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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2664 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (221 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Partially Free  
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cell Medicine     Open Access  
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Continental Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access  
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Fems Immunology & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access  
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access  
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
   [13 followers]  Follow    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
     ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2571 journals]   [SJR: 3.65]   [H-I: 122]
  • What role does the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator system play
           during Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kimberley L. Painter , Aishwarya Krishna , Sivaramesh Wigneshweraraj , Andrew M. Edwards
      Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of bacteremia, which frequently results in serious secondary infections such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis. The ability of S. aureus to cause such a wide range of infections has been ascribed to its huge armoury of different virulence factors, many of which are under the control of the quorum-sensing accessory gene regulator (Agr) system. However, a significant fraction of S. aureus bacteremia cases are caused by agr-defective isolates, calling into question the role of Agr in invasive staphylococcal infections. This review draws on recent work to define the role of Agr during bacteremia and explain why the loss of this major virulence regulator is sometimes a price worth paying for S. aureus.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T23:16:48Z
       
  • Carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: molecular and genetic
           decoding
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Liang Chen , Barun Mathema , Kalyan D. Chavda , Frank R. DeLeo , Robert A. Bonomo , Barry N. Kreiswirth
      Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs) were first identified in 1996 in the USA. Since then, regional outbreaks of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) have occurred in the USA, and have spread internationally. Dissemination of bla KPC involves both horizontal transfer of bla KPC genes and plasmids, and clonal spread. Of epidemiological significance, the international spread of KPC-producing K. pneumoniae is primarily associated with a single multilocus sequence type (ST), ST258, and its related variants. However, the molecular factors contributing to the success of ST258 largely remain unclear. In this review, we discuss the recent progresses in understanding KPC-producing K. pneumoniae that are contributing to our knowledge of plasmid and genome composition and structure among the KPC epidemic clone, and we identify possible factors that influence its epidemiological success.


      PubDate: 2014-10-09T23:16:48Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 10




      PubDate: 2014-09-30T22:34:27Z
       
  • Framing expectations in early HIV cure research
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 10
      Author(s): Karine Dubé , Gail E. Henderson , David M. Margolis
      Language used to describe clinical research represents a powerful opportunity to educate volunteers. In the case of HIV cure research there is an emerging need to manage expectations by using the term ‘experiment’. Cure experiments are proof-of-concept studies designed to evaluate novel paradigms to reduce persistent HIV-1 reservoirs, without any expectation of medical benefit.


      PubDate: 2014-09-30T22:34:27Z
       
  • Candida albicans hyphal initiation and elongation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Yang Lu , Chang Su , Haoping Liu
      The fungus Candida albicans is a benign member of the mucosal microbiota, but can cause mucosal infections and life-threatening disseminated invasive infections in susceptible individuals. The ability to switch between yeast, pseudohyphal, and hyphal growth forms (polymorphism) is one of the most investigated virulence attributes of C. albicans. Recent studies suggest that hyphal development in C. albicans requires two temporally linked regulations for initiation and maintenance of the hyphal transcriptional program. Hyphal initiation requires a rapid but temporary disappearance of the Nrg1 transcriptional repressor of hyphal morphogenesis. Hyphal maintenance requires active sensing of the surrounding environment, leading to exclusion of Nrg1 binding to promoters of hypha-specific genes or reduced NRG1 expression. We discuss recent advances in understanding the complex transcriptional regulation of hyphal gene expression. These provide molecular mechanisms underpinning the phenotypic plasticity of C. albicans polymorphism.


      PubDate: 2014-09-25T22:23:19Z
       
  • Pandemic potential of avian influenza A (H7N9) viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tokiko Watanabe , Shinji Watanabe , Eileen A. Maher , Gabriele Neumann , Yoshihiro Kawaoka
      Avian influenza viruses rarely infect humans, but the recently emerged avian H7N9 influenza viruses have caused sporadic infections in humans in China, resulting in 440 confirmed cases with 122 fatalities as of 16 May 2014. In addition, epidemiologic surveys suggest that there have been asymptomatic or mild human infections with H7N9 viruses. These viruses replicate efficiently in mammals, show limited transmissibility in ferrets and guinea pigs, and possess mammalian-adapting amino acid changes that likely contribute to their ability to infect mammals. In this review, we summarize the characteristic features of the novel H7N9 viruses and assess their pandemic potential.


      PubDate: 2014-09-25T22:23:19Z
       
  • Reovirus FAST proteins: virus-encoded cellular fusogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marta Ciechonska , Roy Duncan
      Reovirus fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) proteins are the only known nonenveloped virus fusogens and are dedicated to inducing cell-to-cell, not virus–cell, membrane fusion. Numerous structural and functional attributes distinguish this novel family of viral fusogens from all enveloped virus membrane fusion proteins. Both families of viral fusogens play key roles in virus dissemination and pathogenicity, but employ different mechanisms to mediate membrane apposition and merger. However, convergence of these distinct families of viral membrane fusion proteins on common pathways needed for pore expansion and syncytium formation suggests syncytiogenesis represents a cellular response to the presence of cell–cell fusion pores. Together, FAST proteins and enveloped virus fusion proteins provide exceptional insights into the ubiquitous process of cell–cell membrane fusion and syncytium formation.


      PubDate: 2014-09-21T22:04:57Z
       
  • Discovering new indicators of fecal pollution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandra L. McLellan , A. Murat Eren
      Fecal pollution indicators are essential to identify and remediate contamination sources and protect public health. Historically, easily cultured facultative anaerobes such as fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, or enterococci have been used but these indicators generally provide no information as to their source. More recently, molecular methods have targeted fecal anaerobes, which are much more abundant in humans and other mammals, and some strains appear to be associated with particular host sources. Next-generation sequencing and microbiome studies have created an unprecedented inventory of microbial communities associated with fecal sources, allowing reexamination of which taxonomic groups are best suited as informative indicators. The use of new computational methods, such as oligotyping coupled with well-established machine learning approaches, is providing new insights into patterns of host association. In this review we examine the basis for host-specificity and the rationale for using 16S rRNA gene targets for alternative indicators and highlight two taxonomic groups, Bacteroidales and Lachnospiraceae, which are rich in host-specific bacterial organisms. Finally, we discuss considerations for using alternative indicators for water quality assessments with a particular focus on detecting human sewage sources of contamination.


      PubDate: 2014-09-07T20:49:48Z
       
  • Variability of the transporter gene complement in ammonia-oxidizing
           archaea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pierre Offre , Melina Kerou , Anja Spang , Christa Schleper
      Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are a widespread and abundant component of microbial communities in many different ecosystems. The extent of physiological differences between individual AOA is, however, unknown. Here, we compare the transporter gene complements of six AOA, from four different environments and two major clades, to assess their potential for substrate uptake and efflux. Each of the corresponding AOA genomes encode a unique set of transporters and although the composition of AOA transporter complements follows a phylogenetic pattern, few transporter families are conserved in all investigated genomes. A comparison of ammonia transporters encoded by archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers highlights the variance among AOA lineages as well as their distinction from the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and suggests differential ecological adaptations.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Why doesn’t bovine tuberculosis transmit between humans'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Stefan Berg , Noel H. Smith
      Tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an important bacterial pathogen of man. This human-adapted pathogen was ancestral to a lineage of animal-adapted strains which cause similar disease in many different mammals but are unable to transmit between humans. How did the animal-adapted strains lose the ability to transmit between humans'


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • In vivo protection by broadly neutralizing HIV antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marit J. van Gils , Rogier W. Sanders
      Passive immunization studies, including a recent one by Pegu et al., have repeatedly shown that HIV-specific broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) protect rhesus macaques from HIV acquisition. In vitro neutralization potency and in vivo protection correlate very strongly, supporting the quest for an HIV vaccine that induces potent bnAbs.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: transmission and
           phylogenetic evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jaffar A. Al-Tawfiq , Ziad A. Memish
      The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was first described in 2012 and, subsequently, many cases were reported with a lower case fatality rate than initial cases. Humans can become infected within their communities and transmission can then be amplified in the healthcare setting. Contact investigation among cases shows a variable amount of spread among family members and healthcare workers. So far, circulating virus strains remain similar under continuous monitoring, with no genetic changes. Here, we discuss the transmission pattern, phylogenetic evolution, and pathogenesis of MERS-CoV infection.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Random yet deterministic: convergent immunoglobulin responses to influenza
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 9
      Author(s): Andrew J. Martins , John S. Tsang
      B cell clonal expansion is a hallmark of host-defense and vaccination responses. Given the vast immunoglobulin repertoire, individuals may expand B cells carrying largely distinct immunoglobulin genes following antigenic challenge. Using immunoglobulin-repertoire sequencing to dynamically track responses to influenza vaccination, Jackson et al. find evidence of convergent immunoglobulin responses across individuals.


      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 9




      PubDate: 2014-09-04T20:41:43Z
       
  • Microbial priming of plant and animal immunity: symbionts as developmental
           signals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marc-André Selosse , Alain Bessis , María J. Pozo
      The functional similarity between root and gut microbiota, both contributing to the nutrition and protection of the host, is often overlooked. A central mechanism for efficient protection against pathogens is defense priming, the preconditioning of immunity induced by microbial colonization after germination or birth. Microbiota have been recruited several times in evolution as developmental signals for immunity maturation. Because there is no evidence that microbial signals are more relevant than endogenous ones, we propose a neutral scenario for the evolution of this dependency: any hypothetic endogenous signal can be lost because microbial colonization, reliably occurring at germination or birth, can substitute for it, and without either positive selection or the acquisition of new functions. Dependency of development on symbiotic signals can thus evolve by contingent irreversibility.


      PubDate: 2014-08-14T19:46:06Z
       
  • Cellular domains and viral lineages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Patrick Forterre , Mart Krupovic , David Prangishvili
      It has been claimed that giant DNA viruses represent a separate, fourth domain of life in addition to the domains of Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. Such classification disregards fundamental differences between the two types of living entities – viruses and cells – and results in confusion and controversies in evolutionary scenarios. We highlight these problems and emphasize the importance of restricting the term ‘domain’ to the descendants of the last universal cellular ancestor (LUCA), based on the shared ribosome structure. We suggest tracing phylogeny of viruses along evolutionary lineages primarily defined by virion architectures and the structures of the major capsid proteins.


      PubDate: 2014-08-14T19:46:06Z
       
  • Monkey-adapted HIV-1 highlights in vivo significance of restriction
           factors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Andrea Kirmaier , Welkin E. Johnson
      HIV-1 was isolated 31 years ago, yet models for studying HIV-1 pathogenesis in vivo are still lacking. Recent experiments using an HIV-1 strain engineered to replicate in macaques recapitulate several important features of human AIDS, and provide insight into the genetics of cross-species transmission and emergence of pathogenic retroviruses.


      PubDate: 2014-08-09T19:38:40Z
       
  • Glycan receptor specificity as a useful tool for characterization and
           surveillance of influenza A virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rahul Raman , Kannan Tharakaraman , Zachary Shriver , Akila Jayaraman , V. Sasisekharan , Ram Sasisekharan
      Influenza A viruses are rapidly evolving pathogens with the potential for novel strains to emerge and result in pandemic outbreaks in humans. Some avian-adapted subtypes have acquired the ability to bind to human glycan receptors and cause severe infections in humans but have yet to adapt to and transmit between humans. The emergence of new avian strains and their ability to infect humans has confounded their distinction from circulating human virus strains through linking receptor specificity to human adaptation. Herein we review the various structural and biochemical analyses of influenza hemagglutinin–glycan receptor interactions. We provide our perspectives on how receptor specificity can be used to monitor evolution of the virus to adapt to human hosts so as to facilitate improved surveillance and pandemic preparedness.


      PubDate: 2014-08-09T19:38:40Z
       
  • Immune-based interventions to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Genevieve G. Fouda , Sallie R. Permar
      Despite global scale-up in antiretroviral-based prevention of mother-to-child transmission services, more than 250 000 infants become infected with HIV-1 each year. Breast milk transmission is responsible for almost half of these infections. The development of alternative strategies to prevent postnatal HIV-1 transmission is imperative to achieve a generation free of HIV-1.


      PubDate: 2014-08-01T18:54:14Z
       
  • Post-exposure therapy of filovirus infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 8
      Author(s): Gary Wong , Xiangguo Qiu , Gene G. Olinger , Gary P. Kobinger
      Filovirus infections cause fatal hemorrhagic fever characterized by the initial onset of general symptoms before rapid progression to severe disease; the most virulent species can cause death to susceptible hosts within 10 days after the appearance of symptoms. Before the advent of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy, infection of nonhuman primates (NHPs) with the most virulent filovirus species was fatal if interventions were not administered within minutes. A novel nucleoside analogue, BCX4430, has since been shown to also demonstrate protective efficacy with a delayed treatment start. This review summarizes and evaluates the potential of current experimental candidates for treating filovirus disease with regard to their feasibility and use in the clinic, and assesses the most promising strategies towards the future development of a pan-filovirus medical countermeasure.


      PubDate: 2014-08-01T18:54:14Z
       
  • Metabolism impacts upon Candida immunogenicity and pathogenicity at
           multiple levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alistair J.P. Brown , Gordon D. Brown , Mihai G. Netea , Neil A.R. Gow
      Metabolism is integral to the pathogenicity of Candida albicans, a major fungal pathogen of humans. As well as providing the platform for nutrient assimilation and growth in diverse host niches, metabolic adaptation affects the susceptibility of C. albicans to host-imposed stresses and antifungal drugs, the expression of key virulence factors, and fungal vulnerability to innate immune defences. These effects, which are driven by complex regulatory networks linking metabolism, morphogenesis, stress adaptation, and cell wall remodelling, influence commensalism and infection. Therefore, current concepts of Candida–host interactions must be extended to include the impact of metabolic adaptation upon pathogenicity and immunogenicity.


      PubDate: 2014-08-01T18:54:14Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 8




      PubDate: 2014-08-01T18:54:14Z
       
  • Fate and effects of veterinary antibiotics in soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sven Jechalke , Holger Heuer , Jan Siemens , Wulf Amelung , Kornelia Smalla
      Large amounts of veterinary antibiotics are applied worldwide to farm animals and reach agricultural fields by manure fertilization, where they might lead to an increased abundance and transferability of antibiotic-resistance determinants. In this review we discuss recent advances, limitations, and research needs in determining the fate of veterinary antibiotics and resistant bacteria applied with manure to soil, and their effects on the structure and function of soil microbial communities in bulk soils and the rhizosphere. The increased abundance and mobilization of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) might contribute to the emergence of multi-resistant human pathogens that increasingly threaten the successful antibiotic treatment of bacterial infections.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Microbial lactate utilization: enzymes, pathogenesis, and regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tianyi Jiang , Chao Gao , Cuiqing Ma , Ping Xu
      Lactate utilization endows microbes with the ability to use lactate as a carbon source. Lactate oxidizing enzymes play key roles in the lactate utilization pathway. Various types of these enzymes have been characterized, but novel ones remain to be identified. Lactate determination techniques and biocatalysts have been developed based on these enzymes. Lactate utilization has also been found to induce pathogenicity of several microbes, and the mechanisms have been investigated. More recently, studies on the structure and organization of operons of lactate utilization have been carried out. This review focuses on the recent progress and future perspectives in understanding microbial lactate utilization.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Building a flagellum outside the bacterial cell
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lewis D.B. Evans , Colin Hughes , Gillian M. Fraser
      Flagella, the helical propellers that extend from the bacterial surface, are a paradigm for how complex molecular machines can be built outside the living cell. Their assembly requires ordered export of thousands of structural subunits across the cell membrane and this is achieved by a type III export machinery located at the flagellum base, after which subunits transit through a narrow channel at the core of the flagellum to reach the assembly site at the tip of the nascent structure, up to 20μm from the cell surface. Here we review recent findings that provide new insights into flagellar export and assembly, and a new and unanticipated mechanism for constant rate flagellum growth.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Giant steps toward understanding a mycoplasma gliding motor
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mitchell F. Balish
      Mycoplasma mobile carries out gliding motility using a novel motor whose proposed mechanism more closely resembles eukaryotic cytoskeletal motors than other bacterial ones. High-resolution microscopy and techniques that take advantage of the special properties of the mycoplasma cell reveal that this motor propels cells in steps of discrete size.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Ion flux in the lung: virus-induced inflammasome activation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kathy Triantafilou , Martha Triantafilou
      Innate immunity has a primary role in lung antimicrobial defenses. The inflammasome has evolved for this purpose and is an important surveillance system that, when triggered, fights infection and eliminates pathogens. However, there is growing evidence that the inflammasome also plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic respiratory disease. Inflammasomes contribute to both the clearance of the pathogen as well as its pathogenesis – depending on the amount of inflammation triggered. How respiratory viruses trigger inflammasome activation remains unclear. Emerging evidence shows that ion flux is responsible for triggering inflammasome activation in the lung, causing lung pathology and disease exacerbations. Viroporins, encoded by all common respiratory viruses, are responsible for the changes in intracellular ion homeostasis that modulate inflammasome activation. This is a novel mechanism by which respiratory viral infection activates inflammasomes, and identifies sensing of disturbances in intracellular ionic concentrations as a novel pathogen-recognition pathway in the lung.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Polybacterial human disease: the ills of social networking
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francesca L. Short , Sarah L. Murdoch , Robert P. Ryan
      Polybacterial diseases involve multiple organisms that act collectively to facilitate disease progression. Although this phenomenon was highlighted early in the 20th century, recent technological advances in diagnostics have led to the appreciation that many infections are far more complex than originally believed. Furthermore, it is apparent that although most treatments focus on the dominant bacterial species in an infection, other microbes, including commensals, can have a profound impact on both the response to therapy and virulence. Very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that underpin interactions between bacteria during such infections. Here, we discuss recent studies identifying and characterizing mechanisms of bacterial interaction and the biological processes they govern during certain diseases. We also highlight how possible strategies for targeting these interbacterial interactions may afford a route towards development of new therapies, with consequences for disease control.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Listeria exploits damage and death to spread bad news
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Basel H. Abuaita , Mary X. O’Riordan
      Pathogenic Listeria monocytogenes replicates within the host cytosol; little is known about how it transits from cell to cell, spreading infection. A recent study implicates infection-induced membrane damage as a trigger for efferocytosis, the recognition and uptake of dead cells, thereby tricking neighboring cells into taking up the invader.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Exploiting gut bacteriophages for human health
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 7
      Author(s): Marion Dalmasso , Colin Hill , R. Paul Ross
      The human gut contains approximately 1015 bacteriophages (the ‘phageome’), probably the richest concentration of biological entities on earth. Mining and exploiting these potential ‘agents of change’ is an attractive prospect. For many years, phages have been used to treat bacterial infections in humans and more recently have been approved to reduce pathogens in the food chain. Phages have also been studied as drug or vaccine delivery vectors to help treat and prevent diseases such as cancer and chronic neurodegenerative conditions. Individual phageomes vary depending on age and health, thus providing a useful biomarker of human health as well as suggesting potential interventions targeted at the gut microbiota.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis neutrophil manipulation: risk factor for
           periodontitis?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Richard P. Darveau
      Defining the contribution of individual members of dysbiotic host-associated bacterial communities has been difficult. The recent paper by Maekawa et al. in Cell Host & Microbe describes bacterial manipulation of neutrophil responses by Porphyromonas gingivalis as a mechanism that contributes to forming a dysbiotic community.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Contents and Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 22, Issue 7




      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Does form meet function in the coronavirus replicative organelle?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Benjamin W. Neuman , Megan M. Angelini , Michael J. Buchmeier
      If we use the analogy of a virus as a living entity, then the replicative organelle is the part of the body where its metabolic and reproductive activities are concentrated. Recent studies have illuminated the intricately complex replicative organelles of coronaviruses, a group that includes the largest known RNA virus genomes. This review takes a virus-centric look at the coronavirus replication transcription complex organelle in the context of the wider world of positive sense RNA viruses, examining how the mechanisms of protein expression and function act to produce the factories that power the viral replication cycle.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • VgrG, Tae, Tle, and beyond: the versatile arsenal of Type VI secretion
           effectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eric Durand , Christian Cambillau , Eric Cascales , Laure Journet
      The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a macromolecular machine that delivers protein effectors into both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, therefore participating in interbacterial competition and virulence. The T6SS is functionally and structurally similar to the contractile bacteriophage cell puncturing device: the contraction of a sheath-like structure is believed to propel an inner tube terminated by a spike towards target cells, allowing the delivery of effectors. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the identification and characterization of T6SS effector proteins, highlighting the broad repertoire of enzymatic activities, and discuss recent findings relating to the secretion mechanisms.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Bacterial (intramembrane-sensing) histidine kinases: signal transfer
           rather than stimulus perception
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thorsten Mascher
      Most membrane-anchored histidine kinases (HKs) of bacterial two-component systems (2CSs) contain an extracellular input domain that is thought to be responsible for sensing an environmental cue. By contrast, intramembrane-sensing HKs (IM-HKs) lack a sensory domain and cannot perceive their stimuli directly. Instead, an N-terminal signal transfer region, consisting solely of two transmembrane helices, presumably connects the IM-HKs with accessory membrane proteins that function as the true sensors. This intermolecular signal transfer, in combination with intramolecular signal conversion, provides HKs with versatile signaling relays to connect, integrate, and amplify external signals from different sensory inputs ultimately to modulate the activity of the corresponding kinase domain.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Salmonella chronic carriage: epidemiology, diagnosis, and gallbladder
           persistence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 July 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): John S. Gunn , Joanna M. Marshall , Stephen Baker , Sabina Dongol , Richelle C. Charles , Edward T. Ryan
      Typhoid (enteric fever) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, causing over 21 million new infections annually, with the majority of deaths occurring in young children. Because typhoid fever-causing Salmonella have no known environmental reservoir, the chronic, asymptomatic carrier state is thought to be a key feature of continued maintenance of the bacterium within human populations. Despite the importance of this disease to public health, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that catalyze carriage, as well as our ability to reliably identify and treat the Salmonella carrier state, have only recently begun to advance.


      PubDate: 2014-07-27T18:38:21Z
       
  • Chlamydia genomics: providing novel insights into chlamydial biology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nathan L. Bachmann , Adam Polkinghorne , Peter Timms
      Chlamydiaceae are obligate intracellular pathogens that have successfully evolved to colonize a diverse range of hosts. There are currently 11 described species of Chlamydia, most of which have a significant impact on the health of humans or animals. Expanding chlamydial genome sequence information has revolutionized our understanding of chlamydial biology, including aspects of their unique lifecycle, host–pathogen interactions, and genetic differences between Chlamydia strains associated with different host and tissue tropisms. This review summarizes the major highlights of chlamydial genomics and reflects on the considerable impact these have had on understanding the biology of chlamydial pathogens and the changing nature of genomics tools in the ‘post-genomics’ era.


      PubDate: 2014-06-03T14:28:49Z
       
  • The role of matrix in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein incorporation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Philip R. Tedbury , Eric O. Freed
      Incorporation of the viral envelope (Env) glycoprotein is a critical requirement for the production of infectious HIV-1 particles. It has long been appreciated that the matrix (MA) domain of the Gag polyprotein and the cytoplasmic tail of Env are central players in the process of Env incorporation, but the precise mechanisms have been elusive. Several recent developments have thrown light on the contributions of both proteins, prompting a re-evaluation of the role of MA during Env incorporation. The two domains appear to play distinct but complementary roles, with the cytoplasmic tail of Env responsible for directing Env to the site of assembly and the matrix domain accommodating the cytoplasmic tail of Env in the Gag lattice.


      PubDate: 2014-06-03T14:28:49Z
       
  • DNA methylation in Caulobacter and other Alphaproteobacteria during cell
           cycle progression
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Saswat S. Mohapatra , Antonella Fioravanti , Emanuele G. Biondi
      In Caulobacter crescentus, methylation of DNA by CcrM plays an important part in the regulation of cell cycle progression. Thanks to this methyltransferase, the activity of which is cell cycle regulated, the chromosome transitions between a hemimethylated state in the S-phase to a fully methylated condition in the G1 and G2 phases. Any perturbation in CcrM expression, such as depletion or constitutive expression, causes severe developmental defects. Several studies suggest that the role of CcrM is conserved across the Alphaproteobacteria. In the past few years, the importance of methylation on the expression of cell cycle regulated genes has emerged, suggesting that CcrM-dependent methylation can direct the binding of transcription factors to specific methylated sequences and affect the expression of genes depending on the methylation state of their promoters. CcrM activity has recently been linked to GcrA, a cell cycle master regulator that controls the expression of several genes during S-phase. Here, we review recent findings that establish the global role of methylation in cell cycle progression, and also explore the significance of a CcrM–GcrA epigenetic module that has co-evolved in Alphaproteobacteria, including Caulobacter, in controlling several genes involved in cell division, polarity, and motility.


      PubDate: 2014-06-03T14:28:49Z
       
  • Biofilms, flagella, and mechanosensing of surfaces by bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Robert Belas
      Formation of a bacterial biofilm is a developmental process that begins when a cell attaches to a surface, but how does a bacterial cell know it is on or near a surface in the first place' The phase of this ‘swim-or-stick’ switch is determined by a sensory transduction mechanism referred to as surface sensing, which involves the rotating bacterial flagellum. This review explores six bacterial species as models of flagellar mechanosensing of surfaces to understand the current state of our knowledge and the challenges that lie ahead. A common link between these bacteria is a requirement for the proper function of the flagellar motor stators that channel ions into the cell to drive flagellar rotation. Conditions that affect ion flow act as a signal that, ultimately, controls the master transcriptional regulatory circuits controlling the flagellar hierarchy and biofilm formation.


      PubDate: 2014-06-03T14:28:49Z
       
  • Putting together a scientific team: collaborative science
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): L. Garry Adams
      One of the most enjoyable parts of a science career is collaborative team experiences and developing life-long social networks. When the hypothesis being tested requires innovative efforts greater than any single laboratory, collaboration becomes an essential component for success – everyone is a stakeholder and trust is the driving force.


      PubDate: 2014-06-03T14:28:49Z
       
  • Through the looking glass: witnessing host–virus interplay in
           zebrafish
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jean-Pierre Levraud , Nuno Palha , Christelle Langevin , Pierre Boudinot
      Host–pathogen interactions can be very complex at all scales; understanding organ- or organism-level events require in vivo approaches. Besides traditional host models such as mice, the zebrafish offers an attractive cocktail of optical accessibility and genetic tractability, blended with a vertebrate-type immunity, where innate responses can easily be separated from adaptive ones. Applied to viral infections, this model has revealed unexpected idiosyncrasies among organs, which we believe may apply to the human situation. We also argue that the dynamic analysis of virus spread and immune response in zebrafish make this model particularly well suited to the exploration of the concept of infection tolerance and resistance in relation to viral diseases.


      PubDate: 2014-05-27T10:19:13Z
       
  • Methylocella: a gourmand among methanotrophs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Peter F. Dunfield , Svetlana N. Dedysh
      A recent article in Nature describes the ability of Methylocella silvestris to grow simultaneously on methane and longer chain alkanes, something never before observed in the microbial world. It adds to a growing list of unique metabolic traits that distinguish Methylocella from any other bacterium.


      PubDate: 2014-05-27T10:19:13Z
       
  • Reconstructing the evolutionary origins and phylogeography of hantaviruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shannon N. Bennett , Se Hun Gu , Hae Ji Kang , Satoru Arai , Richard Yanagihara
      Rodents have long been recognized as the principal reservoirs of hantaviruses. However, with the discovery of genetically distinct and phylogenetically divergent lineages of hantaviruses in multiple species of shrews, moles, and insectivorous bats from widely separated geographic regions, a far more complex landscape of hantavirus host distribution, evolution, and phylogeography is emerging. Detailed phylogenetic analyses, based on partial and full-length genomes of previously described rodent-borne hantaviruses and newly detected non-rodent-borne hantaviruses, indicate an Asian origin and support the emerging concept that ancestral non-rodent mammals may have served as the hosts of primordial hantaviruses.


      PubDate: 2014-05-22T09:51:22Z
       
  • Fluoroquinolone resistan mechanisms, impact on bacteria, and role in
           evolutionary success
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Liam S. Redgrave , Sam B. Sutton , Mark A. Webber , Laura J.V. Piddock
      Quinolone and fluoroquinolone antibiotics are potent, broad-spectrum agents commonly used to treat a range of infections. Resistance to these agents is multifactorial and can be via one or a combination of target-site gene mutations, increased production of multidrug-resistance (MDR) efflux pumps, modifying enzymes, and/or target-protection proteins. Fluoroquinolone-resistant clinical isolates of bacteria have emerged readily and recent data have shown that resistance to this class of antibiotics can have diverse, species-dependent impacts on host-strain fitness. Here we outline the impacts of quinolone-resistance mutations in relation to the fitness and evolutionary success of mutant strains.


      PubDate: 2014-05-22T09:51:22Z
       
  • Diversity of diversity: conceptual and methodological differences in
           biodiversity estimates of eukaryotic microbes as compared to bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jean-David Grattepanche , Luciana F. Santoferrara , George B. McManus , Laura A. Katz
      Recent advances such as high-throughput sequencing (HTS) have changed conceptions about the magnitude of diversity on Earth. This is especially true for microbial lineages, which have seen the discovery of great numbers of rare forms in places such as the human gut as well as diverse environments (e.g., freshwater, marine, and soil). Given the differences in perceptions of diversity for bacterial and eukaryotic microbes, including divergent species concepts, HTS tools used to eliminate errors and population-level variation in bacteria may not be appropriate for microbial eukaryotes and may eliminate valid species from the data. We discuss here how the nature of biodiversity varies among microbial groups and the extent to which HTS tools designed for bacteria are useful for eukaryotes.


      PubDate: 2014-05-11T08:32:33Z
       
  • Selective packaging of the influenza A genome and consequences for genetic
           reassortment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marie Gerber , Catherine Isel , Vincent Moules , Roland Marquet
      Influenza A viruses package their segmented RNA genome in a selective manner. Electron tomography, biochemical assays, and replication assays of viruses produced by reverse genetics recently unveiled molecular details of this mechanism, whereby different influenza viral strains form different and unique networks of direct intermolecular RNA–RNA interactions. Together with detailed views of the three-dimensional structure of the viral ribonucleoparticles, these recent advances help us understand the rules that govern genome packaging. They also have deep implications for the genetic reassortment processes, which are responsible for devastating pandemics.


      PubDate: 2014-05-06T08:04:37Z
       
  • Starting small: using microbiology to foster scientific literacy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Amy F. Savage , Brooke A. Jude
      In order to achieve scientific literacy for all students, Bard College recently implemented Citizen Science, a common January course for all first-year students. Structured around the question ‘how do we reduce the global burden of disease'’, this course uses microbiological tools to develop an understanding of potential answers.


      PubDate: 2014-05-06T08:04:37Z
       
  • Chemosensory signaling systems that control bacterial survival
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 May 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kuang He , Carl E. Bauer
      Recent studies have revealed that several Gram-negative species utilize variations of the well-known chemotaxis signaling cascade to switch lifestyles in order to survive environmental stress. The two survival strategies covered in this review are the development of dormant cyst cells and biofilm formation. Each of these structures involves exopolysaccharide-mediated cell–cell interactions, which result in multicellular communities that confer resistance to stress conditions such as desiccation and antibiotics. This review is centered on recent advances in the understanding of phosphate flow and novel output signals in chemosensory signaling pathways that are involved in cyst formation and biofilms.


      PubDate: 2014-05-02T07:36:43Z
       
  • PIP2: choreographer of actin-adaptor proteins in the HIV-1 dance
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vera Rocha-Perugini , Mónica Gordon-Alonso , Francisco Sánchez-Madrid
      The actin cytoskeleton plays a key role during the replication cycle of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1). HIV-1 infection is affected by cellular proteins that influence the clustering of viral receptors or the subcortical actin cytoskeleton. Several of these actin-adaptor proteins are controlled by the second messenger phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate (PIP2), an important regulator of actin organization. PIP2 production is induced by HIV-1 attachment and facilitates viral infection. However, the importance of PIP2 in regulating cytoskeletal proteins and thus HIV-1 infection has been overlooked. This review examines recent reports describing the roles played by actin-adaptor proteins during HIV-1 infection of CD4+ T cells, highlighting the influence of the signaling lipid PIP2 in this process.


      PubDate: 2014-04-27T11:06:30Z
       
 
 
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