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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (237 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (108 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1427 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
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    - BOTANY (220 journals)
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    - ENTOMOLOGY (63 journals)
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    - MICROBIOLOGY (256 journals)
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    - ORNITHOLOGY (25 journals)
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MICROBIOLOGY (256 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 256 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis     Open Access  
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences (CMLS)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Fermentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Future Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Future Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Mycobacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Bacteriology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Cell and Animal Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of General and Molecular Virology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Morphology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz     Open Access  
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Risk Analysis     Full-text available via subscription  
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Molecular Imaging     Open Access  
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Molecular Neuropsychiatry     Full-text available via subscription  
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.285]   [H-I: 150]   [37 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • Zika Virus: Mechanisms of Infection During Pregnancy
    • Authors: Nicholas J.C. King; Mauro M. Teixeira; Suresh Mahalingam
      Pages: 701 - 702
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9
      Author(s): Nicholas J.C. King, Mauro M. Teixeira, Suresh Mahalingam
      Immune status changes during pregnancy, with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory contexts at different stages, making pregnant women potentially more susceptible to various infections. Infection by Zika virus during pregnancy can cause developmental damage to the fetus, and the altered immune response during pregnancy could contribute to disease during Zika infection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.005
       
  • Metabolic Integration of Bacterial Endosymbionts through Antimicrobial
           Peptides
    • Authors: Peter Mergaert; Yoshitomo Kikuchi; Shuji Shigenobu; Eva C.M. Nowack
      Pages: 703 - 712
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9
      Author(s): Peter Mergaert, Yoshitomo Kikuchi, Shuji Shigenobu, Eva C.M. Nowack
      Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are massively produced by eukaryotic hosts during symbiotic interactions with bacteria. Among other roles, these symbiotic AMPs have the capacity to permeabilize symbiont membranes and facilitate metabolite flow across the host–symbiont interface. We propose that an ancestral role of these peptides is to facilitate metabolic exchange between the symbiotic partners through membrane permeabilization. This function may be particularly critical for integration of endosymbiont and host metabolism in interactions involving bacteria with strongly reduced genomes lacking most small metabolite transporters. Moreover, AMPs could have acted in a similar way at the onset of plastid and mitochondrion evolution, after a host cell took up a bacterium and needed to extract nutrients from it in the absence of dedicated solute transporters.
      Video

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.007
       
  • ‘Omic’ Approaches to Study Uropathogenic Escherichia coli
           Virulence
    • Authors: Alvin W. Lo; Danilo G. Moriel; Minh-Duy Phan; Benjamin L. Schulz; Timothy J. Kidd; Scott A. Beatson; Mark A. Schembri
      Pages: 729 - 740
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9
      Author(s): Alvin W. Lo, Danilo G. Moriel, Minh-Duy Phan, Benjamin L. Schulz, Timothy J. Kidd, Scott A. Beatson, Mark A. Schembri
      Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is a pathogen of major significance to global human health and is strongly associated with rapidly increasing antibiotic resistance. UPEC is the primary cause of urinary tract infection (UTI), a disease that involves a complicated pathogenic pathway of extracellular and intracellular lifestyles during interaction with the host. The application of multiple ‘omic’ technologies, including genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics, has provided enormous knowledge to our understanding of UPEC biology. Here we outline this progress and present a view for future developments using these exciting forefront technologies to fully comprehend UPEC pathogenesis in the context of infection.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.006
       
  • Capsid-Dependent Host Factors in HIV-1 Infection
    • Authors: Masahiro Yamashita; Alan N. Engelman
      Pages: 741 - 755
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9
      Author(s): Masahiro Yamashita, Alan N. Engelman
      After invasion of a susceptible target cell, HIV-1 completes the early phase of its life cycle upon integration of reverse-transcribed viral DNA into host chromatin. The viral capsid, a conical shell encasing the viral ribonucleoprotein complex, along with its constitutive capsid protein, plays essential roles at virtually every step in the early phase of the viral life cycle. Recent work has begun to reveal how the viral capsid interacts with specific cellular proteins to promote these processes. At the same time, cellular restriction factors target the viral capsid to thwart infection. Comprehensive understanding of capsid–host interactions that promote or impede HIV-1 infection may provide unique insight to exploit for novel therapeutic interventions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.004
       
  • Protein Acetylation and Its Role in Bacterial Virulence
    • Authors: Jie Ren; Yu Sang; Jie Lu; Yu-Feng Yao
      Pages: 768 - 779
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9
      Author(s): Jie Ren, Yu Sang, Jie Lu, Yu-Feng Yao
      Protein acetylation is a universal post-translational modification which is found in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. This process is achieved enzymatically by the protein acetyltransferase Pat, and nonenzymatically by metabolic intermediates (e.g., acetyl phosphate) in bacteria. Protein acetylation plays a role in bacterial chemotaxis, metabolism, DNA replication, and other cellular processes. Recently, accumulating evidence has suggested that protein acetylation might be involved in bacterial virulence because a number of bacterial virulence factors are acetylated. In this review, we summarize the progress in understanding bacterial protein acetylation and discuss how it mediates bacterial virulence.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.001
       
  • Bacteria–Bacteriophage Coevolution in the Human Gut: Implications for
           Microbial Diversity and Functionality
    • Authors: Pauline D. Scanlan
      Pages: 614 - 623
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Pauline D. Scanlan
      Antagonistic coevolution (AC) between bacteria and bacteriophages plays a key role in driving and maintaining microbial diversity. Consequently, AC is predicted to affect all levels of biological organisation, from the individual to ecosystem scales. Nonetheless, we know nothing about bacteria–bacteriophage AC in perhaps the most important and clinically relevant microbial ecosystem known to humankind – the human gut microbiome. In this opinion piece I review current research on bacteria–phage AC in in vitro and natural populations of microbes. I then examine the evidence and discuss the potential role of AC in driving observed patterns of intra- and interindividual variation in the gut microbiome together with detailing the potential functional consequences of such AC-driven microbial variation for human health and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.012
       
  • Genome Surfing As Driver of Microbial Genomic Diversity
    • Authors: Mallory J. Choudoir; Kevin Panke-Buisse; Cheryl P. Andam; Daniel H. Buckley
      Pages: 624 - 636
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Mallory J. Choudoir, Kevin Panke-Buisse, Cheryl P. Andam, Daniel H. Buckley
      Historical changes in population size, such as those caused by demographic range expansions, can produce nonadaptive changes in genomic diversity through mechanisms such as gene surfing. We propose that demographic range expansion of a microbial population capable of horizontal gene exchange can result in genome surfing, a mechanism that can cause widespread increase in the pan-genome frequency of genes acquired by horizontal gene exchange. We explain that patterns of genetic diversity within Streptomyces are consistent with genome surfing, and we describe several predictions for testing this hypothesis both in Streptomyces and in other microorganisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.006
       
  • Cell Death Pathway That Monitors Spore Morphogenesis
    • Authors: Amanda R. Decker; Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      Pages: 637 - 647
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Amanda R. Decker, Kumaran S. Ramamurthi
      The use of quality control mechanisms to stall developmental pathways or completely remove defective cells from a population is a widespread strategy to ensure the integrity of morphogenetic programs. Endospore formation (sporulation) is a well conserved microbial developmental strategy in the Firmicutes phylum wherein a progenitor cell that faces starvation differentiates to form a dormant spore. Despite the conservation of this strategy, it has been unclear what selective pressure maintains the fitness of this developmental program, composed of hundreds of unique genes, during multiple rounds of vegetative growth when sporulation is not required. Recently, a quality control pathway was discovered in Bacillus subtilis which monitors the assembly of the spore envelope and specifically eliminates, through cell lysis, sporulating cells that assemble the envelope incorrectly. Here, we review the use of checkpoints that govern the entry into sporulation in B. subtilis and discuss how the use of regulated cell death pathways during bacterial development may help maintain the fidelity of the sporulation program in the species.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.005
       
  • KSHV microRNAs: Tricks of the Devil
    • Authors: Jie Qin; Wan Li; Shou-Jiang Gao; Chun Lu
      Pages: 648 - 661
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jie Qin, Wan Li, Shou-Jiang Gao, Chun Lu
      Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS), a vascular tumor frequently found in immunodeficient individuals. KSHV encodes 12 pre-microRNAs (pre-miRNAs), which are processed into 25 mature microRNAs (miRNAs). KSHV miRNAs maintain KSHV latency, enhance angiogenesis and dissemination of the infected cells, and interfere with the host immune system by regulating viral and cellular gene expression, ultimately contributing to KS development. In this review, we briefly introduce the biogenesis of miRNAs and then describe the recent advances in defining the roles and mechanisms of action of KSHV miRNAs in KS development.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.02.002
       
  • Sweet New Roles for Protein Glycosylation in Prokaryotes
    • Authors: Jerry Eichler; Michael Koomey
      Pages: 662 - 672
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jerry Eichler, Michael Koomey
      Long-held to be a post-translational modification unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea also perform protein glycosylation, namely the covalent attachment of mono- to polysaccharides to specific protein targets. At the same time, many of the roles assigned to this protein-processing event in eukaryotes, such as guiding protein folding/quality control, intracellular trafficking, dictating cellular recognition events and others, do not apply or are even irrelevant to prokaryotes. As such, protein glycosylation must serve novel functions in Bacteria and Archaea. Recent efforts have begun to elucidate some of these prokaryote-specific roles, which are addressed in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.001
       
  • Shapeshifting to Survive: Shape Determination and Regulation in
           Caulobacter crescentus
    • Authors: Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel; Erin D. Goley
      Pages: 673 - 687
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Selamawit Abi Woldemeskel, Erin D. Goley
      Bacterial cell shape is a genetically encoded and inherited feature that is optimized for efficient growth, survival, and propagation of bacteria. In addition, bacterial cell morphology is adaptable to changes in environmental conditions. Work in recent years has demonstrated that individual features of cell shape, such as length or curvature, arise through the spatial regulation of cell wall synthesis by cytoskeletal proteins. However, the mechanisms by which these different morphogenetic factors are coordinated and how they may be globally regulated in response to cell cycle and environmental cues are only beginning to emerge. Here, we have summarized recent advances that have been made to understand morphology in the dimorphic Gram-negative bacterium Caulobacter crescentus.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.006
       
  • Integrating Lung Physiology, Immunology, and Tuberculosis
    • Authors: Jordi B. Torrelles; Larry S. Schlesinger
      Pages: 688 - 697
      Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8
      Author(s): Jordi B. Torrelles, Larry S. Schlesinger
      Lungs are directly exposed to the air, have enormous surface area, and enable gas exchange in air-breathing animals. They are constantly ‘attacked’ by microbes from both outside and inside and thus possess a unique, highly regulated local immune defense system which efficiently allows for microbial clearance while minimizing damaging inflammatory responses. As a prototypic host-adapted airborne pathogen, Mycobacterium tuberculosis traverses the lung and has several ‘interaction points’ (IPs) which it must overcome to cause infection. These interactions are critical, not only from a pathogenesis perspective but also in considering the effectiveness of therapies and vaccines in the lungs. Here we discuss emerging views on immunologic interactions occurring in the lungs for M. tuberculosis and their impact on infection and persistence.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.03.007
       
  • Black Truffle, a Hermaphrodite with Forced Unisexual Behaviour
    • Authors: Marc-André Selosse; Laure Schneider-Maunoury; Elisa Taschen; François Rousset; Franck Richard
      Pages: 784 - 787
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Marc-André Selosse, Laure Schneider-Maunoury, Elisa Taschen, François Rousset, Franck Richard
      The life cycle of the black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) includes a mating before sporulation: although the species is hermaphroditic, mating turns out to involve parents with very different features, that mostly behave as male or female only, suggesting that this species undergoes forced dioecism.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.010
       
  • Ecological Insights into the Dynamics of Plant Biomass-Degrading Microbial
           Consortia
    • Authors: Diego Javier Jiménez; Francisco Dini-Andreote; Kristen M. DeAngelis; Steven W. Singer; Joana Falcão Salles; Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Pages: 788 - 796
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Diego Javier Jiménez, Francisco Dini-Andreote, Kristen M. DeAngelis, Steven W. Singer, Joana Falcão Salles, Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Plant biomass (PB) is an important resource for biofuel production. However, the frequent lack of efficiency of PB saccharification is still an industrial bottleneck. The use of enzyme cocktails produced from PB-degrading microbial consortia (PB-dmc) is a promising approach to optimize this process. Nevertheless, the proper use and manipulation of PB-dmc depends on a sound understanding of the ecological processes and mechanisms that exist in these communities. This Opinion article provides an overview of arguments as to how spatiotemporal nutritional fluxes influence the successional dynamics and ecological interactions (synergism versus competition) between populations in PB-dmc. The themes of niche occupancy, ‘sugar cheaters’, minimal effective consortium, and the Black Queen Hypothesis are raised as key subjects that foster our appraisal of such systems. Here we provide a conceptual framework that describes the critical topics underpinning the ecological basis of PB-dmc, giving a solid foundation upon which further prospective experimentation can be developed.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.012
       
  • The Hsp90 Chaperone Network Modulates Candida Virulence Traits
    • Authors: Teresa R. O’Meara; Nicole Robbins; Leah E. Cowen
      Pages: 809 - 819
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Teresa R. O’Meara, Nicole Robbins, Leah E. Cowen
      Hsp90 is a conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the folding and function of client proteins. Hsp90 function is dynamically regulated by interactions with co-chaperones and by post-translational modifications. In the fungal pathogen Candida albicans, Hsp90 enables drug resistance and virulence by stabilizing diverse signal transducers. Here, we review studies that have unveiled regulators of Hsp90 function, as well as downstream effectors that govern the key virulence traits of morphogenesis and drug resistance. We highlight recent work mapping the Hsp90 genetic network in C. albicans under diverse environmental conditions, and how these interactions provide insight into circuitry important for drug resistance, morphogenesis, and virulence. Ultimately, elucidating the Hsp90 chaperone network will aid in the development of therapeutics to treat fungal disease.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.003
       
  • At the Nexus of Antibiotics and Metals: The Impact of Cu and Zn on
           Antibiotic Activity and Resistance
    • Authors: Keith Poole
      Pages: 820 - 832
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Keith Poole
      Environmental influences on antibiotic activity and resistance can wreak havoc with in vivo antibiotic efficacy and, ultimately, antimicrobial chemotherapy. In nature, bacteria encounter a variety of metal ions, particularly copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn), as contaminants in soil and water, as feed additives in agriculture, as clinically-used antimicrobials, and as components of human antibacterial responses. Importantly, there is a growing body of evidence for Cu/Zn driving antibiotic resistance development in metal-exposed bacteria, owing to metal selection of genetic elements harbouring both metal and antibiotic resistance genes, and metal recruitment of antibiotic resistance mechanisms. Many classes of antibiotics also form complexes with metal cations, including Cu and Zn, and this can hinder (or enhance) antibiotic activity. This review highlights the ways in which Cu/Zn influence antibiotic resistance development and antibiotic activity, and in so doing impact in vivo antibiotic efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.010
       
  • Antiviral Goes Viral: Harnessing CRISPR/Cas9 to Combat Viruses in Humans
    • Authors: Jasper Adriaan Soppe; Robert Jan Lebbink
      Pages: 833 - 850
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Jasper Adriaan Soppe, Robert Jan Lebbink
      The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) and CRISPR-associated (Cas) systems are RNA-guided sequence-specific prokaryotic antiviral immune systems. In prokaryotes, small RNA molecules guide Cas effector endonucleases to invading foreign genetic elements in a sequence-dependent manner, resulting in DNA cleavage by the endonuclease upon target binding. A rewired CRISPR/Cas9 system can be used for targeted and precise genome editing in eukaryotic cells. CRISPR/Cas has also been harnessed to target human pathogenic viruses as a potential new antiviral strategy. Here, we review recent CRISPR/Cas9-based approaches to combat specific human viruses in humans and discuss challenges that need to be overcome before CRISPR/Cas9 may be used in the clinic as an antiviral strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.04.005
       
  • Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis in Postweaning Piglets: Understanding the Keys to
           Health
    • Authors: Raphaële Gresse; Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand; Mickaël Alain Fleury; Tom Van de Wiele; Evelyne Forano; Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Pages: 851 - 873
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10
      Author(s): Raphaële Gresse, Frédérique Chaucheyras-Durand, Mickaël Alain Fleury, Tom Van de Wiele, Evelyne Forano, Stéphanie Blanquet-Diot
      Weaning is a critical event in the pig’s life cycle, frequently associated with severe enteric infections and overuse of antibiotics; this raises serious economic and public health concerns. In this review, we explain why gut microbiota dysbiosis, induced by abrupt changes in the diet and environment of piglets, emerges as a leading cause of post-weaning diarrhea, even if the exact underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Then, we focus on nonantimicrobial alternatives, such as zinc oxide, essential oils, and prebiotics or probiotics, which are currently evaluated to restore intestinal balance and allow a better management of the crucial weaning transition. Finally, we discuss how in vitro models of the piglet gut could be advantageously used as a complement to ex vivo and in vivo studies for the development and testing of new feed additives.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.004
       
  • Antibiotic-Resistance Genes in Waste Water
    • Authors: Antti Karkman; Thi Thuy Do; Fiona Walsh; Marko P.J. Virta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Antti Karkman, Thi Thuy Do, Fiona Walsh, Marko P.J. Virta
      Waste water and waste water treatment plants can act as reservoirs and environmental suppliers of antibiotic resistance. They have also been proposed to be hotspots for horizontal gene transfer, enabling the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between different bacterial species. Waste water contains antibiotics, disinfectants, and metals which can form a selection pressure for antibiotic resistance, even in low concentrations. Our knowledge of antibiotic resistance in waste water has increased tremendously in the past few years with advances in the molecular methods available. However, there are still some gaps in our knowledge on the subject, such as how active is horizontal gene transfer in waste water and what is the role of the waste water treatment plant in the environmental resistome' The purpose of this review is to briefly describe some of the main methods for studying antibiotic resistance in waste waters and the latest research and main knowledge gaps on the issue. In addition, some future research directions are proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.005
       
  • Transmissible Viral Vaccines
    • Authors: James J. Bull; Mark W. Smithson; Scott L. Nuismer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): James J. Bull, Mark W. Smithson, Scott L. Nuismer
      Genetic engineering now enables the design of live viral vaccines that are potentially transmissible. Some designs merely modify a single viral genome to improve on the age-old method of attenuation whereas other designs create chimeras of viral genomes. Transmission has the benefit of increasing herd immunity above that achieved by direct vaccination alone but also increases the opportunity for vaccine evolution, which typically undermines vaccine utility. Different designs have different epidemiological consequences but also experience different evolution. Approaches that integrate vaccine engineering with an understanding of evolution and epidemiology will reap the greatest benefit from vaccine transmission.

      PubDate: 2017-10-14T07:10:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.007
       
  • In Silico Vaccine Strain Prediction for Human Influenza Viruses
    • Authors: Thorsten R. Klingen; Susanne Reimering; Carlos A. Guzmán; Alice C. McHardy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thorsten R. Klingen, Susanne Reimering, Carlos A. Guzmán, Alice C. McHardy
      Vaccines preventing seasonal influenza infections save many lives every year; however, due to rapid viral evolution, they have to be updated frequently to remain effective. To identify appropriate vaccine strains, the World Health Organization (WHO) operates a global program that continually generates and interprets surveillance data. Over the past decade, sophisticated computational techniques, drawing from multiple theoretical disciplines, have been developed that predict viral lineages rising to predominance, assess their suitability as vaccine strains, link genetic to antigenic alterations, as well as integrate and visualize genetic, epidemiological, structural, and antigenic data. These could form the basis of an objective and reproducible vaccine strain-selection procedure utilizing the complex, large-scale data types from surveillance. To this end, computational techniques should already be incorporated into the vaccine-selection process in an independent, parallel track, and their performance continuously evaluated.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T07:03:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.001
       
  • Roles of Endogenous Retroviruses in Early Life Events
    • Authors: Gkikas Magiorkinis; Aris Katzourakis; Pagona Lagiou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gkikas Magiorkinis, Aris Katzourakis, Pagona Lagiou
      A retrovirus that infected our ancestors 100 million years ago became a human gene that is expressed in embryos and cancers, and can be detected in the blood of pregnant women. Accumulating evidence suggests potential roles for endogenous retroviruses in early life events, which may affect adult health.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.002
       
  • Personalized Medicine and Infectious Disease Management
    • Authors: Slade O. Jensen; Sebastiaan J. van Hal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Slade O. Jensen, Sebastiaan J. van Hal
      A recent study identified pathogen factors associated with an increased mortality risk in Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, using predictive modelling and a combination of genotypic, phenotypic, and clinical data. This study conceptually validates the benefit of personalized medicine and highlights the potential use of whole genome sequencing in infectious disease management.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.006
       
  • A Delicate Connection: c-di-AMP Affects Cell Integrity by Controlling
           Osmolyte Transport
    • Authors: Fabian M. Commichau; Johannes Gibhardt; Sven Halbedel; Jan Gundlach; Jörg Stülke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Fabian M. Commichau, Johannes Gibhardt, Sven Halbedel, Jan Gundlach, Jörg Stülke
      Bacteria use second-messenger molecules to adapt to their environment. Several second messengers, among them cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), have been discovered and intensively studied. Interestingly, c-di-AMP is essential for growth of Gram-positive bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Many studies demonstrated that perturbation of c-di-AMP metabolism affects the integrity of the bacterial cell envelope. Therefore, it has been assumed that the nucleotide is essential for proper cell envelope synthesis. In this Opinion paper, we propose that the cell envelope phenotypes caused by perturbations of c-di-AMP metabolism can be interpreted differently: c-di-AMP might indirectly control cell envelope integrity by modulating the turgor, a physical variable that needs to be tightly adjusted. We also discuss open questions related to c-di-AMP metabolism that need to be urgently addressed by future studies.

      PubDate: 2017-10-06T06:15:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.09.003
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 10


      PubDate: 2017-09-21T03:09:08Z
       
  • Opening Pandora’s Box: Mechanisms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Resuscitation
    • Authors: Ashley V. Veatch; Deepak Kaushal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Ashley V. Veatch, Deepak Kaushal
      Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) characteristically causes an asymptomatic infection. While this latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is not contagious, reactivation to active tuberculosis disease (TB) causes the patient to become infectious. A vaccine has existed for TB for a century, while drug treatments have been available for over 70 years; despite this, TB remains a major global health crisis. Understanding the factors which allow the bacillus to control responses to host stress and mechanisms leading to latency are critical for persistence. Similarly, molecular switches which respond to reactivation are important. Recently, research in the field has sought to focus on reactivation, employing system-wide approaches and animal models. Here, we describe the current work that has been done to elucidate the mechanisms of reactivation and stop reactivation in its tracks.

      PubDate: 2017-09-16T02:27:50Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.08.001
       
  • Variation, Indispensability, and Masking in the M protein
    • Authors: Partho Ghosh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Partho Ghosh
      The M protein is the major surface-associated virulence factor of group A Streptococcus (GAS) and an antigenically variable target of host immunity. How selection pressures to escape immune recognition, maintain indispensable functions, and mask vulnerabilities have shaped the sequences of the >220M protein types is unclear. Recent experiments have shed light on this question by showing that, hidden within the antigenic variability of many M protein types, are sequence patterns conserved for recruiting human C4b-binding protein (C4BP). Other host factors may be recruited in a similar manner by conserved but hidden sequence patterns in the M protein. The identification of such patterns may be applicable to the development of a GAS vaccine.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T01:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.08.002
       
  • Bacterial Tubulins: A Eukaryotic-Like Microtubule Cytoskeleton
    • Authors: Sylvain Trépout; Anne Marie Wehenkel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvain Trépout, Anne Marie Wehenkel
      Ever since their discovery, bacterial tubulins, found in several Prosthecobacter species, have raised curiosity as they are closely related to eukaryotic tubulin. Deng and colleagues now present new evidence for the functional homology of the two cytoskeletal systems where in vitro reconstituted Btub-microtubules display eukaryote-like biochemical and dynamic properties.

      PubDate: 2017-09-05T01:27:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.08.004
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 9


      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
       
  • Phagocytes, Antibiotics, and Self-Limiting Bacterial Infections
    • Authors: Bruce R. Levin; Fernando Baquero; Peter (Pierre) Ankomah; Ingrid C. McCall
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Bruce R. Levin, Fernando Baquero, Peter (Pierre) Ankomah, Ingrid C. McCall
      Most antibiotic use in humans is to reduce the magnitude and term of morbidity of acute, community-acquired infections in immune competent patients, rather than to save lives. Thanks to phagocytic leucocytes and other host defenses, the vast majority of these infections are self-limiting. Nevertheless, there has been a negligible amount of consideration of the contribution of phagocytosis and other host defenses in the research for, and the design of, antibiotic treatment regimens, which hyper-emphasizes antibiotics as if they were the sole mechanism responsible for the clearance of infections. Here, we critically review this approach and its limitations. With the aid of a heuristic mathematical model, we postulate that if the rate of phagocytosis is great enough, for acute, normally self-limiting infections, then (i) antibiotics with different pharmacodynamic properties would be similarly effective, (ii) low doses of antibiotics can be as effective as high doses, and (iii) neither phenotypic nor inherited antibiotic resistance generated during therapy are likely to lead to treatment failure.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.005
       
  • Visualization of IAV Genomes at the Single-Cell Level
    • Authors: Dan Wang; Wenjun Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dan Wang, Wenjun Ma
      Different influenza A viruses (IAVs) infect the same cell in a host, and can subsequently produce new viruses through genome reassortment. By combining padlock probe RNA labeling with a single-cell analysis, a new approach effectively captures IAV genome trafficking and defines a time window for genome reassortment from same-cell coinfections.Different influenza A viruses (IAVs) infect the same cell in a host, and can subsequently produce new viruses through genome reassortment.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.08.003
       
  • Women and Their Microbes: The Unexpected Friendship
    • Authors: Jessica A. Younes; Elke Lievens; Ruben Hummelen; Rebecca van der Westen; Gregor Reid; Mariya I. Petrova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jessica A. Younes, Elke Lievens, Ruben Hummelen, Rebecca van der Westen, Gregor Reid, Mariya I. Petrova
      Communities of microbiota have been associated with numerous health outcomes, and while much emphasis has been placed on the gastrointestinal niche, there is growing interest in the microbiome specific for female reproductive health and the health of their offspring. The vaginal microbiome plays an essential role not only in health and dysbiosis, but also potentially in successful fertilization and healthy pregnancies. In addition, microbial communities have been isolated from formerly forbidden sterile niches such as the placenta, breast, uterus, and Fallopian tubes, strongly suggesting an additional microbial role in women’s health. A combination of maternally linked prenatal, birth, and postnatal factors, together with environmental and medical interventions, influence early and later life through the microbiome. Here, we review the role of microbes in female health focusing on the vaginal tract and discuss how male and female reproductive microbiomes are intertwined with conception and how mother–child microbial transfer is a key determinant in infant health, and thus the next generation.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.008
       
  • Archaea Are Interactive Components of Complex Microbiomes
    • Authors: Christine Moissl-Eichinger; Manuela Pausan; Julian Taffner; Gabriele Berg; Corinna Bang; Ruth A. Schmitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christine Moissl-Eichinger, Manuela Pausan, Julian Taffner, Gabriele Berg, Corinna Bang, Ruth A. Schmitz
      Recent findings have shaken our picture of the biology of the archaea and revealed novel traits beyond archaeal extremophily and supposed ‘primitiveness’. The archaea constitute a considerable fraction of the Earth’s ecosystems, and their potential to shape their surroundings by a profound interaction with their biotic and abiotic environment has been recognized. Moreover, archaea have been identified as a substantial component, or even as keystone species, in complex microbiomes – in the environment or accompanying a holobiont. Species of the Euryarchaeota (methanogens, halophiles) and Thaumarchaeota, in particular, have the capacity to coexist in plant, animal, and human microbiomes, where syntrophy allows them to thrive under energy-deficiency stress. Due to methodological limitations, the archaeome remains mysterious, and many questions with respect to potential pathogenicity, function, and structural interactions with their host and other microorganisms remain.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.004
       
  • The HPV E6/E7 Oncogenes: Key Factors for Viral Carcinogenesis and
           Therapeutic Targets
    • Authors: Karin Hoppe-Seyler; Felicitas Bossler; Julia A. Braun; Anja L. Herrmann; Felix Hoppe-Seyler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Karin Hoppe-Seyler, Felicitas Bossler, Julia A. Braun, Anja L. Herrmann, Felix Hoppe-Seyler
      Human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced cancers are expected to remain a major health problem worldwide for decades. The growth of HPV-positive cancer cells depends on the sustained expression of the viral E6 and E7 oncogenes which act in concert with still poorly defined cellular alterations. E6/E7 constitute attractive therapeutic targets since E6/E7 inhibition rapidly induces senescence in HPV-positive cancer cells. This cellular response is linked to the reconstitution of the antiproliferative p53 and pRb pathways, and to prosenescent mTOR signaling. Hypoxic HPV-positive cancer cells could be a major obstacle for treatment strategies targeting E6/E7 since they downregulate E6/E7 but evade senescence through hypoxia-induced mTOR impairment. Prospective E6/E7 inhibitors may therefore benefit from a combination with treatment strategies directed against hypoxic tumor cells.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.007
       
  • Mechanisms of Hepatitis B Virus Persistence
    • Authors: Kuen-Nan Tsai; Cheng-Fu Kuo; Jing-Hsiung James Ou
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kuen-Nan Tsai, Cheng-Fu Kuo, Jing-Hsiung James Ou
      Hepatitis B virus (HBV) chronically infects 250 million people worldwide, resulting in nearly one million deaths annually. Studies in recent years have significantly improved our knowledge on the mechanisms of HBV persistence. HBV uses multiple pathways to harness host innate immunity to enhance its replication. It can also take advantage of the developing immune system and the not-yet-stabilized gut microbiota of young children to facilitate its persistence, and use maternal viral e antigen to educate immunity of the offspring to support its persistence after vertical transmission. The knowledge gained from these recent studies paves the way for the development of new therapies for the treatment of chronic HBV infection, which has so far been very challenging.

      PubDate: 2017-08-25T01:18:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.006
       
  • Genomics and Ecology of Novel N2O-Reducing Microorganisms
    • Authors: Sara Hallin; Laurent Philippot; Frank E. Löffler; Robert A. Sanford; Christopher M. Jones
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sara Hallin, Laurent Philippot, Frank E. Löffler, Robert A. Sanford, Christopher M. Jones
      Microorganisms with the capacity to reduce the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) to harmless dinitrogen gas are receiving increased attention due to increasing N2O emissions (and our need to mitigate climate change) and to recent discoveries of novel N2O-reducing bacteria and archaea. The diversity of denitrifying and nondenitrifying microorganisms with capacity for N2O reduction was recently shown to be greater than previously expected. A formerly overlooked group (clade II) in the environment include a large fraction of nondenitrifying N2O reducers, which could be N2O sinks without major contribution to N2O formation. We review the recent advances about fundamental understanding of the genomics, physiology, and ecology of N2O reducers and the importance of these findings for curbing N2O emissions.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.003
       
  • Zika Virus Protease: An Antiviral Drug Target
    • Authors: CongBao Kang; Thomas H. Keller; Dahai Luo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): CongBao Kang, Thomas H. Keller, Dahai Luo
      The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused global concern due to its link to severe damage to the brain development of foetuses and neuronal complications in adult patients. A worldwide research effort has been undertaken to identify effective and safe treatment and vaccination options. Among the proposed viral and host components, the viral NS2B-NS3 protease represents an attractive drug target due to its essential role in the virus life cycle. Here, we outline recent progress in studies on the Zika protease. Biochemical, biophysical, and structural studies on different protease constructs provide new insight into the structure and activity of the protease. The unlinked construct displays higher enzymatic activity and better mimics the native state of the enzyme and therefore is better suited for drug discovery. Furthermore, the structure of the free enzyme adopts a closed conformation and a preformed active site. The availability of a lead fragment hit and peptide inhibitors, as well as the attainability of soakable crystals, suggest that the unlinked construct is a promising tool for drug discovery.

      PubDate: 2017-08-14T01:00:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.001
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 25, Issue 8


      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
       
  • Horizontal Gene Transfer and Ecosystem Function Dynamics
    • Authors: Maarten van de Guchte
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maarten van de Guchte
      Horizontal gene transfer can provide bacteria with new functions that confer an important competitive advantage, and is therefore likely to affect the dynamics of bacterial ecosystems. Two studies by Wolfe et al. and Bonham et al. prepare the way to study this hypothesis in a model ecosystem with reproducible properties.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.07.002
       
  • Do Shoot the Messenger: PASTA Kinases as Virulence Determinants and
           Antibiotic Targets
    • Authors: Daniel A. Pensinger; Adam J. Schaenzer; John-Demian Sauer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Daniel A. Pensinger, Adam J. Schaenzer, John-Demian Sauer
      All domains of life utilize protein phosphorylation as a mechanism of signal transduction. In bacteria, protein phosphorylation was classically thought to be mediated exclusively by histidine kinases as part of two-component signaling systems. However, it is now well appreciated that eukaryotic-like serine/threonine kinases (eSTKs) control essential processes in bacteria. A subset of eSTKs are single-pass transmembrane proteins that have extracellular penicillin-binding-protein and serine/threonine kinase-associated (PASTA) domains which bind muropeptides. In a variety of important pathogens, PASTA kinases have been implicated in regulating biofilms, antibiotic resistance, and ultimately virulence. Although there are limited examples of direct regulation of virulence factors, PASTA kinases are critical for virulence due to their roles in regulating bacterial physiology in the context of stress. This review focuses on the role of PASTA kinases in virulence for a variety of important Gram-positive pathogens and concludes with a discussion of current efforts to develop kinase inhibitors as novel antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.010
       
  • Navigating the Gut Buffet: Control of Polysaccharide Utilization in
           Bacteroides spp.
    • Authors: Nathan D. Schwalm; Eduardo A. Groisman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nathan D. Schwalm, Eduardo A. Groisman
      Bacteroides spp. are members of the human gut microbiota that confer myriad benefits on their hosts. Among them is the provision of energy from otherwise indigestible polysaccharides comprising part of the host diet, lining the intestinal mucosal layer, and decorating the surface of other microbes. Bacteroides spp. devote ∼20% of their genomes to the transport and breakdown of a wide variety of polysaccharides, and to the regulation of these processes. Bacteroides spp. rely on different families of transcriptional regulators to ensure that carbohydrate utilization genes are expressed under specific conditions. The regulators and mechanisms controlling carbohydrate utilization are often unique to these gut-dwelling bacteria, and do not conform to those of model organisms.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.009
       
  • Impact of the Microbiota on Bacterial Infections during Cancer Treatment
    • Authors: Jessica Galloway-Peña; Chelcy Brumlow; Samuel Shelburne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Jessica Galloway-Peña, Chelcy Brumlow, Samuel Shelburne
      Patients being treated for cancer are at high risk for infectious complications, generally due to colonizing organisms that gain access to sterile sites via disrupted epithelial barriers. There is an emerging understanding that the ability of bacterial pathogens, including multidrug-resistant organisms, to colonize and subsequently infect humans is largely dependent on protective bacterial species present in the microbiome. Thus, herein we review recent studies demonstrating strong correlations between the microbiome of the oncology patient and infections occurring during chemotherapy. An increased knowledge of the interplay between potential pathogens, protective commensals, and the host immune system may facilitate the development of novel biomarkers or therapeutics that could help ameliorate the toll that infections take during the treatment of cancer.

      PubDate: 2017-07-25T00:37:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.006
       
  • What Does Not Kill You Makes You Stronger
    • Authors: Miles T. Wetherington; Juan E. Keymer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Miles T. Wetherington, Juan E. Keymer
      Colicin production is an extreme form of labor division; cells lyse after making the toxin! Stochastic phenotype switching allows producers to outcompete sensitive strains since colicin release frees up vacancy. If patch dynamics does not kill you, it stimulates adaptation to a dynamic habitat landscape which selects for rapid dispersal.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.005
       
  • Micronutrient Deficiencies and the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Authors: Núria Mach; Allison Clark
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Núria Mach, Allison Clark
      Little is known about how micronutrient deficiencies affect the human gut microbiota. A study by Hibberd et al. illustrates how these deficiencies affect the composition and function of gut microbiota, and further, how different species realize changes in gene expression and cellular metabolism to cope with micronutrient shortages.

      PubDate: 2017-06-26T23:44:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.06.004
       
  • Antimycobacterial Metabolism: Illuminating Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Biology and Drug Discovery
    • Authors: Divya Awasthi; Joel S. Freundlich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Divya Awasthi, Joel S. Freundlich
      Bacteria are capable of performing a number of biotransformations that may activate or deactivate xenobiotics. Recent efforts have utilized metabolomics techniques to study the fate of small-molecule antibacterials within the targeted organism. Examples involving Mycobacterium tuberculosis are reviewed and analyzed with regard to the insights they provide as to both activation and deactivation of the antibacterial. The studies, in particular, shed light on biosynthetic transformations performed by M. tuberculosis while suggesting avenues for the evolution of chemical tools, highlighting potential areas for drug discovery, and mechanisms of approved drugs. A two-pronged approach investigating the metabolism of antibacterials within both the host and bacterium is outlined and will be of value to both the chemical biology and drug discovery fields.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.007
       
  • Effect of CO2 on Peroxynitrite-Mediated Bacteria Killing: Response to
           Tsikas et al.
    • Authors: Alain P. Gobert; Keith T. Wilson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson


      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.009
       
  • A Single Substitution Changes Zika Virus Infectivity in Mosquitoes
    • Authors: Guan-Zhu Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Guan-Zhu Han
      Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused outbreaks in the Pacific and the Americas. The mechanism underlying the recent ZIKV epidemic remains obscure. A recent study reveals that an amino acid substitution is associated with increased infectivity of ZIKV in the Aedes aegypti mosquito.

      PubDate: 2017-06-14T23:31:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.014
       
  • Helicobacter pylori, Its Urease and Carbonic Anhydrases, and Macrophage
           Nitric Oxide Synthase
    • Authors: Dimitrios Tsikas; Erik Hanff; Gorig Brunner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Dimitrios Tsikas, Erik Hanff, Gorig Brunner


      PubDate: 2017-06-04T23:01:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.002
       
  • Microbiome-on-a-Chip: New Frontiers in Plant–Microbiota Research
    • Authors: Claire E. Stanley; Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Claire E. Stanley, Marcel G.A. van der Heijden
      An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic – or ‘Microbiome-on-a-Chip’ – technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant–microbiota research.

      PubDate: 2017-05-25T22:52:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.tim.2017.05.001
       
 
 
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