for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2912 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (217 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (100 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1408 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (44 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (193 journals)
    - BOTANY (224 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (26 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (61 journals)
    - GENETICS (151 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (241 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (29 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (65 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (142 journals)

MICROBIOLOGY (241 journals)                  1 2 3     

Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access  
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 26)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2801 journals]
  • Small Molecules Take A Big Step Against Clostridium difficile
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Greg L. Beilhartz, John Tam, Roman A. Melnyk
      Effective treatment of Clostridium difficile infections demands a shift away from antibiotics towards toxin-neutralizing agents. Work by Bender et al., using a drug that attenuates toxin action in vivo without affecting bacterial survival, demonstrates the exciting potential of small molecules as a new modality in the fight against C. difficile.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Addressing the Gap in International Norms for Biosafety
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Gigi Kwik Gronvall, Michelle Rozo



      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Programming Bacteriophages by Swapping Their Specificity Determinants
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Moran G. Goren, Ido Yosef, Udi Qimron
      Bacteriophages, bacteria's natural enemies, may serve as potent antibacterial agents. Their specificity for certain bacterial sub-species limits their effectiveness, but allows selective targeting of bacteria. Lu and colleagues present a platform for such targeting through alteration of bacteriophages’ host specificity by swapping specificity domains in their host-recognition ligand.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12




      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • You Are What You Eat: Metabolic Control of Bacterial Division
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Leigh G. Monahan, Elizabeth J. Harry
      Fluctuations in nutrient availability are a fact of life for bacterial cells in the ‘wild’. To survive and compete, bacteria must rapidly modulate cell-cycle processes to accommodate changing nutritional conditions and concomitant changes in cell growth. Our understanding of how this is achieved has been transformed in recent years, with cellular metabolism emerging as a central player. Several metabolic enzymes, in addition to their normal catalytic functions, have been shown to directly modulate cell-cycle processes in response to changing nutrient levels. Here we focus on cell division, the final event in the bacterial cell cycle, and discuss recent compelling evidence connecting division regulation to nutritional status and metabolic activity.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Roger D. Pechous, Vijay Sivaraman, Nikolas M. Stasulli, William E. Goldman
      Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Surface-Exposed Lipoproteins: An Emerging Secretion Phenomenon in
           Gram-Negative Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marlena M. Wilson, Harris D. Bernstein
      Bacterial lipoproteins are hydrophilic proteins that are anchored to a cell membrane by N-terminally linked fatty acids. It is widely believed that nearly all lipoproteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are either retained in the inner membrane (IM) or transferred to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM). Lipoproteins that are exposed on the cell surface have also been reported but are generally considered to be rare. Results from a variety of recent studies, however, now suggest that the prevalence of surface-exposed lipoproteins has been underestimated. In this review we describe the evidence that the surface exposure of lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria is a widespread phenomenon and discuss possible mechanisms by which these proteins might be transported across the OM.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Trade-off Mechanisms Shaping the Diversity of Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas Ferenci
      Strain-to-strain variations in bacterial biofilm formation, metabolism, motility, virulence, evolvability, DNA repair and resistance (to phage, antibiotics, or environmental stresses) each contribute to bacterial diversity. Microbiologists should be aware that all of these traits are subject to constraints imposed by trade-offs, so adaptations improving one trait may be at the cost of another. A deeper appreciation of trade-offs is thus crucial for assessing the mechanistic limits on important bacterial characteristics. Studies of the negative correlations between various traits have revealed three molecular mechanisms, namely, trade-offs involving resource allocation, design constraint, and information processing. This review further discusses why these trade-off mechanisms are important in the establishment of models capable of predicting bacterial competition, coexistence, and sources of diversity.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum Uses Common Strategies for Infection of Ticks
           and Vertebrate Hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): José de la Fuente, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Katherine M. Kocan
      The tick-borne rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum develops within membrane-bound inclusions in the host cell cytoplasm. This pathogen has evolved with its tick and vertebrate hosts through dynamic processes involving genetic traits of the pathogen and hosts that collectively mediate pathogen infection, development, persistence, and survival. Herein, we challenge the evidence of tick–host–pathogen coevolution by hypothesizing that A. phagocytophilum utilizes common molecular mechanisms for infection in both vertebrate and tick cells, including remodeling of the cytoskeleton, inhibition of cell apoptosis, and manipulation of the immune response. The discovery of these common mechanisms provides evidence that a control strategy could be developed targeted at both vertebrate and tick hosts for more complete control of A. phagocytophilum and its associated diseases.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The Interplay of Dengue Virus Morphological Diversity and Human Antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shee-Mei Lok
      Dengue virus (DENV) infects ∼400 million people annually, and there is no available vaccine or therapeutics. It is not clear why candidate vaccines provide only modest protection. In addition to the presence of four different dengue serotypes, there is also structural heterogeneity in DENV infectious particles, even within a strain. This severely complicates the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The currently known different morphologies of DENV are: immature, partially mature, compact mature, and expanded mature forms of the virus. In this review I describe these forms of the virus, their infectivity, and how antibodies could recognize these morphologies. I also discuss possible vaccine and antibody therapeutic formulations to protect against all morphologies.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Symbiosis within Symbiosis: Evolving Nitrogen-Fixing Legume Symbionts
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Philippe Remigi, Jun Zhu, J. Peter W. Young, Catherine Masson-Boivin
      Bacterial accessory genes are genomic symbionts with an evolutionary history and future that is different from that of their hosts. Packages of accessory genes move from strain to strain and confer important adaptations, such as interaction with eukaryotes. The ability to fix nitrogen with legumes is a remarkable example of a complex trait spread by horizontal transfer of a few key symbiotic genes, converting soil bacteria into legume symbionts. Rhizobia belong to hundreds of species restricted to a dozen genera of the Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, suggesting infrequent successful transfer between genera but frequent successful transfer within genera. Here we review the genetic and environmental conditions and selective forces that have shaped evolution of this complex symbiotic trait.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Aim, Load, Fire: The Type VI Secretion System, a Bacterial Nanoweapon
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Francesca R. Cianfanelli, Laura Monlezun, Sarah J. Coulthurst
      Bacteria utilise specialised protein secretion systems to interact with host organisms, competitor bacteria, and the environment. The Type VI secretion system (T6SS) is a versatile weapon deployed by many bacterial species to target either host cells or rival bacteria. The widespread occurrence and significance of the T6SS is becoming increasingly appreciated, as is its intriguing mode of action. The T6SS delivers multiple, diverse effector proteins directly into target cells using a dynamic ‘firing’ mechanism related to the action of contractile bacteriophage tails. Here, we summarise the contribution of recent findings to our developing picture of how the T6SS assembles and fires, how it is loaded with different types of effectors, and how it can be aimed towards an incoming assault.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • New and Improved Techniques for the Study of Pathogenic Fungi
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Timothy C. Cairns, David J. Studholme, Nicholas. J. Talbot, Ken Haynes
      Fungal pathogens pose serious threats to human, plant, and ecosystem health. Improved diagnostics and antifungal strategies are therefore urgently required. Here, we review recent developments in online bioinformatic tools and associated interactive data archives, which enable sophisticated comparative genomics and functional analysis of fungal pathogens in silico. Additionally, we highlight cutting-edge experimental techniques, including conditional expression systems, recyclable markers, RNA interference, genome editing, compound screens, infection models, and robotic automation, which are promising to revolutionize the study of both human and plant pathogenic fungi. These novel techniques will allow vital knowledge gaps to be addressed with regard to the evolution of virulence, host–pathogen interactions and antifungal drug therapies in both the clinic and agriculture. This, in turn, will enable delivery of improved diagnosis and durable disease-control strategies.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Game of ‘Somes: Protein Destruction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis
           Pathogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marie I. Samanovic, K. Heran Darwin
      The proteasome system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is required for causing disease. Proteasomes are multisubunit chambered proteases and, until recently, were only known to participate in adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent proteolysis in bacteria. In this review, we discuss the latest advances in understanding how both ATP-dependent and ATP-independent proteasome-regulated pathways contribute to M. tuberculosis virulence.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • On the Origin of Heterotrophy
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Peter Schönheit, Wolfgang Buckel, William F. Martin
      The theory of autotrophic origins of life posits that the first cells on Earth satisfied their carbon needs from CO2. At hydrothermal vents, spontaneous synthesis of methane via serpentinization links an energy metabolic reaction with a geochemical homologue. If the first cells were autotrophs, how did the first heterotrophs arise, and what was their substrate' We propose that cell mass roughly similar to the composition of Escherichia coli was the substrate for the first chemoorganoheterotrophs. Amino acid fermentations, pathways typical of anaerobic clostridia and common among anaerobic archaea, in addition to clostridial type purine fermentations, might have been the first forms of heterotrophic carbon and energy metabolism. Ribose was probably the first abundant sugar, and the archaeal type III RubisCO pathway of nucleoside monophosphate conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate might be a relic of ancient heterotrophy. Participation of chemiosmotic coupling and flavin-based electron bifurcation – a soluble energy coupling process – in clostridial amino acid and purine fermentations is consistent with an autotrophic origin of both metabolism and heterotrophy, as is the involvement of S0 as an electron acceptor in the facilitated fermentations of anaerobic heterotrophic archaea.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Towards Multidisciplinary HIV-Cure Research: Integrating Social Science
           with Biomedical Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Cynthia I. Grossman, Anna Laura Ross, Judith D. Auerbach, Jintanat Ananworanich, Karine Dubé, Joseph D. Tucker, Veronica Noseda, Cristina Possas, Dianne M. Rausch
      The quest for a cure for HIV remains a timely and key challenge for the HIV research community. Despite significant scientific advances, current HIV therapy regimens do not completely eliminate the negative impact of HIV on the immune system; and the economic impact of treating all people infected with HIV globally, for the duration of their lifetimes, presents significant challenges. This article discusses, from a multidisciplinary approach, critical social, behavioral, ethical, and economic issues permeating the HIV-cure research agenda. As part of a search for an HIV cure, both the perspective of patients/participants and clinical researchers should be taken into account. In addition, continued efforts should be made to involve and educate the broader community.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Gutsy Microbes Fly High in the Antiviral War
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Javier Robalino, Louisa Wu
      The importance of microbiomes in health and disease is now well appreciated. New work from Sansone and colleagues adds to this understanding by showing that gut microbes are key for the local induction of an ERK-dependent antiviral response in flies.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The Two Lives of Bacillus thuringiensis: Response to Ruan et al. and
           Loguercio and Argôlo-Filho
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1
      Author(s): Niels Bohse Hendriksen



      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 1




      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Network-Thinking: Graphs to Analyze Microbial Complexity and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eduardo Corel, Philippe Lopez, Raphaël Méheust, Eric Bapteste
      The tree model and tree-based methods have played a major, fruitful role in evolutionary studies. However, with the increasing realization of the quantitative and qualitative importance of reticulate evolutionary processes, affecting all levels of biological organization, complementary network-based models and methods are now flourishing, inviting evolutionary biology to experience a network-thinking era. We show how relatively recent comers in this field of study, that is, sequence-similarity networks, genome networks, and gene families–genomes bipartite graphs, already allow for a significantly enhanced usage of molecular datasets in comparative studies. Analyses of these networks provide tools for tackling a multitude of complex phenomena, including the evolution of gene transfer, composite genes and genomes, evolutionary transitions, and holobionts.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The Mineralosphere Concept: Mineralogical Control of the Distribution and
           Function of Mineral-associated Bacterial Communities
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Stephane Uroz, Laura Catherine Kelly, Marie-Pierre Turpault, Cendrella Lepleux, Pascale Frey-Klett
      Soil is composed of a mosaic of different rocks and minerals, usually considered as an inert substrata for microbial colonization. However, recent findings suggest that minerals, in soils and elsewhere, favour the development of specific microbial communities according to their mineralogy, nutritive content, and weatherability. Based upon recent studies, we highlight how bacterial communities are distributed on the surface of, and in close proximity to, minerals. We also consider the potential role of the mineral-associated bacterial communities in mineral weathering and nutrient cycling in soils, with a specific focus on nutrient-poor and acidic forest ecosystems. We propose to define this microbial habitat as the mineralosphere, where key drivers of the microbial communities are the physicochemical properties of the minerals.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The HIV-1 Entry Process: A Stoichiometric View
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Oliver F. Brandenberg, Carsten Magnus, Roland R. Regoes, Alexandra Trkola
      HIV-1 infection starts with fusion of the viral and the host cell membranes, a process mediated by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein trimer. The number of trimers required to complete membrane fusion, referred to as HIV-1 entry stoichiometry, remains under debate. A precise definition of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry is important as it reflects the efficacy of the viral entry process and steers the infectivity of HIV-1 virion populations. Initial estimates suggested a unanimous entry stoichiometry across HIV-1 strains while recent findings showed that HIV-1 strains can differ in entry stoichiometry. Here, we review current analyses of HIV-1 entry stoichiometry and point out future research directions to further define the interplay between entry stoichiometry, virus entry fitness, transmission, and susceptibility to antibody neutralization.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Evolutionary Rationale for Phages as Complements of Antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Clara Torres-Barceló, Michael E. Hochberg
      Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage–antibiotic combined therapy.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Wheeling and Dealing With Antigen Presentation in Tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Denis Hudrisier, Olivier Neyrolles
      In tuberculosis, antigens are transferred from infected to uninfected dendritic cells. Does this favor T lymphocyte response and anti-mycobacterial host defense' In a recent report published in Cell Host & Microbe, Ernst and colleagues show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have hijacked this mechanism for its own benefit.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • HIV-1 Envelope Under Attack
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
      The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) plays a critical role in viral replication and represents a potential target for host antiviral factors. Recent work by Tada and colleagues identifies membrane-associated-RING-CH8 (MARCH8) as a potent anti-HIV factor blocking virion incorporation of Env. Thus, MARCH8 joins a growing list of host factors attacking HIV-1 Env.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • It's Gettin’ Hot in Here: Breeding Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for
           Cocoa Fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zoi Papalexandratou, Dennis S. Nielsen
      Cocoa beans have to undergo post-harvest fermentation and drying to develop the typical ‘cocoa flavor’ associated with chocolate. Yeasts play a pivotal role during the fermentation but are generally outcompeted early in the process. Meersman and colleagues describe an elegant breeding-based approach to generate robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • How Does Streptococcus pneumoniae Invade the Brain'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Federico Iovino, Jolien Seinen, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Jan Maarten van Dijl
      Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. The mechanisms by which pneumococci from the bloodstream penetrate the blood–brain barrier to reach the brain are not fully understood. Receptor-mediated adhesion of the bacteria to the brain endothelium is considered a key event leading to meningitis development. The aim of this review is to discuss recent advances and perspectives related to the interactions of S. pneumoniae with the blood–brain barrier during the events leading to meningitis. Altogether, the available data suggest that, by precisely defining the pathways and ligands by which S. pneumoniae adheres to specific receptors, it may be possible to interfere with the respective mechanisms and develop strategies to prevent or even cure pneumococcal meningitis.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Multispecies Swarms of Social Microorganisms as Moving Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eshel Ben-Jacob, Alin Finkelshtein, Gil Ariel, Colin Ingham
      Microorganisms use collective migration to cross barriers and reach new habitats, and the ability to form motile swarms offers a competitive advantage. Traditionally, dispersal by microbial swarm propagation has been studied in monoculture. Microorganisms can facilitate other species’ dispersal by forming multispecies swarms, with mutual benefits. One party (the transporter) moves a sessile partner (the cargo). This results in asymmetric associations ranging from temporary marriages of convenience to long-term fellow travellers. In the context of the ‘microbial market’, the parties offer very different services in exchange. We discuss bacteria transporting bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms moving bacteria, and bacteria facilitating the spread of eukaryotes – and ask what the benefits are, the methods of study, and the consequences of multispecies, swarming logistics networks.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The Significance of Mutualistic Phages for Bacterial Ecology and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nancy Obeng, Akbar Adjie Pratama, Jan Dirk van Elsas
      Bacteria and phages have traditionally been viewed as ‘antagonists’. However, temperate phages can transfer genes, which can broaden their bacterial hosts’ metabolic repertoire, confer or enhance virulence, or eliminate competing organisms, and so enhance bacterial fitness. Recent evidence shows that phages can also promote biofilm formation leading to population-level benefits for their bacterial hosts. Here, we provide a perspective on the ecological and evolutionary consequences for the bacteria interacting with phages, when phage and host interests are aligned. Furthermore, we examine the question whether bacterial hosts can lower immune barriers to phage infection, thereby facilitating infection by beneficial phages. Taking recent evidence together, we suggest that in many cases temperate phages are to be considered as being mutualistic as well as parasitic, at the same time.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Salla T. Jaakkola, Janne J. Ravantti, Hanna M. Oksanen, Dennis H. Bamford
      Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Synonymous Virus Genome Recoding as a Tool to Impact Viral Fitness
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Miguel Angel Martínez, Ana Jordan-Paiz, Sandra Franco, Maria Nevot
      Synthetic genome recoding is a novel method of generating viruses with altered phenotypes, whereby many synonymous mutations are introduced into the protein coding region of the virus genome without altering the encoded proteins. Virus genome recoding with large numbers of slightly deleterious mutations has produced attenuated forms of several RNA viruses. Virus genome recoding can also aid in investigating virus interactions with innate immune responses, identifying functional virus genome structures, strategically ameliorating cis-inhibitory signaling sequences related to complex viral functions, to unravel the relevance of codon usage for the temporal regulation of viral gene expression and improving our knowledge of virus mutational robustness and adaptability. The present review discusses the impacts of synonymous genome recoding with regard to expanding our comprehension of virus biology, and the development of new and better therapeutic strategies.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Household Transmission of Influenza Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Tim K. Tsang, Lincoln L.H. Lau, Simon Cauchemez, Benjamin J. Cowling
      Human influenza viruses cause regular epidemics and occasional pandemics with a substantial public health burden. Household transmission studies have provided valuable information on the dynamics of influenza transmission. We reviewed published studies and found that once one household member is infected with influenza, the risk of infection in a household contact can be up to 38%, and the delay between onset in index and secondary cases is around 3 days. Younger age was associated with higher susceptibility. In the future, household transmission studies will provide information on transmission dynamics, including the correlation of virus shedding and symptoms with transmission, and the correlation of new measures of immunity with protection against infection.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Adipose Tissue: Sanctuary for HIV/SIV Persistence and Replication
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Suresh Pallikkuth, Mahesh Mohan
      This commentary highlights new findings from a recent study identifying adipose tissue as a potential HIV reservoir and a major site of inflammation during chronic human/simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV/SIV) infection. A concise discussion about upcoming challenges and new research avenues for reducing chronic adipose inflammation during HIV/SIV infection is presented.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Preventing Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Protection to a
           ‘T’
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mark R. Schleiss
      A lack of knowledge about the correlates of maternal immunity required for protection of the placenta and fetus against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission has complicated vaccine development. New work from Bialas and colleagues demonstrates a critical role for maternal CD4+ T cells in controlling viremia and preventing CMV-associated fetal disease.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Harnessing the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immune System as a Eukaryotic
           Antiviral Defense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aryn A. Price, Arash Grakoui, David S. Weiss
      Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats – CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems – are sequence-specific RNA-directed endonuclease complexes that bind and cleave nucleic acids. These systems evolved within prokaryotes as adaptive immune defenses to target and degrade nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages and other foreign genetic elements. The antiviral function of these systems has now been exploited to combat eukaryotic viruses throughout the viral life cycle. Here we discuss current advances in CRISPR-Cas9 technology as a eukaryotic antiviral defense.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Brucella abortus Cell Cycle and Infection Are Coordinated
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Xavier De Bolle, Sean Crosson, Jean-Yves Matroule, Jean-Jacques Letesson
      Brucellae are facultative intracellular pathogens. The recent development of methods and genetically engineered strains allowed the description of cell-cycle progression of Brucella abortus, including unipolar growth and the ordered initiation of chromosomal replication. B. abortus cell-cycle progression is coordinated with intracellular trafficking in the endosomal compartments. Bacteria are first blocked at the G1 stage, growth and chromosome replication being resumed shortly before reaching the intracellular proliferation compartment. The control mechanisms of cell cycle are similar to those reported for the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus, and they are crucial for survival in the host cell. The development of single-cell analyses could also be applied to other bacterial pathogens to investigate their cell-cycle progression during infection.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • How Bacteria Use Type IV Pili Machinery on Surfaces
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Berenike Maier, Gerard C.L. Wong
      The bacterial type IV pilus (T4P) is a versatile molecular machine with a broad range of functions. Recent advances revealed that the molecular components and the biophysical properties of the machine are well conserved among phylogenetically distant bacterial species. However, its functions are diverse, and include adhesion, motility, and horizontal gene transfer. This review focusses on the role of T4P in surface motility and bacterial interactions. Different species have evolved distinct mechanisms for intracellular coordination of multiple pili and of pili with other motility machines, ranging from physical coordination to biochemical clocks. Coordinated behavior between multiple bacteria on a surface is achieved by active manipulation of surfaces and modulation of pilus–pilus interactions. An emerging picture is that the T4P actively senses and responds to environmental conditions.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Pentraxins and Collectins: Friend or Foe during Pathogen Invasion'
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 23, Issue 12
      Author(s): Suan-Sin Foo, Patrick C. Reading, Sébastien Jaillon, Alberto Mantovani, Suresh Mahalingam
      Innate immunity serves as the frontline defence against invading pathogens. Despite decades of research, new insights are constantly challenging our understanding of host-elicited immunity during microbial infections. Recently, two families of humoral innate immune proteins, pentraxins and collectins, have become a major focus of research in the field of innate immunity. Pentraxins and collectins are key players in activating the humoral arm of innate immunity, taking centre stage in immunoregulation and disease modulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that pentraxins and collectins can also mediate pathogenic effects during some infections. Herein, we discuss the protective and pathogenic effects of pentraxins and collectins, as well as their therapeutic significance.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Lights, Camera, Action! Antimicrobial Peptide Mechanisms Imaged in Space
           and Time
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Heejun Choi, Nambirajan Rangarajan, James C. Weisshaar
      Deeper understanding of the bacteriostatic and bactericidal mechanisms of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) should help in the design of new antibacterial agents. Over several decades, a variety of biochemical assays have been applied to bulk bacterial cultures. While some of these bulk assays provide time resolution of the order of 1min, they do not capture faster mechanistic events. Nor can they provide subcellular spatial information or discern cell-to-cell heterogeneity within the bacterial population. Single-cell, time-resolved imaging assays bring a completely new spatiotemporal dimension to AMP mechanistic studies. We review recent work that provides new insights into the timing, sequence, and spatial distribution of AMP-induced effects on bacterial cells.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • The DNA-Uptake Process of Naturally Competent Vibrio cholerae
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Noémie Matthey, Melanie Blokesch
      The sophisticated DNA-uptake machinery used during natural transformation is still poorly characterized, especially in Gram-negative bacteria where the transforming DNA has to cross two membranes as well as the peptidoglycan layer before entering the cytoplasm. The DNA-uptake machinery was hypothesized to take the form of a pseudopilus, which, upon repeated cycles of extension and retraction, would pull external DNA towards the cell surface or into the periplasmic space, followed by translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane. In this review, we summarize recent advances on the DNA-uptake machinery of V. cholerae, highlighting the presence of an extended competence-induced pilus and the contribution of a conserved DNA-binding protein that acts as a ratchet and reels DNA into the periplasm.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Reversal of Latency as Part of a Cure for HIV-1
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Thomas Aagaard Rasmussen, Martin Tolstrup, Ole Schmeltz Søgaard
      Here, the use of pharmacological agents to reverse HIV-1 latency will be explored as a therapeutic strategy towards a cure. However, while clinical trials of latency-reversing agents LRAs) have demonstrated their ability to increase production of latent HIV-1, such interventions have not had an effect on the size of the latent HIV-1 reservoir. Plausible explanations for this include insufficient host immune responses against virus-expressing cells, the presence of escape mutations in archived virus, or an insufficient scale of latency reversal. Importantly, these early studies of LRAs were primarily designed to investigate their ability to perturb the state of HIV-1 latency; using the absence of an impact on the size of the HIV-1 reservoir to discard their potential inclusion in curative strategies would be erroneous and premature.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Salivary Transmission of the Chikungunya Arbovirus
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Michael S. Rolph, Ali Zaid, Suresh Mahalingam
      The emergence of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has prompted a re-think of how preventative solutions should be approached since recent studies support the notion of salivary transmission. With the threat of significant health and economic burden, new control strategies aimed at limiting salivary transmission are needed to avoid further outbreaks.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Deciphering MERS-CoV Evolution in Dromedary Camels
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lin Du, Guan-Zhu Han
      The emergence of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) poses a potential threat to global public health. Many aspects of the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in its animal reservoir remain unclear. A recent study provides new insights into the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoV in dromedary camels.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • A New Era of Methanogenesis Research
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mark Alexander Lever
      The reductive acetyl-CoA pathway coupled to methanogenesis is likely one of Earth's oldest metabolisms. Yet, until recently this metabolism had only been found in the kingdom Euryarchaeota. A study now suggests that distantly related Bathyarchaeota are also methanogens and that methane metabolism is more phylogenetically widespread than previously thought.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Strength in Diversity: Hidden Genetic Depths of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Samantha L. Sampson
      Next-generation whole genome sequencing data is currently being utilised to explore Mycobacterium tuberculosis genetic diversity. Studies have focused in particular on the evolution of drug resistance, and have revealed a surprising degree of dynamic population heterogeneity, with implications for transmission studies, treatment regimens and new drug target development.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Fueling the Bio-economy: European Culture Collections and Microbiology
           Education and Training
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): André Antunes, Erko Stackebrandt, Nelson Lima
      A survey of European Microbial Biological Resource Centers and their users provided an overview on microbiology education and training. The results identified future increases in demand despite several shortcomings and gaps in the current offer. Urgent adjustments are needed to match users’ needs, integrate innovative programs, and adopt new technologies.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Septal Junctions in Filamentous Heterocyst-Forming Cyanobacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2
      Author(s): Enrique Flores, Antonia Herrero, Karl Forchhammer, Iris Maldener
      In the filaments of heterocyst-forming cyanobacteria, septal junctions that traverse the septal peptidoglycan join adjacent cells, allowing intercellular communication. Perforations in the septal peptidoglycan have been observed, and proteins involved in the formation of such perforations and putative protein components of the septal junctions have been identified, but their relationships are debated.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2




      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • RNA Structure Duplications and Flavivirus Host Adaptation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sergio M. Villordo, Juan M. Carballeda, Claudia V. Filomatori, Andrea V. Gamarnik
      Flaviviruses include a highly diverse group of arboviruses with a global distribution and a high human disease burden. Most flaviviruses cycle between insects and vertebrate hosts; thus, they are obligated to use different cellular machinery for their replication and mount different mechanisms to evade specific antiviral responses. In addition to coding for viral proteins, the viral genome contains signals in RNA structures that govern the amplification of viral components and participate in triggering or evading antiviral responses. In this review, we focused on new information about host-specific functions of RNA structures present in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of flavivirus genomes. Models and conservation patterns of RNA elements of distinct flavivirus ecological groups are revised. An intriguing feature of the 3′ UTR of insect-borne flavivirus genomes is the conservation of complex RNA structure duplications. Here, we discuss new hypotheses of how these RNA elements specialize for replication in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, and present new ideas associating the significance of RNA structure duplication, small subgenomic flavivirus RNA formation, and host adaptation.


      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
       
  • Stealing the Keys to the Kitchen: Viral Manipulation of the Host Cell
           Metabolic Network
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 October 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Christopher M. Goodwin, Shihao Xu, Joshua Munger
      Host cells possess the metabolic assets required for viral infection. Recent studies indicate that control of the host's metabolic resources is a core host–pathogen interaction. Viruses have evolved mechanisms to usurp the host's metabolic resources, funneling them towards the production of virion components as well as the organization of specialized compartments for replication, maturation, and dissemination. Consequently, hosts have developed a variety of metabolic countermeasures to sense and resist these viral changes. The complex interplay between virus and host over metabolic control has only just begun to be deconvoluted. However, it is clear that virally induced metabolic reprogramming can substantially impact infectious outcomes, highlighting the promise of targeting these processes for antiviral therapeutic development.


      PubDate: 2015-10-05T08:25:07Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015