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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2974 journals)
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    - BIOENGINEERING (105 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1421 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
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    - BOTANY (216 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
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    - MICROBIOLOGY (254 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (254 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 35)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access  
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [32 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal  (Not entitled to full-text)
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3039 journals]
  • Rethinking Diet to Aid Human–Microbe Symbiosis
    • Authors: Muriel Derrien; Patrick Veiga
      Pages: 100 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2
      Author(s): Muriel Derrien, Patrick Veiga
      The spread of the Western lifestyle has been accompanied by microbial changes thought to underlie the emergence of chronic, nontransmissible, immune-related diseases. The past decade has seen the unprecedented development of therapies for ‘replenishing’ the microbiota of sick individuals. However, functional and ecological solutions helping the host and the gut microbiota to cope with the ecological stressors of modern life are still lacking. In this review, we discuss how recent advances in gut microbiome science are leading to the identification of microbe-derived and health-relevant metabolites. These molecules will guide the selection of the next-generation of probiotics and dietary recommendations, which should also take the resident gut microbiota into account, to optimise efficacy. These solutions for maintaining a well-functioning gut ecosystem and promoting good health should be customised, palatable, and as widely accessible as possible.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.011
       
  • Meningococcal Biofilm Formation: Let's Stick Together
    • Authors: Jesús Arenas; Jan Tommassen
      Pages: 113 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jesús Arenas, Jan Tommassen
      Extracellular DNA (eDNA) is an essential constituent of the extracellular matrix of biofilms of many microorganisms. In spite of many studies, it has long remained unclear how exactly eDNA exerts its role in biofilm formation. Here, we describe recent advances that have been made in understanding biofilm formation in the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis. Several cell-surface-exposed proteins have been identified that bind DNA and other negatively charged polymers, such as heparin, by electrostatic interactions. By virtue of these proteins, eDNA can act as an adhesive that binds the bacteria together. We provide examples that indicate that the mechanism of binding eDNA via DNA/heparin-binding proteins is a conserved feature in biofilms of many different microorganisms, including fungi.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.005
       
  • Chlamydial Plasmid-Dependent Pathogenicity
    • Authors: Guangming Zhong
      Pages: 141 - 152
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2
      Author(s): Guangming Zhong
      Most Chlamydia species carry a 7.5kb plasmid encoding eight open reading frames conventionally called plasmid glycoproteins 1–8 or pGP1–8. Although the plasmid is not critical for chlamydial growth in vitro, its role in chlamydial pathogenesis is clearly demonstrated in the genital tracts of mice infected with Chlamydia muridarum, a model for investigating the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis. Plasmid-free C. trachomatis is also attenuated in both the mouse genital tract and nonhuman primate ocular tissue. Deficiency in pGP3 alone, which is regulated by pGP4, largely reproduced the in vivo but not in vitro phenotypes of the plasmid-free organisms, suggesting that pGP3 is a key in vivo virulence factor. The positive and negative regulations of some chromosomal genes by pGP4 and pGP5, respectively, may allow the plasmid to promote chlamydial adaptation to varied animal tissue environments. The focus of this review is to summarize the progress on the pathogenic functions of the plasmid-encoded open reading frames, which may motivate further investigation of the molecular mechanisms of chlamydial pathogenicity and development of medical utility of the chlamydial plasmid system.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.006
       
  • Architecture of a Species: Phylogenomics of Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Paul J. Planet; Apurva Narechania; Liang Chen; Barun Mathema; Sam Boundy; Gordon Archer; Barry Kreiswirth
      Pages: 153 - 166
      Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2
      Author(s): Paul J. Planet, Apurva Narechania, Liang Chen, Barun Mathema, Sam Boundy, Gordon Archer, Barry Kreiswirth
      A deluge of whole-genome sequencing has begun to give insights into the patterns and processes of microbial evolution, but genome sequences have accrued in a haphazard manner, with biased sampling of natural variation that is driven largely by medical and epidemiological priorities. For instance, there is a strong bias for sequencing epidemic lineages of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) over sensitive isolates (methicillin-sensitive S. aureus: MSSA). As more diverse genomes are sequenced the emerging picture is of a highly subdivided species with a handful of relatively clonal groups (complexes) that, at any given moment, dominate in particular geographical regions. The establishment of hegemony of particular clones appears to be a dynamic process of successive waves of replacement of the previously dominant clone. Here we review the phylogenomic structure of a diverse range of S. aureus, including both MRSA and MSSA. We consider the utility of the concept of the ‘core’ genome and the impact of recombination and horizontal transfer. We argue that whole-genome surveillance of S. aureus populations could lead to better forecasting of antibiotic resistance and virulence of emerging clones, and a better understanding of the elusive biological factors that determine repeated strain replacement.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.009
       
  • Langerhans Cells: the ‘Yin and Yang’ of HIV Restriction and
           Transmission
    • Authors: Luzia Mayr; Bin Su; Christiane Moog
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Luzia Mayr, Bin Su, Christiane Moog
      Langerhans cells are specialized sentinels present in the epidermis expressing Langerin, a specific C-type lectin receptor involved in HIV capture and destruction. Recently, the specific mechanism leading to this HIV restriction was discovered. Nevertheless, Langerhans cells can be infected and the way HIV escapes this restriction needs to be unraveled.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.009
       
  • RNA Chaperones Step Out of Hfq’s Shadow
    • Authors: Laetitia Attaiech; J.N. Mark Glover; Xavier Charpentier
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Laetitia Attaiech, J.N. Mark Glover, Xavier Charpentier
      The stability and function of regulatory small RNAs (sRNAs) often require a specialized RNA-binding protein called an RNA chaperone. Recent findings show that proteins containing a ProQ/FinO domain constitute a new class of RNA chaperones that could play key roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation throughout bacterial species.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.006
       
  • Cultivation-Free Raman Spectroscopic Investigations of Bacteria
    • Authors: Björn Lorenz; Christina Wichmann; Stephan Stöckel; Petra Rösch; Jürgen Popp
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Björn Lorenz, Christina Wichmann, Stephan Stöckel, Petra Rösch, Jürgen Popp
      Raman spectroscopy is currently advertised as a hot and ambitious technology that has all of the features needed to characterize and identify bacteria. Raman spectroscopy is rapid, easy to use, noninvasive, and it could complement established microbiological and biomolecular methods in the near future. To bring this vision closer to reality, ongoing research is being conducted on spectral fingerprinting. This can yield a wealth of information, from even single bacteria from various habitats which can be further improved by combining Raman spectroscopy with methods such as stable isotope probing to elucidate microbial interactions. In conjunction with extensive statistical analysis, Raman spectroscopy will allow identification of (non)pathogenic bacteria at different taxonomic levels.

      PubDate: 2017-02-12T08:51:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.002
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 2


      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
       
  • A New Way to Beat Intestinal Pathogens
    • Authors: Corrella S. Detweiler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Corrella S. Detweiler
      In the gastrointestinal tract, the tug of war for iron may provide a new way to vaccinate. Recent work shows that immunizing mice with siderophores (small molecules that microbes produce to capture iron) foils pathogen colonization and may instead allow a commensal to expand.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.003
       
  • Transcriptional Regulation of Antiviral Interferon-Stimulated Genes
    • Authors: Wenshi Wang; Lei Xu; Junhong Su; Maikel P. Peppelenbosch; Qiuwei Pan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Wenshi Wang, Lei Xu, Junhong Su, Maikel P. Peppelenbosch, Qiuwei Pan
      Interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) are a group of gene products that coordinately combat pathogen invasions, in particular viral infections. Transcription of ISGs occurs rapidly upon pathogen invasion, and this is classically provoked via activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK–STAT) pathway, mainly by interferons (IFNs). However, a plethora of recent studies have reported a variety of non-canonical mechanisms regulating ISG transcription. These new studies are extremely important for understanding the quantitative and temporal differences in ISG transcription under specific circumstances. Because these canonical and non-canonical regulatory mechanisms are essential for defining the nature of host defense and associated detrimental proinflammatory effects, we comprehensively review the state of this rapidly evolving field and the clinical implications of recently acquired knowledge in this respect.

      PubDate: 2017-01-30T06:04:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.01.001
       
  • Marine Bacterioplankton Seasonal Succession Dynamics
    • Authors: Carina Bunse; Jarone Pinhassi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Carina Bunse, Jarone Pinhassi
      Bacterioplankton (bacteria and archaea) are indispensable regulators of global element cycles owing to their unique ability to decompose and remineralize dissolved organic matter. These microorganisms in surface waters worldwide exhibit pronounced seasonal succession patterns, governed by physicochemical factors (e.g., light, climate, and nutrient loading) that are determined by latitude and distance to shore. Moreover, we emphasize that the effects of large-scale factors are modulated regionally, and over shorter timespans (days to weeks), by biological interactions including molecule exchanges, viral lysis, and grazing. Thus the interplay and scaling between factors ultimately determine the success of particular bacterial populations. Spatiotemporal surveys of bacterioplankton community composition provide the necessary frame for interpreting how the distinct metabolisms encoded in the genomes of different bacteria regulate biogeochemical cycles.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.013
       
  • Resource Reallocation in Bacteria by Reengineering the Gene Expression
           Machinery
    • Authors: Hidde de Jong; Johannes Geiselmann; Delphine Ropers
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Hidde de Jong, Johannes Geiselmann, Delphine Ropers
      Bacteria have evolved complex regulatory networks to control the activity of transcription and translation, and thus the growth rate, over a range of environmental conditions. Reengineering RNA polymerase and ribosomes allows modifying naturally evolved regulatory networks and thereby profoundly reorganizing the manner in which bacteria allocate resources to different cellular functions. This opens new opportunities for our fundamental understanding of microbial physiology and for a variety of applications. Recent breakthroughs in genome engineering and the miniaturization and automation of culturing methods have offered new perspectives for the reengineering of the transcription and translation machinery in bacteria as well as the development of novel in vitro and in vivo gene expression systems. We review different examples from the unifying perspective of resource reallocation, and discuss the impact of these approaches for microbial systems biology and biotechnological applications.

      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:07:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.009
       
  • A Chiral Pentagonal Polyhedral Framework for Characterizing Virus Capsid
           Structures
    • Authors: Aditya Raguram; V. Sasisekharan; Ram Sasisekharan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aditya Raguram, V. Sasisekharan, Ram Sasisekharan
      Recent developments of rational strategies for the design of antiviral therapies, including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), have naturally relied extensively on available viral structural information. As new strategies continue to be developed, it is equally important to continue to refine our understanding and interpretation of viral structural data. There are known limitations to the traditional (Caspar–Klug) theory for describing virus capsid structures that involves subdividing a capsid into triangular subunits. In this context, we describe a more general polyhedral framework for describing virus capsid structures that is able to account for many of these limitations, including a more thorough characterization of intersubunit interfaces. Additionally, our use of pentagonal subunits instead of triangular ones accounts for the intrinsic chirality observed in all capsids. In conjunction with the existing theory, the framework presented here provides a more complete picture of a capsid’s structure and therefore can help contribute to the development of more effective antiviral strategies.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.007
       
  • Can MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry Reasonably Type Bacteria?
    • Authors: Marlène Sauget; Benoît Valot; Xavier Bertrand; Didier Hocquet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marlène Sauget, Benoît Valot, Xavier Bertrand, Didier Hocquet
      Bacterial typing is crucial to tackle the spread of bacterial pathogens but current methods are time-consuming and costly. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has been recently integrated into the microbiology laboratory workflow for a quick and low-cost microbial species identification. Independent research groups have successfully redirected the original function of this technology from their primary purpose to discriminate subgroups within pathogen species. However, identical bacterial subgroups could be identified by unrelated peaks by independent methods, thus limiting their robustness and exportability. We propose several guidelines that could improve the performance of MALDI-TOF MS-based typing methods for use as a first-line epidemiological tool.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.006
       
  • Step by Step, Cell by Cell: Quantification of the Bacterial Cell Cycle
    • Authors: Matteo Osella; Sander J. Tans; Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Matteo Osella, Sander J. Tans, Marco Cosentino Lagomarsino
      The Escherichia coli cell cycle is a classic, but we are still missing some of its essential aspects. The reason is that our knowledge is mostly based on population data, and our grasp of the behavior of single cells is still very limited. Today, new dynamic single-cell data promise to overcome this barrier. Existing data from single cells have already led to findings and hypotheses that challenge standard views, and have raised new questions. Here, we review these recent developments and propose that a systematic exploration of the correlation patterns between ‘cell-cycle intervals’ defined by key molecular events measured in many single cells could lead to a quantitative characterization of the cell cycle in terms of inherent stochasticity and homeostatic controls.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.005
       
  • The Role of Reactive Oxygen Species in Antibiotic-Mediated Killing of
           Bacteria
    • Authors: Heleen Van Acker; Tom Coenye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Heleen Van Acker, Tom Coenye
      Recently, it was proposed that there is a common mechanism behind the activity of bactericidal antibiotics, involving the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, the involvement of ROS in antibiotic-mediated killing has become the subject of much debate. In the present review, we provide an overview of the data supporting the ROS hypothesis; we also present data that explain the contradictory results often obtained when studying antibiotic-induced ROS production. For this latter aspect we will focus on the importance of taking the experimental setup into consideration and on the importance of some technical aspects of the assays typically used. Finally, we discuss the link between ROS production and toxin–antitoxin modules, and present an overview of implications for treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.008
       
  • Ecology of the Oral Microbiome: Beyond Bacteria
    • Authors: Jonathon L. Baker; Batbileg Bor; Melissa Agnello; Wenyuan Shi; Xuesong He
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathon L. Baker, Batbileg Bor, Melissa Agnello, Wenyuan Shi, Xuesong He
      Although great strides have been made in understanding the complex bacterial community inhabiting the human oral cavity, for a variety of (mainly technical) reasons the ecological contributions of oral fungi, viruses, phages, and the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group of ultrasmall bacteria have remained understudied. Several recent reports have illustrated the diversity and importance of these organisms in the oral cavity, while TM7x and Candida albicans have served as crucial paradigms for CPR species and oral fungi, respectively. A comprehensive understanding of the oral microbiota and its influence on host health and disease will require a holistic view that emphasizes interactions among different residents within the oral community, as well as their interaction with the host.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.012
       
  • The Peculiar Functions of the Bacterial Extracellular Matrix
    • Authors: Anna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anna Dragoš, Ákos T. Kovács
      A biofilm is a common life form where bacterial cells crowd together surrounded by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Traditionally, the ECM is considered as a structural material that glues and shields the biofilm cells. Here we describe alternative functions of the ECM, highlighting how it benefits microbes beyond the biofilms. Next to protecting free-living cells, the ECM participates in signaling, migration, and genetic exchange either being freely shared with other species or being exclusive to siblings. Considering the structural and recently discovered functions of the ECM, we also attempt to revise its role in sociomicrobiology. In the light of recent findings, the canonical view on ECM as a passive structural material of biofilms should be revisited.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
       
  • Predatory Bacteria: Moving from Curiosity Towards Curative
    • Authors: J. Tyson; R.E. Sockett
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): J. Tyson, R.E. Sockett
      In a world where infection-causing, pathogenic bacteria are evolving resistance to conventional antibiotics, new solutions are needed. One proposal is the use of predatory bacteria as living antibiotics. Two new papers show that predators are not harmful and can kill pathogens inside live animals, a very positive step forward.

      PubDate: 2017-01-16T02:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.011
       
  • Helicobacter pylori: A Paradigm Pathogen for Subverting Host Cell Signal
           Transmission
    • Authors: Michael Naumann; Olga Sokolova; Nicole Tegtmeyer; Steffen Backert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michael Naumann, Olga Sokolova, Nicole Tegtmeyer, Steffen Backert
      Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric mucosa in the human stomach and represents a major risk factor for peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the complex impact of H. pylori on manipulating host signalling networks, that is, by the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI)-encoded type IV secretion system (T4SS). We show that H. pylori infections reflect a paradigm for interspecies contact-dependent molecular communication, which includes the disruption of cell–cell junctions and cytoskeletal rearrangements, as well as proinflammatory, cell cycle-related, proliferative, antiapoptotic, and DNA damage responses. The contribution of these altered signalling cascades to disease outcome is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-01-08T01:36:39Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.004
       
  • RNA Regulators: Formidable Modulators of Yersinia Virulence
    • Authors: Aaron M. Nuss; Ann Kathrin Heroven; Petra Dersch
      Pages: 19 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 1
      Author(s): Aaron M. Nuss, Ann Kathrin Heroven, Petra Dersch
      A large repertoire of RNA-based regulatory mechanisms, including a plethora of cis- and trans-acting noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), sensory RNA elements, regulatory RNA-binding proteins, and RNA-degrading enzymes have been uncovered lately as key players in the regulation of metabolism, stress responses, and virulence of the genus Yersinia. Many of them are strictly controlled in response to fluctuating environmental conditions sensed during the course of the infection, and certain riboregulators have already been shown to be crucial for virulence. Some of them are highly conserved among the family Enterobacteriaceae, while others are genus-, species-, or strain-specific and could contribute to the difference in Yersinia pathogenicity. Importantly, the analysis of Yersinia riboregulators has not only uncovered crucial elements and regulatory mechanisms governing host–pathogen interactions, it also revealed exciting new venues for the design of novel anti-infectives.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T22:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.006
       
  • The Ecological Role of Volatile and Soluble Secondary Metabolites Produced
           by Soil Bacteria
    • Authors: Olaf Tyc; ; Chunxu Song; Jeroen S. Dickschat; Michiel Vos; Paolina Garbeva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Olaf Tyc , Chunxu Song, Jeroen S. Dickschat, Michiel Vos, Paolina Garbeva
      The rich diversity of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria has been appreciated for over a century, and advances in chemical analysis and genome sequencing continue to greatly advance our understanding of this biochemical complexity. However, we are just at the beginning of understanding the physicochemical properties of bacterial metabolites, the factors that govern their production and ecological roles. Interspecific interactions and competitor sensing are among the main biotic factors affecting the production of bacterial secondary metabolites. Many soil bacteria produce both volatile and soluble compounds. In contrast to soluble compounds, volatile organic compounds can diffuse easily through air- and gas-filled pores in the soil and likely play an important role in long-distance microbial interactions. In this review we provide an overview of the most important soluble and volatile classes of secondary metabolites produced by soil bacteria, their ecological roles, and their possible synergistic effects.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T22:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.002
       
  • Rules of Engagement: The Type VI Secretion System in Vibrio cholerae
    • Authors: Avatar Joshi; Benjamin Kostiuk; Andrew Rogers; Jennifer Teschler; Stefan Pukatzki; Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Avatar Joshi, Benjamin Kostiuk, Andrew Rogers, Jennifer Teschler, Stefan Pukatzki, Fitnat H. Yildiz
      Microbial species often exist in complex communities where they must avoid predation and compete for favorable niches. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a contact-dependent bacterial weapon that allows for direct killing of competitors through the translocation of proteinaceous toxins. Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative pathogen that can use its T6SS during antagonistic interactions with neighboring prokaryotic and eukaryotic competitors. The T6SS not only promotes V. cholerae's survival during its aquatic and host life cycles, but also influences its evolution by facilitating horizontal gene transfer. This review details the recent insights regarding the structure and function of the T6SS as well as the diverse signals and regulatory pathways that control its activation in V. cholerae.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T22:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.003
       
  • The ‘Antibiotic Apocalypse’ – Scaremongering or
           Scientific Reporting?
    • Authors: Jonathan A .G. Cox; Tony Worthington
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan A .G. Cox, Tony Worthington
      Antimicrobial resistance is dominating scientific media. We are warned of an impending ‘antibiotic apocalypse’, where mankind faces its biggest threat, untreatable microbes. However, the world is not ending. Scientists are responding to the threat; new knowledge and chemotherapeutics are being created to safeguard our future. The future is bright, not gloomy.

      PubDate: 2016-12-29T22:37:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.016
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 1


      PubDate: 2016-12-22T22:00:25Z
       
  • From Catheter to Kidney Stone: The Uropathogenic Lifestyle of Proteus
           mirabilis
    • Authors: Allison N. Norsworthy; Melanie M. Pearson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Allison N. Norsworthy, Melanie M. Pearson
      Proteus mirabilis is a model organism for urease-producing uropathogens. These diverse bacteria cause infection stones in the urinary tract and form crystalline biofilms on indwelling urinary catheters, frequently leading to polymicrobial infection. Recent work has elucidated how P. mirabilis causes all of these disease states. Particularly exciting is the discovery that this bacterium forms large clusters in the bladder lumen that are sites for stone formation. These clusters, and other steps of infection, require two virulence factors in particular: urease and MR/P fimbriae. Highlighting the importance of MR/P fimbriae is the cotranscribed regulator, MrpJ, which globally controls virulence. Overall, P. mirabilis exhibits an extraordinary lifestyle, and further probing will answer exciting basic microbiological and clinically relevant questions.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T22:00:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.015
       
  • Assessing the Risk of Antibiotic Resistance Transmission from the
           Environment to Humans: Non-Direct Proportionality between Abundance and
           Risk
    • Authors: Manaia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Célia M. Manaia
      The past decade has witnessed a burst of study regarding antibiotic resistance in the environment, mainly in areas under anthropogenic influence. Therefore, impacts of the contaminant resistome, that is, those related to human activities, are now recognized. However, a key issue refers to the risk of transmission of resistance to humans, for which a quantitative model is urgently needed. This opinion paper makes an overview of some risk-determinant variables and raises questions regarding research needs. A major conclusion is that the risks of transmission of antibiotic resistance from the environment to humans must be managed under the precautionary principle, because it may be too late to act if we wait until we have concrete risk values.

      PubDate: 2016-12-22T22:00:25Z
       
  • The DSF Family of Quorum Sensing Signals: Diversity, Biosynthesis, and
           Turnover
    • Authors: Lian Zhou; Lian-Hui Zhang; Miguel Cámara; Ya-Wen He
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lian Zhou, Lian-Hui Zhang, Miguel Cámara, Ya-Wen He
      The diffusible signaling factor (DSF)-based quorum sensing (QS) system has emerged as a widely conserved cell–cell communication mechanism in Gram-negative bacteria. Typically, signals from the DSF family are cis-2-unsaturated fatty acids which regulate diverse biological functions. Recently, substantial progress has been made on the characterization of new members of this family of signals. There have also been new developments in the understanding of the biosynthesis of these molecules where dual enzymatic activities of the DSF synthase and the use of various substrates have been described. The recent discovery of a naturally occurring DSF turnover mechanism and its regulation provides a new dimension in our understanding of how DSF-dependent microorganisms modulate virulence gene expression in response to changes in the surrounding environment.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T20:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.013
       
  • Metal Oxide Reduction Linked to Anaerobic Methane Oxidation
    • Authors: Oluwatobi E. Oni; Michael W. Friedrich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Oluwatobi E. Oni, Michael W. Friedrich
      Microbial methanotrophy is important in mitigating methane emissions to the atmosphere. Geochemical evidence suggests the occurrence of anaerobic methane oxidation with metal oxides in natural environments. A study has now identified, for the first time, novel freshwater archaea of the order Methanosarcinales that can oxidize methane with Fe(III) and Mn(IV) minerals as electron acceptors.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T20:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.12.001
       
  • Herpesviruses and Their Host Cells: A Successful Liaison
    • Authors: Barbara Adler; Christine Sattler; Heiko Adler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Barbara Adler, Christine Sattler, Heiko Adler
      During a long history of coevolution, herpesviruses have reached a fine-tuned balance with their hosts, allowing them to successfully persist and spread to new hosts without causing too much damage. Only under certain circumstances, as in neonates or immunocompromised individuals, they may cause serious diseases. The delicate balance between herpesviruses and their hosts results from interactions of a great variety of viral and cellular factors which together shape the tropism for a particular host, tissue, or cell. Understanding these interactions will provide insight into the viral life cycle and cell biology in general. Moreover, it will also facilitate comprehension of herpesvirus pathogenesis, enabling the development of new strategies to combat herpesviruses in cases where they cause disease.

      PubDate: 2016-12-14T20:56:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.009
       
  • Spray-Induced Gene Silencing: a Powerful Innovative Strategy for Crop
           Protection
    • Authors: Ming Wang; Hailing Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ming Wang, Hailing Jin
      Plant pathogens cause serious crop losses worldwide. Recent new studies demonstrate that spraying double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and small RNAs (sRNAs) that target essential pathogen genes on plant surfaces confer efficient crop protection. This so-called spray-induced gene silencing (SIGS) strategy of disease control is potentially sustainable and environmentally friendly.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T19:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.011
       
  • Protecting from Envelope Stress: Variations on the Phage-Shock-Protein
           Theme
    • Authors: Riccardo Manganelli; Maria Laura Gennaro
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Riccardo Manganelli, Maria Laura Gennaro


      PubDate: 2016-12-07T19:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.10.001
       
  • Defining the Core Microbiome in Corals’ Microbial Soup
    • Authors: Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda; Ruth D. Gates; Tracy D. Ainsworth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alejandra Hernandez-Agreda, Ruth D. Gates, Tracy D. Ainsworth
      Corals are considered one of the most complex microbial biospheres studied to date, hosting thousands of bacterial phylotypes in species-specific associations. There are, however, substantial knowledge gaps and challenges in understanding the functional significance of bacterial communities and bacterial symbioses of corals. The ubiquitous nature of some bacterial interactions has only recently been investigated and an accurate differentiation between the healthy (symbiotic) and unhealthy (dysbiotic) microbial state has not yet been determined. Here we review the complexity of the coral holobiont, coral microbiome diversity, and recently proposed bacterial symbioses of corals. We provide insight into coupling the core microbiome framework with community ecology principals, and draw on the theoretical insights from other complex systems, to build a framework to aid in deciphering ecologically significant microbes within a corals' microbial soup.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T19:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.003
       
  • Decoding the Ecological Function of Accessory Genome
    • Authors: Michelle Qiu Carter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Michelle Qiu Carter
      Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 primarily resides in cattle asymptomatically, and can be transmitted to humans through food. A study by Lupolova et al. applied a machine-learning approach to complex pan-genome information and predicted that only a small subset of bovine isolates have the potential to cause diseases in humans.

      PubDate: 2016-12-07T19:58:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.012
       
  • Microbes Dress for Success: Tolerance or Resistance?
    • Authors: Janelle S. Ayres
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Janelle S. Ayres
      The intestinal microbiota performs essential functions for host physiology, but the specific constituents and the microbial factors required to promote host health remain largely unknown. A study by Rangan et al. suggests that members of the microbiota can modify microbial associated molecular patterns to promote host defense against invading pathogens.

      PubDate: 2016-11-30T19:03:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.006
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12


      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
       
  • Driving Apart and Segregating Genomes in Archaea
    • Authors: Daniela
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 12
      Author(s): Daniela Barillà
      Genome segregation is a fundamental biological process in organisms from all domains of life. How this stage of the cell cycle unfolds in Eukarya has been clearly defined and considerable progress has been made to unravel chromosome partition in Bacteria. The picture is still elusive in Archaea. The lineages of this domain exhibit different cell-cycle lifestyles and wide-ranging chromosome copy numbers, fluctuating from 1 up to 55. This plurality of patterns suggests that a variety of mechanisms might underpin disentangling and delivery of DNA molecules to daughter cells. Here I describe recent developments in archaeal genome maintenance, including investigations of novel genome segregation machines that point to unforeseen bacterial and eukaryotic connections.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
       
  • Microbiological Research Under the Nagoya Protocol: Facts and Fiction
    • Authors: Jörg Overmann; Amber Hartman Scholz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jörg Overmann, Amber Hartman Scholz
      The Nagoya Protocol is based on concepts of biological diversity that are hardly applicable to microorganisms. Because of this incongruence, the Nagoya Protocol threatens future microbial research, potentially defeating its original purpose. Countries with appropriate regulations can promote science and their bioeconomy through international collaboration and simultaneously gain a competitive advantage.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.001
       
  • Colonization of Black Smokers by Hyperthermophilic Microorganisms
    • Authors: Reinhard Wirth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Reinhard Wirth
      Newly erupted black smokers (hydrothermal vent chimneys) are sterile during their formation, but they house hyperthermophiles in substantial amounts in later stages. No hard data exist on the mechanisms by which hyperthermophiles colonize newly erupted black smokers. Here I propose a scenario – based on various experimental data – for how hyperthermophiles colonize black smokers. Hyperthermophiles which are present in cold sea water in minute amounts are transferred by chance to the outside of black smokers and react within seconds to the high temperature by very fast movements. After reaching an optimal temperature region they scan the surface via a zigzag seek-movement and adhere via their flagella at a suitable place, building up biofilms.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.002
       
  • ‘Patient 0’ and the Origin of HIV/AIDS in America
    • Authors: Zhen Gong; Xiaoyu Xu; Guan-Zhu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhen Gong, Xiaoyu Xu, Guan-Zhu Han
      The origin of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in North America remains contentious. A recent study uses phylogenetic and historical approaches to investigate the early history of HIV-1 group M subtype B in North America and shows that ‘Patient 0’ is not the source of the North American HIV/AIDS epidemic.

      PubDate: 2016-11-23T17:05:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.11.005
       
  • Adaptor Proteins of Type VI Secretion System Effectors
    • Authors: Daniel Unterweger; Benjamin Kostiuk; Stefan Pukatzki
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniel Unterweger, Benjamin Kostiuk, Stefan Pukatzki
      Bacteria use the type VI secretion system (T6SS) to kill neighboring cells. One key feature of the T6SS is the secretion of diverse effectors. Here, we discuss six publications that describe three superfamilies of T6SS proteins, each dedicated to mediate the secretion of cognate effectors.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T15:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.10.003
       
  • Non-Cholera Vibrios: The Microbial Barometer of Climate Change
    • Authors: Craig Baker-Austin; Joaquin Trinanes; Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona; Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Craig Baker-Austin, Joaquin Trinanes, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona, Jaime Martinez-Urtaza
      There is a growing interest in the role of climate change in driving the spread of waterborne infectious diseases, such as those caused by bacterial pathogens. One particular group of pathogenic bacteria – vibrios – are a globally important cause of diseases in humans and aquatic animals. These Gram-negative bacteria, including the species Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae, grow in warm, low-salinity waters, and their abundance in the natural environment mirrors ambient environmental temperatures. In a rapidly warming marine environment, there are greater numbers of human infections, and most notably outbreaks linked to extreme weather events such as heatwaves in temperate regions such as Northern Europe. Because the growth of pathogenic vibrios in the natural environment is largely dictated by temperature, we argue that this group of pathogens represents an important and tangible barometer of climate change in marine systems. We provide a number of specific examples of the impacts of climate change on this group of bacteria and their associated diseases, and discuss advanced strategies to improve our understanding of these emerging waterborne diseases through the integration of microbiological, genomic, epidemiological, climatic, and ocean sciences.

      PubDate: 2016-11-16T15:36:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.008
       
  • NKp46 Is an NK cell Fungicidal Pattern Recognition Receptor
    • Authors: Shu Shun; Christopher Mody
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shu Shun Li, Christopher H. Mody
      Natural killer (NK) cells are an important contributor to innate host defense because of their role in direct microbial recognition and killing. Vitenshtein et al. make an important contribution by demonstrating that NK cells kill Candida glabrata using the NK activating receptor, NKp46, which recognizes the Epa adhesins.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
       
  • Does Sequence Conservation Provide Evidence for Biological Function'
    • Authors: Seila Omer; Timothy Harlow Johann Peter Gogarten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Seila Omer, Timothy J. Harlow, Johann Peter Gogarten
      Finding a signature of purifying selection in a gene is usually interpreted as evidence for the gene providing a function that is targeted by natural selection. This opinion offers a very different hypothesis: purifying selection may be due to removing harmful mutations from the population, that is, the gene and its encoded protein become harmful after a mutation occurred, possibly because the mutated protein interferes with the translation machinery, or because of toxicity of the misfolded protein. Finding a signature of purifying selection should not automatically be considered proof of the gene's selectable function.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
       
  • Type III CRISPR-Cas Immunity: Major Differences Brushed Aside
    • Authors: Gintautas Tamulaitis; Venclovas Virginijus Siksnys
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gintautas Tamulaitis, Česlovas Venclovas, Virginijus Siksnys
      For a long time the mechanism of immunity provided by the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems appeared to be inconsistent: the Type III-A Csm complex of Staphylococcus epidermidis was first reported to target DNA while Type III-B Cmr complexes were shown to target RNA. This long-standing conundrum has now been resolved by finding that the Type III CRISPR-Cas systems are both RNases and target RNA-activated DNA nucleases. The immunity is achieved by coupling binding and cleavage of RNA transcripts to the degradation of invading DNA. The base-pairing potential between the target RNA and the CRISPR RNA (crRNA) 5′-handle seems to play an important role in discriminating self and non-self nucleic acids; however, the detailed mechanism remains to be uncovered.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
       
  • Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes
    • Authors: Diego Forni; Rachele Cagliani Mario Clerici Manuela Sironi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Diego Forni, Rachele Cagliani, Mario Clerici, Manuela Sironi
      Human coronaviruses (HCoVs), including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, are zoonotic pathogens that originated in wild animals. HCoVs have large genomes that encode a fixed array of structural and nonstructural components, as well as a variety of accessory proteins that differ in number and sequence even among closely related CoVs. Thus, in addition to recombination and mutation, HCoV genomes evolve through gene gains and losses. In this review we summarize recent findings on the molecular evolution of HCoV genomes, with special attention to recombination and adaptive events that generated new viral species and contributed to host shifts and to HCoV emergence.

      PubDate: 2016-11-03T12:09:56Z
       
  • A Structural and Mathematical Modeling Analysis of the Likelihood of
           Antibody-Dependent Enhancement in Influenza
    • Authors: Boopathy Ramakrishnan; Karthik Viswanathan; Kannan Tharakaraman; Vlado Dančík; Rahul Raman; Gregory J. Babcock; Zachary Shriver; Ram Sasisekharan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Boopathy Ramakrishnan, Karthik Viswanathan, Kannan Tharakaraman, Vlado Dančík, Rahul Raman, Gregory J. Babcock, Zachary Shriver, Ram Sasisekharan
      Broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNAbs) for viral infections, such as HIV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and influenza, are increasingly entering clinical development. For influenza, most neutralizing antibodies target influenza virus hemagglutinin. These bNAbs represent an emerging, promising modality for treatment and prophylaxis of influenza due to their multiple mechanisms of antiviral action and generally safe profile. Preclinical work in other viral diseases, such as dengue, has demonstrated the potential for antibody-based therapies to enhance viral uptake, leading to enhanced viremia and worsening of disease. This phenomenon is referred to as antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE). In the context of influenza, ADE has been used to explain several preclinical and clinical phenomena. Using structural and viral kinetics modeling, we assess the role of ADE in the treatment of influenza with a bNAb.

      PubDate: 2016-10-16T08:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.003
       
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae Population Genomics and Antimicrobial-Resistant
           Clones
    • Authors: Kelly L. Wyres; Kathryn E. Holt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kelly L. Wyres, Kathryn E. Holt
      Antimicrobial-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kp) has emerged as a major global public health problem. While resistance can occur across a broad range of Kp clones, a small number have become globally distributed and commonly cause outbreaks in hospital settings. Here we describe recent comparative genomics investigations that have shed light on Kp population structure and the evolution of antimicrobial-resistant clones. These studies provide the basic framework within which genomic epidemiology and evolution can be understood, but have merely scratched the surface of what can and should be explored. We assert that further large-scale comparative and functional genomics studies are urgently needed to better understand the biology of this clinically important bacterium.

      PubDate: 2016-10-14T08:04:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.007
       
  • Portrait of Candida Species Biofilm Regulatory Network Genes
    • Authors: Daniela Araújo; Mariana Henriques; Sónia Silva
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 October 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniela Araújo, Mariana Henriques, Sónia Silva
      Most cases of candidiasis have been attributed to Candida albicans, but Candida glabrata, Candida parapsilosis and Candida tropicalis, designated as non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC), have been identified as frequent human pathogens. Moreover, Candida biofilms are an escalating clinical problem associated with significant rates of mortality. Biofilms have distinct developmental phases, including adhesion/colonisation, maturation and dispersal, controlled by complex regulatory networks. This review discusses recent advances regarding Candida species biofilm regulatory network genes, which are key components for candidiasis.

      PubDate: 2016-10-08T07:09:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.004
       
  • Bacteria Are Smartphones and Mobile Genes Are Apps
    • Authors: J. Peter W. Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 September 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): J. Peter W. Young
      Bacterial core and accessory genome components are analogous to the operating system and applications of smartphones. The core genome provides stable taxonomy and species lists, but phenotypes reflect the mobile pool of accessory genes. This suggests changes to the ways we define bacterial species and describe bacterial communities.

      PubDate: 2016-09-25T04:03:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2016.09.002
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
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