylococcus aureus persistently colonizes the anterior nares of approximately one fifth of the population and nasal carriage is a significant risk factor for infection. Recent advances have significantly refined our understanding of S. aureus–host communication during nasal colonization. Novel bacterial adherence mechanisms in the nasal epithelium have been identified, and novel roles for both the innate and the adaptive immune response in controlling S. aureus nasal colonization have been defined, through the use of both human and rodent models. It is clear that S. aureus maintains a unique, complex relationship with the host immune system and that S. aureus nasal colonization is overall a multifactorial process which is as yet incompletely understood.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.06.012
  • Game of Trans-Kingdom Effectors
    • Authors: Sophie Bleves
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 August 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sophie Bleves
      TplE, a type VI secreted (phospho)lipase, has been identified as the third trans-kingdom effector of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, targeting both prokaryotic and eukaryotic hosts. Indeed, TplE triggers the killing of bacterial competitors and promotes autophagy in epithelial cells once localized to the endoplasmic reticulum.

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 9

      PubDate: 2016-08-22T21:07:08Z
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