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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2840 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (240 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal  
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Cell Medicine     Open Access  
Cell Regeneration     Open Access  
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access  
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Open Access   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [14 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2812 journals]
  • Evolution of bacterial transcription factors: how proteins take on new
           tasks, but do not always stop doing the old ones
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sandhya S. Visweswariah , Stephen J.W. Busby
      Many bacterial transcription factors do not behave as per the textbook operon model. We draw on whole genome work, as well as reported diversity across different bacteria, to argue that transcription factors may have evolved from nucleoid-associated proteins. This view would explain a large amount of recent data gleaned from high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatic analyses.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
       
  • RNA structures are involved in the thermoregulation of bacterial
           virulence-associated traits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): María Victoria Grosso-Becera , Luis Servín-González , Gloria Soberón-Chávez
      Pathogenic bacteria are exposed to temperature changes during colonization of the human body and during exposure to environmental conditions. Virulence-associated traits are mainly expressed by pathogenic bacteria at 37°C. We review different cases of post-transcriptional regulation of virulence-associated proteins through RNA structures (called RNA thermometers or RNATs) that modulate the translation of mRNAs. The analysis of RNATs in pathogenic bacteria has started to produce a comprehensive picture of the structures involved, and of the genes regulated by this mechanism. However, we are still not able to predict the functionality of putative RNATs predicted by bioinformatics methods, and there is not a global approach to measure the effect of these RNA structures in gene regulation during bacterial infections.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
       
  • Emerging intracellular receptors for hemorrhagic fever viruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lucas T. Jae , Thijn R. Brummelkamp
      Ebola virus and Lassa virus belong to different virus families that can cause viral hemorrhagic fever, a life-threatening disease in humans with limited treatment options. To infect a target cell, Ebola and Lassa viruses engage receptors at the cell surface and are subsequently shuttled into the endosomal compartment. Upon arrival in late endosomes/lysosomes, the viruses trigger membrane fusion to release their genome into the cytoplasm. Although contact sites at the cell surface were recognized for Ebola virus and Lassa virus, it was postulated that Ebola virus requires a critical receptor inside the cell. Recent screens for host factors identified such internal receptors for both viruses: Niemann–Pick disease type C1 protein (NPC1) for Ebola virus and lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1) for Lassa virus. A cellular trigger is needed to permit binding of the viral envelope protein to these intracellular receptors. This ‘receptor switch’ represents a previously unnoticed step in virus entry with implications for host–pathogen interactions and viral tropism.


      PubDate: 2015-05-22T04:46:40Z
       
  • How Ebola has been evolving in West Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Si-Qing Liu , Simon Rayner , Bo Zhang
      The ongoing Ebola outbreak in West Africa has generated fears of a global epidemic. Particularly, estimates of higher substitution rates have raised concerns about increased transmissibility or virulence. A recent study using a more comprehensive datasets demonstrates lower variation, highlighting the importance of representative datasets and limitations of computational modelling.


      PubDate: 2015-05-18T04:20:21Z
       
  • Gut bacteria and necrotizing enterocolitis: cause or effect?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher James Stewart , Stephen Paul Cummings
      Development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is considered to be dependent on the bacterial colonisation of the gut. With little concordance between published data and a recent study failing to detect a common strain in infants with NEC, more questions than answers are arising about our understanding of this complex disease.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T01:41:38Z
       
  • Is Campylobacter to esophageal adenocarcinoma as Helicobacter is to
           gastric adenocarcinoma?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nadeem O. Kaakoush , Natalia Castaño-Rodríguez , Si Ming Man , Hazel M. Mitchell
      Esophageal adenocarcinoma develops through a cascade of cellular changes that shares similarities to the etiology of Helicobacter pylori-associated intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma. While host genetics and immune response have been implicated in the progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma, studies investigating esophageal microbial communities suggest that bacteria may also play an important role in driving the inflammation that leads to disease. Of these, emerging Campylobacter species have been found to be more prevalent and abundant in patients progressing through the esophageal adenocarcinoma cascade compared to controls. Given that these bacteria possess several virulence mechanisms such as toxin production, cellular invasion, and intracellular survival, emerging Campylobacter species should be investigated as etiological agents of the chronic esophageal inflammation that leads to cancer.


      PubDate: 2015-05-01T01:41:38Z
       
  • Novel role of DNA in neutrophil extracellular traps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christoph Georg Baums , Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
      Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) have been shown to play a crucial role in health and disease. In a recent paper in PLoS Pathogens, Halverson et al. demonstrate that the DNA backbone of NETs contributes to its antibacterial activity and serves as signal for entrapped microbes to employ immune evasion strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T01:01:57Z
       
  • Whole-genome sequence comparisons reveal the evolution of Vibrio cholerae
           O1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eun Jin Kim , Chan Hee Lee , G. Balakrish Nair , Dong Wook Kim
      The analysis of the whole-genome sequences of Vibrio cholerae strains from previous and current cholera pandemics has demonstrated that genomic changes and alterations in phage CTX (particularly in the gene encoding the B subunit of cholera toxin) were major features in the evolution of V. cholerae. Recent studies have revealed the genetic mechanisms in these bacteria by which new variants of V. cholerae are generated from type-specific strains; these mechanisms suggest that certain strains are selected by environmental or human factors over time. By understanding the mechanisms and driving forces of historical and current changes in the V. cholerae population, it would be possible to predict the direction of such changes and the evolution of new variants; this has implications for the battle against cholera.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T01:01:57Z
       
  • Axonal spread of neuroinvasive viral infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Matthew P. Taylor , Lynn W. Enquist
      Neuroinvasive viral infections invade the nervous system, often eliciting serious disease and death. Members of four viral families are both neuroinvasive and capable of transmitting progeny virions or virion components within the long neuronal extensions known as axons. Axons provide physical structures that enable viral infection to spread within the host while avoiding extracellular immune responses. Technological advances in the analysis of in vivo neural circuits, neuronal culturing, and live imaging of fluorescent fusion proteins have enabled an unprecedented view into the steps of virion assembly, transport, and egress involved in axonal spread. In this review we summarize the literature supporting anterograde (axon to cell) spread of viral infection, describe the various strategies of virion transport, and discuss the effects of spread on populations of neuroinvasive viruses.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T01:01:57Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 5




      PubDate: 2015-04-27T01:01:57Z
       
  • The bacterial flagellar motor and its structural diversity
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 5
      Author(s): Tohru Minamino , Katsumi Imada
      The bacterial flagellum is a reversible rotary motor powered by an electrochemical-potential difference of specific ions across the cytoplasmic membrane. The H + -driven motor of Salmonella spins at ∼300Hz, whereas the Na+-driven motor of marine Vibrio spp. can rotate much faster, up to 1700Hz. A highly conserved motor structure consists of the MS ring, C ring, rod, and export apparatus. The C ring and the export apparatus show dynamic properties for exerting their functional activities. Various additional structures surrounding the conserved motor structure are observed in different bacterial species. In this review we summarize our current understanding of the structure, function, and assembly of the flagellar motor in Salmonella and marine Vibrio.


      PubDate: 2015-04-27T01:01:57Z
       
  • AI-2 to the rescue against antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zhongke Sun , Verena Grimm , Christian U. Riedel
      The downside of antibiotic treatment of infectious diseases is a disturbed intestinal microbiota leading to reduced resistance against pathogen colonization. Work by Thompson et al. now suggests that antibiotic-induced intestinal dysbiosis can partially be counterbalanced by artificially increasing the levels of autoinducer-2 (AI-2), a well-known bacterial communication molecule.


      PubDate: 2015-04-23T00:36:39Z
       
  • Nitrogen cycling in corals: the key to understanding holobiont
           functioning'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nils Rädecker , Claudia Pogoreutz , Christian R. Voolstra , Jörg Wiedenmann , Christian Wild
      Corals are animals that form close mutualistic associations with endosymbiotic photosynthetic algae of the genus Symbiodinium. Together they provide the calcium carbonate framework of coral reef ecosystems. The importance of the microbiome (i.e., bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses) to holobiont functioning has only recently been recognized. Given that growth and density of Symbiodinium within the coral host is highly dependent on nitrogen availability, nitrogen-cycling microbes may be of fundamental importance to the stability of the coral–algae symbiosis and holobiont functioning, in particular under nutrient-enriched and -depleted scenarios. We summarize what is known about nitrogen cycling in corals and conclude that disturbance of microbial nitrogen cycling may be tightly linked to coral bleaching and disease.


      PubDate: 2015-04-12T06:07:37Z
       
  • Who determines the outcomes of HBV exposure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Baohong Wang , Lanjuan Li
      Until recently, the reason for age-dependent immune clearance of hepatitis B virus remained elusive. A new study has revealed that establishment of the commensal gut microbiota could modulate the liver immunity phenotype in a hydrodynamic transfection mouse model, suggesting that natural gut–liver interactions can help achieve rapid viral clearance.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T05:56:18Z
       
  • Staphylococcus aureus infections: transmission within households and the
           community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Justin Knox , Anne-Catrin Uhlemann , Franklin D. Lowy
      Staphylococcus aureus, both methicillin susceptible and resistant, are now major community-based pathogens worldwide. The basis for this is multifactorial and includes the emergence of epidemic clones with enhanced virulence, antibiotic resistance, colonization potential, or transmissibility. Household reservoirs of these unique strains are crucial to their success as community-based pathogens. Staphylococci become resident in households, either as colonizers or environmental contaminants, increasing the risk for recurrent infections. Interactions of household members with others in different households or at community sites, including schools and daycare facilities, have a critical role in the ability of these strains to become endemic. Colonization density at these sites appears to have an important role in facilitating transmission. The integration of research tools, including whole-genome sequencing (WGS), mathematical modeling, and social network analysis, has provided additional insight into the transmission dynamics of these strains. Thus far, interventions designed to reduce recurrent infections among household members have had limited success, likely due to the multiplicity of potential sources for recolonization. The development of better strategies to reduce the number of household-based infections will depend on greater insight into the different factors that contribute to the success of these uniquely successful epidemic clones of S. aureus.


      PubDate: 2015-04-10T05:56:18Z
       
  • Multipurpose prevention technologies: the future of HIV and STI protection
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): José A. Fernández-Romero , Carolyn Deal , Betsy C. Herold , John Schiller , Dorothy Patton , Thomas Zydowsky , Joe Romano , Christopher D. Petro , Manjulaa Narasimhan
      Every day, more than 1 million people are newly infected with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) that can lead to morbidity, mortality, and an increased risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) acquisition. Existing prevention and management strategies, including behavior change, condom promotion, and therapy have not reduced the global incidence and prevalence, pointing to the need for novel innovative strategies. This review summarizes important issues raised during a satellite session at the first HIV Research for Prevention (R4P) conference, held in Cape Town, on October 31, 2014. We explore key STIs that are challenging public health today, new biomedical prevention approaches including multipurpose prevention technologies (MPTs), and the scientific and regulatory hurdles that must be overcome to make combination prevention tools a reality.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Fueling type III secretion
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Pei-Chung Lee , Arne Rietsch
      Type III secretion systems (T3SSs) are complex nanomachines that export proteins from the bacterial cytoplasm across the cell envelope in a single step. They are at the core of the machinery used to assemble the bacterial flagellum, and the needle complex many Gram-negative pathogens use to inject effector proteins into host cells and cause disease. Several models have been put forward to explain how this export is energized, and the mechanism has been the subject of considerable debate. Here we present an overview of these models and discuss their relative merits. Recent evidence suggests that the proton motive force (pmf) is the primary energy source for type III secretion, although contribution from refolding of secreted proteins has not been ruled out. The mechanism by which the pmf is converted to protein export remains enigmatic.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • HIV cell-to-cell transmission: effects on pathogenesis and antiretroviral
           therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Luis M. Agosto , Pradeep D. Uchil , Walther Mothes
      HIV spreads more efficiently in vitro when infected cells directly contact uninfected cells to form virological synapses. A hallmark of virological synapses is that viruses can be transmitted at a higher multiplicity of infection (MOI) that, in vitro, results in a higher number of proviruses. Whether HIV also spreads by cell–cell contact in vivo is a matter of debate. Here we discuss recent data that suggest that contact-mediated transmission largely manifests itself in vivo as CD4+ T cell depletion. The assault of a cell by a large number of incoming particles is likely to be efficiently sensed by the innate cellular surveillance to trigger cell death. The large number of particles transferred across virological synapses has also been implicated in reduced efficacy of antiretroviral therapies. Thus, antiretroviral therapies must remain effective against the high MOI observed during cell-to-cell transmission to inhibit both viral replication and the pathogenesis associated with HIV infection.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3




      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Following the equator: division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Marc Bramkamp
      The mechanisms that spatially regulate cytokinesis are more diverse than initially thought. In two recent publications a positive regulator of FtsZ positioning has been identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae. MapZ (LocZ) connects the division machinery with cell wall elongation, providing a simple mechanism to ensure correct division site selection.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher W. Jones , Judith P. Armitage
      For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Resistance is not futile: gliotoxin biosynthesis, functionality and
           utility
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Stephen K. Dolan , Grainne O’Keeffe , Gary W. Jones , Sean Doyle
      Gliotoxin biosynthesis is encoded by the gli gene cluster in Aspergillus fumigatus. The biosynthesis of gliotoxin is influenced by a suite of transcriptionally-active regulatory proteins and a bis-thiomethyltransferase. A self-protection system against gliotoxin is present in A. fumigatus. Several additional metabolites are also produced via the gliotoxin biosynthetic pathway. Moreover, the biosynthesis of unrelated natural products appears to be influenced either by gliotoxin or by the activity of specific reactions within the biosynthetic pathway. The activity of gliotoxin against animal cells and fungi, often mediated by interference with redox homeostasis or protein modification, is revealing new metabolic interactions within eukaryotic systems. Nature has provided a most useful natural product with which to reveal some of its many molecular secrets.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Assembly and operation of bacterial tripartite multidrug efflux pumps
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dijun Du , Hendrik W. van Veen , Ben F. Luisi
      Microorganisms encode several classes of transmembrane pumps that can expel an enormous range of toxic substances, thereby improving their fitness in harsh environments and contributing to resistance against antimicrobial agents. In Gram-negative bacteria these pumps can take the form of tripartite assemblies that actively efflux drugs and other harmful compounds across the cell envelope. We describe recent structural and functional data that have provided insights into the transport mechanisms of these intricate molecular machines.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Architectural plan of transcriptional regulation in Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Priyanka Baloni , Nagasuma Chandra
      Transcriptional regulation enables adaptation in bacteria. Typically, only a few transcriptional events are well understood, leaving many others unidentified. The recent genome-wide identification of transcription factor binding sites in Mycobacterium tuberculosis has changed this by deciphering a molecular road-map of transcriptional control, indicating active events and their immediate downstream effects.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Is selection relevant in the evolutionary emergence of drug
           resistance'
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 3
      Author(s): Troy Day , Silvie Huijben , Andrew F. Read
      The emergence of drug-resistant pathogens is often considered a canonical case of evolution by natural selection. Here we argue that the strength of selection can be a poor predictor of the rate of resistance emergence. It is possible for a resistant strain to be under negative selection and still emerge in an infection or spread in a population. Measuring the right parameters is a necessary first step toward the development of evidence-based resistance-management strategies. We argue that it is the absolute fitness of the resistant strains that matters most and that a primary determinant of the absolute fitness of a resistant strain is the ecological context in which it finds itself.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • A fantastic voyage for sliding bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Joshua D. Shrout
      A recent study showed that Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium exhibits sliding motility under magnesium-limited conditions. Overall, bacteria that exhibit this passive surface movement described as sliding share few common traits. This discovery provides an opportunity to revisit and better characterize appendage-independent bacterial motility.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • The great microbial beauty Philosophy of Microbiology by Maureen
           O’Malley, Cambridge University Press, 2014. US$95.00/31.99, hbk/pbk
           (277 pp.) ISBN 978-1-107-62150-3
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vittorio Capozzi , Pasquale Russo , Giuseppe Spano



      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Detecting virulence and drug-resistance mycobacterial phenotypes in vivo
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Graham S. Timmins
      Bacterial phenotypes are predominantly studied in culture because detection of their specific metabolic pathways in the host is challenging. Development of stable-isotope breath tests, allowing in situ phenotype analyses, may endow diagnostics with new modalities based upon direct monitoring of in vivo microbial metabolism and host–pathogen phenotypic interactions.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Are nematodes a missing link in the confounded ecology of the
           entomopathogen Bacillus thuringiensis'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Lifang Ruan , Neil Crickmore , Donghai Peng , Ming Sun
      Bacillus thuringiensis, which is well known as an entomopathogen, has been accepted by the public as a safe bioinsecticide. The natural ecology of this bacterium has never been particularly clear, with views ranging from it being an obligate pathogen to an opportunist pathogen that can otherwise exist as a soil saprophyte or a plant endophyte. This confusion has recently led to it being considered as an environmental pathogen that has evolved to occupy a diverse set of environmental niches in which it can thrive without needing a host. A significant driving force behind this classification is the fact that B. thuringiensis is found in high numbers in environments that are not occupied by the insect hosts to which it is pathogenic. It is our opinion that the ubiquitous presence of this bacterium in the environment is the result of a variety of vectoring systems, particularly those that include nematodes.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Collateral sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Csaba Pál , Balázs Papp , Viktória Lázár
      Understanding how evolution of microbial resistance towards a given antibiotic influences susceptibility to other drugs is a challenge of profound importance. By combining laboratory evolution, genome sequencing, and functional analyses, recent works have charted the map of evolutionary trade-offs between antibiotics and have explored the underlying molecular mechanisms. Strikingly, mutations that caused multidrug resistance in bacteria simultaneously enhanced sensitivity to many other unrelated drugs (collateral sensitivity). Here, we explore how this emerging research sheds new light on resistance mechanisms and the way it could be exploited for the development of alternative antimicrobial strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Structural biology of the Gram-negative bacterial conjugation systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aravindan Ilangovan , Sarah Connery , Gabriel Waksman
      Conjugation, the process by which plasmid DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another, is mediated by type IV secretion systems (T4SSs). T4SSs are versatile systems that can transport not only DNA, but also toxins and effector proteins. Conjugative T4SSs comprise 12 proteins named VirB1–11 and VirD4 that assemble into a large membrane-spanning exporting machine. Before being transported, the DNA substrate is first processed on the cytoplasmic side by a complex called the relaxosome. The substrate is then targeted to the T4SS for export into a recipient cell. In this review, we describe the recent progress made in the structural biology of both the relaxosome and the T4SS.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Signaling and sensory adaptation in Escherichia coli chemoreceptors: 2015
           update
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): John S. Parkinson , Gerald L. Hazelbauer , Joseph J. Falke
      Motile Escherichia coli cells track gradients of attractant and repellent chemicals in their environment with transmembrane chemoreceptor proteins. These receptors operate in cooperative arrays to produce large changes in the activity of a signaling kinase, CheA, in response to small changes in chemoeffector concentration. Recent research has provided a much deeper understanding of the structure and function of core receptor signaling complexes and the architecture of higher-order receptor arrays, which, in turn, has led to new insights into the molecular signaling mechanisms of chemoreceptor networks. Current evidence supports a new view of receptor signaling in which stimulus information travels within receptor molecules through shifts in the dynamic properties of adjoining structural elements rather than through a few discrete conformational states.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Fate, activity, and impact of ingested bacteria within the human gut
           microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Muriel Derrien , Johan E.T. van Hylckama Vlieg
      The human gut contains a highly diverse microbial community that is essentially an open ecosystem, despite being deeply embedded within the human body. Food-associated fermentative bacteria, including probiotics, are major sources of ingested bacteria that may temporarily complement resident microbial communities, thus forming part of our transient microbiome. Here, we review data on the fate and activity of ingested bacteria and, in particular, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their impact on the composition and metabolism of the gut microbiome with a focus on data from clinical studies. In addition, we discuss the mechanisms involved and the potential impact on the host's health.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • The changing face of asthma and its relation with microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Chris S. Earl , Shi-qi An , Robert P. Ryan
      During the past 50 years, the prevalence of asthma has increased and this has coincided with our changing relation with microorganisms. Asthma is a complex disease associated with local tissue inflammation of the airway that is determined by environmental, immunological, and host genetic factors. In a subgroup of sufferers, respiratory infections are associated with the development of chronic disease and more frequent inflammatory exacerbations. Recent studies suggest that these infections are polymicrobial in nature. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that the recently discovered asthma airway microbiota may play a critical role in pathophysiological processes associated with the disease. Here, we discuss the current data regarding a possible role for infection in chronic asthma with a particular focus on the role bacteria may play. We discuss recent advances that are beginning to elucidate the complex relations between the microbiota and the immune response in asthma patients. We also highlight the clinical implications of these recent findings in regards to the development of novel therapeutic strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Towards an HIV-1 cure: measuring the latent reservoir
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Katherine M. Bruner , Nina N. Hosmane , Robert F. Siliciano
      The latent reservoir (LR) of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4+ T cells serves as a major barrier to curing HIV-1 infection. While many PCR- and culture-based assays have been used to measure the size of the LR, correlation between results of different assays is poor and recent studies indicate that no available assay provides an accurate measurement of reservoir size. The discrepancies between assays are a hurdle to clinical trials that aim to measure the efficacy of HIV-1 eradication strategies. Here we describe the advantages and disadvantages of various approaches to measuring the LR.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Harnessing CRISPR–Cas systems for bacterial genome editing
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Kurt Selle , Rodolphe Barrangou
      Manipulation of genomic sequences facilitates the identification and characterization of key genetic determinants in the investigation of biological processes. Genome editing via clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)–CRISPR-associated (Cas) constitutes a next-generation method for programmable and high-throughput functional genomics. CRISPR–Cas systems are readily reprogrammed to induce sequence-specific DNA breaks at target loci, resulting in fixed mutations via host-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. Although bacterial genome editing is a relatively unexplored and underrepresented application of CRISPR–Cas systems, recent studies provide valuable insights for the widespread future implementation of this technology. This review summarizes recent progress in bacterial genome editing and identifies fundamental genetic and phenotypic outcomes of CRISPR targeting in bacteria, in the context of tool development, genome homeostasis, and DNA repair.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Revisiting phage therapy: new applications for old resources
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Franklin L. Nobrega , Ana Rita Costa , Leon D. Kluskens , Joana Azeredo
      The success of phage therapy is dependent on the development of strategies able to overcome the limitations of bacteriophages as therapeutic agents, the creation of an adequate regulatory framework, the implementation of safety protocols, and acceptance by the general public. Many approaches have been proposed to circumvent phages’ intrinsic limitations but none have proved to be completely satisfactory. In this review we present the major hurdles of phage therapy and the solutions proposed to circumvent them. A thorough discussion of the advantages and drawbacks of these solutions is provided and special attention is given to the genetic modification of phages as an achievable strategy to shape bacteriophages to exhibit desirable biological properties.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Meningitis in adolescents: the role of commensal microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): James W.B. Moir
      The pathogen Neisseria meningitidis causes disease amongst infants and adolescents/young adults. Here we argue that disease amongst adolescents is due largely to interaction between N. meningitidis and other members of the upper respiratory tract microbiota, through a metabolic interaction involving exchange of propionic acid.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Enterovirus replication: go with the (counter)flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jules Nchoutmboube , Lauren A. Ford-Siltz , George A. Belov
      All (+)RNA viruses replicate on distinct membranous domains; however, how they induce and maintain their unique lipid composition is largely unknown. Two recent studies reveal that enteroviruses harness the PI4P–cholestrol exchange cycle driven by OSBP1 protein and PI4 kinase(s), and that blocking the dynamic lipid flow inhibits virus replication.


      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • The power of movement
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel



      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 4




      PubDate: 2015-04-05T05:40:21Z
       
  • The role of flagella in Clostridium difficile pathogenicity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Emma Stevenson , Nigel P. Minton , Sarah A. Kuehne
      Clostridium difficile is widely publicised as a problem in the health-care system. Disruption of the normal gut microbiota by antibiotic therapy allows C. difficile to colonise the colon. On colonisation, C. difficile produces two toxins that lead to disease, with symptoms ranging from mild-to-severe diarrhoea, to fulminant and often fatal pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). How C. difficile establishes initial colonisation of the host is an area of active investigation. Recently there has been increased research into the role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and adherence. Novel research has also elucidated a more complex role of flagella in C. difficile virulence pertaining to the regulation of toxin gene expression. This review focuses on new insights into the specific role of C. difficile flagella in colonisation and toxin gene expression.


      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:33:50Z
       
  • Innovative techniques, sensors, and approaches for imaging biofilms at
           different scales
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas R. Neu , John R. Lawrence
      Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales.


      PubDate: 2015-01-26T06:02:32Z
       
  • HIV-1 adaptation to HLA: a window into virus–host immune
           interactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jonathan M. Carlson , Anh Q. Le , Aniqa Shahid , Zabrina L. Brumme
      HIV-1 develops specific mutations within its genome that allow it to escape detection by human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I-restricted immune responses, notably those of CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). HLA thus represents a major force driving the evolution and diversification of HIV-1 within individuals and at the population level. Importantly, the study of HIV-1 adaptation to HLA also represents an opportunity to identify what qualities constitute an effective immune response, how the virus in turn adapts to these pressures, and how we may harness this information to design HIV-1 vaccines that stimulate effective cellular immunity.


      PubDate: 2015-01-22T05:13:10Z
       
  • The general stress response in Alphaproteobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Anne Francez-Charlot , Andreas Kaczmarczyk , Hans-Martin Fischer , Julia A. Vorholt
      The general stress response (GSR) is a widely conserved response that allows bacteria to cope with a multitude of stressful conditions. In the past years the PhyR–NepR–σEcfG cascade was identified as the core pathway regulating the GSR in Alphaproteobacteria, in which it also plays an important role in bacteria–host interactions. The regulatory system is composed of the extracytoplasmic function sigma factor σEcfG, its anti-sigma factor NepR (for negative regulator of the PhyR response), and the anti-sigma factor antagonist PhyR (phyllosphere regulator). The three proteins function via a partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by PhyR phosphorylation, termed ‘sigma factor mimicry’. This review will cover core features of the pathway, its physiological role, and summarize recent advances towards understanding of the partner-switching mechanism and of the two-component signaling pathways controlling the GSR.


      PubDate: 2015-01-12T03:51:02Z
       
  • Bats as ‘special’ reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cara E. Brook , Andrew P. Dobson
      The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic highlights a recurring trend in the zoonotic emergence of virulent pathogens likely to come from bat reservoirs that has caused epidemiologists to ask ‘Are bats special reservoirs for emerging zoonotic pathogens'’ We collate evidence from the past decade to delineate mitochondrial mechanisms of bat physiology that have evolved to mitigate oxidative stress incurred during metabolically costly activities such as flight. We further describe how such mechanisms might have generated pleiotropic effects responsible for tumor mitigation and pathogen control in bat hosts. These synergisms may enable ‘special’ tolerance of intracellular pathogens in bat hosts; paradoxically, this may leave them more susceptible to immunopathological morbidity when attempting to clear extracellular infections such as ‘white-nose syndrome’ (WNS).


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Mx GTPases: dynamin-like antiviral machines of innate immunity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Otto Haller , Peter Staeheli , Martin Schwemmle , Georg Kochs
      The Mx dynamin-like GTPases are key antiviral effector proteins of the type I and type III interferon (IFN) systems. They inhibit several different viruses by blocking early steps of the viral replication cycle. We focus on new structural and functional insights and discuss recent data revealing that human MxA (MX1) provides a safeguard against introduction of avian influenza A viruses (FLUAV) into the human population. The related human MxB (MX2) serves as restriction factor for HIV-1 and other primate lentiviruses.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Virological features associated with the development of broadly
           neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Penny L. Moore , Carolyn Williamson , Lynn Morris
      The development of a preventative HIV-1 vaccine remains a global public health priority. This will likely require the elicitation of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) able to block infection by diverse viral strains from across the world. Understanding the pathway to neutralization breadth in HIV-1 infected humans will provide insights into how bNAb lineages arise, a process that probably involves a combination of host and viral factors. Here, we focus on the role of viral characteristics and evolution in shaping bNAbs during HIV-1 infection, and describe how these findings may be translated into novel vaccine strategies.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • Reverse zoonosis of influenza to swine: new perspectives on the
           human–animal interface
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Martha I. Nelson , Amy L. Vincent
      The origins of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic in swine are unknown, highlighting gaps in our understanding of influenza A virus (IAV) ecology and evolution. We review how recently strengthened influenza virus surveillance in pigs has revealed that influenza virus transmission from humans to swine is far more frequent than swine-to-human zoonosis, and is central in seeding swine globally with new viral diversity. The scale of global human-to-swine transmission represents the largest ‘reverse zoonosis’ of a pathogen documented to date. Overcoming the bias towards perceiving swine as sources of human viruses, rather than recipients, is key to understanding how the bidirectional nature of the human–animal interface produces influenza threats to both hosts.


      PubDate: 2015-01-08T03:28:34Z
       
  • The demographic determinants of human microbiome health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2014
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvie Estrela , Marvin Whiteley , Sam P. Brown
      The human microbiome is a vast reservoir of microbial diversity and increasingly recognized to have a fundamental role in human health. In polymicrobial communities, the presence of one species can modulate the demography (i.e., growth and distribution) of other species. These demographic impacts generate feedbacks in multispecies interactions, which can be magnified in spatially structured populations (e.g., host-associated communities). Here, we argue that demographic feedbacks between species are central to microbiome development, shaping whether and how potential metabolic interactions come to be realized between expanding lineages of bacteria. Understanding how demographic feedbacks tune metabolic interactions and in turn shape microbiome structure and function is now a key challenge to our abilities to better manage microbiome health.


      PubDate: 2014-12-20T01:55:50Z
       
 
 
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