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MICROBIOLOGY (261 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 261 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Current Microbiology     Open Access  
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 41)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Current Regenerative Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Current Research in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Epigenomes     Open Access  
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Metagenomics     Unknown  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [38 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The ‘Neglected’ Soil Virome – Potential Role and Impact
    • Authors: Akbar Adjie Pratama; Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Bacteriophages are among the most abundant and diverse biological units in the biosphere. They have contributed to our understanding of the central dogma of biology and have been instrumental in the evolutionary success of bacterial pathogens. In contrast to our current understanding of marine viral communities, the soil virome and its function in terrestrial ecosystems has remained relatively understudied. Here, we examine, in a comparative fashion, the knowledge gathered from studies performed in soil versus marine settings. We address the information with respect to the abundance, diversity, ecological significance, and effects of, in particular, bacteriophages on their host’s evolutionary trajectories. We also identify the main challenges that soil virology faces and the studies that are required to accompany the current developments in marine settings.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.12.004
  • Chlamydia Spreading from the Genital Tract to the Gastrointestinal Tract
           – A Two-Hit Hypothesis
    • Authors: Guangming Zhong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guangming Zhong
      Chlamydia trachomatis, a leading bacterial cause of sexually transmitted infection-induced infertility, is frequently detected in the gastrointestinal tract. Chlamydia muridarum, a model pathogen for investigating C. trachomatis pathogenesis, readily spreads from the mouse genital tract to the gastrointestinal tract, establishing long-lasting colonization. C. muridarum mutants, despite their ability to activate acute oviduct inflammation, are attenuated in inducing tubal fibrosis and are no longer able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract, suggesting that the spread of C. muridarum to the gastrointestinal tract may contribute to its pathogenicity in the upper genital tract. However, gastrointestinal C. muridarum cannot directly autoinoculate the genital tract. Both antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and profibrotic cytokines, such as TNFα and IL-13, are essential for C. muridarum to induce tubal fibrosis; this may be induced by the gastrointestinal C. muridarum, as a second hit, to transmucosally convert tubal repairing – initiated by C. muridarum infection of tubal epithelial cells (serving as the first hit) – into pathogenic fibrosis. Testing the two-hit mouse model should both add new knowledge to the growing list of mechanisms by which gastrointestinal microbes contribute to pathologies in extragastrointestinal tissues and provide information for investigating the potential role of gastrointestinal C. trachomatis in human chlamydial pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-06T05:28:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.12.002
  • Women and Their Microbes: The Unexpected Friendship
    • Authors: Jessica A. Younes; Elke Lievens; Ruben Hummelen; Rebecca van der Westen; Gregor Reid; Mariya I. Petrova
      Pages: 16 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jessica A. Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I. Petrova
      Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women’s health. A combination of maternally linked prenatal, birth, and postnatal factors, together with environmental and medical interventions, influence early and later life through the microbiome. Here, we review the role of microbes in female health focusing on the vaginal tract and discuss how male and female reproductive microbiomes are intertwined with conception and how mother–child microbial transfer is a key determinant in infant health, and thus the next generation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.008
  • Mechanisms of Hepatitis B Virus Persistence
    • Authors: Kuen-Nan Tsai; Cheng-Fu Kuo; Jing-Hsiung James Ou
      Pages: 33 - 42
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kuen-Nan Tsai, Cheng-Fu Kuo, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects 250 million people worldwide, resulting in nearly one million deaths annually. Studies in recent years have significantly improved our knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV persistence. HBV uses multiple pathways to harness host innate immunity to enhance its replication. It can also take advantage of the developing immune system and the not-yet-stabilized gut microbiota of young children to facilitate its persistence, and use maternal viral e antigen to educate immunity of the offspring to support its persistence after vertical transmission. The knowledge gained from these recent studies paves the way for the development of new therapies for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, which has so far been very challenging.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.006
  • Genomics and Ecology of Novel N2O-Reducing Microorganisms
    • Authors: Sara Hallin; Laurent Philippot; Frank E. Löffler; Robert A. Sanford; Christopher M. Jones
      Pages: 43 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sara Hallin, Laurent Philippot, Frank E. Löffler, Robert A. Sanford, Christopher M. Jones
      Microorganisms with the capacity to reduce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to harmless dinitrogen gas are receiving increased attention due to increasing N2O emissions (and our need to mitigate climate change) and to recent discoveries of novel N2O-reducing bacteria and archaea. The diversity of denitrifying and nondenitrifying microorganisms with capacity for N2O reduction was recently shown to be greater than previously expected. A formerly overlooked group (clade II) in the environment include a large fraction of nondenitrifying N2O reducers, which could be N2O sinks without major contribution to N2O formation. We review the recent advances about fundamental understanding of the genomics, physiology, and ecology of N2O reducers and the importance of these findings for curbing N2O emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.003
  • Do Shoot the Messenger: PASTA Kinases as Virulence Determinants and
           Antibiotic Targets
    • Authors: Daniel A. Pensinger; Adam J. Schaenzer; John-Demian Sauer
      Pages: 56 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1
      Author(s): Daniel A. Pensinger, Adam J. Schaenzer, John-Demian Sauer
      All domains of life utilize protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of signal transduction. In bacteria, protein phosphorylation was classically thought to be mediated exclusively by histidine kinases as part of two-component signaling systems. However, it is now well appreciated that eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) control essential processes in bacteria. A subset of eSTKs are single-pass transmembrane proteins that have extracellular penicillin-binding-protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated (PASTA) domains which bind muropeptides. In a variety of important pathogens, PASTA kinases have been implicated in regulating biofilms, antibiotic resistance, and ultimately virulence. Although there are limited examples of direct regulation of virulence factors, PASTA kinases are critical for virulence due to their roles in regulating bacterial physiology in the context of stress. This review focuses on the role of PASTA kinases in virulence for a variety of important Gram-positive pathogens and concludes with a discussion of current efforts to develop kinase inhibitors as novel antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.010
  • Archaea Are Interactive Components of Complex Microbiomes
    • Authors: Christine Moissl-Eichinger; Manuela Pausan; Julian Taffner; Gabriele Berg; Corinna Bang; Ruth A. Schmitz
      Pages: 70 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1
      Author(s): Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Manuela Pausan, Julian Taffner, Gabriele Berg, Corinna Bang, Ruth A. Schmitz
      Recent findings have shaken our picture of the biology of the archaea and revealed novel traits beyond archaeal extremophily and supposed ‘primitiveness’. The archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the Earth’s ecosystems, and their potential to shape their surroundings by a profound interaction with their biotic and abiotic environment has been recognized. Moreover, archaea have been identified as a substantial component, or even as keystone species, in complex microbiomes – in the environment or accompanying a holobiont. Species of the Euryarchaeota (methanogens, halophiles) and Thaumarchaeota, in particular, have the capacity to coexist in plant, animal, and human microbiomes, where syntrophy allows them to thrive under energy-deficiency stress. Due to methodological limitations, the archaeome remains mysterious, and many questions with respect to potential pathogenicity, function, and structural interactions with their host and other microorganisms remain.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.004
  • The Role of the Fungal Cell Wall in the Infection of Plants
    • Authors: Ivey Geoghegan; Gero Steinberg; Sarah Gurr
      Pages: 957 - 967
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): Ivey Geoghegan, Gero Steinberg, Sarah Gurr
      The polysaccharide-rich wall, which envelopes the fungal cell, is pivotal to the maintenance of cellular integrity and for the protection of the cell from external aggressors − such as environmental fluxes and during host infection. This review considers the commonalities in the composition of the wall across the fungal kingdom, addresses how little is known about the assembly of the polysaccharide matrix, and considers changes in the wall of plant-pathogenic fungi during on and in planta growth, following the elucidation of infection structures requiring cell wall alterations. It highlights what is known about the phytopathogenic fungal wall and what needs to be discovered.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.015
  • Antiviral Strategies against PRRSV Infection
    • Authors: Taofeng Du; Yuchen Nan; Shuqi Xiao; Qin Zhao; En-Min Zhou
      Pages: 968 - 979
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): Taofeng Du, Yuchen Nan, Shuqi Xiao, Qin Zhao, En-Min Zhou
      PRRSV (porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) is a major economically significant pathogen that has adversely impacted the global swine industry for almost 30 years. Currently PRRSV is estimated to cause losses of almost US$600 million per year in the USA. Except for new mutants that continually emerge during PRRSV outbreaks, our understanding of the virology, origin, and evolution of PRRSV and the host's immune response are largely inadequate. Such limited knowledge impedes development of effective methods to eradicate this virus. In this review, we systematically describe recent advances in anti-PRRSV research, especially focusing on those techniques with the potential to transform current anti-PRRSV strategies. Furthermore, a combination of these new techniques may provide creative insights to guide future PRRSV control and prevention.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.001
  • The Other Microeukaryotes of the Coral Reef Microbiome
    • Authors: T.D. Ainsworth; A.J. Fordyce; E.F. Camp
      Pages: 980 - 991
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): T.D. Ainsworth, A.J. Fordyce, E.F. Camp
      In marine ecosystems microbial communities are critical to ocean function, global primary productivity, and biogeochemical cycles. Both prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes are essential symbionts and mutualists, nonpathogenic invaders, primary pathogens, have been linked to disease emergence, and can underpin broader ecosystem changes. However, in the effort to determine coral–microbial interactions, the structure and function of the eukaryotic microbes of the microbiome have been studied less. Eukaryotic microbes are important members of the microbiome, constitute entire kingdoms of life, and make important contributions to ecosystem function. Here, we outline the roles of eukaryotic microbes in marine systems and their contribution to ecosystem change, and discuss the microeukaryotic microbiome of corals and coral reefs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.007
  • Impact of the Microbiota on Bacterial Infections during Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Jessica Galloway-Peña; Chelcy Brumlow; Samuel Shelburne
      Pages: 992 - 1004
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
      Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy. An increased knowledge of the interplay between potential pathogens, protective commensals, and the host immune system may facilitate the development of novel biomarkers or therapeutics that could help ameliorate the toll that infections take during the treatment of cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.006
  • Navigating the Gut Buffet: Control of Polysaccharide Utilization in
           Bacteroides spp.
    • Authors: Nathan D. Schwalm; Eduardo A. Groisman
      Pages: 1005 - 1015
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): Nathan D. Schwalm, Eduardo A. Groisman
      Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions. The regulators and mechanisms controlling carbohydrate utilization are often unique to these gut-dwelling bacteria, and do not conform to those of model organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.009
  • Natural-Product Antibiotics: Cues for Modulating Bacterial Biofilm
    • Authors: Loni Townsley; Elizabeth A. Shank
      Pages: 1016 - 1026
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12
      Author(s): Loni Townsley, Elizabeth A. Shank
      Cell–cell communication enables bacteria to coordinate their behavior through the production, recognition, and response to chemical signals produced by their microbial neighbors. An important example of coordinated behavior in bacteria is biofilm formation, where individual cells organize into highly complex, matrix-encased communities that differentiate into distinct cell types and divide labor among individual cells. Bacteria rely on environmental cues to influence biofilm development, including chemical cues produced by other microbes. A multitude of recent studies have demonstrated that natural-product antibiotics at subinhibitory concentrations can impact biofilm formation in neighboring microbes, supporting the hypothesis that these compounds may have evolved as signaling molecules that mediate cell–cell interactions. In this review we discuss the role of antibiotics in modulating biofilm formation and interspecies communication in bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.003
  • Transfer of Antibiotic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Jakob Haaber; José R. Penadés; Hanne Ingmer
      Pages: 893 - 905
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jakob Haaber, José R. Penadés, Hanne Ingmer
      Staphylococcus aureus is a serious human pathogen with remarkable adaptive powers. Antibiotic-resistant clones rapidly emerge mainly by acquisition of antibiotic-resistance genes from other S. aureus strains or even from other genera. Transfer is mediated by a diverse complement of mobile genetic elements and occurs primarily by conjugation or bacteriophage transduction, with the latter traditionally being perceived as the primary route. Recent work on conjugation and transduction suggests that transfer by these mechanisms may be more extensive than previously thought, in terms of the range of plasmids that can be transferred by conjugation and the efficiency with which transduction occurs. Here, we review the main routes of antibiotic resistance gene transfer in S. aureus in the context of its biology as a human commensal and a life-threatening pathogen.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.011
  • The Emerging Roles of STING in Bacterial Infections
    • Authors: Fabio V. Marinho; Sulayman Benmerzoug; Sergio C. Oliveira; Bernhard Ryffel; V.F.J. Quesniaux
      Pages: 906 - 918
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11
      Author(s): Fabio V. Marinho, Sulayman Benmerzoug, Sergio C. Oliveira, Bernhard Ryffel, V.F.J. Quesniaux
      The STING (Stimulator of Interferon Genes) protein connects microorganism cytosolic sensing with effector functions of the host cell by sensing directly cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), originating from pathogens or from the host upon DNA recognition. Although STING activation favors effective immune responses against viral infections, its role during bacterial diseases is controversial, ranging from protective to detrimental effects for the host. In this review, we summarize important features of the STING activation pathway and recent highlights about the role of STING in bacterial infections by Chlamydia, Listeria, Francisella, Brucella, Shigella, Salmonella, Streptococcus, and Neisseria genera, with a special focus on mycobacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.008
  • Perinatal Group B Streptococcal Infections: Virulence Factors, Immunity,
           and Prevention Strategies
    • Authors: Jay Vornhagen; Kristina M. Adams Waldorf; Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Pages: 919 - 931
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M. Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
      Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections. Prevention of GBS infection in pregnancy is complex and is likely influenced by multiple factors, including pathogenicity, host factors, vaginal microbiome, false-negative screening, and/or changes in antibiotic resistance. A deeper understanding of the mechanisms of GBS infections during pregnancy will facilitate the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we summarize and discuss important advancements in our understanding of GBS vaginal colonization, ascending infection, and preterm birth.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.013
  • Unravelling HIV-1 Latency, One Cell at a Time
    • Authors: Yik Lim Kok; Angela Ciuffi; Karin J. Metzner
      Pages: 932 - 941
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11
      Author(s): Yik Lim Kok, Angela Ciuffi, Karin J. Metzner
      A single virus is capable of infecting and replicating in a single cell. Recent advances across single-cell omics technologies – genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, epitranscriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics – will offer unprecedented opportunities to gain more insights into the various aspects of the life cycle of viruses and their impact on the host cell. Here, using the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) as an example, we summarize the current knowledge and the future potential of single-cell omics in the investigation of an important aspect of the life cycle of HIV-1 that represents a major hurdle in achieving viral eradication, HIV-1 latency.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.002
  • The Role of ErbB Receptors in Infection
    • Authors: Jemima Ho; David L. Moyes; Mahvash Tavassoli; Julian R. Naglik
      Pages: 942 - 952
      Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11
      Author(s): Jemima Ho, David L. Moyes, Mahvash Tavassoli, Julian R. Naglik
      Members of the epidermal growth factor receptor family (ErbB family) possess a wide distribution and diverse functions ranging from cellular growth to migration and apoptosis. Though highly implicated in a variety of cancers, their involvement in infectious disease is less recognised. A growing body of evidence now highlights the importance of the ErbB family in a variety of infections. Their role as growth factor receptors, along with other characteristics, such as surface expression and continuous intracellular trafficking, make this receptor family ideally placed for exploitation by pathogens. Herein, we review our current understanding of the role of the ErbB family in the context of infectious disease, exploring the mechanisms that govern pathogen exploitation of this system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.009
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 26, Issue 1

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
  • Influenza H3N2 Vaccines: Recent Challenges
    • Authors: Ahmed Mostafa; Stephan Pleschka
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ahmed Mostafa, Stephan Pleschka
      H3N2-subtype influenza A viruses are major causes of seasonal influenza epidemics. Emerging H3N2 variants require the annual adjustment of the vaccine strain. Recently, studies addressing the reduced effectiveness of current H3N2 vaccines have identified production-related substitutions in the viral hemagglutinin antigen as a possible cause for reduced vaccine efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.12.003
  • Viral Macrodomains: Unique Mediators of Viral Replication and Pathogenesis
    • Authors: Anthony R. Fehr; Gytis Jankevicius; Ivan Ahel; Stanley Perlman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anthony R. Fehr, Gytis Jankevicius, Ivan Ahel, Stanley Perlman
      Viruses from the Coronaviridae, Togaviridae, and Hepeviridae families ​all contain genes that encode a conserved protein domain, called a macrodomain; however, the role of this domain during infection has remained enigmatic. The recent discovery that mammalian macrodomain proteins enzymatically remove ADP-ribose, a common post-translation modification, from proteins has led to an outburst of studies describing both the enzymatic activity and function of viral macrodomains. These new studies have defined these domains as de-ADP-ribosylating enzymes, which indicates that these viruses have evolved to counteract antiviral ADP-ribosylation, likely mediated by poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). Here, we comprehensively review this rapidly expanding field, describing the structures and enzymatic activities of viral macrodomains, and discussing their roles in viral replication and pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.011
  • Do Archaea Need an Origin of Replication'
    • Authors: Lori M. Kelman; Zvi Kelman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lori M. Kelman, Zvi Kelman
      Chromosomal DNA replication starts at a specific region called an origin of replication. Until recently, all organisms were thought to require origins to replicate their chromosomes. It was recently discovered that some archaeal species do not utilize origins of replication under laboratory growth conditions.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T04:23:58Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.12.001
  • Bacterial Flagellins: Does Size Matter'
    • Authors: Nicholas M. Thomson; Florian M. Rossman; Josie L. Ferreira; Teige R. Matthews-Palmer; Morgan Beeby; Mark J. Pallen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nicholas M. Thomson, Florian M. Rossman, Josie L. Ferreira, Teige R. Matthews-Palmer, Morgan Beeby, Mark J. Pallen
      The bacterial flagellum is the principal organelle of motility in bacteria. Here, we address the question of size when applied to the chief flagellar protein flagellin and the flagellar filament. Surprisingly, nature furnishes multiple examples of ‘giant flagellins’ greater than a thousand amino acids in length, with large surface-exposed hypervariable domains. We review the contexts in which these giant flagellins occur, speculate as to their functions, and highlight the potential for biotechnology to build on what nature provides.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T04:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.010
  • Exhaustion and Inflation at Antipodes of T Cell Responses to Chronic Virus
    • Authors: Luka Cicin-Sain; Ramon Arens
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Luka Cicin-Sain, Ramon Arens
      Viruses that have coevolved with their host establish chronic infections that are well tolerated by the host. Other viruses, that are partly adapted to their host, may induce chronic infections where persistent replication and viral antigen expression occur. The former induce highly functional and resilient CD8T cell responses called memory inflation. The latter induce dysfunctional and exhausted responses. The reasons compelling T cell responses towards inflationary or exhausted responses are only partly understood. In this review we compare the two conditions and describe mechanistic similarities and differences. We also provide a list of potential reasons why exhaustion or inflation occur in different virus infections. We propose that T cell-mediated transcriptional repression of viral gene expression provides a critical feature of inflation that allows peaceful virus and host coexistence. The virus is controlled, but its genome is not eradicated. If this mechanism is not available, as in the case of RNA viruses, the virus and the host are compelled to an arms race. If virus proliferation and spread proceed uncontrolled for too long, T cells are forced to strike a balance between viral control and tissue destruction, losing antiviral potency and facilitating virus persistence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T04:01:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.012
  • Staphylococcus aureus and Atopic Dermatitis: A Complex and Evolving
    • Authors: Joan A. Geoghegan; Alan D. Irvine; Timothy J. Foster
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joan A. Geoghegan, Alan D. Irvine, Timothy J. Foster
      Staphylococcus aureus is frequently isolated from the skin of atopic dermatitis (AD) patients during flares. The normal microbiota is disrupted and the diversity of the microorganisms on the skin is reduced. Many species that produce inhibitors of S. aureus growth decline. Strains from S. aureus clonal complex 1 are enriched among AD sufferers whereas the CC30 strains most frequently isolated from nasal carriers in the normal population are much rarer in AD. S. aureus expresses several molecules that contribute to the intensity of symptoms, including δ-toxin which stimulates mast cells, α-toxin which damages keratinocytes, phenol-soluble modulins which stimulate cytokine release by keratinocytes, protein A which triggers inflammatory responses from keratinocytes, superantigens which trigger B cell expansion and cytokine release, and proinflammatory lipoproteins. Proteases contribute to disruption of the epidermal barrier. S. aureus isolated from AD patients adheres to the deformed corneocytes from AD patients in a clumping factor B-dependent fashion. Novel targeted therapies for AD have recently been introduced to clinical practice with many more in development, including monoclonal antibodies that specifically target cytokines and their receptors, and a bacteriophage lysin that eliminates S. aureus from AD skin.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T03:46:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.008
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 12

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
  • End-in-Sight: Cell Polarization by the Polygamic Organizer PopZ
    • Authors: Matthieu Bergé; Patrick H. Viollier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Matthieu Bergé, Patrick H. Viollier
      Understanding how asymmetries in cellular constituents are achieved and how such positional information directs the construction of structures in a nonrandom fashion is a fundamental problem in cell biology. The recent identification of determinants that self-assemble into macromolecular complexes at the bacterial cell pole provides new insight into the underlying organizational principles in bacterial cells. Specifically, polarity studies in host-associated or free-living α-proteobacteria, a lineage of Gram-negative (diderm) bacteria, reveals that functional and cytological mono- and bipolarity is often conferred by the multivalent polar organizer PopZ, originally identified as a component of a polar chromosome anchor in the cell cycle model system Caulobacter crescentus. PopZ-dependent polarization appears to be widespread and also functional in obligate intracellular pathogens. Here, we discuss how PopZ polarization and the establishment of polar complexes occurs, and we detail the physiological roles of these complexes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.007
  • From Axenic to Mixed Cultures: Technological Advances Accelerating a
           Paradigm Shift in Microbiology
    • Authors: Corrado Nai; Vera Meyer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Corrado Nai, Vera Meyer
      Since the onset of microbiology in the late 19th century, scientists have been growing microorganisms almost exclusively as pure cultures, resulting in a limited and biased view of the microbial world. Only a paradigm shift in cultivation techniques – from axenic to mixed cultures – can allow a full comprehension of the (chemical) communication of microorganisms, with profound consequences for natural product discovery, microbial ecology, symbiosis, and pathogenesis, to name a few areas. Three main technical advances during the last decade are fueling the realization of this revolution in microbiology: microfluidics, next-generation 3D-bioprinting, and single-cell metabolomics. These technological advances can be implemented for large-scale, systematic cocultivation studies involving three or more microorganisms. In this review, we present recent trends in microbiology tools and discuss how these can be employed to decode the chemical language that microorganisms use to communicate.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.004
  • The Search for ‘Evolution-Proof’ Antibiotics
    • Authors: Graham Bell; Craig MacLean
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Graham Bell, Craig MacLean
      The effectiveness of antibiotics has been widely compromised by the evolution of resistance among pathogenic bacteria. It would be restored by the development of antibiotics to which bacteria cannot evolve resistance. We first discuss two kinds of ‘evolution-proof’ antibiotic. The first comprises literally evolution-proof antibiotics to which bacteria cannot become resistant by mutation or horizontal gene transfer. The second category comprises agents to which resistance may arise, but so rarely that it does not become epidemic. The likelihood that resistance to a novel agent will spread is evaluated here by a simple model that includes biological and therapeutic parameters governing the evolution of resistance within hosts and the transmission of resistant strains between hosts. This model leads to the conclusion that epidemic spread is unlikely if the frequency of mutations that confer resistance falls below a defined minimum value, and it identifies potential targets for intervention to prevent the evolution of resistance. Whether or not evolution-proof antibiotics are ever found, searching for them is likely to improve the deployment of new and existing agents by advancing our understanding of how resistance evolves.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.005
  • Modelling the Kinetic Response to Nutrient Fluctuations
    • Authors: Marco Fondi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marco Fondi
      Understanding and predicting how microbes respond to environmental fluctuations is a central challenge in present-day microbiology. Erickson et al. have proposed a quantitative and (kinetic) parameters-free model of Escherichia coli growth that successfully anticipates changes in gene expression and biomass accumulation in response to nutrients up- and down-shifts.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.009
  • Compartmentalized Antimicrobial Defenses in Response to Flagellin
    • Authors: Aneesh Vijayan; Martin Rumbo; Christophe Carnoy; Jean-Claude Sirard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aneesh Vijayan, Martin Rumbo, Christophe Carnoy, Jean-Claude Sirard
      Motility is often a pathogenicity determinant of bacteria targeting mucosal tissues. Flagella constitute the machinery that propels bacteria into appropriate niches. Besides motility, the structural component, flagellin, which forms the flagella, targets Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) to activate innate immunity. The compartmentalization of flagellin-mediated immunity and the contribution of epithelial cells and dendritic cells in detecting flagellin within luminal and basal sides are highlighted here, respectively. While a direct stimulation of the epithelium mainly results in recruitment of immune cells and production of antimicrobial molecules, TLR5 engagement on parenchymal dendritic cells can contribute to the stimulation of innate lymphocytes such as type 3 innate lymphoid cells, as well as T helper cells. This review, therefore, illustrates how the innate and adaptive immunity to flagellin are differentially regulated by the epithelium and the dendritic cells in response to pathogens that either colonize or invade mucosa.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.008
  • Human Gut Microbiome: Function Matters
    • Authors: Anna Heintz-Buschart; Paul Wilmes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anna Heintz-Buschart, Paul Wilmes
      The human gut microbiome represents a complex ecosystem contributing essential functions to its host. Recent large-scale metagenomic studies have provided insights into its structure and functional potential. However, the functional repertoire which is actually contributed to human physiology remains largely unexplored. Here, by leveraging recent omics datasets, we challenge current assumptions regarding key attributes of the functional gut microbiome, in particular with respect to its variability. We further argue that the closing of existing gaps in functional knowledge should be addressed by a most-wanted gene list, the development and application of molecular and cellular high-throughput measurements, the development and sensible use of experimental models, as well as the direct study of observable molecular effects in the human host.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.002
  • Cable Bacteria Take a New Breath Using Long-Distance Electricity
    • Authors: Filip J.R. Meysman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Filip J.R. Meysman
      Recently, a new group of multicellular microorganisms was discovered, called ‘cable bacteria’, which are capable of generating and mediating electrical currents across centimetre-scale distances. By transporting electrons from cell to cell, cable bacteria can harvest electron donors and electron acceptors that are widely separated in space, thus providing them with a competitive advantage for survival in aquatic sediments. The underlying process of long-distance electron transport challenges some long-held ideas about the energy metabolism of multicellular organisms and entails a whole new type of electrical cooperation between cells. This review summarizes the current knowledge about these intriguing multicellular bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.011
  • Antibacterial Toxins: Gram-Positive Bacteria Strike Back!
    • Authors: Anne Jamet; Alain Charbit; Xavier Nassif
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anne Jamet, Alain Charbit, Xavier Nassif
      Bacteria live in communities where strains compete with each other by deploying an arsenal of antibacterial toxins. While the past decade revealed the vast array of antibacterial toxins secreted by Gram-negative bacteria, several recent studies have begun to uncover the ability of Gram-positive bacteria to battle with their own weapons.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.003
  • Impact of HIV-1 Envelope Conformation on ADCC Responses
    • Authors: Jonathan Richard; Jérémie Prévost; Nirmin Alsahafi; Shilei Ding; Andrés Finzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan Richard, Jérémie Prévost, Nirmin Alsahafi, Shilei Ding, Andrés Finzi
      HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins (Env) represent the only virus-specific antigen exposed at the surface of infected cells. In its unliganded form, Env from primary viruses samples a ‘closed’ conformation (State 1), which is preferentially recognized by broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). CD4 engagement drives Env into an intermediate ‘partially open’ (State 2) and then into the ‘open’ CD4-bound conformation (State 3). Emerging evidence suggests a link between Env conformation and Ab-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). HIV-1-infected cells exposing Env in the CD4-bound conformation are susceptible to ADCC mediated by CD4-induced Abs and HIV+sera. Cells exposing State 1 Env are susceptible to ADCC mediated by bNAbs. Here, we discuss how Env conformation affects ADCC responses and in vitro measurements.

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T03:22:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.007
  • Antibiotic Killing through Incomplete DNA Repair
    • Authors: Benno H. ter Kuile; Marloes Hoeksema
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Benno H. ter Kuile, Marloes Hoeksema
      Two recent studies show that incomplete repair of DNA damage due to oxidized nucleotides is crucial for reactive oxygen species (ROS)-related antimicrobial lethality. Using widely different experimental approaches they both reach the same conclusions on the role of downstream ROS production in cell killing upon exposure to bactericidal antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.006
  • The Role of Interferon in Persistent Viral Infection: Insights from Murine
    • Authors: Timothy J. Nice; Bridget A. Robinson; Jacob A. Van Winkle
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Timothy J. Nice, Bridget A. Robinson, Jacob A. Van Winkle
      Persistent viral infections result from evasion or avoidance of sterilizing immunity, extend the timeframe of virus transmission, and can trigger disease. Prior studies in mouse models of persistent infection have suggested that ineffective adaptive immune responses are necessary for persistent viral infection. However, recent work in the murine norovirus (MNV) model of persistent infection demonstrates that innate immunity can control both early and persistent viral replication independently of adaptive immune effector functions. Interferons (IFNs) are central to the innate control of persistent MNV, apart from a role in modulating adaptive immunity. Furthermore, subtypes of IFN play distinct tissue-specific roles in innate control of persistent MNV infection. Type I IFN (IFN-α/β) controls systemic replication, and type III IFN (IFN-λ) controls MNV persistence in the intestinal epithelium. In this article, we review recent findings in the MNV model, highlighting the role of IFNs and innate immunity in clearing persistent viral infection, and discussing the broader implications of these findings for control of persistent human infections.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.010
  • Turning Over a New Leaf: Bacteriocins Going Green
    • Authors: Maarten G.K. Ghequire; René De Mot
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maarten G.K. Ghequire, René De Mot
      Bacteriocins are potent antibacterial proteins that selectively kill phylogenetic relatives of the producer. Their polymorphic nature, most prominent in γ-Proteobacteria, offers potential for the design of customized bacteriocin cocktails targeting Gram-negative pathogens. As an alternative to recombinant production in bacteria, they are eligible for large-scale production in plants.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.11.001
  • Not Just Antibiotics: Is Cancer Chemotherapy Driving Antimicrobial
    • Authors: Lito E. Papanicolas; David L. Gordon; Steve L. Wesselingh; Geraint B. Rogers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lito E. Papanicolas, David L. Gordon, Steve L. Wesselingh, Geraint B. Rogers
      The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology. Clinically, this model manifests as a cycle of recurrent sepsis, with each episode involving ever more resistant organisms and requiring increasingly broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. Therapies that restore the gut microbiota following chemotherapy or antibiotics could provide a means to break this cycle of infection and treatment failure.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.009
  • Quorum-Sensing Systems as Targets for Antivirulence Therapy
    • Authors: Tom Defoirdt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tom Defoirdt
      The development of novel therapies to control diseases caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens is one of the major challenges we are currently facing. Many important plant, animal, and human pathogens regulate virulence by quorum sensing, bacterial cell-to-cell communication with small signal molecules. Consequently, a significant research effort is being undertaken to identify and use quorum-sensing-interfering agents in order to control diseases caused by these pathogens. In this review, an overview of our current knowledge of quorum-sensing systems of Gram-negative model pathogens is presented as well as the link with virulence of these pathogens, and recent advances and challenges in the development of quorum-sensing-interfering therapies are discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.005
  • A Tale of Two Viruses: Does Heterologous Flavivirus Immunity Enhance Zika
    • Authors: Carlos A. Sariol; Mauricio L. Nogueira; Nikos Vasilakis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Carlos A. Sariol, Mauricio L. Nogueira, Nikos Vasilakis
      The rise of Zika virus (ZIKV) and its unusual clinical manifestations provided ground for speculative debate. The clinical severity of secondary dengue virus (DENV) infections is associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE), and it was recently suggested that previous exposure to DENV may worsen ZIKV clinical outcomes. In this Opinion article we analyze the relationship among different flaviviruses and ADE. We discuss new evidence obtained in non-human primates and human cohorts demonstrating that there is no correlation to ADE when ZIKV infection occurs in the presence of pre-existing DENV immunity. We propose a redefinition of ADE in the context of complex immunological flavivirus interactions to provide a more objective perspective when translating in vitro or in vivo observations into the clinical setting.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.004
  • A Call to Arms: Quest for a Cryptococcal Vaccine
    • Authors: Marley C. Caballero Van Dyke; Floyd L. Wormley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marley C. Caballero Van Dyke, Floyd L. Wormley
      Cryptococcosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide, particularly among AIDS patients. Yet, to date, there are no licensed vaccines clinically available to treat or prevent cryptococcosis. In this review, we provide a rationale to support continued investment in Cryptococcus vaccine research, potential challenges that must be overcome along the way, and a literature review of the current progress underway towards developing a vaccine to prevent cryptococcosis.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.002
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: November 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 11

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
  • Predictive Modeling of Influenza Shows the Promise of Applied Evolutionary
    • Authors: Dylan H. Morris; Katelyn M. Gostic; Simone Pompei; Trevor Bedford; Marta Łuksza; Richard A. Neher; Bryan T. Grenfell; Michael Lässig; John W. McCauley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dylan H. Morris, Katelyn M. Gostic, Simone Pompei, Trevor Bedford, Marta Łuksza, Richard A. Neher, Bryan T. Grenfell, Michael Lässig, John W. McCauley
      Seasonal influenza is controlled through vaccination campaigns. Evolution of influenza virus antigens means that vaccines must be updated to match novel strains, and vaccine effectiveness depends on the ability of scientists to predict nearly a year in advance which influenza variants will dominate in upcoming seasons. In this review, we highlight a promising new surveillance tool: predictive models. Developed through data-sharing and close collaboration between the World Health Organization and academic scientists, these models use surveillance data to make quantitative predictions regarding influenza evolution. Predictive models demonstrate the potential of applied evolutionary biology to improve public health and disease control. We review the state of influenza predictive modeling and discuss next steps and recommendations to ensure that these models deliver upon their considerable biomedical promise.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.004
  • Small RNA, Big Effect: Control of Flagellin Production
    • Authors: Aleksandra A. Miranda-CasoLuengo; Stefani C. Kary; Marc Erhardt; Carsten Kröger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aleksandra A. Miranda-CasoLuengo, Stefani C. Kary, Marc Erhardt, Carsten Kröger
      Many bacteria move in their environment using a remarkable, rotating nanomachine – the flagellum. In a recent publication, Choi et al. report a new addition to the group of flagellar regulators, a trans-acting small RNA (sRNA).

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.003
  • Anti-HIV Passive Immunization: New Weapons in the Arsenal
    • Authors: Ruth M. Ruprecht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ruth M. Ruprecht
      Anti-HIV passive immunization with human neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nmAbs) has made exciting gains: (i) identification of the HIV envelope V2 apex as a new in vivo protective epitope, (ii) a novel clade C SHIV for challenge studies, and (iii) a highly protective, trispecific nmAb. Potent, broad-spectrum protection by nmAbs holds promise.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:50:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.10.006
  • Transmissible Viral Vaccines
    • Authors: James J. Bull; Mark W. Smithson; Scott L. Nuismer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): James J. Bull, Mark W. Smithson, Scott L. Nuismer
      Genetic engineering now enables the design of live viral vaccines that are potentially transmissible. Some designs merely modify a single viral genome to improve on the age-old method of attenuation whereas other designs create chimeras of viral genomes. Transmission has the benefit of increasing herd immunity above that achieved by direct vaccination alone but also increases the opportunity for vaccine evolution, which typically undermines vaccine utility. Different designs have different epidemiological consequences but also experience different evolution. Approaches that integrate vaccine engineering with an understanding of evolution and epidemiology will reap the greatest benefit from vaccine transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.007
  • Roles of Endogenous Retroviruses in Early Life Events
    • Authors: Gkikas Magiorkinis; Aris Katzourakis; Pagona Lagiou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gkikas Magiorkinis, Aris Katzourakis, Pagona Lagiou
      A retrovirus that infected our ancestors 100 million years ago became a human gene that is expressed in embryos and cancers, and can be detected in the blood of pregnant women. Accumulating evidence suggests potential roles for endogenous retroviruses in early life events, which may affect adult health.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.002
  • Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management
    • Authors: Slade O. Jensen; Sebastiaan J. van Hal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Slade O. Jensen, Sebastiaan J. van Hal
      A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.006
  • Phagocytes, Antibiotics, and Self-Limiting Bacterial Infections
    • Authors: Bruce R. Levin; Fernando Baquero; Peter (Pierre) Ankomah; Ingrid C. McCall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Bruce R. Levin, Fernando Baquero, Peter (Pierre) Ankomah, Ingrid C. McCall
      Most antibiotic use in humans is to reduce the magnitude and term of morbidity of acute, community-acquired infections in immune competent patients, rather than to save lives. Thanks to phagocytic leucocytes and other host defenses, the vast majority of these infections are self-limiting. Nevertheless, there has been a negligible amount of consideration of the contribution of phagocytosis and other host defenses in the research for, and the design of, antibiotic treatment regimens, which hyper-emphasizes antibiotics as if they were the sole mechanism responsible for the clearance of infections. Here, we critically review this approach and its limitations. With the aid of a heuristic mathematical model, we postulate that if the rate of phagocytosis is great enough, for acute, normally self-limiting infections, then (i) antibiotics with different pharmacodynamic properties would be similarly effective, (ii) low doses of antibiotics can be as effective as high doses, and (iii) neither phenotypic nor inherited antibiotic resistance generated during therapy are likely to lead to treatment failure.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.005
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