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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2916 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (219 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (101 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1413 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (44 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (197 journals)
    - BOTANY (219 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (25 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
    - GENETICS (151 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (242 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (64 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (139 journals)

MICROBIOLOGY (242 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Histology     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Metabonomics & Metabolites     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free  
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access  
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development     Open Access  
mSphere     Open Access  
mSystems     Open Access  
Nature Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nature Reviews Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuron Glia Biology     Hybrid Journal  
New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [28 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2970 journals]
  • RIG-I-Like Receptors: One STrEP Forward
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Charlotte Lässig, Karl-Peter Hopfner
      RIG-I-like receptors detect cytosolic viral RNA and activate an antiviral innate immune response. A new study employs the one STrEP-purification technique and next generation sequencing to characterize physiological ligands in an infected cell. The view of all three RLRs bound to viral RNAs shows specialization, collaboration and new binding sites.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Regulation of Bacterial Peptidoglycan Polymerization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michel Arthur
      How bacterial cells control the activity of peptidoglycan polymerases has remained mysterious. Biochemical characterization of derivatives of penicillin-binding protein PBP1b that are functional in the absence of lipoprotein LpoB provides evidence for allosteric control of PBP1b glycosyltransferase activity via binding of LpoB to the PBP1b UBH1 domain.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • The Future of Antibiotics: Emerging Technologies and Stewardship
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jeffrey L. Fortman, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay
      Antibiotic resistance is on the rise while the number of antibiotics being brought to market continues to drop. While this is a dire situation, a number of emerging technologies have the potential to reverse this trend. These, and supporting legislative initiatives, promise to stave off the post-antibiotic era.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Zika Virus: Two or Three Lineages'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhen Gong, Yuxia Gao, Guan-Zhu Han
      Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has become an emerging concern of global public health. Several recent studies provide new insights into the evolution and diversity of ZIKV, with important implications for ongoing surveillance and control measures.


      PubDate: 2016-05-26T11:37:36Z
       
  • Involvement of Bacteria Other Than Clostridium difficile in
           Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6
      Author(s): Sarah Larcombe, Melanie L. Hutton, Dena Lyras
      Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common and unintended consequence of antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious aetiology of AAD; however, only approximately 25% of all AAD cases are associated with C. difficile infection, with the aetiology in the majority of cases remaining undetermined. Numerous other bacterial infectious agents have been implicated in AAD, including Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. AAD is a complex disease that is influenced by the host, the infectious agent involved, and numerous clinical factors, including antibiotic treatment regimes. This review re-examines AAD and presents current perspectives on this disease, with a particular focus on the current understanding of bacterial causes other than C. difficile and the virulence factors involved in pathogenesis. Video


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6
      Author(s): Nicolas Personnic, Kevin Bärlocher, Ivo Finsel, Hubert Hilbi
      Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • The Significance of Mutualistic Phages for Bacterial Ecology and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6
      Author(s): Nancy Obeng, Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Bacteria and phages have traditionally been viewed as ‘antagonists’. However, temperate phages can transfer genes, which can broaden their bacterial hosts’ metabolic repertoire, confer or enhance virulence, or eliminate competing organisms, and so enhance bacterial fitness. Recent evidence shows that phages can also promote biofilm formation leading to population-level benefits for their bacterial hosts. Here, we provide a perspective on the ecological and evolutionary consequences for the bacteria interacting with phages, when phage and host interests are aligned. Furthermore, we examine the question whether bacterial hosts can lower immune barriers to phage infection, thereby facilitating infection by beneficial phages. Taking recent evidence together, we suggest that in many cases temperate phages are to be considered as being mutualistic as well as parasitic, at the same time.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6




      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • Microbiome Data Science: Understanding Our Microbial Planet
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 6
      Author(s): Nikos C. Kyrpides, Emiley A. Eloe-Fadrosh, Natalia N. Ivanova
      Microbiology is experiencing a revolution brought on by recent developments in sequencing technology. The unprecedented volume of microbiome data being generated poses significant challenges that are currently hindering progress in the field. Here, we outline the major bottlenecks and propose a vision to advance microbiome research as a data-driven science.


      PubDate: 2016-05-20T11:24:32Z
       
  • Potential Pitfalls in Estimating Viral Load Heritability
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gabriel E. Leventhal, Sebastian Bonhoeffer
      In HIV patients, the set-point viral load (SPVL) is the most widely used predictor of disease severity. Yet SPVL varies over several orders of magnitude between patients. The heritability of SPVL quantifies how much of the variation in SPVL is due to transmissible viral genetics. There is currently no clear consensus on the value of SPVL heritability, as multiple studies have reported apparently discrepant estimates. Here we illustrate that the discrepancies in estimates are most likely due to differences in the estimation methods, rather than the study populations. Importantly, phylogenetic estimates run the risk of being strongly confounded by unrealistic model assumptions. Care must be taken when interpreting and comparing the different estimates to each other.


      PubDate: 2016-05-16T11:12:05Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • The Endurance of Microbiology: An Interview with Mike Jetten, Mark Martin,
           Ute Römling, and Victor Torres
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 5
      Author(s): Mike S.M. Jetten, Mark O. Martin, Ute Römling, Victor J. Torres



      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Rewiring the Pneumococcal Cell Cycle with Serine/Threonine- and
           Tyrosine-kinases
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christophe Grangeasse
      Over the past decade, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) has gained prominence as a model for studying the bacterial cell cycle. This important human pathogen possesses a characteristic diplo-ovococcal cell shape and produces a protective polysaccharide capsule required for virulence, and it has been used to investigate natural genetic transformation. Recent advances have demonstrated that the pneumococcus has evolved phosphorylation-dependent regulatory mechanisms dedicated to controlling cell division and ensuring the concealment of the newborn cells by the capsule. In this review, I survey the role of the only two serine/threonine- (StkP) and tyrosine-kinases (CpsD) of the pneumococcus and discuss the existence of interconnected phosphorylation networks coordinating cell division and morphogenesis with key aspects of the cell cycle.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Improving Viral Protease Inhibitors to Counter Drug Resistance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nese Kurt Yilmaz, Ronald Swanstrom, Celia A. Schiffer
      Drug resistance is a major problem in health care, undermining therapy outcomes and necessitating novel approaches to drug design. Extensive studies on resistance to viral protease inhibitors, particularly those of HIV-1 and hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease, revealed a plethora of information on the structural and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance. These insights led to several strategies to improve viral protease inhibitors to counter resistance, such as exploiting the essential biological function and leveraging evolutionary constraints. Incorporation of these strategies into structure-based drug design can minimize vulnerability to resistance, not only for viral proteases but for other quickly evolving drug targets as well, toward designing inhibitors one step ahead of evolution to counter resistance with more intelligent and rational design.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • West Nile Virus Fitness Costs in Different Mosquito Species
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lark L. Coffey, William K. Reisen
      West Nile virus (WNV) remains an important public health problem causing annual epidemics in the United States. Grubaugh et al. observed that WNV genetic divergence is dependent on the vector mosquito species. This suggests that specific WNV vector–bird species pairings may generate novel genotypes that could promote outbreaks.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Engineering Coronaviruses to Evaluate Emergence and Pathogenic Potential
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Susanna K.P. Lau, Patrick C.Y. Woo
      A recent study provides a platform for generating infectious coronavirus genomes using sequence data, examining their capabilities of replicating in human cells and causing diseases in animal models, and evaluating therapeutics and vaccines. Similar approaches could be used to assess the potential of human emergence and pathogenicity for other viruses.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • The Commonalities in Bacterial Effector Inhibition of Apoptosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Keith S. Robinson, Rochelle Aw
      Antiapoptotic pathways of the host cell play integral roles in bacterial pathogenesis, with inhibition of those pathways resulting in halted disease pathology. Certain pathogens have developed elegant mechanisms to modulate the fate of the host cell, many of which target novel pathways that are poorly understood in the context of the cell biology. Bacterial pathogenesis research not only promotes the understanding of the role of antiapoptotic pathways in bacterial infection, but has a broader context in understanding the epitome of human disease, that is, developing the understanding of tumorigenic or inflammatory pathways. Here we review host antiapoptotic signalling pathways manipulated by translocated bacterial effectors that propagate the disease state, drawing common parallels and showing the novel differences.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Right Place, Right Time: Focalization of Membrane Proteins in
           Gram-Positive Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sumitra D. Mitra, Irina Afonina, Kimberly A. Kline
      Membrane proteins represent a significant proportion of total bacterial proteins and perform vital cellular functions ranging from exchanging metabolites and genetic material, secretion and sorting, sensing signal molecules, and cell division. Many of these functions are carried out at distinct foci on the bacterial membrane, and this subcellular localization can be coordinated by a number of factors, including lipid microdomains, protein–protein interactions, and membrane curvature. Elucidating the mechanisms behind focal protein localization in bacteria informs not only protein structure–function correlation, but also how to disrupt the protein function to limit virulence. Here we review recent advances describing a functional role for subcellular localization of membrane proteins involved in genetic transfer, secretion and sorting, cell division and growth, and signaling.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Microbial Metagenomics Reveals Climate-Relevant Subsurface Biogeochemical
           Processes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Philip E. Long, Kenneth H. Williams, Susan S. Hubbard, Jillian F. Banfield
      Microorganisms play key roles in terrestrial system processes, including the turnover of natural organic carbon, such as leaf litter and woody debris that accumulate in soils and subsurface sediments. What has emerged from a series of recent DNA sequencing-based studies is recognition of the enormous variety of little known and previously unknown microorganisms that mediate recycling of these vast stores of buried carbon in subsoil compartments of the terrestrial system. More importantly, the genome resolution achieved in these studies has enabled association of specific members of these microbial communities with carbon compound transformations and other linked biogeochemical processes–such as the nitrogen cycle–that can impact the quality of groundwater, surface water, and atmospheric trace gas concentrations. The emerging view also emphasizes the importance of organism interactions through exchange of metabolic byproducts (e.g., within the carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur cycles) and via symbioses since many novel organisms exhibit restricted metabolic capabilities and an associated extremely small cell size. New, genome-resolved information reshapes our view of subsurface microbial communities and provides critical new inputs for advanced reactive transport models. These inputs are needed for accurate prediction of feedbacks in watershed biogeochemical functioning and their influence on the climate via the fluxes of greenhouse gases, CO2, CH4, and N2O.


      PubDate: 2016-05-11T10:13:17Z
       
  • Role of the Gram-Negative Envelope Stress Response in the Presence of
           Antimicrobial Agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Randi L. Guest, Tracy L. Raivio
      Bacterial survival necessitates endurance of many types of antimicrobial compound. Many Gram-negative envelope stress responses, which must contend with an outer membrane and a dense periplasm containing the cell wall, have been associated with the status of protein folding, membrane homeostasis, and physiological functions such as efflux and the proton motive force (PMF). In this review, we discuss evidence that indicates an emerging role for Gram-negative envelope stress responses in enduring exposure to diverse antimicrobial substances, focusing on recent studies of the γ-proteobacterial Cpx envelope stress response.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
       
  • Viral Carcinogenesis Beyond Malignant Transformation: EBV in the
           Progression of Human Cancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Deilson Elgui de Oliveira, Bárbara G. Müller-Coan, Joseph S. Pagano
      Cancer progression begins when malignant cells colonize adjacent sites, and it is characterized by increasing tumor heterogeneity, invasion and dissemination of cancer cells. Clinically, progression is the most relevant stage in the natural history of cancers. A given virus is usually regarded as oncogenic because of its ability to induce malignant transformation of cells. Nonetheless, oncogenic viruses may also be important for the progression of infection-associated cancers. Recently this hypothesis has been addressed because of studies on the contribution of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the aggressiveness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV products modulate cancer progression phenomena, such as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this regard, there are compelling data about the effects of EBV latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs), as well as nontranslated viral RNAs, such as the EBV-encoded small nonpolyadenylated RNAs (EBERs) and viral microRNAs, notably EBV miR-BARTs. The available data on the mechanisms and players involved in the contribution of EBV infection to the aggressiveness of NPC are discussed in this review. Overall, this conceptual framework may be valuable for the understanding of the contribution of some infectious agents in the progression of cancers.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
       
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The Odd One Out
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vegard Eldholm, François Balloux
      Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threats are typically represented by bacteria capable of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One clear exception is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It is an obligate human pathogen with limited genetic diversity and a low mutation rate which lacks any evidence for HGT. Such features should, in principle, reduce its ability to rapidly evolve AMR. We identify key features in its biology and epidemiology that allow it to overcome its low adaptive potential. We focus in particular on its innate resistance to drugs, its unusual life cycle, including an often extensive latent phase, and its ability to shelter from exposure to antimicrobial drugs within cavities it induces in the lungs.


      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
       
  • Microbial Ecology and Evolution in the Acid Mine Drainage Model System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Li-Nan Huang, Jia-Liang Kuang, Wen-Sheng Shu
      Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a unique ecological niche for acid- and toxic-metals-adapted microorganisms. These low-complexity systems offer a special opportunity for the ecological and evolutionary analyses of natural microbial assemblages. The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented interest in the study of AMD communities using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and community genomic and postgenomic methodologies, significantly advancing our understanding of microbial diversity, community function, and evolution in acidic environments. This review describes new data on AMD microbial ecology and evolution, especially dynamics of microbial diversity, community functions, and population genomes, and further identifies gaps in our current knowledge that future research, with integrated applications of meta-omics technologies, will fill.


      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
       
  • Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic
           Endomembrane System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sven B. Gould, Sriram G. Garg, William F. Martin
      Eukaryotes possess an elaborate endomembrane system with endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, and dynamic vesicle traffic. Theories addressing the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic endomembranes have overlooked the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that bacteria, archaea, and mitochondria secrete into their surroundings. We propose that the eukaryotic endomembrane system originated from bacterial OMVs released by the mitochondrial ancestor within the cytosol of its archaeal host at eukaryote origin. Confined within the host's cytosol, OMVs accumulated naturally, fusing either with each other or with the host's plasma membrane. This matched the host's archaeal secretory pathway for cotranslational protein insertion with outward bound mitochondrial-derived vesicles consisting of bacterial lipids, forging a primordial, secretory endoplasmic reticulum as the cornerstone of the eukaryotic endomembrane system.


      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
       
  • Microbial Endurance: In It for the Long Haul
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel



      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • Studying Bacterial Multispecies Biofilms: Where to Start'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Henriette L. Røder, Søren J. Sørensen, Mette Burmølle
      The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • Stress as a Normal Cue in the Symbiotic Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Julia A. Schwartzman, Edward G. Ruby
      All multicellular hosts form associations with groups of microorganisms. These microbial communities can be taxonomically diverse and dynamic, and their persistence is due to robust, and sometimes coevolved, host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions. Chemical and physical sources of stress are prominently situated in this molecular exchange, as cues for cellular responses in symbiotic microbes. Stress in the symbiotic environment may arise from three sources: host tissues, microbe-induced immune responses, or other microbes in the host environment. The responses of microbes to these stresses can be general or highly specialized, and collectively may contribute to the stability of the symbiotic system. In this review, we highlight recent work that emphasizes the role of stress as a cue in the symbiotic environment of plants and animals.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shuo Su, Gary Wong, Weifeng Shi, Jun Liu, Alexander C.K. Lai, Jiyong Zhou, Wenjun Liu, Yuhai Bi, George F. Gao
      Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • The Interplay of Dengue Virus Morphological Diversity and Human Antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Shee-Mei Lok
      Dengue virus (DENV) infects ∼400 million people annually, and there is no available vaccine or therapeutics. It is not clear why candidate vaccines provide only modest protection. In addition to the presence of four different dengue serotypes, there is also structural heterogeneity in DENV infectious particles, even within a strain. This severely complicates the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The currently known different morphologies of DENV are: immature, partially mature, compact mature, and expanded mature forms of the virus. In this review I describe these forms of the virus, their infectivity, and how antibodies could recognize these morphologies. I also discuss possible vaccine and antibody therapeutic formulations to protect against all morphologies.


      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
       
  • Functional Redundancy-Induced Stability of Gut Microbiota Subjected to
           Disturbance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Andrés Moya, Manuel Ferrer
      The microbiota should be considered as just another component of the human epigenetic landscape. Thus, health is also a reflection of the diversity and composition of gut microbiota and its metabolic status. In defining host health, it remains unclear whether diversity is paramount, or whether greater weight is held by gut microbiota composition or mono- or multiple-functional capacity of the different taxa and the mechanisms involved. A network-biology approach may shed light on the key gut players acting to protect against, or promote, disorders or diseases. This could be achieved by integrating data on total and active species, proteins and molecules, and their association with host response. In this review, we discuss the utilization of top-down and bottom-up approaches, following a functional hierarchy perspective.


      PubDate: 2016-03-17T17:24:23Z
       
  • The Use and Abuse of LexA by Mobile Genetic Elements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nadine Fornelos, Douglas F. Browning, Matej Butala
      The SOS response is an essential process for responding to DNA damage in bacteria. The expression of SOS genes is under the control of LexA, a global transcription factor that undergoes self-cleavage during stress to allow the expression of DNA repair functions and delay cell division until the damage is rectified. LexA also regulates genes that are not part of this cell rescue program, and the induction of bacteriophages, the movement of pathogenicity islands, and the expression of virulence factors and bacteriocins are all controlled by this important transcription factor. Recently it has emerged that when regulating the expression of genes from mobile genetic elements (MGEs), LexA often does so in concert with a corepressor. This accessory regulator can either be a host-encoded global transcription factor, which responds to various metabolic changes, or a factor that is encoded for by the MGE itself. Thus, the coupling of LexA-mediated regulation to a secondary transcription factor not only detaches LexA from its primary SOS role, but also fine-tunes gene expression from the MGE, enabling it to respond to multiple stresses. Here we discuss the mechanisms of such coordinated regulation and its implications for cells carrying such MGEs.


      PubDate: 2016-03-13T17:19:57Z
       
  • Oral Biofilm Architecture at the Microbial Scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maria D. Ferrer, Alex Mira
      The application of Spectral Imaging FISH to oral biofilm samples has permitted the direct, simultaneous observation of up to nine different bacterial taxa. This has revealed a complex yet organized microbial architecture, identifying the key microorganisms in the community and detecting the existing interspecies physical interactions at the micron scale.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T16:49:16Z
       
  • Dancing with the Stars: How Choreographed Bacterial Interactions Dictate
           Nososymbiocity and Give Rise to Keystone Pathogens, Accessory Pathogens,
           and Pathobionts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): George Hajishengallis, Richard J. Lamont
      Many diseases that originate on mucosal membranes ensue from the action of polymicrobial communities of indigenous organisms working in concert to disrupt homeostatic mechanisms. Multilevel physical and chemical communication systems among constituent organisms underlie polymicrobial synergy and dictate the community's pathogenic potential or nososymbiocity, that is, disease arising from living together with a susceptible host. Functional specialization of community participants, often originating from metabolic codependence, has given rise to several newly appreciated designations within the commensal-to-pathogen spectrum. Accessory pathogens, while inherently commensal in a particular microenvironment, nonetheless enhance the colonization or metabolic activity of pathogens. Keystone pathogens (bacterial drivers or alpha-bugs) exert their influence at low abundance by modulating both the composition and levels of community participants and by manipulating host responses. Pathobionts (or bacterial passengers) exploit disrupted host homeostasis to flourish and promote inflammatory disease. In this review we discuss how commensal or pathogenic properties of organisms are not intrinsic features, and have to be considered within the context of both the microbial community in which they reside and the host immune status.


      PubDate: 2016-03-09T16:49:16Z
       
  • TFH in HIV Latency and as Sources of Replication-Competent Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Brodie Miles, Elizabeth Connick
      During untreated disease, HIV replication is concentrated within T follicular helper cells (TFH). Heightened permissiveness, the presence of highly infectious virions on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), low frequencies of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in B cell follicles, expansions in TFH, and TFH dysfunction, all likely promote replication in TFH. Limited data suggest that memory TFH play a role in the latent or subclinical reservoir of HIV during antiretroviral therapy (ART), potentially for many of the same reasons. A better understanding of the role of memory TFH and FDC-bound virions in promoting recrudescent viremia in the setting of ART cessation is essential. Studies that target follicular virus reservoirs are needed to determine their role in HIV latency and to suggest successful cure strategies.


      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
       
  • Divorcing Strain Classification from Species Names
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): David A. Baltrus
      Confusion about strain classification and nomenclature permeates modern microbiology. Although taxonomists have traditionally acted as gatekeepers of order, the numbers of, and speed at which, new strains are identified has outpaced the opportunity for professional classification for many lineages. Furthermore, the growth of bioinformatics and database-fueled investigations have placed metadata curation in the hands of researchers with little taxonomic experience. Here I describe practical challenges facing modern microbial taxonomy, provide an overview of complexities of classification for environmentally ubiquitous taxa like Pseudomonas syringae, and emphasize that classification can be independent of nomenclature. A move toward implementation of relational classification schemes based on inherent properties of whole genomes could provide sorely needed continuity in how strains are referenced across manuscripts and data sets.


      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
       
  • Why Be Temperate: Lessons from Bacteriophage λ
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvain Gandon
      Many pathogens have evolved the ability to induce latent infections of their hosts. The bacteriophage λ is a classical model for exploring the regulation and the evolution of latency. Here, I review recent experimental studies on phage λ that identify specific conditions promoting the evolution of lysogenic life cycles. In addition, I present specific adaptations of phage λ that allow this virus to react plastically to variations in the environment and to reactivate its lytic life cycle. All of these different examples are discussed in the light of evolutionary epidemiology theory to disentangle the different evolutionary forces acting on temperate phages. Understanding phage λ adaptations yield important insights into the evolution of latency in other microbes, including several life-threatening human pathogens.


      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
       
  • Quantifying Current Events Identifies a Novel Endurance Regulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Theresa C. Henry, Mark P. Brynildsen
      In nongrowing microbes, proteome turnover is reduced and identification of newly synthesized, low-abundance proteins is challenging. Babin and colleagues recently utilized bio-orthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to identify actively synthesized proteins in nongrowing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, discovering a regulator whose influences range from biofilm formation to secondary metabolism.


      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
       
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolutionary Adaptation and Diversification in
           Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Lung Infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Craig Winstanley, Siobhan O’Brien, Michael A. Brockhurst
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo a characteristic evolutionary adaptation during chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, including reduced production of virulence factors, transition to a biofilm-associated lifestyle, and evolution of high-level antibiotic resistance. Populations of P. aeruginosa in chronic CF lung infections typically exhibit high phenotypic diversity, including for clinically important traits such as antibiotic resistance and toxin production, and this diversity is dynamic over time, making accurate diagnosis and treatment challenging. Population genomics studies reveal extensive genetic diversity within patients, including for transmissible strains the coexistence of highly divergent lineages acquired by patient-to-patient transmission. The inherent spatial structure and spatial heterogeneity of selection in the CF lung appears to play a key role in driving P. aeruginosa diversification.


      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
       
  • The Persistent Mystery of Adenovirus Persistence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cason R. King, Ali Zhang, Joe S. Mymryk



      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
       
  • The Immune Battle against Helicobacter pylori Infection: NO Offense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson
      Helicobacter pylori is a successful pathogen of the human stomach. Despite a vigorous immune response by the gastric mucosa, the bacterium survives in its ecological niche, thus favoring diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. The current literature demonstrates that high-output of nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible enzyme NO synthase-2 (NOS2) plays major functions in host defense against bacterial infections. However, pathogens have elaborated several strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of NO; this includes inhibition of host NO synthesis and transcriptional regulation in response to reactive nitrogen species, allowing the bacteria to face the nitrosative stress. Moreover, NO is also a critical mediator of inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this context, we review the recent findings on the expression of NOS2 in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues and epithelial cells, the role of NO in H. pylori-related diseases and H. pylori gene expression, and the mechanisms whereby H. pylori regulates NO synthesis by host cells.


      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
       
  • Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak
           Detection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Frank M. Aarestrup, Marion G. Koopmans
      Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found.


      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
       
  • A Deadly Path: Bacterial Spread During Bubonic Plague
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rodrigo J. Gonzalez, Virginia L. Miller
      Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague, a fulminant disease where host immune responses are abrogated. Recently developed in vivo models of plague have resulted in new ideas regarding bacterial spread in the body. Deciphering bacterial spread is key to understanding Y. pestis and the immune responses it encounters during infection.


      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
       
  • HIV-1 Reservoirs During Suppressive Therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kirston Barton, Anni Winckelmann, Sarah Palmer
      The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) 20 years ago has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1. Initially there was hope that ART would be curative, but it quickly became clear that even though ART was able to restore CD4+ T cell counts and suppress viral loads below levels of detection, discontinuation of treatment resulted in a rapid rebound of infection. This is due to persistence of a small reservoir of latently infected cells with a long half-life, which necessitates life-long ART. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in defining and characterizing the latent reservoir of HIV-1, and here we review how understanding the latent reservoir during suppressive therapy will lead to significant advances in curative approaches for HIV-1.


      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
       
  • Bears Arouse Interest in Microbiota's Role in Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kimberly A. Dill-McFarland, Garret Suen, Hannah V. Carey
      The first report of the effect of hibernation on the gut microbiota of bears reveals trends both similar and distinct from those found in small hibernators. A model mouse system also suggested possible roles of the microbiota for healthy weight gain and insulin tolerance in bears during their active season.


      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
       
  • Evolutionary Rationale for Phages as Complements of Antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Clara Torres-Barceló, Michael E. Hochberg
      Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage–antibiotic combined therapy.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • How Does Streptococcus pneumoniae Invade the Brain'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Federico Iovino, Jolien Seinen, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Jan Maarten van Dijl
      Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. The mechanisms by which pneumococci from the bloodstream penetrate the blood–brain barrier to reach the brain are not fully understood. Receptor-mediated adhesion of the bacteria to the brain endothelium is considered a key event leading to meningitis development. The aim of this review is to discuss recent advances and perspectives related to the interactions of S. pneumoniae with the blood–brain barrier during the events leading to meningitis. Altogether, the available data suggest that, by precisely defining the pathways and ligands by which S. pneumoniae adheres to specific receptors, it may be possible to interfere with the respective mechanisms and develop strategies to prevent or even cure pneumococcal meningitis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Multispecies Swarms of Social Microorganisms as Moving Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eshel Ben-Jacob, Alin Finkelshtein, Gil Ariel, Colin Ingham
      Microorganisms use collective migration to cross barriers and reach new habitats, and the ability to form motile swarms offers a competitive advantage. Traditionally, dispersal by microbial swarm propagation has been studied in monoculture. Microorganisms can facilitate other species’ dispersal by forming multispecies swarms, with mutual benefits. One party (the transporter) moves a sessile partner (the cargo). This results in asymmetric associations ranging from temporary marriages of convenience to long-term fellow travellers. In the context of the ‘microbial market’, the parties offer very different services in exchange. We discuss bacteria transporting bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms moving bacteria, and bacteria facilitating the spread of eukaryotes – and ask what the benefits are, the methods of study, and the consequences of multispecies, swarming logistics networks.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Harnessing the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immune System as a Eukaryotic
           Antiviral Defense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aryn A. Price, Arash Grakoui, David S. Weiss
      Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats – CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems – are sequence-specific RNA-directed endonuclease complexes that bind and cleave nucleic acids. These systems evolved within prokaryotes as adaptive immune defenses to target and degrade nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages and other foreign genetic elements. The antiviral function of these systems has now been exploited to combat eukaryotic viruses throughout the viral life cycle. Here we discuss current advances in CRISPR-Cas9 technology as a eukaryotic antiviral defense.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • RNA Structure Duplications and Flavivirus Host Adaptation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sergio M. Villordo, Juan M. Carballeda, Claudia V. Filomatori, Andrea V. Gamarnik
      Flaviviruses include a highly diverse group of arboviruses with a global distribution and a high human disease burden. Most flaviviruses cycle between insects and vertebrate hosts; thus, they are obligated to use different cellular machinery for their replication and mount different mechanisms to evade specific antiviral responses. In addition to coding for viral proteins, the viral genome contains signals in RNA structures that govern the amplification of viral components and participate in triggering or evading antiviral responses. In this review, we focused on new information about host-specific functions of RNA structures present in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of flavivirus genomes. Models and conservation patterns of RNA elements of distinct flavivirus ecological groups are revised. An intriguing feature of the 3′ UTR of insect-borne flavivirus genomes is the conservation of complex RNA structure duplications. Here, we discuss new hypotheses of how these RNA elements specialize for replication in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, and present new ideas associating the significance of RNA structure duplication, small subgenomic flavivirus RNA formation, and host adaptation.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
 
 
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