for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2927 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (220 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (99 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1420 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (44 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (197 journals)
    - BOTANY (222 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (26 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (60 journals)
    - GENETICS (154 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (241 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (28 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (65 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (140 journals)

MICROBIOLOGY (241 journals)                  1 2     

Showing 1 - 0 of 0 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Addiction Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Applied Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Molecular Imaging     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology     Open Access  
African Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Algorithms for Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Microbiological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Stem Cell Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Annals of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Annual Review of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Applied and Environmental Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
Aquatic Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Avicenna Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Microbiology     Open Access  
Beneficial Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription  
BioArchitecture     Full-text available via subscription  
Biocell     Open Access  
Bioethanol     Open Access  
Biomaterials Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biomolecular Detection and Quantification     Open Access  
Biomolecules     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BMC Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cell Biology : Research & Therapy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Cell Host & Microbe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Cell Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cell Regeneration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cell Stem Cell     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
CellBio     Open Access  
Cells     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular & Molecular Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cellular and Molecular Biology Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cellular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cellular Senescence and Therapy     Open Access  
Cheese: Chemistry, Physics and Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Chimerism     Full-text available via subscription  
Clinical Microbiology and Infection     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Clinical Microbiology Newsletter     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Microbiology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Molecular Bioscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Current Clinical Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Issues in Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Molecular Biology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Molecular Imaging     Hybrid Journal  
Current Opinion in Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Current Tissue Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Disease and Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
Emerging Microbes & Infections     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Environmental Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Environmental Microbiology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Enzyme and Microbial Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Epigenetics of Degenerative Diseases     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Experimental and Molecular Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Fems Microbiology Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Fems Microbiology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Fems Microbiology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Fermentation     Open Access  
Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica     Open Access  
Folia Microbiologica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Future Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Future Virology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Gene Expression     Full-text available via subscription  
Genetica si Biologie Moleculara     Open Access  
Genetics and Molecular Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Geomicrobiology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Gut Microbes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
IAWA Journal     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Infection Ecology & Epidemiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Inside the Cell     Open Access  
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Bacteriology     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioassays     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Infection and Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Medical Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Virology and Molecular Biology     Open Access  
International Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMM Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Basic Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bionanoscience     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bone Marrow Research     Open Access  
Journal of Brewing and Distilling     Open Access  
Journal of Cell Biology and Genetics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Clinical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Clinical Pathology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Extracellular Vesicles     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Microbiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Genes and Cells     Open Access  
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Histology     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Medical Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Metabonomics & Metabolites     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiological Methods     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Microbiology and Antimicrobials     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Micropalaeontology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Psychiatry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Pharmacy & Bioresources     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Plant Pathology & Microbiology     Open Access  
Journal of Proteome Science and Computational Biology     Open Access  
Journal of Regenerative Medicine and Tissue Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of The Academy of Clinical Microbiologists     Open Access  
Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Institute of Brewing     Free  
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology     Open Access  
Letters In Applied Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Macrophage     Open Access  
MAP Kinase     Open Access  
Marine Ecology Progress Series MEPS     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Medical Mycology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Methods in Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Microbes and Health     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbes and Infection     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Cell Factories     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Microbial Drug Resistance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Microbial Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbial Ecology in Health and Disease     Open Access  
Microbial Informatics and Experimentation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbial Pathogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiologia Medica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Microbiological Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Microbiology (SGM)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Microbiology and Immunology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Microbiology Australia     Hybrid Journal  
Microbiology Discovery     Open Access  
Microbiology Indonesia     Open Access  
Microbiology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
MicrobiologyOpen     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Microbiome Science and Medicine     Open Access  
Microorganisms     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
MicroRNA     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Molecular and Cellular Therapies     Open Access  
Molecular Biology and Genetic Engineering     Open Access  
Molecular Biology Research Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Genetics, Microbiology and Virology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Molecular Imaging and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Medicine Reports     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Molecular Oral Microbiology     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development     Open Access  
Nature Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nature Reviews Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 60)
Neuron Glia Biology     Hybrid Journal  
New Egyptian Journal of Microbiology     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Trends in Microbiology
  [SJR: 5.211]   [H-I: 132]   [28 followers]  Follow
   Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
   ISSN (Print) 0966-842X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2805 journals]
  • Role of the Gram-Negative Envelope Stress Response in the Presence of
           Antimicrobial Agents
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Randi L. Guest, Tracy L. Raivio
      Bacterial survival necessitates endurance of many types of antimicrobial compound. Many Gram-negative envelope stress responses, which must contend with an outer membrane and a dense periplasm containing the cell wall, have been associated with the status of protein folding, membrane homeostasis, and physiological functions such as efflux and the proton motive force (PMF). In this review, we discuss evidence that indicates an emerging role for Gram-negative envelope stress responses in enduring exposure to diverse antimicrobial substances, focusing on recent studies of the γ-proteobacterial Cpx envelope stress response.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
  • Viral Carcinogenesis Beyond Malignant Transformation: EBV in the
           Progression of Human Cancers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Deilson Elgui de Oliveira, Bárbara G. Müller-Coan, Joseph S. Pagano
      Cancer progression begins when malignant cells colonize adjacent sites, and it is characterized by increasing tumor heterogeneity, invasion and dissemination of cancer cells. Clinically, progression is the most relevant stage in the natural history of cancers. A given virus is usually regarded as oncogenic because of its ability to induce malignant transformation of cells. Nonetheless, oncogenic viruses may also be important for the progression of infection-associated cancers. Recently this hypothesis has been addressed because of studies on the contribution of the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) to the aggressiveness of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Several EBV products modulate cancer progression phenomena, such as the epithelial–mesenchymal transition, cell motility, invasiveness, angiogenesis, and metastasis. In this regard, there are compelling data about the effects of EBV latent membrane proteins (LMPs) and EBV nuclear antigens (EBNAs), as well as nontranslated viral RNAs, such as the EBV-encoded small nonpolyadenylated RNAs (EBERs) and viral microRNAs, notably EBV miR-BARTs. The available data on the mechanisms and players involved in the contribution of EBV infection to the aggressiveness of NPC are discussed in this review. Overall, this conceptual framework may be valuable for the understanding of the contribution of some infectious agents in the progression of cancers.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: The Odd One Out
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Vegard Eldholm, François Balloux
      Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) threats are typically represented by bacteria capable of extensive horizontal gene transfer (HGT). One clear exception is Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). It is an obligate human pathogen with limited genetic diversity and a low mutation rate which lacks any evidence for HGT. Such features should, in principle, reduce its ability to rapidly evolve AMR. We identify key features in its biology and epidemiology that allow it to overcome its low adaptive potential. We focus in particular on its innate resistance to drugs, its unusual life cycle, including an often extensive latent phase, and its ability to shelter from exposure to antimicrobial drugs within cavities it induces in the lungs.

      PubDate: 2016-04-07T21:23:33Z
  • Microbial Ecology and Evolution in the Acid Mine Drainage Model System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Li-Nan Huang, Jia-Liang Kuang, Wen-Sheng Shu
      Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a unique ecological niche for acid- and toxic-metals-adapted microorganisms. These low-complexity systems offer a special opportunity for the ecological and evolutionary analyses of natural microbial assemblages. The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented interest in the study of AMD communities using 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing and community genomic and postgenomic methodologies, significantly advancing our understanding of microbial diversity, community function, and evolution in acidic environments. This review describes new data on AMD microbial ecology and evolution, especially dynamics of microbial diversity, community functions, and population genomes, and further identifies gaps in our current knowledge that future research, with integrated applications of meta-omics technologies, will fill.

      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
  • Oysters and Vibrios as a Model for Disease Dynamics in Wild Animals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Frédérique Le Roux, K. Mathias Wegner, Martin F. Polz
      Disease dynamics in the wild are influenced by a number of ecological and evolutionary factors not addressed by traditional laboratory-based characterization of pathogens. Here we propose the oyster, Crassostrea gigas, as a model for studying the interaction of the environment, bacterial pathogens, and the host in disease dynamics. We show that an important first step is to ask whether the functional unit of pathogenesis is a bacterial clone, a population, or a consortium in order to assess triggers of disease outbreaks and devise appropriate monitoring tools. Moreover, the development of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) oysters has enabled assessment of the infection process under natural conditions. Finally, recent results show the importance of microbial interactions and host genetics in determining oyster health and disease.

      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
  • Bacterial Vesicle Secretion and the Evolutionary Origin of the Eukaryotic
           Endomembrane System
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sven B. Gould, Sriram G. Garg, William F. Martin
      Eukaryotes possess an elaborate endomembrane system with endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, Golgi, lysosomes, peroxisomes, autophagosomes, and dynamic vesicle traffic. Theories addressing the evolutionary origin of eukaryotic endomembranes have overlooked the outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) that bacteria, archaea, and mitochondria secrete into their surroundings. We propose that the eukaryotic endomembrane system originated from bacterial OMVs released by the mitochondrial ancestor within the cytosol of its archaeal host at eukaryote origin. Confined within the host's cytosol, OMVs accumulated naturally, fusing either with each other or with the host's plasma membrane. This matched the host's archaeal secretory pathway for cotranslational protein insertion with outward bound mitochondrial-derived vesicles consisting of bacterial lipids, forging a primordial, secretory endoplasmic reticulum as the cornerstone of the eukaryotic endomembrane system.

      PubDate: 2016-04-03T20:51:52Z
  • Fat(al) attraction: Picornaviruses Usurp Lipid Transfer at Membrane
           Contact Sites to Create Replication Organelles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Hilde M. van der Schaar, Cristina M. Dorobantu, Lucian Albulescu, Jeroen R.P.M. Strating, Frank J.M. van Kuppeveld
      All viruses that carry a positive-sense RNA genome (+RNA), such as picornaviruses, hepatitis C virus, dengue virus, and SARS- and MERS-coronavirus, confiscate intracellular membranes of the host cell to generate new compartments (i.e., replication organelles) for amplification of their genome. Replication organelles (ROs) are membranous structures that not only harbor viral proteins but also contain a specific array of hijacked host factors that create a unique lipid microenvironment optimal for genome replication. While some lipids may be locally synthesized de novo, other lipids are shuttled towards ROs. In picornavirus-infected cells, lipids are exchanged at membrane contact sites between ROs and other organelles. In this paper, we review recent advances in our understanding of how picornaviruses exploit host membrane contact site machinery to generate ROs, a mechanism that is used by some other +RNA viruses as well.

      PubDate: 2016-03-26T18:19:34Z
  • Immuno-Pharmacological Targeting of Virus-Containing Compartments in
           HIV-1-Infected Macrophages
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Francesca Graziano, Elisa Vicenzi, Guido Poli
      In addition to CD4 T lymphocytes, HIV-1 infects tissue macrophages that can actively accumulate infectious virions in vacuolar subcellular structures mostly connected to the plasma membrane and recently termed virus-containing compartments (VCCs). The VCC-associated HIV-1 reservoir of infected macrophages can be either increased or depleted by immunologic and pharmacologic agents, at least in vitro, thus suggesting that these factors (or related molecules) could be effective in curtailing the macrophage-associated HIV-1 reservoir in infected individuals receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Here we review evidence on the pathogenic role of tissue macrophages as long-term viral reservoirs in vivo and upon in vitro infection with a particular emphasis on the immuno-pharmacological modulation of VCCs.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Microbial Endurance: In It for the Long Haul
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Gail Teitzel

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Studying Bacterial Multispecies Biofilms: Where to Start'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Henriette L. Røder, Søren J. Sørensen, Mette Burmølle
      The high prevalence and significance of multispecies biofilms have now been demonstrated in various bacterial habitats with medical, industrial, and ecological relevance. It is highly evident that several species of bacteria coexist and interact in biofilms, which highlights the need for evaluating the approaches used to study these complex communities. This review focuses on the establishment of multispecies biofilms in vitro, interspecies interactions in microhabitats, and how to select communities for evaluation. Studies have used different experimental approaches; here we evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of varying the degree of complexity. This review aims to facilitate multispecies biofilm research in order to expand the current limited knowledge on interspecies interactions.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Stress as a Normal Cue in the Symbiotic Environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Julia A. Schwartzman, Edward G. Ruby
      All multicellular hosts form associations with groups of microorganisms. These microbial communities can be taxonomically diverse and dynamic, and their persistence is due to robust, and sometimes coevolved, host–microbe and microbe–microbe interactions. Chemical and physical sources of stress are prominently situated in this molecular exchange, as cues for cellular responses in symbiotic microbes. Stress in the symbiotic environment may arise from three sources: host tissues, microbe-induced immune responses, or other microbes in the host environment. The responses of microbes to these stresses can be general or highly specialized, and collectively may contribute to the stability of the symbiotic system. In this review, we highlight recent work that emphasizes the role of stress as a cue in the symbiotic environment of plants and animals.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Epidemiology, Genetic Recombination, and Pathogenesis of Coronaviruses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Shuo Su, Gary Wong, Weifeng Shi, Jun Liu, Alexander C.K. Lai, Jiyong Zhou, Wenjun Liu, Yuhai Bi, George F. Gao
      Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) were first described in the 1960s for patients with the common cold. Since then, more HCoVs have been discovered, including those that cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), two pathogens that, upon infection, can cause fatal respiratory disease in humans. It was recently discovered that dromedary camels in Saudi Arabia harbor three different HCoV species, including a dominant MERS HCoV lineage that was responsible for the outbreaks in the Middle East and South Korea during 2015. In this review we aim to compare and contrast the different HCoVs with regard to epidemiology and pathogenesis, in addition to the virus evolution and recombination events which have, on occasion, resulted in outbreaks amongst humans.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 4

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • The Interplay of Dengue Virus Morphological Diversity and Human Antibodies
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 4
      Author(s): Shee-Mei Lok
      Dengue virus (DENV) infects ∼400 million people annually, and there is no available vaccine or therapeutics. It is not clear why candidate vaccines provide only modest protection. In addition to the presence of four different dengue serotypes, there is also structural heterogeneity in DENV infectious particles, even within a strain. This severely complicates the development of vaccines and therapeutics. The currently known different morphologies of DENV are: immature, partially mature, compact mature, and expanded mature forms of the virus. In this review I describe these forms of the virus, their infectivity, and how antibodies could recognize these morphologies. I also discuss possible vaccine and antibody therapeutic formulations to protect against all morphologies.

      PubDate: 2016-03-21T18:01:16Z
  • Functional Redundancy-Induced Stability of Gut Microbiota Subjected to
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Andrés Moya, Manuel Ferrer
      The microbiota should be considered as just another component of the human epigenetic landscape. Thus, health is also a reflection of the diversity and composition of gut microbiota and its metabolic status. In defining host health, it remains unclear whether diversity is paramount, or whether greater weight is held by gut microbiota composition or mono- or multiple-functional capacity of the different taxa and the mechanisms involved. A network-biology approach may shed light on the key gut players acting to protect against, or promote, disorders or diseases. This could be achieved by integrating data on total and active species, proteins and molecules, and their association with host response. In this review, we discuss the utilization of top-down and bottom-up approaches, following a functional hierarchy perspective.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T17:24:23Z
  • Oscillospira: a Central, Enigmatic Component of the Human Gut Microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Tom Konikoff, Uri Gophna
      Oscillospira is an enigmatic bacterial genus that has never been cultured, but is constantly detected by 16S rRNA gene surveys of the human microbiome. Here we summarize recent evidence that Oscillospira is positively associated with leanness and health, speculate about its physiology, and argue its potential importance for human health.

      PubDate: 2016-03-17T17:24:23Z
  • The Use and Abuse of LexA by Mobile Genetic Elements
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nadine Fornelos, Douglas F. Browning, Matej Butala
      The SOS response is an essential process for responding to DNA damage in bacteria. The expression of SOS genes is under the control of LexA, a global transcription factor that undergoes self-cleavage during stress to allow the expression of DNA repair functions and delay cell division until the damage is rectified. LexA also regulates genes that are not part of this cell rescue program, and the induction of bacteriophages, the movement of pathogenicity islands, and the expression of virulence factors and bacteriocins are all controlled by this important transcription factor. Recently it has emerged that when regulating the expression of genes from mobile genetic elements (MGEs), LexA often does so in concert with a corepressor. This accessory regulator can either be a host-encoded global transcription factor, which responds to various metabolic changes, or a factor that is encoded for by the MGE itself. Thus, the coupling of LexA-mediated regulation to a secondary transcription factor not only detaches LexA from its primary SOS role, but also fine-tunes gene expression from the MGE, enabling it to respond to multiple stresses. Here we discuss the mechanisms of such coordinated regulation and its implications for cells carrying such MGEs.

      PubDate: 2016-03-13T17:19:57Z
  • Oral Biofilm Architecture at the Microbial Scale
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Maria D. Ferrer, Alex Mira
      The application of Spectral Imaging FISH to oral biofilm samples has permitted the direct, simultaneous observation of up to nine different bacterial taxa. This has revealed a complex yet organized microbial architecture, identifying the key microorganisms in the community and detecting the existing interspecies physical interactions at the micron scale.

      PubDate: 2016-03-09T16:49:16Z
  • Dancing with the Stars: How Choreographed Bacterial Interactions Dictate
           Nososymbiocity and Give Rise to Keystone Pathogens, Accessory Pathogens,
           and Pathobionts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): George Hajishengallis, Richard J. Lamont
      Many diseases that originate on mucosal membranes ensue from the action of polymicrobial communities of indigenous organisms working in concert to disrupt homeostatic mechanisms. Multilevel physical and chemical communication systems among constituent organisms underlie polymicrobial synergy and dictate the community's pathogenic potential or nososymbiocity, that is, disease arising from living together with a susceptible host. Functional specialization of community participants, often originating from metabolic codependence, has given rise to several newly appreciated designations within the commensal-to-pathogen spectrum. Accessory pathogens, while inherently commensal in a particular microenvironment, nonetheless enhance the colonization or metabolic activity of pathogens. Keystone pathogens (bacterial drivers or alpha-bugs) exert their influence at low abundance by modulating both the composition and levels of community participants and by manipulating host responses. Pathobionts (or bacterial passengers) exploit disrupted host homeostasis to flourish and promote inflammatory disease. In this review we discuss how commensal or pathogenic properties of organisms are not intrinsic features, and have to be considered within the context of both the microbial community in which they reside and the host immune status.

      PubDate: 2016-03-09T16:49:16Z
  • TFH in HIV Latency and as Sources of Replication-Competent Virus
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Brodie Miles, Elizabeth Connick
      During untreated disease, HIV replication is concentrated within T follicular helper cells (TFH). Heightened permissiveness, the presence of highly infectious virions on follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), low frequencies of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in B cell follicles, expansions in TFH, and TFH dysfunction, all likely promote replication in TFH. Limited data suggest that memory TFH play a role in the latent or subclinical reservoir of HIV during antiretroviral therapy (ART), potentially for many of the same reasons. A better understanding of the role of memory TFH and FDC-bound virions in promoting recrudescent viremia in the setting of ART cessation is essential. Studies that target follicular virus reservoirs are needed to determine their role in HIV latency and to suggest successful cure strategies.

      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
  • Divorcing Strain Classification from Species Names
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): David A. Baltrus
      Confusion about strain classification and nomenclature permeates modern microbiology. Although taxonomists have traditionally acted as gatekeepers of order, the numbers of, and speed at which, new strains are identified has outpaced the opportunity for professional classification for many lineages. Furthermore, the growth of bioinformatics and database-fueled investigations have placed metadata curation in the hands of researchers with little taxonomic experience. Here I describe practical challenges facing modern microbial taxonomy, provide an overview of complexities of classification for environmentally ubiquitous taxa like Pseudomonas syringae, and emphasize that classification can be independent of nomenclature. A move toward implementation of relational classification schemes based on inherent properties of whole genomes could provide sorely needed continuity in how strains are referenced across manuscripts and data sets.

      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
  • Why Be Temperate: Lessons from Bacteriophage λ
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sylvain Gandon
      Many pathogens have evolved the ability to induce latent infections of their hosts. The bacteriophage λ is a classical model for exploring the regulation and the evolution of latency. Here, I review recent experimental studies on phage λ that identify specific conditions promoting the evolution of lysogenic life cycles. In addition, I present specific adaptations of phage λ that allow this virus to react plastically to variations in the environment and to reactivate its lytic life cycle. All of these different examples are discussed in the light of evolutionary epidemiology theory to disentangle the different evolutionary forces acting on temperate phages. Understanding phage λ adaptations yield important insights into the evolution of latency in other microbes, including several life-threatening human pathogens.

      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
  • Quantifying Current Events Identifies a Novel Endurance Regulator
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Theresa C. Henry, Mark P. Brynildsen
      In nongrowing microbes, proteome turnover is reduced and identification of newly synthesized, low-abundance proteins is challenging. Babin and colleagues recently utilized bio-orthogonal noncanonical amino acid tagging (BONCAT) to identify actively synthesized proteins in nongrowing Pseudomonas aeruginosa, discovering a regulator whose influences range from biofilm formation to secondary metabolism.

      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa Evolutionary Adaptation and Diversification in
           Cystic Fibrosis Chronic Lung Infections
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Craig Winstanley, Siobhan O’Brien, Michael A. Brockhurst
      Pseudomonas aeruginosa populations undergo a characteristic evolutionary adaptation during chronic infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, including reduced production of virulence factors, transition to a biofilm-associated lifestyle, and evolution of high-level antibiotic resistance. Populations of P. aeruginosa in chronic CF lung infections typically exhibit high phenotypic diversity, including for clinically important traits such as antibiotic resistance and toxin production, and this diversity is dynamic over time, making accurate diagnosis and treatment challenging. Population genomics studies reveal extensive genetic diversity within patients, including for transmissible strains the coexistence of highly divergent lineages acquired by patient-to-patient transmission. The inherent spatial structure and spatial heterogeneity of selection in the CF lung appears to play a key role in driving P. aeruginosa diversification.

      PubDate: 2016-03-04T16:13:14Z
  • Subversion of Retrograde Trafficking by Translocated Pathogen Effectors
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Nicolas Personnic, Kevin Bärlocher, Ivo Finsel, Hubert Hilbi
      Intracellular bacterial pathogens subvert the endocytic bactericidal pathway to form specific replication-permissive compartments termed pathogen vacuoles or inclusions. To this end, the pathogens employ type III or type IV secretion systems, which translocate dozens, if not hundreds, of different effector proteins into their host cells, where they manipulate vesicle trafficking and signaling pathways in favor of the intruders. While the distinct cocktail of effectors defines the specific processes by which a pathogen vacuole is formed, the different pathogens commonly target certain vesicle trafficking routes, including the endocytic or secretory pathway. Recently, the retrograde transport pathway from endosomal compartments to the trans-Golgi network emerged as an important route affecting pathogen vacuole formation. Here, we review current insight into the host cell's retrograde trafficking pathway and how vacuolar pathogens of the genera Legionella, Coxiella, Salmonella, Chlamydia, and Simkania employ mechanistically distinct strategies to subvert this pathway, thus promoting intracellular survival and replication.

      PubDate: 2016-02-28T14:39:50Z
  • The Persistent Mystery of Adenovirus Persistence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Cason R. King, Ali Zhang, Joe S. Mymryk

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
  • The Immune Battle against Helicobacter pylori Infection: NO Offense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Alain P. Gobert, Keith T. Wilson
      Helicobacter pylori is a successful pathogen of the human stomach. Despite a vigorous immune response by the gastric mucosa, the bacterium survives in its ecological niche, thus favoring diseases ranging from chronic gastritis to adenocarcinoma. The current literature demonstrates that high-output of nitric oxide (NO) production by the inducible enzyme NO synthase-2 (NOS2) plays major functions in host defense against bacterial infections. However, pathogens have elaborated several strategies to counteract the deleterious effects of NO; this includes inhibition of host NO synthesis and transcriptional regulation in response to reactive nitrogen species, allowing the bacteria to face the nitrosative stress. Moreover, NO is also a critical mediator of inflammation and carcinogenesis. In this context, we review the recent findings on the expression of NOS2 in H. pylori-infected gastric tissues and epithelial cells, the role of NO in H. pylori-related diseases and H. pylori gene expression, and the mechanisms whereby H. pylori regulates NO synthesis by host cells.

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
  • Managing Amphibian Disease with Skin Microbiota
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 3
      Author(s): Douglas C. Woodhams, Molly Bletz, Jordan Kueneman, Valerie McKenzie
      The contribution of emerging amphibian diseases to the sixth mass extinction is driving innovative wildlife management strategies, including the use of probiotics. Bioaugmentation of the skin mucosome, a dynamic environment including host and microbial components, may not provide a generalized solution. Multi-omics technologies and ecological context underlie effective implementation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-23T13:42:24Z
  • Involvement of Bacteria Other Than Clostridium difficile in
           Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhoea
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sarah Larcombe, Melanie L. Hutton, Dena Lyras
      Antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) is a common and unintended consequence of antibiotic use. Clostridium difficile is the most common infectious aetiology of AAD; however, only approximately 25% of all AAD cases are associated with C. difficile infection, with the aetiology in the majority of cases remaining undetermined. Numerous other bacterial infectious agents have been implicated in AAD, including Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella oxytoca. AAD is a complex disease that is influenced by the host, the infectious agent involved, and numerous clinical factors, including antibiotic treatment regimes. This review re-examines AAD and presents current perspectives on this disease, with a particular focus on the current understanding of bacterial causes other than C. difficile and the virulence factors involved in pathogenesis.

      PubDate: 2016-02-18T12:59:21Z
  • Sharing Data for Global Infectious Disease Surveillance and Outbreak
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Frank M. Aarestrup, Marion G. Koopmans
      Rapid global sharing and comparison of epidemiological and genomic data on infectious diseases would enable more rapid and efficient global outbreak control and tracking of diseases. Several barriers for global sharing exist but, in our opinion, the presumed magnitude of the problems appears larger than they are, and solutions can be found.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
  • A Deadly Path: Bacterial Spread During Bubonic Plague
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Rodrigo J. Gonzalez, Virginia L. Miller
      Yersinia pestis causes bubonic plague, a fulminant disease where host immune responses are abrogated. Recently developed in vivo models of plague have resulted in new ideas regarding bacterial spread in the body. Deciphering bacterial spread is key to understanding Y. pestis and the immune responses it encounters during infection.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
  • HIV-1 Reservoirs During Suppressive Therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kirston Barton, Anni Winckelmann, Sarah Palmer
      The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) 20 years ago has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality associated with HIV-1. Initially there was hope that ART would be curative, but it quickly became clear that even though ART was able to restore CD4+ T cell counts and suppress viral loads below levels of detection, discontinuation of treatment resulted in a rapid rebound of infection. This is due to persistence of a small reservoir of latently infected cells with a long half-life, which necessitates life-long ART. Over the past few years, significant progress has been made in defining and characterizing the latent reservoir of HIV-1, and here we review how understanding the latent reservoir during suppressive therapy will lead to significant advances in curative approaches for HIV-1.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
  • Bears Arouse Interest in Microbiota's Role in Health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Kimberly A. Dill-McFarland, Garret Suen, Hannah V. Carey
      The first report of the effect of hibernation on the gut microbiota of bears reveals trends both similar and distinct from those found in small hibernators. A model mouse system also suggested possible roles of the microbiota for healthy weight gain and insulin tolerance in bears during their active season.

      PubDate: 2016-02-14T11:58:10Z
  • You Are What You Eat: Metabolic Control of Bacterial Division
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Leigh G. Monahan, Elizabeth J. Harry
      Fluctuations in nutrient availability are a fact of life for bacterial cells in the ‘wild’. To survive and compete, bacteria must rapidly modulate cell-cycle processes to accommodate changing nutritional conditions and concomitant changes in cell growth. Our understanding of how this is achieved has been transformed in recent years, with cellular metabolism emerging as a central player. Several metabolic enzymes, in addition to their normal catalytic functions, have been shown to directly modulate cell-cycle processes in response to changing nutrient levels. Here we focus on cell division, the final event in the bacterial cell cycle, and discuss recent compelling evidence connecting division regulation to nutritional status and metabolic activity.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Pneumonic Plague: The Darker Side of Yersinia pestis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Roger D. Pechous, Vijay Sivaraman, Nikolas M. Stasulli, William E. Goldman
      Inhalation of the bacterium Yersinia pestis results in primary pneumonic plague. Pneumonic plague is the most severe manifestation of plague, with mortality rates approaching 100% in the absence of treatment. Its rapid disease progression, lethality, and ability to be transmitted via aerosol have compounded fears of the intentional release of Y. pestis as a biological weapon. Importantly, recent epidemics of plague have highlighted a significant role for pneumonic plague during outbreaks of Y. pestis infections. In this review we describe the characteristics of pneumonic plague, focusing on its disease progression and pathogenesis. The rapid time-course, severity, and difficulty of treating pneumonic plague highlight how differences in the route of disease transmission can enhance the lethality of an already deadly pathogen.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Surface-Exposed Lipoproteins: An Emerging Secretion Phenomenon in
           Gram-Negative Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Marlena M. Wilson, Harris D. Bernstein
      Bacterial lipoproteins are hydrophilic proteins that are anchored to a cell membrane by N-terminally linked fatty acids. It is widely believed that nearly all lipoproteins produced by Gram-negative bacteria are either retained in the inner membrane (IM) or transferred to the inner leaflet of the outer membrane (OM). Lipoproteins that are exposed on the cell surface have also been reported but are generally considered to be rare. Results from a variety of recent studies, however, now suggest that the prevalence of surface-exposed lipoproteins has been underestimated. In this review we describe the evidence that the surface exposure of lipoproteins in Gram-negative bacteria is a widespread phenomenon and discuss possible mechanisms by which these proteins might be transported across the OM.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Trade-off Mechanisms Shaping the Diversity of Bacteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Thomas Ferenci
      Strain-to-strain variations in bacterial biofilm formation, metabolism, motility, virulence, evolvability, DNA repair and resistance (to phage, antibiotics, or environmental stresses) each contribute to bacterial diversity. Microbiologists should be aware that all of these traits are subject to constraints imposed by trade-offs, so adaptations improving one trait may be at the cost of another. A deeper appreciation of trade-offs is thus crucial for assessing the mechanistic limits on important bacterial characteristics. Studies of the negative correlations between various traits have revealed three molecular mechanisms, namely, trade-offs involving resource allocation, design constraint, and information processing. This review further discusses why these trade-off mechanisms are important in the establishment of models capable of predicting bacterial competition, coexistence, and sources of diversity.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Anaplasma phagocytophilum Uses Common Strategies for Infection of Ticks
           and Vertebrate Hosts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2015
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): José de la Fuente, Agustín Estrada-Peña, Alejandro Cabezas-Cruz, Katherine M. Kocan
      The tick-borne rickettsial pathogen Anaplasma phagocytophilum develops within membrane-bound inclusions in the host cell cytoplasm. This pathogen has evolved with its tick and vertebrate hosts through dynamic processes involving genetic traits of the pathogen and hosts that collectively mediate pathogen infection, development, persistence, and survival. Herein, we challenge the evidence of tick–host–pathogen coevolution by hypothesizing that A. phagocytophilum utilizes common molecular mechanisms for infection in both vertebrate and tick cells, including remodeling of the cytoskeleton, inhibition of cell apoptosis, and manipulation of the immune response. The discovery of these common mechanisms provides evidence that a control strategy could be developed targeted at both vertebrate and tick hosts for more complete control of A. phagocytophilum and its associated diseases.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Network-Thinking: Graphs to Analyze Microbial Complexity and Evolution
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eduardo Corel, Philippe Lopez, Raphaël Méheust, Eric Bapteste
      The tree model and tree-based methods have played a major, fruitful role in evolutionary studies. However, with the increasing realization of the quantitative and qualitative importance of reticulate evolutionary processes, affecting all levels of biological organization, complementary network-based models and methods are now flourishing, inviting evolutionary biology to experience a network-thinking era. We show how relatively recent comers in this field of study, that is, sequence-similarity networks, genome networks, and gene families–genomes bipartite graphs, already allow for a significantly enhanced usage of molecular datasets in comparative studies. Analyses of these networks provide tools for tackling a multitude of complex phenomena, including the evolution of gene transfer, composite genes and genomes, evolutionary transitions, and holobionts.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Evolutionary Rationale for Phages as Complements of Antibiotics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Clara Torres-Barceló, Michael E. Hochberg
      Antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections are a major concern to public health. Phage therapy has been proposed as a promising alternative to antibiotics, but an increasing number of studies suggest that both of these antimicrobial agents in combination are more effective in controlling pathogenic bacteria than either alone. We advocate the use of phages in combination with antibiotics and present the evolutionary basis for our claim. In addition, we identify compelling challenges for the realistic application of phage–antibiotic combined therapy.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Wheeling and Dealing With Antigen Presentation in Tuberculosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Denis Hudrisier, Olivier Neyrolles
      In tuberculosis, antigens are transferred from infected to uninfected dendritic cells. Does this favor T lymphocyte response and anti-mycobacterial host defense' In a recent report published in Cell Host & Microbe, Ernst and colleagues show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis seems to have hijacked this mechanism for its own benefit.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • HIV-1 Envelope Under Attack
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Wei Wei, Xiao-Fang Yu
      The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope (Env) plays a critical role in viral replication and represents a potential target for host antiviral factors. Recent work by Tada and colleagues identifies membrane-associated-RING-CH8 (MARCH8) as a potent anti-HIV factor blocking virion incorporation of Env. Thus, MARCH8 joins a growing list of host factors attacking HIV-1 Env.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • It's Gettin’ Hot in Here: Breeding Robust Yeast Starter Cultures for
           Cocoa Fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Zoi Papalexandratou, Dennis S. Nielsen
      Cocoa beans have to undergo post-harvest fermentation and drying to develop the typical ‘cocoa flavor’ associated with chocolate. Yeasts play a pivotal role during the fermentation but are generally outcompeted early in the process. Meersman and colleagues describe an elegant breeding-based approach to generate robust yeast starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • How Does Streptococcus pneumoniae Invade the Brain'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Federico Iovino, Jolien Seinen, Birgitta Henriques-Normark, Jan Maarten van Dijl
      Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is the major cause of bacterial meningitis. The mechanisms by which pneumococci from the bloodstream penetrate the blood–brain barrier to reach the brain are not fully understood. Receptor-mediated adhesion of the bacteria to the brain endothelium is considered a key event leading to meningitis development. The aim of this review is to discuss recent advances and perspectives related to the interactions of S. pneumoniae with the blood–brain barrier during the events leading to meningitis. Altogether, the available data suggest that, by precisely defining the pathways and ligands by which S. pneumoniae adheres to specific receptors, it may be possible to interfere with the respective mechanisms and develop strategies to prevent or even cure pneumococcal meningitis.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Multispecies Swarms of Social Microorganisms as Moving Ecosystems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 January 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Eshel Ben-Jacob, Alin Finkelshtein, Gil Ariel, Colin Ingham
      Microorganisms use collective migration to cross barriers and reach new habitats, and the ability to form motile swarms offers a competitive advantage. Traditionally, dispersal by microbial swarm propagation has been studied in monoculture. Microorganisms can facilitate other species’ dispersal by forming multispecies swarms, with mutual benefits. One party (the transporter) moves a sessile partner (the cargo). This results in asymmetric associations ranging from temporary marriages of convenience to long-term fellow travellers. In the context of the ‘microbial market’, the parties offer very different services in exchange. We discuss bacteria transporting bacteria, eukaryotic microorganisms moving bacteria, and bacteria facilitating the spread of eukaryotes – and ask what the benefits are, the methods of study, and the consequences of multispecies, swarming logistics networks.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Preventing Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection: Protection to a
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Mark R. Schleiss
      A lack of knowledge about the correlates of maternal immunity required for protection of the placenta and fetus against congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) transmission has complicated vaccine development. New work from Bialas and colleagues demonstrates a critical role for maternal CD4+ T cells in controlling viremia and preventing CMV-associated fetal disease.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Harnessing the Prokaryotic Adaptive Immune System as a Eukaryotic
           Antiviral Defense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Aryn A. Price, Arash Grakoui, David S. Weiss
      Clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats – CRISPR-associated (CRISPR-Cas) systems – are sequence-specific RNA-directed endonuclease complexes that bind and cleave nucleic acids. These systems evolved within prokaryotes as adaptive immune defenses to target and degrade nucleic acids derived from bacteriophages and other foreign genetic elements. The antiviral function of these systems has now been exploited to combat eukaryotic viruses throughout the viral life cycle. Here we discuss current advances in CRISPR-Cas9 technology as a eukaryotic antiviral defense.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • Editorial Board and Contents
    • Abstract: Publication date: February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology, Volume 24, Issue 2

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
  • RNA Structure Duplications and Flavivirus Host Adaptation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2016
      Source:Trends in Microbiology
      Author(s): Sergio M. Villordo, Juan M. Carballeda, Claudia V. Filomatori, Andrea V. Gamarnik
      Flaviviruses include a highly diverse group of arboviruses with a global distribution and a high human disease burden. Most flaviviruses cycle between insects and vertebrate hosts; thus, they are obligated to use different cellular machinery for their replication and mount different mechanisms to evade specific antiviral responses. In addition to coding for viral proteins, the viral genome contains signals in RNA structures that govern the amplification of viral components and participate in triggering or evading antiviral responses. In this review, we focused on new information about host-specific functions of RNA structures present in the 3′ untranslated region (3′ UTR) of flavivirus genomes. Models and conservation patterns of RNA elements of distinct flavivirus ecological groups are revised. An intriguing feature of the 3′ UTR of insect-borne flavivirus genomes is the conservation of complex RNA structure duplications. Here, we discuss new hypotheses of how these RNA elements specialize for replication in vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, and present new ideas associating the significance of RNA structure duplication, small subgenomic flavivirus RNA formation, and host adaptation.

      PubDate: 2016-02-09T11:30:31Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2015