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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2699 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (230 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (240 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (145 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1394 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (427 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (62 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (92 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (109 journals)

MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (109 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 109 of 109 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Mechanica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Acta Mechanica et Automatica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Acta Mechanica Solida Sinica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae Electrical and Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Advanced Energy Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Advances in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 134)
Advances in Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 55)
Archive of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Archives of Civil and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Australian Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Bulletin of NTU - Dynamics and strength of machines     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences : Technical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Case Studies in Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Curved and Layered Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Emission Control Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Mechanical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Facta Universitatis, Series : Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Friction     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
High Speed Machining     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Human Factors and Mechanical Engineering for Defense and Safety     Hybrid Journal  
Ingeniería Mecánica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ingenieria Mecánica. Tecnologia y Desarrollo     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Applied Mechanics and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Dynamics and Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Engineering Materials and Manufacture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Manufacturing, Materials, and Mechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Mechanical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Mechanical Engineering Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Mechanical Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Mechatronics and Automation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Metrology and Quality Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Microwave Engineering and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Powertrains     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Iranian Journal of Science and Technology, Transactions of Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
JMST Advances     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Aircraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 308)
Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Mechanical Engineering and Green Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomechanical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Computational and Applied Research in Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Energy, Mechanical, Material and Manufacturing Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Mechanical Design     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 82)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Automation     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science and Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Mechanics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Journal of Mechatronics, Electrical Power, and Vehicular Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Journal of Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the Brazilian Society of Mechanical Sciences and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
Jurnal Energi Dan Manufaktur     Open Access  
Jurnal Taman Vokasi     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknik Mesin     Open Access  
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Lubricants     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Main Group Metal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Material Design & Processing Communications     Hybrid Journal  
Mechanical Engineering and Design     Open Access   (Followers: 75)
Mechanical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Mechanical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Modern Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 58)
MTZextra     Full-text available via subscription  
Open Mechanical Engineering Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Periodica Polytechnica Mechanical Engineering     Open Access  
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part A: Journal of Power and Energy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part E: Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part F: Journal of Rail and Rapid Transit     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part G: Journal of Aerospace Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part J: Journal of Engineering Tribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part K: Journal of Multi-body Dynamics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part L: Journal of Materials: Design and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part M: Journal of Engineering for the Maritime Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part N: Journal of Nanoengineering and Nanosystems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part O: Journal of Risk and Reliability     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Quantitative InfraRed Thermography Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Recent Patents on Mechanical Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Rekayasa Mesin     Open Access  
Research Papers Faculty of Materials Science and Technology Slovak University of Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Science China Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Scientific Bulletin of Valahia University - Materials and Mechanics     Open Access  
Simetris : Jurnal Teknik Mesin, Elektro dan Ilmu Komputer     Open Access  
Strojarstvo     Full-text available via subscription  
Strojn?cky casopis ? Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Technical Reports Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Trends in Mechanical Engineering & Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Tribologia : Finnish Journal of Tribology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Universal Journal of Mechanical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Vestnik of Don State Technical University     Open Access  
Двигуни внутрішнього згоряння     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Проблемы машиностроения - Mechanical Problems     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.729
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0954-4070 - ISSN (Online) 2041-2991
Published by Sage Publications Homepage  [1085 journals]
  • Ride and roll/yaw stability analysis of articulated frame steer vehicle
           with torsio-elastic suspension
    • Authors: Mu Chai, Wencan Zhang, Daoyong Wang, Junjie Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An articulated frame steered vehicle model with torsio-elastic suspension is established in Adams/View. The model considered the influence of the hydraulic steering system on the yaw stability of articulated vehicles, thus, the hydraulic steering system is formulated and modeled in MATLAB/Simulink. The ride and roll/yaw stability of the vehicle model is investigated via co-simulation of Adams and Simulink. The Adams vehicle model is verified based on the vibration acceleration responses near the seat position at constant forward speeds. The hydraulic steering system model is validated through the steady-state steering maneuver. Relative ride performance of unsuspended and fully suspended vehicle is investigated in terms of unweighted and frequency-weighted root-mean-square accelerations. The roll and yaw stability of vehicle model with and without suspension at loaded and unloaded conditions are subsequently analyzed in terms of roll angle, roll safety factor, lateral acceleration, critical speed, and so on. The results show that the torsio-elastic suspension can efficiently reduce the vibrations of the vehicle, and the articulated frame steer vehicles applied with torsio-elastic suspension yield slightly lower roll/yaw stability but substantial reductions in the ride vibration levels. The results provide some reference for the suspension and steering system design of articulated engineering vehicle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-29T01:58:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019885801
       
  • Self-learning control for coordinated collision avoidance of automated
           vehicles
    • Authors: Yan Wang, Guodong Yin, Yanjun Li, Saif Ullah, Weichao Zhuang, Jinxiang Wang, Ning Zhang, Keke Geng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      For the improvement of automotive active safety and the reduction of traffic collisions, significant efforts have been made on developing a vehicle coordinated collision avoidance system. However, the majority of the current solutions can only work in simple driving conditions, and cannot be dynamically optimized as the driving experience grows. In this study, a novel self-learning control framework for coordinated collision avoidance is proposed to address these gaps. First, a dynamic decision model is designed to provide initial braking and steering control inputs based on real-time traffic information. Then, a multilayer artificial neural networks controller is developed to optimize the braking and steering control inputs. Next, a proportional–integral–derivative feedback controller is used to track the optimized control inputs. The effectiveness of the proposed self-learning control method is evaluated using hardware-in-the-loop tests in different scenarios. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can provide good collision avoidance control effect. Furthermore, vehicle stability during the coordinated collision avoidance control can be gradually improved by the self-learning method as the driving experience grows.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-25T02:29:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019887884
       
  • Vibration load and transfer path identification of vehicle using inverse
           matrix method based on singular value decomposition
    • Authors: Chao Yang, Yansong Wang, Hui Guo, Jiang Lv, Ningning Liu, Hongzhong Qi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the theory of inverse transfer matrix, a novel method for simultaneous load identification of vehicle vibration is presented in this paper. Some response, excitation, reference points (called key points) and their transfer paths, which have severe effects on the vibration of a whole vehicle, are defined. The transfer functions among the key points are measured by experiments, and thereby a transfer function matrix of vehicle vibration is established. To solve ill-conditioning problem in the transfer function matrix, the methodology of singular value decomposition is introduced into matrix inversion in the excitation load identification. To reduce the identification error, four transfer function matrices with different reference points and condition numbers are selected and discussed. The results show that the more the reference points are, the smaller the condition number of transfer function matrix is, the higher the accuracy of excitation load identification. The transfer function matrix with minimum condition number is used to identify the excitation loads at the vehicle key points. Experimental verifications suggest that the newly proposed method is effective and feasible for excitation load identification of vehicle vibration. Using the identified excitation loads, furthermore, the vibration causes of the steering wheel and seat rail are obtained, which is helpful for improving vibration performance of the sample vehicle. In applications, the excitation load identification method proposed in this paper may be applied not only to other types of vehicle, but also to other complex electromechanical products for load identification in engineering.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-22T10:11:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019887887
       
  • Wheelbase preview control of an active suspension with a
           disturbance-decoupled observer to improve vehicle ride comfort
    • Authors: Baek-soon Kwon, Daejun Kang, Kyongsu Yi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article deals with the design of a partial preview active suspension control algorithm for the improvement of vehicle ride comfort. Generally, while preview-controlled active suspension systems have even greater potential than feedback-controlled systems, their main challenge is obtaining preview information of the road profile ahead. A critical drawback of the “look-ahead” sensors is an increased risk of incorrect detection influenced by water, snow, and other soft obstacles on the road. In this work, a feasible wheelbase preview suspension control algorithm without information about the road elevation has been developed based on a novel 3-degree-of-freedom full-car dynamic model which incorporates only the vehicle body dynamics. The main advantage of the employed vehicle model is that the system disturbance input vector consists of vertical wheel accelerations that can be measured easily. The measured acceleration information of the front wheels is used for predictive control of the rear suspension to stabilize the body motion. The suspension state estimator has also been designed to completely remove the effect of unknown road disturbance on the state estimation error. The estimation performance of an observer is verified via a simulation study and field tests. The performance of the proposed suspension controller is evaluated on a frequency domain and time domain via a simulation study. It is shown that the vehicle ride comfort can be improved more by the proposed wheelbase preview control approach than by the feedback approach.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-20T12:04:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019886499
       
  • Influence of tire blowout on the collision of a light pickup truck with a
           guardrail safety barrier
    • Authors: Abdelmonaam Sassi, Sadok Sassi, Faris Tarlochan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This main purpose of this work is to investigate, through a finite-element simulation, the effect of tire blowout on the collision of a light pickup truck with a guardrail, at a speed of 100 km/h. The finite-element model was calibrated against a dynamic test carried out by the Texas Transportation Institute. Four cases of individual tire blowout were considered. Among these, the case of the left front tire was found to be the most critical one, resulting in a pitch angle of 24°, a roll angle of 12°, and a yaw angle of 30°. For this critical case, the results showed that the deflated tire trapped in the guardrail, which created more interaction between the vehicle and the guardrail beam. These challenging crash conditions were found to be more crucial for the stability of the pickup compared with the fully inflated tire scenario.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-20T11:58:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019887257
       
  • An integrated control strategy of path following and lateral motion
           stabilization for autonomous distributed drive electric vehicles
    • Authors: Yuan Zou, Ningyuan Guo, Xudong Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article proposes an integrated control strategy of autonomous distributed drive electric vehicles. First, to handle the multi-constraints and integrated problem of path following and the yaw motion control, a model predictive control technique is applied to determine optimal front wheels’ steering angle and external yaw moment synthetically and synchronously. For ensuring the desired path-tracking performance and vehicle lateral stability, a series of imperative state constraints and control references are transferred in the form of a matrix and imposed into the rolling optimization mechanism of model predictive control, where the detailed derivation is also illustrated and analyzed. Then, the quadratic programming algorithm is employed to optimize and distribute each in-wheel motor’s torque output. Finally, numerical simulation validations are carried out and analyzed in depth by comparing with a linear quadratic regulator–based strategy, proving the effectiveness and control efficacy of the proposed strategy.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-13T01:29:58Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019884168
       
  • A novel approach to design and control of an active suspension using
           linear pump control–based hydraulic system
    • Authors: Jeongwoo Lee, Kwangseok Oh, Kyongsu Yi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a novel design and control method of an active suspension system using a linear pump control–based hydraulic system for a cost-effective application. Various active suspension systems have been proposed and applied to vehicles due to its ability to improve ride comfort and handling performance even though these active suspension systems are not popular because of their complexity, high cost, heavyweight, and low power efficiency. A new type of active suspension actuator system was designed and validated herein based on the methods of actuator sizing and modified control scheme to address the aforementioned issues. System power capability has been analyzed under various dynamics and road conditions. Active suspension actuator components have been designed based on the results. The electro-hydraulic system is powered by a battery to reduce the energy consumption of the system; hence, it is operated by torque on demand. A double-acting linear hydraulic motor pump with a dual rack and pinion has been proposed for hydraulic force control with a simple on/off switch operation. The actuator force has been controlled by continuous linear motor pump displacement control via torque control using a three-phase synchronous brushless alternative current motor. Dynamic performance evaluation of the actuator system has been conducted using AMESIM and actual rig test. Active height and roll control algorithms for the enhancement of vehicle dynamics considering actuator dynamics have also been developed and validated through the rig and real vehicle tests. The evaluation results showed that the linear motor pump–based active suspension system performs as well as the previous complicated hydraulic active suspension system. The new active system proposed in this study was able to improve the vehicle dynamics using cost-effective actuation system significantly.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-04T12:49:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019882223
       
  • Impact of driving dynamics in RDE test on NOx emissions dispersion
    • Authors: José Manuel Luján, Carlos Guardiola, Benjamín Pla, Varun Pandey
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      EU6D emission regulation intends to bridge the gap between laboratory tests and the real driving conditions by introducing real drive emission testing. It requires the measurement of real drive emission to be an additional type approval test in order to take into account the influence of road profile, ambient conditions and traffic situations. An important amendment has been included in Commission regulation (European Union) 2016/646, limiting the driving dynamics and hence avoiding the biased testing of the vehicle. In this work, a drive cycle generator has been developed to synthesise cycles meeting all the regulatory requirements of the real drive emission testing. The generator is based on the transition probability matrix obtained from each phase of the World harmonised Light vehicle Test Procedure cycle. Driving dynamics have been varied based on real drive emission regulations, and several trips have been generated with dynamics ranging from soft to aggressive. A direct injection compression ignition 1.5 L engine with a state-of-the-art aftertreatment system has been utilised to run the generated synthetic cycles. The analysis of the results obtained in the tests (all of them complying with real drive emission restrictions in terms of driving dynamics) points out a noticeable 60% relative dispersion in the NOx emissions downstream of the catalyst. The contribution of the proposed method lies not only in the fact that it synthesises driving cycles as stochastic process and is capable of tuning the driving dynamics based on real drive emission regulations, but it also presents the range of dispersion possible in NOx emissions solely due to the driving dynamics. The methodology followed in the present work could be an essential step in future engine developments, where testing engine prototypes on the entire range of driving dynamics in the engine test bench facility could provide interesting insights about the expected NOx emissions in real drive emission testing.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-11-01T01:58:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019881581
       
  • Characterization of drag reduction performance over rotating microgrooves
           with different cross-sections
    • Authors: Suping Wen, Wenbo Wang, Zhixuan Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a study of cross-sectional parameters and optimal drag reduction performance specifically for drag reduction in rotating microgroove applications. Rotating triangular microgrooves with nine asymmetrical and symmetrical cross-sections were numerically studied. In addition, a representative symmetrical rotating microgroove was experimentally tested. Positive asymmetrical microgrooves (including symmetrical microgrooves) were found to be sensitive to rotating Reynolds numbers and produced more significant drag reduction. Compared with a dimensioned asymmetry variable and other dimensionless parameters, the dimensionless asymmetry variable i+ could be used to describe drag reduction performance, which captured both the influence of microgroove cross-sectional asymmetry and turbulence intensity. A maximum drag reduction of up to 8.9% was obtained at 9.2 i+. With the exception of the torque, the velocity shift obtained from dimensionless velocity profiles could also be used to predict drag reduction performance, which has the potential for wider and more comprehensive application for any drag reduction technology.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T10:36:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019882557
       
  • Nonlinear modeling and verification of an electromagnetic actuator with
           consideration of friction
    • Authors: Shuguang Zuo, Dawei Zhou, Kun Hu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To acquire a perfect vibration isolating performance in the active controlled mount system, a precise model for the actuator is required. In this study, we introduce a novel nonlinear lumped parameter model of the electromagnetic actuator for the engine’s idling or low-speed condition. The model considers not only the nonlinear characteristics caused by the reluctant force, cogging force, and magnetic saturation but also the friction between the mover and the supporting parts. The LuGre friction model is employed to describe the friction during the mover’s reciprocating motion. Then, the quasi-static actuator force of the electromagnetic actuator under constant currents is measured to identify the nonlinear parameters of the model, so is the nonstationary actuator force measured to identify the parameters of the LuGre friction model. Finally, a specific experimental scheme is proposed for validation, in which a suspended ring-shaped iron is added as the actuator’s load. This configuration limits the displacement of the mover effectively, allowing the actuator operate at a frequency of 20–50 Hz and at a peak actuator force of about 8 N, which is close to the actual working condition of the active controlled mount in the engine’s idling or low-speed condition. The results show that the proposed lumped parameter model is able to predict the dynamic characteristics of the actuator precisely. The root mean square errors of the current and actuator force are relatively 3% and 10%, respectively.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-29T10:34:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019882142
       
  • Improvement on the heat dissipation of permanent magnet synchronous motor
           using heat pipe
    • Authors: Zhenping Wan, Bo Sun, Xiaowu Wang, Wanyu Wen, Yong Tang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A novel permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe for electric vehicle is designed with the aim to reduce the end winding temperature. Software FLUENT is used to simulate the temperature fields. The temperature distribution profile of the winding of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe is similar to that of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. But the temperature values of the winding of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe are lower than those of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. The area of the region with relative low temperature at permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe is also larger than at traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. The highest temperature of the winding of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe is 16.4°C lower than that of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. The highest temperature and the lowest temperature of the lamination of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe are all lower than those of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. The temperatures of the two end caps of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe are apparently higher than those of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor since some heat generated at the end winding is transferred to the end cap by the heat pipe. The low temperature area at the middle housing of the permanent magnet synchronous motor with heat pipe is larger than that of the traditional permanent magnet synchronous motor. The temperature discrepancy between the evaporator of the heat pipe and the end winding is about 60°C.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-25T06:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019880444
       
  • State estimation and damping control for unmanned ground vehicles with
           semi-active suspension system
    • Authors: Taipeng Wang, Sizhong Chen, Hongbin Ren, Yuzhuang Zhao
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The new type of transportation based on intelligent driverless vehicles will bring great changes to people’s travel modes and put forward higher requirements for the ride comfortability of vehicles. This paper presents a new observing algorithm to estimate the suspension states in real time and cooperate with sliding mode controller to improve the ride comfortability. First, the nonlinear model of an air suspension system equipped with a continuously controllable damper is described in detail. Then, this nonlinear suspension model is linearized precisely based on the differential geometry theory; a linear Kalman filter observer is implemented for this linearized model; through the coordinate reverse transformation, the designed linear observer is transformed into a nonlinear one, which will be suitable for the original nonlinear system, so that, the proposed state observer can estimate all the states of the nonlinear quarter car suspension system. Then, in this nonlinear suspension system, a model reference sliding mode controller is designed to continuously control the damping force to improve the ride comfortability. Finally, the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed feedback linearization Kalman observer is illustrated by comparing with a traditional extended Kalman filter observer. The simulation research shows that the proposed feedback linearization observer enjoys a better estimation accuracy, higher operation efficiency, and greater control performance while cooperating with the sliding mode controller in ride comfortability control.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-21T12:01:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019881022
       
  • Research on the dynamic characteristic of semi-active hydraulic damping
           strut
    • Authors: Daoyong Wang, Wencan Zhang, Mu Chai, Xiaguang Zeng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To reduce the vibration and shock of powertrain in the process of engine key on/off and vehicle in situ shift, a novel semi-active hydraulic damping strut is developed. The purpose of this paper is to study and discuss the dynamic stiffness model of the semi-active hydraulic damping strut. In this study, the dynamic characteristics of semi-active hydraulic damping strut were analyzed based on MTS 831 test rig first. Then, the dynamic stiffness model of semi-active hydraulic damping strut was established based on 2 degrees of freedom vibration system. In this research, a linear, fractional derivative and friction model was used to represent the nonlinear rubber bushing characteristic; the Maxwell model was used to describe the semi-active hydraulic damping strut body model; and the parameters of rubber bushing and semi-active hydraulic damping strut body were identified. The dynamic stiffness values were calculated with solenoid valve energized and not energized at amplitudes of 1 mm and 4 mm, which were consistent with experimental results in low-frequency range. Furthermore, the simplified dynamic stiffness model of the semi-active hydraulic damping strut was discussed, which showed that bushing can be ignored in low-frequency range. Then, the influence of equivalent spring stiffness, damping constant, and rubber bushing stiffness on the stiffness and damping capacity of the semi-active hydraulic damping strut were analyzed. Finally, the prototype of the semi-active hydraulic damping strut was developed and designed based on the vehicle in situ shift and engine key on/off situations, and experiments of the vehicle with and without semi-active hydraulic damping strut were carried out to verify its function.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-18T07:09:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019881514
       
  • Computational modelling of a solid and deformed automotive rotating wheel
           in contact with the ground
    • Authors: Jesús Vilar Cánovas, Antonios F Antoniadis
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An advanced computational framework is proposed for the load and force estimations of isolated rotating wheel-tyre systems. The framework is constituted by a computational structured dynamics solver and a computational fluid dynamics solver that effectively simulated the flow around the wheel including tyre deformation. Two finite element analysis models of the tyre are built, where the multilayer hyperelastic approach provides a more representative response compared with the linear elasticity model. The flow around the wheel is captured through the overset grid method where the zero-gap approach enables desirable computational performance near the contact patch area. Computational solutions are compared with experimental data and other computational works demonstrating good agreement on the non-deformed tyre model in terms of aerodynamic forces. A grid sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the level of discretisation uncertainty as well as a comparison with unsteady and steady state solutions. The work demonstrates that current computer-aided engineering software are able to tackle more realistic and accurate simulations of wheel rim tyre systems, opening the field to future research and development in rotating mechanical systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T09:49:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019877302
       
  • Switching from autopilot to the driver: A transient performance analysis
    • Authors: Seshan Ramanathan Venkita, Dehlia Willemsen, Mohsen Alirezaei, Henk Nijmeijer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      One of the main safety concerns associated with semi-autonomous vehicles is the sharing of control between a human driver and an autonomous driving system. Even with an attentive driver, such switches in control may pose a threat to the safety of the driver and the surrounding vehicles. The aim of this study is to develop an indicator that can measure the level of safety during a driver take-over, using knowledge about the system known a priori. A model-based approach is used to analyse the system with special focus on the lateral dynamics of the vehicle. The driver and the vehicle are modelled as linear systems, and a path tracking controller is used to serve as an autonomous system. With this structure, shared control is studied as a switched system, in which the vehicle’s lateral control switches between the autonomous system and the driver. A bound on the transient dynamics that arise due to a switch is derived, using the induced [math] norm. This bound is then used to formulate an indicator that checks if the states/outputs of interest are within acceptable limits. A comparison with simulation results has shown that the indicator successfully captures the effect of different system parameters on take-over safety, although in a slightly conservative manner. This indicator can be further developed as a tool to be used in the design and evaluation of shared-/multi-modal control systems in future vehicles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T09:47:50Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019878540
       
  • Investigation of chest biomechanical response by variation of restraint
           loads in frontal impact
    • Authors: Sen Xiao, Yanchao Qie, Wu Chen, Jikuang Yang, Jeff R Crandall
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The seatbelt restraint load is one of the primary sources of occupant chest injury. Thus, studying the different biomechanical responses of chest by varying the seatbelt loads will result in a significant improvement in seatbelt protection performance. Based on the high-biofidelity mechanical dummy model, a sled-dummy test was conducted to investigate the differences in chest injury outcomes caused by the variation of seatbelt load paths or load processes. The chest kinematics and kinetics are compared to determine the influence of load factors on these biomechanical outcomes. Results show that chest injury severity has a positive nonlinear correlation with impact speed. However, the injury risk is mainly determined by the seatbelt peak load in the chest deflection analysis. The results of this study can provide a reference to seatbelt safety design and optimization. The model and method can be used in other research works on the biomechanics of frontal impact.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-14T09:46:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019881067
       
  • Haptic control of steer-by-wire systems for tracking of target steering
           feedback torque
    • Authors: Jaepoong Lee, Kyongsu Yi, Dongpil Lee, Bongchoon Jang, Minjun Kim, Sangwoo Hwang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study proposes a haptic control of steer-by-wire systems for tracking a target steering feedback torque to achieve the conventional steering feedback torque. The haptic feedback control with a steer-by-wire steering-wheel system model was used to provide drivers with a conventional steering feedback torque. The steer-by-wire steering-wheel system model was developed, and a haptic control algorithm was designed for a desired steering feedback torque with a three-dimensional target steering torque map. In order to track the target steering torque to let the drivers feel the conventional steering efforts, an adaptive sliding-mode control was used to ensure robustness against parameter uncertainty. The angular velocity and angular acceleration used in the control algorithm were estimated using an infinite impulse response filter. The performance of the proposed controller was evaluated by computer simulation and hardware-in-the-loop simulation tests under various steering conditions. The proposed haptic controller successfully tracked the steering feedback torque for steer-by-wire systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T01:32:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019879298
       
  • An experimental investigation of resonance sources and vibration
           transmission for a pure electric bus
    • Authors: Mengyuan Zeng, Bohuan Tan, Fei Ding, Bangji Zhang, Hongtao Zhou, Yuanchang Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Electric vehicles generally have a better noise, vibration, and harshness quality than traditional vehicles due to the relatively quiet electric motors. By contrast, the noise, vibration, and harshness issues of the driveline system become more outstanding and significant in the absence of the “masking effect” by the engine. The electrification of the powertrain has also brought many changes in the sources or transmission of vibration, which has led to some new noise, vibration, and harshness issues. Specifically, the intense vibration of the prototype bus appears when driving in third gear, which makes the passengers uncomfortable. This paper presents an efficient analytical strategy for identifying the resonance sources and vibration transmission for a pure electric bus. The strategy incorporates order analysis, operating deflection shape, and transfer path analysis. Order analysis shows that the resonance is primarily caused by the second-order excitation associated with the driveline, and the vibration sources are further identified using operating deflection shape analysis. Moreover, the vibration transfer paths from the driveline to the bus floor are quantitatively determined by the transfer path analysis method. The results show that the coupling vibration of the powertrain and the rear drive axle, which amplifies the resonance of the whole driveline, is transmitted to the bus floor primarily through powertrain mounts and V rods. Based on the results, the design and structure modifications of the driveline and transfer paths are recommended to handle this issue. The proposed identification strategy would be beneficial for accurate and efficient engineering troubleshooting on the vibration issues.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-11T01:31:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019879258
       
  • Model to predict motion sickness within autonomous vehicles
    • Authors: Spencer Salter, Cyriel Diels, Paul Herriotts, Stratis Kanarachos, Doug Thake
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Background:Motion sickness is common within most forms of transport; it affects most of the population who experience varied symptoms at some stage in their lives. Thus far, there has been no specific method to quantify the predicted levels of motion sickness for a given vehicle design, task and route.Objective:To develop a motion sickness virtual prediction tool that includes the following inputs: human motion, vision, vehicle motion, occupant task and vehicle design.Method:A time domain analysis using a multi-body systems approach has been developed to provide the raw data for post-processing of vehicle motion, occupant motion and vision, based on a virtual route designed to provoke motion sickness, while the digital occupant undertakes a specific non-driving related task.Results:Predicted motion sickness levels are shared for a simple positional sweep of a vehicle cabin due to a prescribed motion and task. Two additional examples are shared within this study; first, it was found that the model can predict the difference found between sitting forwards and backwards in an autonomous vehicle. Second, analysis of a respected and independent study into auxiliary display height shows that the model can predict both relative and absolute levels between the two display heights congruent to the original physical experiment.Conclusion:It has been shown that the tool has been successful in predicting motion sickness in autonomous vehicles and is therefore of great use in guiding new future mobility solutions in the ability to tune vehicle dynamics and control alongside vision and design attributes.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T10:49:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019879785
       
  • Coordinated control of stability and economy based on torque distribution
           of distributed drive electric vehicle
    • Authors: Youqun Zhao, Huifan Deng, Yong Li, Han Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The torque distribution strategy of distributed drive electric vehicle is only aimed at safety or economy. A multi-target coordinated control method considering stability and economy is proposed to solve the problem of single torque distribution target, which consists of a coordination decision controller, a high-level motion controller, and a low-level allocation controller. The coordination decision controller based on the phase plane method determines whether to adopt a stability or economic control strategy. The high-level motion controller consists of a bicycle model with 2 degree of freedom, a speed tracking controller, a stability controller, and an economic controller to calculate the desired direct yaw moment of the four in-wheel motors. The stability controller based on the fuzzy algorithm tracks the desired vehicle side slip angle and yaw rate calculated by the bicycle model with 2 degree of freedom to control vehicle stability. The economical controller based on a multi-motor loss model optimizes the efficiency of the vehicle’s drive system. The low-level allocation controller is presented to provide optimally distributed torques for each wheel. Finally, the simulation and hardware-in-the-loop testing show that the coordinated control strategy can effectively improve the stability and economy of the distributed drive electric vehicle.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-10T10:48:30Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019880427
       
  • An efficient analysis and optimization method for powertrain mounting
           systems involving interval uncertainty
    • Authors: Bohao Cai, Wen-Bin Shangguan, Hui Lü
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Uncertainty widely exists in the powertrain mounting system of a vehicle. The traditional analysis and optimization methods for powertrain mounting system design are often based on deterministic or random models. In this study, an efficient analysis and optimization method is developed for powertrain mounting system design involving interval uncertainty. In the proposed method, the uncertain parameters of powertrain mounting system are treated as interval variables, and an efficient method called as Chebyshev-Vertex method is developed to fast calculate the lower and upper bounds of the natural frequencies and decoupling ratios of powertrain mounting system. Monte-Carlo method is taken as a reference method to verify the calculation. Then, an optimization model is established based on Chebyshev-Vertex method, in which the interval responses of decoupling ratios are used to build up optimization objective while the interval responses of natural frequencies and decoupling ratios are taken to create optimization constraints. The optimization model of the powertrain mounting system with interval parameters is generally a double-loop nested problem, and it is rather time-consuming on calculation. However, based on Chebyshev-Vertex method, the optimization model can be approximately simplified into a single-loop one and the calculation efficiency is greatly improved. A numerical example is provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method on the analysis and optimization design of the powertrain mounting system involving interval uncertainty.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-08T11:12:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019880370
       
  • Particle emission of organic brake pad material: A review
    • Authors: Santosh Kumar, Subrata Kumar Ghosh
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Wear of a brake pad emits airborne particles and is a major environmental issue. This review paper deals with the analysis of different brake pad composite materials and their wear phenomenon. The volume fraction and size distribution of non-asbestos organic airborne particles emitted from the brake pad material with time, load and speed have also been discussed under different braking conditions. The airborne particles are measured by different aerosol instruments. TSI P-Trak, GRIMM aerosol spectrometer and scanning mobility particle sizer were used by different researchers for measuring ultrafine particles, micron-sized particles and aerodynamic nanoparticles, respectively. This paper shows that the wear particles emitted from the brake pad material vary in diameter between 10 nm and 10 μm under various loads and sliding velocities. These airborne particles such as coarse fine (diameters > 1 μm), fine (diameters between 100 nm and 1 μm) and ultrafine (diameters 
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-10-05T10:30:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019879839
       
  • Investigation of tribological properties and engine performance of polyol
           ester–based bio-lubricant: Commercial motorbike engine oil blends
    • Authors: Chandra Mouli VV Kotturu, V Srinivas, V Vandana, Kodanda Rama Rao Chebattina, Y Seetha Rama Rao
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article explores the influence of blending polyol ester–based bio-lubricant with commercial lubricant on engine performance. Polyol esters trimethylolpropane ester and pentaerythritol ester were prepared from Calophyllum inophyllum seeds. Extreme care was taken to minimize deterioration of physicochemical properties when blending bio-lubricant with commercial oil. Blending of bio-lubricant with commercial oil was carried out in 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% volume. The test oils were first investigated for wear and friction properties on a four-ball wear tester. Optimum blending ratio was calculated from results of tribological properties, and the blend with optimum blend ratio was investigated for engine performance. The engine performance of the optimum blends was evaluated by conducting a 60-h endurance test on a motorbike. Significant improvement in tribological properties was observed up to a blending percentage of 15% when blending pentaerythritol ester with commercial oil. In the case of trimethylolpropane ester–based bio-lubricant, 10% blending with commercial oil gave optimum performance. The novel evaluation of engine performance of commercial oil and blends has shown a reduction in the wear of engine components with an encouraging decrease in fuel consumption. Metallographic studies conducted on worn piston rings reveal synergy between additives in the commercial oil and esters in the bio-lubricant in reducing wear and friction, thereby reducing fuel consumption.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-27T02:33:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019878359
       
  • Evaluation and optimization of vehicle pedal comfort based on biomechanics
    • Authors: Liqing Chen, Wanjun Li, Yang Yang, Wei Miao
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Existing research on the manipulation comfort of the cab pedal generally focuses on the completion of the pedal movement when a vehicle is at rest, with certain data collected for analysis. This paper, by taking passenger vehicles in China as the study object and in view of the actual road conditions in China and the Chinese body size, attempts to solve the problem of muscle redundancy through the maximum/minimum optimization model of muscle activation. The road test was carried out on a typical pavement in a Chinese city. The parameters of pedal stroke, pedal force, and typical Electromyography signal (EMG) signal of drivers’ lower limbs during driving were obtained, from which muscle activation degree was calculated. The obtained experimental data were used as external driving one to simulate and analyze the pedal comfort under the layout of different human percentile and different pedal parameters in an aim to obtain the optimal value. The results indicate that the difference in pedal strokes, pedal preload, pedal resistance coefficients, seat heights, and H-point distances can have a noticeable effect on muscle activation. Taking a 95th-percentile accelerator pedal as an example, with the optimal values of each parameter selected (pedal preload: 8.2 N, pedal resistance coefficient: 2.55, seat height: 0.45 m and H-point distance: 0.86 m), as the pedal strokes increase, muscle activation shows a trend of increase after initial decrease. In the common stroke of a pedal after optimization, the degree of muscle activation is significantly lower than that before optimization, indicating a decrease in muscle fatigue.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-27T02:32:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019878355
       
  • Influence of varying altitudes on matching characteristics of the Twin-VGT
           system with a diesel engine and performance based on analysis of available
           exhaust energy
    • Authors: Zhongjie Zhang, Ruilin Liu, Guangmeng Zhou, Chunhao Yang, Surong Dong, Yufei Jiao, Jiaming Ma
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A variable geometry turbocharger in series with a variable geometry turbocharger (Twin-VGT) system was designed to improve engine power at high altitudes. The influence of altitudes on the performance of the Twin-VGT system was investigated in the perspective of available exhaust energy. The interaction between exhaust flow characteristics of Twin-VGT and openings of Twin-VGT vanes was theoretically analyzed at different altitudes. Meanwhile, a model of a diesel engine matched with the Twin-VGT system was built to study the matching performance of the Twin-VGT system with engine at different altitudes. The optimal opening maps of both high-pressure and low-pressure VGT vanes at high altitudes were obtained to achieve the maximum engine power. The results showed that the optimal openings of high-pressure and low-pressure VGT vanes decreased with increase in altitudes. The operating points of the two-stage compressors located at the high efficiency region and the compressor efficiency region both exceeded 62% at different altitudes. The global expansion ratio increased with increase in altitudes and reached 4.9 at 5500 m. Compared with the VGT in series with a fixed geometry turbocharger on testing bed, exhaust energy of Twin-VGT turbines at low speeds was utilized reasonably and global pressure ratio increased by 0.69–0.94, while brake-specific fuel consumption decreased by 11.24–33.62% under low speeds above altitudes of 2500 m.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-18T02:13:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019876220
       
  • Design, modeling, and verification of a test bench for braking simulation
           of 1/4 vehicle
    • Authors: Zeng-Cheng Liao, Xian-Xu ‘Frank’ Bai, Yang Li, Xue-Cai Deng, Jun Sun
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Brake-by-wire systems are one of the key components in intelligent/unmanned vehicles that have attracted worldwide attention. Testing and evaluation of brake-by-wire systems are a significant step during the development of the technology of vehicular braking and further the advancement of intelligent/unmanned vehicles. Using the test bench to simulate different road adhesion coefficients (i.e. road surfaces) and to complete the testing and evaluation of the vehicle braking systems is of great significance and importance. A test bench for simulation of vehicular braking of 1/4 vehicle is presented and investigated in this article. It is composed of a motor, two rollers, a 1/4 vehicle suspension system, a magnetic powder clutch, a flywheel, sensors, a signal acquisition and processing system, and a controller. The wheel and vehicle speeds are simulated by the rollers and flywheel speeds, respectively. The translational kinetic energy of 1/4 vehicle is simulated by the rotational kinetic energy of the flywheel. The signal acquisition and processing system is used to acquire and process the experimental signals, such as rotational speeds and torques during tests. The magnetic powder clutch with adjusted applied currents in the test bench is used to real-timely simulate roads with different adhesion coefficients. Based on the working principle of the test bench and the fundamentals of vehicle dynamics, the prototype of the test bench is established and the simulation approach of the translational kinetic energy of 1/4 vehicle is investigated. The mathematical model of the real-time simulation about roads with different adhesion coefficients based on the magnetic powder clutch with real-time controllable transmitted torque is established. With the built 1/4 vehicle braking systems based on the test bench and road, and the corresponding established models, the comparison and analysis of the simulation results of various road surfaces are conducted. Experiments are sequentially implemented to verify the feasibility and effectiveness of the test bench.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-17T06:06:28Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019874961
       
  • Effect of hydraulic flow rate, injection timing, and exhaust gas
           recirculation on particulate and gaseous emissions in a light-duty diesel
           engine
    • Authors: Khawar Mohiuddin, Minhoo Choi, Junkyu Park, Sungwook Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Nozzle hydraulic flow rate is a critical parameter that affects the combustion process and plays a vital role in the production of emissions from a diesel engine. In this study, injection characteristics, such as normalized injection rate and spray tip penetration, were analyzed for different hydraulic flow rate injectors with the help of spray experiments. To further investigate the effects of hydraulic flow rate on engine-out particulate and gaseous emissions, engine experiments were performed for different values of hydraulic flow rate in multiple injectors. Various operating conditions and loading configurations were examined, and the effects of varying start of injection and exhaust gas recirculation rates for different hydraulic flow rates were analyzed. A separate Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS-M) sensor was used to measure and collect data on the particle number, and an analysis was conducted to investigate the relation of particle number with hydraulic flow rate, injection timing, and exhaust gas recirculation rate. Results of the spray experiment exhibited a decreasing injection duration and increasing spray tip penetration with increasing hydraulic flow rate. Effect of hydraulic flow rate on combustion and emission characteristics were analyzed from engine experiment results. Least ignition delay was achieved using a smaller hole diameter, retarded injection timing, and lowest EGR%. Higher hydraulic flow rate with retarded injection timing and higher EGR% helped in reduction of NOx emissions and brake-specific fuel consumption, but particulate emissions were increased. Best particulate matter–NOx trade-off was achieved with lowest hydraulic flow rate.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T08:48:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019875296
       
  • An integrated effort of medium reactivity fuel, in-cylinder, and
           after-treatment strategies to demonstrate potential reduction in
           challenging emissions of reactivity controlled compression ignition
           combustion
    • Authors: R Murugan, D Ganesh, G Nagarajan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Previous studies on reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion indicated that, reducing the hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions at low load conditions still remains a challenge because of lower in-cylinder temperatures due to lower global reactivity gradient and reduced oxidation process. Research in this direction has not been reported so far and with this motivation, an attempt has been made to increase the global reactivity gradient and oxidation of fuel–air mixture by converting the low reactivity fuel methanol into medium reactivity fuel. This is achieved by mixing high octane oxygenated fuel, methanol (Octane Number: 110), with an oxygenated better cetane and volatility fuels like polyoxymethylene dimethyl ether (Cetane Number: 78) and isobutanol (Cetane Number: 15). The medium reactivity fuel with multiple direct injection of diesel fuel timed the combustion of dual fuel–air mixture to avoid too late or too advanced combustion which are the prime factors in controlling the unburnt emissions in a low temperature combustion process. Four medium reactivity fuel samples, M80IB20, M60IB40, M90P10, and M80P20, on percentage volume basis have been prepared and tested on the modified on-road three-cylinder turbocharged common rail direct injection diesel engine to demonstrate higher indicated thermal efficiency and potential reduction in unburnt and oxides of nitrogen/particulate matter emissions from reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. Experimental results show that, use of medium reactivity fuel with optimized diesel injection strategy resulted in 66% decrease in hydrocarbon emission and 74% decrease in carbon monoxide emission by enhancing the oxidation of fuel–air mixture at lower temperatures which is evidently noticed in the combustion characteristics. Further reduction in hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emission of about 90% has been achieved by integrating the diesel oxidation catalyst with the engine.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T08:44:12Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019875299
       
  • A numerical prediction and potential control of typical icing process on
           automobile windshield under nocturnal radiative cooling and subfreezing
           conditions
    • Authors: Xuzhi Du, Zhigang Yang, Zheyan Jin, Yuyu Zhu, Zhiwei Zhou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a simplified mathematical model, concerned with transient heat conduction as well as convective and radiative heat transfer, was developed to predict the variations of temperature and supercooling of the windshield during practical nocturnal cooling processes of a car. Final supercooling [math] was introduced as an indicator to evaluate the probability of occurrence of frosting. Following that, the Taguchi statistical method was used to conduct a parameter sensitivity analysis and then figure out the potential control strategies for frosting suppression. The results showed that relative humidity had the most significant influence on the distribution of supercooling during the nocturnal cooling period, whereas the initial temperature as well as the thickness and thermal conductivity of the windshield played a minor role in it. An increase in relative humidity resulted in a significant increase in [math], which might be expected to trigger an earlier initiation of frosting. The emissivity of the windshield, concerned with the nocturnal radiation potential, showed a considerable effect on the response of [math], whereas the influence of the total opaque cloud amount appeared to be largely limited. In addition, through a potential control of the thermal conductivity of the windshield, [math] just exhibited a very limited decline, thus contributing little to frosting mitigation. However, with a moderate potential control of the internal convective heat transfer coefficient, the frosting behavior might be effectively suppressed under a severe condition that favored the occurrence of icing. Besides, by introducing a combined control of the emissivity of the windshield and the internal convective heat transfer coefficient, [math] could be well reduced to a value below zero even as the relative humidity increased up to 90%, which was supposed to prevent the occurrence of frosting under a far severer condition.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-09-16T07:05:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019875356
       
  • Gain-scheduled [math] controller synthesis for actively steered longer and
           heavier commercial vehicles
    • Authors: Maliheh Sadeghi Kati, Jonas Fredriksson, Bengt Jacobson, Leo Laine
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper proposes a gain-scheduled controller synthesis for improving the lateral performance and stability of articulated heavy vehicles by active steering of the selected towed vehicle units. The longitudinal velocity is on-line measurable, and it is thus treated as a scheduling parameter in the gain-scheduled controller synthesis. The lateral performance of four articulated heavy vehicles, including existing Nordic heavy vehicles and prospective longer articulated heavy vehicles, are investigated with and without active steering and compared with a commonly used conventional tractor–semitrailer. The control problem is formulated as an [math] static output feedback, which uses only information from articulation angles between the steered vehicle unit and the vehicle unit in front of it. The solution of the problem is obtained within the linear matrix inequality framework, while guaranteeing [math] performance objectives. Effectiveness of the designed controller is verified through numerical simulations performed on high-fidelity vehicle models. The results confirm a significant reduction in yaw rate rearward amplification, lateral acceleration rearward amplification, and high-speed transient off-tracking, thereby improving the lateral stability and performance of all studied heavy vehicles at high speeds.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-31T05:52:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019870352
       
  • Normal-gamma distribution–based stochastic knock probability control
           scheme for spark-ignition engines
    • Authors: Kai Zhao, Tielong Shen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Spark timing, one of the essential parameters to control combustion in spark-ignition gasoline engines, is often advanced to optimize the power output and fuel economy. An overly advanced spark timing, or equivalently a large spark advance, however, can lead to severe knocking under heavy load engine operating conditions. In a trade-off between engine damage avoidance and power enhancement, the knock probability has to be regulated at a low percentage. Based on the observation that the logarithm of the knock intensity under steady operating conditions follows a normal distribution, in this research, a Bayesian knock probability estimation method is proposed using the normal-gamma distribution and the observed knock intensity. Based on the estimation, a spark advance control algorithm is also developed. The proposed knock probability control algorithm is validated on a full-scale test bench with a production spark-ignition engine. The results show that the proposed method is capable of regulating the knock probability to be close to the target percentage. With different parameter settings, the controller can further be configured to behave more aggressively or conservatively in knock probability estimation and regulation. In comparison with the conventional controller and the maximum likelihood–based controller, and in the tip-in/tip-out test, the proposed method also presents a quick response to transient engine operating conditions and a low spark advance dispersion after the spark advance converges close to the borderline.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-28T08:20:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019872649
       
  • Transient dynamic behavior of tire traversing obstacles in full vehicle
           scenario
    • Authors: Yanlin Zhang, Tao Zhou, Xiaoguang Yang, Lichen Wang, Mengyan Zang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper describes an effective simulation method for studying transient dynamic behavior of tire traversing severe obstacles in full vehicle scenario. First of all, a detailed finite element tire model is developed and validated with the corresponding physical tests. Then, four tire models are assembled with the suspension components to form a full vehicle model. The vehicle modeling strategy is investigated and then applied successfully in vehicle obstacle impact simulations. The comparisons between simulation results with corresponding vehicle test results show the vehicle model has high accuracy in replicating the behavior of vehicle traversing obstacles. Based on this, a specific example of vehicle traversing the comfort obstacle is analyzed. The parametric effects of vehicle speed and obstacle height on tire impact performance are investigated.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-28T08:19:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019871758
       
  • Coupling effect modeling of driver vehicle environment factors influencing
           speed selections in curves
    • Authors: Junru Yang, Duanfeng Chu, Rukang Wang, Meng Gao, Chaozhong Wu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      It is of significant importance to select an appropriate speed for a vehicle to drive through an upcoming curve. Previous studies have mainly taken into account the vehicle–road interaction, which lacks quantitative analysis of drivers’ driving behavior related to curve speed selections. In this study, a curve speed model derived from the vehicle–road coupling effect analysis is combined with drivers’ driving styles which are classified into aggressive and moderate styles. Moreover, a driver behavior questionnaire based analysis is carried out for quantitative identification of the above two groups of drivers, compared with the traditional vehicle-motion-indexed classification of driving styles. Unlike previous curve speed models, the proposed model not only takes the vehicle–road coupling effect into consideration, but also introduces a driving style factor which is quantified with both driver behavior questionnaire analysis and vehicle-motion-indexed classification. The proposed curve speed model was validated with the road test data. It is found that the proposed curve speed model considering both the vehicle–road interaction and drivers’ driving styles could effectively guarantee traffic safety and riding comfort in sharp curves.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-27T07:16:34Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019870349
       
  • A predictive model of discretionary lane change behavior considering human
           factors in the framework of time parameters
    • Authors: Abbas Pourmahmoudi, Ali Ghaffari, Mehrdad Javadi, Alireza Khodayari
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Lane changing is regarded as one of the most challenging behaviors of drivers. The lane-changing behaviors are divided into mandatory and discretionary. This study proposes an adaptive neuro-fuzzy model of discretionary lane-changing behavior in real traffic flow. Similar to other behaviors of drivers, lane changing is influenced by human factors, including age, gender, level of driving experience, hastiness, cautiousness, and alertness as well as environmental factors such as road and weather conditions. Identifying and measuring the said factors seem to be difficult or, in some cases, impossible. This study sorts out the lane-changing behavior into moments and two time intervals. In these time intervals, distance and relative speed, affected by the said factors, are accounted for in terms of time parameters and fed as inputs to the proposed predictive model. This is the innovative and distinguishing feature of the present study when compared to other researches. Finally, simulation and comparison based on real data indicate that when time parameters are considered and fed as inputs to model the error between the driver’s behavior and the proposed predictive model is less than when time parameter is not accounted for.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-27T07:15:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867585
       
  • Performance comparison of electric-vehicle drivetrain architectures from a
           vehicle dynamics perspective
    • Authors: Kerem Bayar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Recent electric vehicle studies in literature utilize electric motors within an anti-lock braking system, traction-control system, and/or vehicle-stability controller scheme. Electric motors are used as hub motors, on-board motors, or axle motors prior to the differential. This has led to the need for comparing these different drivetrain architectures with each other from a vehicle dynamics standpoint. With this background in place, using MATLAB simulations, these three drivetrain architectures are compared with each other in this study. In anti-lock braking system and vehicle-stability controller simulations, different control approaches are utilized to blend the electric motor torque with hydraulic brake torque; motor ABS, torque decomposition, and optimal slip-tracking control strategies. The results for the anti-lock braking system simulations can be summarized as follows: (1) Motor ABS strategy improves the stopping distance compared to the standard anti-lock braking system. (2) In case the motors are not solely capable of providing the required braking torque, torque decomposition strategy becomes a good solution. (3) Optimal slip-tracking control strategy improves the stopping distance remarkably compared to the standard anti-lock braking system, motor anti-lock braking system, and torque decomposition strategies for all architectures. The vehicle-stability controller simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) higher affective wheel inertia of the on-board and hub motor architecture dictates a higher need of wheel torque in order to generate the tire force required for the desired yaw rate tracking. A higher level of torque causes a higher level of tire slip. (2) Optimal slip-tracking control strategy reduces the tire slip trends drastically and distributes the traction/braking action to each tire with the control-allocation algorithm specifying the reference slip values. This reduces reference tire slip-tracking error and reduces vehicle sideslip angle. (3) Tire slip trends are lower with the hub motor architecture, compared to the other architectures, due to more precise slip control.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-24T10:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867491
       
  • A new hybrid electromagnetic actuator for a modified skyhook control
           strategy with energy reduction
    • Authors: Renkai Ding, Ruochen Wang, Xiangpeng Meng, Long Chen
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper puts forward a modified skyhook control strategy for the electromagnetic suspension to improve the dynamic performance of the vehicle body and coordinate the wheel vibration simultaneously. The influence of control parameters (skyhook damping coefficient and passive damping coefficient) on the vehicle dynamic performances is analyzed, and the optimal values are determined. In addition, a new type of hybrid electromagnetic actuator which integrates a linear motor and a hydraulic damper is proposed to guarantee the reliability of electromagnetic suspension, and implement the modified skyhook control strategy. The structure parameters of the linear motor are optimized when the hydraulic damper is taken as a design basis, and the prototype is produced. Since the hybrid structure exactly matches the “hybrid damping” of the modified skyhook control strategy, the linear motor simply imitates the skyhook damping, which reduces the power demand compared with the electromagnetic suspension only with a linear motor. Then, the double loop control system for the hybrid electromagnetic actuator is designed. The external loop with a combined filter is utilized to obtain the body absolute velocity for the desired skyhook damping force, and the internal loop controls the linear motor to track the desired force with current hysteresis control. Finally, a comparative bench test is conducted, and the test results verify the effectiveness and control effect of hybrid electromagnetic actuator.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-22T07:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019870432
       
  • Crushing behavior and crashworthiness optimization of multi-cell square
           tubes under multiple loading angles
    • Authors: Zhichao Li, Subhash Rakheja, Wen-Bin Shangguan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Thin-walled structures are widely used as energy absorbers in automotive vehicles due to their lightweight and high-energy absorption efficiency. In order to improve the energy absorption characteristics of thin-walled structures subjected to different loading angles, different types of novel multi-cell structures are proposed in this paper. The numerical method is used to study the crushing behaviors of the proposed multi-cell structures under different loading angles. It is found that the proposed multi-cell structures have considerably small initial peak force under axial load and avoid the appearance of global buckling deformation mode under oblique loads. Moreover, reasonably distributed wall thickness for each square tube in the thin-walled structure can enhance its energy absorption capacity under different loading angles.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T07:12:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019869127
       
  • Effects of active muscle forces on driver’s lower-limb injuries due to
           emergency brake in various frontal impacts
    • Authors: Fan Li, Wei Huang, Xingsheng Wang, Xiaojiang Lv, Fuhao Mo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Accident data shows that driver’s kinematics response in real accidents can be significantly different from that in dummy or cadaver tests because of driver’s muscle contraction. In this study, a finite element human-body model consisting of an upper body of a dummy model and a lower limb–pelvis biomechanical model with three-dimensional active muscles was developed to investigate in depth the lower-limb injuries. Driver’s emergency reaction during frontal impact was simulated by modelling muscle active contraction based on a series of volunteer experimental tests. Besides, a realistic impact environment with the response of the restraint system and the invasion of the driver’s compartment was established in this study. The results show that muscle contraction can cause extra loads on lower limbs during the impact, which can increase the injury risk of lower limbs. As for the femur injury, muscle contraction caused an additional 1 kN axial load on the femur, and the femur resultant bending moment of active models was also higher by about 10–40 N m. Besides, the tibial index of the model with muscle activation was about 0.1 higher. In addition, the results indicate that the femur injury is strongly related to the combined action of both axial force and bending moment. The variation of the injury tolerance along the tibia shaft should be considered when evaluating the tibia injury. Overall, the current lower-limb injury criteria can be still the lack of robustness.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-21T07:12:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019870704
       
  • Vehicle suspension model development using test track measurements
    • Authors: Husain Kanchwala
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Detailed suspension modeling is a prerequisite for accurate vehicle dynamics simulation. Quarter car models are widely used in the literature, but they are simple and do not capture all dynamic effects. On the other hand, full car models are computationally complex and not available to the designer at initial stage of vehicle development. A test track data based methodology to develop a Laplace domain reduced order suspension model of intermediate complexity between a full car and a quarter car model is presented in this paper. A prototype vehicle is driven on sinusoidal tracks and vertical accelerations of wheel axles and suspension to body attachment points are measured. Using this acceleration data, a transfer function model is fitted to predict the body points accelerations in response to measured wheel–axle accelerations. This model is further extended to incorporate an unsprung mass model and retain suspension properties as free parameters to enable quick parametric studies without repeated field testing. A discussion is given of aspects of the model that match experiments, as well as possible sources of observed mismatch. Finally, two potential applications are given to study the effect of suspension and unsprung mass model properties on body point responses.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-19T10:46:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867504
       
  • An experimental study on optimal spark timing control for improved
           performance of a flex fuel vehicle engine
    • Authors: Junsang Yoo, Taeyong Lee, Pyungsik Go, Yongseok Cho, Kwangsoon Choi, Youngjoon Park
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In the American continent, the most frequently used alternative fuel is ethanol. Especially in Brazil, various blends of gasoline–ethanol fuels are widely spread. The vehicle using blended fuel is called flexible fuel vehicle. Because of several selections for the blending ratios in gas stations, the fuel properties may vary after refueling depending on a driver’s selection. Also, the combustion characteristics of the flexible fuel vehicle engine may change. In order to respond to the flexible fuel vehicle market in Brazil, a study on blended fuels is performed. The main purpose of this study is to enhance performance of the flexible fuel vehicle engine to target Brazilian market. Therefore, we investigated combustion characteristics and optimal spark timings of the blended fuels with various blending ratios to improve the performance of the flexible fuel vehicle engine. As a tool for prediction of the optimal spark timing for the 1.6L flexible fuel vehicle engine, the empirical equation was suggested. The validity of the equation was investigated by comparing the predicted optimal spark timings with the stock spark timings through engine tests. When the stock spark timings of E0 and E100 were optimal, the empirical equation predicted the actual optimal spark timings for blended fuels with a good accuracy. In all conditions, by optimizing spark timing control, performance was improved. Especially, torque improvements of E30 and E50 fuels were 5.4% and 1.8%, respectively, without affecting combustion stability. From these results, it was concluded that the linear interpolation method is not suitable for flexible fuel vehicle engine control. Instead of linear interpolation method, optimal spark timing which reflects specific octane numbers of gasoline–ethanol blended fuels should be applied to maximize performance of the flexible fuel vehicle engine. The results of this study are expected to save the effort required for engine calibration when developing new flexible fuel vehicle engines and to be used as a basic strategy to improve the performance of other flexible fuel vehicle engines.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-17T07:05:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019869773
       
  • Analysis and structure optimization on buckling destabilization and
           wrinkling of an automobile weather-strip seal in assemblage
    • Authors: Qian Li, Weidong Zhu, Lixin Zhang, Minghai Yuan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Buckling destabilization and wrinkling of an ethylene-propylene-diene monomer automobile weather-strip seal in assemblage and its structural optimization were studied in this paper. First, an innovative approach that traces buckling bifurcation paths was developed based on an arc-length method, and algorithmic parameters of the method were defined. A finite element analysis model of the automobile weather-strip seal in assemblage was then developed and analyzed using the arc-length method. The maximum buckling load, the deformation of the seal, and the thickness decrease of the lower tube wall in the critical region where it was prone to wrinkle were obtained by this finite element analysis method. Finally, an optimization seal structure was proposed and analyzed, and the deformations and the thickness decrease of the original and optimal structures in the critical regions were compared. The analysis conclusion implies that the optimal structure is more stable. The proposed analysis and optimization method can shorten the product design cycle, improve the structural stability, and decrease the design and trial-product cost considerably.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-14T09:05:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019870430
       
  • Influence of pitch and exploitation on the frictional behaviour of the
           silent chains
    • Authors: Mihai Tiberiu Lates, Radu Velicu, Lenard Jurj
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The silent chain transmissions are widely used in automotive industry as part of the distribution transmission for the combustion engines. The investigation of friction loses in chains is important in order to find out the influence of their constructive and exploitation parameters. The paper presents the results of the tests performed on a test rig used in the case of transmissions with parallel axes. The main contribution of the paper is represented by determining the influence of speed, tensioning force, temperature and pitch on the friction loses of silent chains. Two types of silent chains are tested: LD6 with the pitch equal with 6.35 mm and LD8 with the pitch equal with 8 mm. The tests have been achieved with the following test parameters: the driver sprocket rotations with the values of 500, 1000, 1800 and 5000 r/min; the tensioning force with the values of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 kN; the lubrication oil temperature equal with 40°C, 90°C and 115°C. Conclusions are drawn regarding the influence of the chains’ pitch and of the exploitation parameters on the frictional torque. The presence of boundary or mixed friction in the joints of the chain explains the frictional behaviour of the chain.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-12T09:11:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019868602
       
  • Energy saving potentials of modern powertrains utilizing predictive
           driving algorithms in different traffic scenarios
    • Authors: Marius Wegener, Thorsten Plum, Markus Eisenbarth, Jakob Andert
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this article, we analyze the interaction between powertrain technology, predictive driving functionalities, and inner-city traffic conditions. A model predictive velocity control algorithm is developed that utilizes dynamic traffic data as well as static route information to optimize the future trajectory of the considered ego-vehicle. This controller is then integrated into a state-of-the-art simulation environment for automated driving functionalities to calculate energy saving potentials for vehicles with a conventional gasoline engine powertrain and a P3-hybrid powertrain configuration as well as for a battery electric vehicle based on real driving measurements. The comparison of these powertrains under various traffic conditions shows that all three technologies profit from predictive driving functionalities. The determined reduction in energy demand ranges from 15% to more than 40%, but it is highly dependent on the boundary conditions and the selected powertrain technology. Specifically, it is shown that electrified powertrains can profit the most when the time-gap to the preceding vehicle is maintained at a high level. For a conventional powertrain, this effect is less pronounced and can be attributed to the efficiency characteristics of gasoline engines. It can be concluded that the development of advanced predictive driving functionalities requires microscopic simulation of inner-city traffic to achieve optimum results with regard to energy consumption.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-09T06:17:49Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867172
       
  • Prevention of vehicle rollover after wheel lift-off using energy-based
           controller with proportional gain augmentation
    • Authors: Hari M Nair, C Sujatha
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Vehicle rollovers are the most fatal type of vehicle crashes among all road vehicle accidents. Off-road vehicles with a high centre of gravity are highly susceptible to rollovers, which can be either tripped or untripped, caused by external impacts or during high-speed manoeuvres, respectively. Currently, rollover prediction systems are used to indicate any potential wheel lift-off in real time. Subsequently, rollover prevention systems mitigate the impending wheel lift-off. In a severe near-rollover wheel lift-off scenario, the existing anti-rollover control systems are not effective in reinstating the vehicle to safety, as the designed range of operation is limited only to the near-wheel lift-off region. Even after the wheel lift-off occurs, the vehicle can be brought safely back to the ground with the timely intervention of the anti-rollover controller. This study proposes a novel energy-based anti-rollover controller with proportional gain augmentation using steering wheel input to reinstate a vehicle from a high-speed on-road near-rollover scenario with wheels on one side in the lifted-off condition. Use of an energy-based controller facilitates the least complicated implementation with minimum computation time for a severe scenario where the response time available is very small. A nonlinear underactuated inverted double pendulum on a cart model is used for predicting the dynamics of the vehicle in a near-rollover scenario. The design of the energy-based controller is done using the Lyapunov-based controller design method. An enhancement in the performance is obtained with the incorporation of an additional proportional gain controller. The behaviour of the designed anti-rollover controller is studied using the inverted double pendulum on a cart model. The effectiveness of the anti-rollover controller in a real-life scenario was studied using the co-simulation of a sophisticated four-wheeled pick-up model available in TruckSim® vehicle dynamic simulation software and the anti-rollover control system implemented in MATLAB®/Simulink® environment.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-07T08:22:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867508
       
  • A direct multiple shooting method to improve vehicle handling and
           stability for four hub-wheel-drive electric vehicle during regenerative
           braking
    • Authors: Nenglian Feng, Jiawang Yong, Ziqi Zhan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Regenerative braking is an important technology to improve fuel economy for electric vehicles. Apart from improving energy recovery efficiency and vehicle stability, the arithmetic speed of the algorithm is also essential for an automotive-qualified micro control units. This paper presents a direct multiple shooting method–based algorithm to achieve multiple objectives for four hub-wheel-drive electric vehicle during mild braking situations. Mathematical models of the system are generated for numerical simulations in MATLAB, including a vehicle dynamics model, a modified tire model, a single-point preview driver model, and a regenerative braking motor efficiency map. With the limitation of hard constraint and minimization of adjustment rate in cost function, optimization tends to be accomplished by distribution of braking torque in front and rear wheels. Furthermore, the control strategy has been realized using a direct multiple shooting method to convert the nonlinear optimal control problem to a nonlinear programming problem, which will be settled by adopting a sequential quadratic programming method in each subintervals. The effectiveness and adaptation of the control strategy for four hub-wheel-drive electric vehicle has been evaluated by conducting many simulations during mild braking situations, and the simulation results also demonstrated that the direct multiple shooting–based strategy exhibits a better performance than that of proportional-integral-based or nonlinear model predictive control–based controller.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T09:32:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867510
       
  • An improved model of contact collision investigation on multi-body systems
           with revolute clearance joints
    • Authors: JingJun Lou, ChaoBo Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      An improved contact collision model for the impact analysis of a slider–crank mechanism with revolute clearance joints is presented and discussed in this paper. Clearances in revolute joints are inevitable due to wear, machining tolerance, and local deformations. In view of the energy loss and the stiffness changes during collision, which modifies the coulomb friction force, an improved contact collision force model is established. The influence of clearance size, speed, and friction on the acceleration of slider is analyzed, and the simulation results are compared with the experimental data. The results demonstrate that the parameters of clearance joints have obvious effects on dynamic characteristics, and the improved model can accurately describe the dynamic characteristics of joints with clearance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T09:32:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019868124
       
  • A multi-objective optimization approach for simultaneously lightweighting
           and maximizing functional performance of vehicle body structure
    • Authors: Dengfeng Wang, Shuang Wang, Chong Xie
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study presents a hybrid approach to integrate the comprehensive sensitivity analysis method, support vector machine technology, modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II method and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution, which have been applied to multi-objective lightweight optimization of the B-pillar structure of an automobile. First, numerical models of the static–dynamic stiffness and the crashworthiness performance of automobile are established and validated by experimental testing. Then, the comprehensive sensitivity analysis method is used to define the final optimization variables. Experimental design and support vector machine based surrogate model techniques are introduced to establish the approximate model; subsequently, the modified non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm-II algorithm is applied to the multi-objective lightweight optimization design of the B-pillar structure, and the non-dominated solution set is determined. The principal component analysis method is applied to determine the weight of each objective. Finally, the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution method is used to rank Pareto front from best to worst to obtain the optimal solution; furthermore, a comparison between the original model and optimized design denotes that the mass of the B-pillar being reduced by 22.55% under the other impacting indicators is well guaranteed. Therefore, the proposed hybrid approach provided promising prospects in the lightweight and crashworthiness optimization application of the B-pillar.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-06T09:30:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019868140
       
  • On the potential of traffic light information availability for reducing
           fuel consumption and NOx emissions of a diesel light-duty vehicle
    • Authors: Carlos Guardiola, Benjamín Pla, Varun Pandey, Richard Burke
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The paper addresses the impact of traffic light information availability in terms of fuel consumption and emissions by means of comparing three different scenarios that a driver of a diesel light-duty vehicle may face when trying to cover a particular route of 1 km with two traffic lights in between. The first scenario is that the driver does not know in advance the state of the traffic lights. The second scenario assumes that the driver knows the state of the traffic lights but has no modelling nor computation capabilities to solve the associated optimal control problem. In the third scenario, the driver knows in advance the state of the traffic lights and is also able to solve the corresponding optimal control problem that leads to fuel consumption or NOx emission minimisation. In this study, the vehicle-speed trajectories associated with the previously described three scenarios have been computed and then tested in a Euro 5 Diesel vehicle installed in a chassis dynamometer. The obtained results show that traffic light information is essential for fuel minimisation in urban conditions, promoting reductions of 7.5–12% and 13–32% for fuel consumption and NOx emissions in the studied case. In addition, differences in the engine-operating conditions for high efficiency and low NOx emissions may lead to extremely high fuel consumption when NOx minimisation is foreseen or viceversa.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-02T10:30:05Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019867167
       
  • Curve recognition algorithm based on edge point curvature voting
    • Authors: Qidong Wang, Zhenya Wei, Jiaen Wang, Wuwei Chen, Naihan Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this paper, a new curve-lane recognition algorithm is proposed. The algorithm uses edge point curvature voting to determine the region of interest based on near-vision straight-lane information. First, information is detected in the near-vision area regarding the straight lines to the left and right of the current lane. Near-vision lane-line extraction includes lane image filtering, as well as edge detection of the region of interest below the vanishing line. The vanishing point is positioned by determining the position of the edge point and distribution of the direction angle. In addition, the straight line is extracted based on the position of the vanishing point. The straight lines that are constructed for the current lane in this way are selected and used as supplementation, in combination with the lane model. Next, the road curvature range isometry is divided into multiple subdivision regions. The near-vision lane straight-line curvature parameters extending from each edge point in the region of interest are computed by combining the straight-line near-vision lane information with the curve lane model in the pixel coordinate system. Subsequently, voting and counting are carried out for the curvature regions of each edge point to which the corresponding curvature computing values belong. Finally, the counting maximum from the corresponding curvature regions of the straight lines located to the left and right of the current lane are searched for, and the curvature region is converted, to obtain the lane line corresponding to the curvature parameter values. Experimental results indicate that the proposed curve-lane recognition algorithm can effectively detect the curve lanes of different curvatures. The results also indicate that the proposed curve detection method is highly accurate, and the algorithm is very robust in different environments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-08-01T07:38:48Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019866975
       
  • Concept design and dynamics analysis of a novel lightweight vehicle
           suspension combined with driving units
    • Authors: Meng Wang, Elmar Beeh, Ping Zhou, Horst E Friedrich
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A lightweighted suspension concept with integrated driving units into the longitudinal arm is proposed, to meet the increasing requirements from environments on both lightweight and propulsion to electric vehicles. This paper focuses on the structure concept design and ride dynamic analysis of the suspension with combined driving units. Besides conventional springs and shock absorbers, this concept suspension consists of a mass reduced axle structure, longitudinal arms, and electric driving units. The electric driving unit of the concept suspension arm is introduced by structural illustration first which in structure integrates the function as the suspension longitudinal arm and the function of electric propulsion to the vehicle. Meanwhile, a light brace structure with tube profiles is developed on the basis of topological optimization. Through the structure optimization, it can fulfill the suspension kinematic and compliance as well as mechanical requirements. The vehicle suspension realizes mass reduction not only from integration of driving units and suspension arm but also from structure optimization. In order to investigate the ride dynamics of the conceptual suspension, an analytical model for vehicle rear axle with a double lane road signal in accordance with International Organization for Standardization road surface profile is derived, with consideration of the integrated electric motor and linkage geometry. Simulation results are obtained to illustrate the ride dynamics in contrast to a conventional suspension benchmark. The simulation results indicate that the concept suspension has comparable ride dynamics performance as the reference suspension. Finally, the influences of the important parameters on ride dynamics are analyzed.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-29T04:42:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019866591
       
  • Electromechanical composite brake control for two in-wheel motors drive
           electric vehicle with single motor failure
    • Authors: Lipeng Zhang, Zhaowen Pang, Sheng Wang, Silong Zhang, Xinmao Yuan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      To solve the security control problem of two in-wheel motors front-drive electric vehicles with single motor failure, an electromechanical composite brake control method based on the normal working motor and the electromechanical brake systems is proposed. First, the electromechanical brake system model is established and the brake characteristics is verified by bench test. Then, based on the electric vehicle model and the in-wheel motors model that has been verified by a vehicle test, the instability mechanism of the vehicle with single motor failure is analyzed. Next, taking the yaw rate and the side-slip angle as the state variables, an in-loop controller based on model predictive control theory is designed; taking the yaw angle as the state variable, an outer-loop controller based on fuzzy proportional integral derivative control theory is designed. Finally, the expected stability control is achieved by the distribution of four-wheel brake torque. According to the research, compared with the simple drive motor torque following and motor regenerative brake control, the electromechanical composite brake control can enable the vehicle to offset the effects of instability torque more quickly, so that the vehicle can follow the expected motion trajectory basically and improve the vehicle stability.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T06:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019864229
       
  • A methodology to analyze the vehicle vibration response to deformable
           terrain stiffness and damping properties
    • Authors: Hamid Taghavifar, Subhash Rakheja
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A dynamic soil–wheel interaction model that considers energy loss due to soil compaction during multiple trafficking can potentially yield an enhanced understanding of vibration responses of a vehicle traversing the deformable terrains. This article presents a practical methodology for modeling the vehicle ride vibration responses, while interacting with deformable terrain irregularities. The proposed formulations incorporate adaptive contact patch and tire deflection in addition to soil sinkage using the Bekker’s pressure–sinkage relationship. The effect of repeated passes of the driven as well as driving wheels on effective stiffness and damping of the soil is also incorporated in the proposed formulations considering a tire slip term by adoption of the Holm’s theory. An in-plane 4-degrees-of-freedom vehicle model is formulated considering a generic compliant tire coupled with the deformable soil model and MSC ADAMS multibody dynamic model is employed for the co-simulations and validation purpose. The coupled terrain–vehicle is analyzed to determine chassis vibration responses together with variations in the dynamic tire–terrain contact force in the time and frequency domains. The results suggested that the root mean square vertical and pitch chassis acceleration responses of the vehicle operating on a deformable terrain are lower than those obtained for the undeformable terrain. The ratio of the dynamic tire force to the static load, a measure of road holding of the vehicle, however, tends to be higher for the deformable terrain. Both the road holding and root mean square chassis acceleration responses, invariably, show a significant increase with increase in the vehicle forward speed. The proposed methodology may serve as an important tool for assessing the vibration exposure of operators and for deriving optimal suspension designs for vehicles operating on deformable terrains.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-22T06:26:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019863610
       
  • An improved active drag reduction system for formula race cars
    • Authors: Mauro Dimastrogiovanni, Giulio Reina, Andrea Burzoni
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Drag reduction systems are largely employed in racing car competitions to help drivers in overtaking manoeuvres, ensuring a good show to the public. This paper presents a full-design approach to drag reduction systems that includes the computational fluid dynamics estimation of the forces acting on the rear wing, the dynamic analysis of the drag reduction system mechanism and the whole vehicle behaviour through the simulation of an overtaking manoeuvre. For the purposes of this work, a novel drag reduction system mechanism is proposed that features lower aerodynamic disturbance and comparable manufacturing costs than those of drag reduction systems of the main Formula categories.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T05:24:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019862913
       
  • Development of adaptive gear shifting strategies of automatic transmission
           for plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle based on optimal energy
           economy
    • Authors: Peihong Shen, Zhiguo Zhao, Jingwei Li, Qiuyi Guo
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Gear shifting strategy of automatic transmission has an important impact on the fuel economy of vehicles. For plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicles, to develop the driving cycle and working mode adaptive gear shifting strategy of automatic transmission is of great significance to improve the vehicle energy economy. Three main efforts have been made to distinguish our work from exiting research. First, based on the fixity and repeatability of the driving cycle for plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicles, the typical driving cycle of plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle is constructed by the self-organized mapping and K-means clustering methods. Second, in the typical plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle driving cycle constructed herein, the working points with the best energy economy are calculated by improved dynamic programming for each working mode of the plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle, considering the working efficiency of the power components and transmission. On this basis, the optimal gear shifting strategy of automatic transmission for the plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle in each working mode is extracted. Third, the simulation tests are conducted which compare the formulated adaptive gear shifting strategies with the traditional engine fuel economy-based gear shifting strategy. The simulation results illustrate that the adaptive gear shifting strategies increase the energy economy by 3.32%. The proposed gear shifting strategy development method can provide a reference for further optimization of automatic transmission gear shifting strategies of plug-in hybrid electric commuting vehicle for real applications.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-19T05:23:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019864209
       
  • Optical study of gasoline substitution ratio and diesel injection strategy
           effects on dual-fuel combustion
    • Authors: Mahmoudreza Mirmohammadsadeghi, Hua Zhao, Akira Ito
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Ever growing population and increased vehicles have resulted in higher atmospheric concentration of the greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane, thus increasing our planet’s average temperature leading to irreversible climate changes, which has led to increasingly demanding and stricter legislations on pollutant emission and CO2, as well as fuel economy targets for the automotive industry. As a result, a great deal of efforts and resources has been spent on the research and development of high efficiency and low emission engines for automotive applications in the attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and levels of nitrogen oxides and soot emissions, which affect the air quality. This research has developed strategies to investigate the combustion characteristics, engine performance and exhaust emission of diesel–gasoline dual-fuel operation in a Ricardo Hydra single-cylinder optical engine running at 1200 r/min, equipped with a high-pressure common rail injection system for diesel fuel delivery, and a port fuel injection system, designed and manufactured by the author, for gasoline fuel delivery, in order to allow for dual-fuel operations. In-cylinder pressure measurement is used for calculating all engine parameters, heat release rate and efficiency. In addition to the thermodynamic analysis of the combustion parameters, high-speed imaging of spray and combustion chemiluminescence was used for the optical analysis of the effect of the above-mentioned parameters on auto-ignition and combustion processes. Effects of different substitution ratios and diesel injection strategies at low engine loads were studied when the total fuel energy was kept constant. The three main substitution ratios used in this study include 45%, 60% and 75%, which also indicates the amount of fuel energy from port-injected gasoline, where the rest is provided by the direct injection of diesel. Depending on the testing conditions, such as injection strategy and intake conditions, some dual-fuel operations were able to deliver high efficiency and improved emissions compared to that of a pure diesel engine operation, with the diesel–gasoline operation offering more consistency in improved thermal efficiency. The optical analysis of the combustion illustrates the main difference in the flame propagation, distribution and quality for each substitution percentage, as well as the condition under examination. It was observed that combustions with higher concentration of diesel fuel having more diffusion-like combustion, especially with diesel injection timings closer to the top dead centre, where there is less time for the two fuel and air to properly mix before combustion occurs, resulted in higher temperature and levels of NOx due to the pockets of high diesel concentrations within the combustion chamber, whereas higher concentration of gasoline, especially at earlier diesel injection timings, resulted in more homogeneous fuel mixture and thus lower combustion temperatures. In other words, when the gasoline substitution ratio is lower, optimised start of injection is advanced further, so that richer diesel mixture needs longer ignition delay to have proper combustion timing, and combustion is milder and peak heat release rate is slightly lower due to less local diesel rich mixture area by means of earlier injection timing, and in terms of emissions, lower gasoline substitution ratio, decreases NOx with more homogeneous diesel mixture, and same can be said for total hydrocarbon. Performing the thermodynamics testing with an all metal piston alongside the optical testing allowed for the confirmation of these outcomes. This study not only delivers an insight to the benefits of dual-fuel engine operation, it also represents the benefits of optical engines in providing better understanding of engine operation and ways of improving it.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T06:21:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019864013
       
  • Enhanced intelligent proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based
           controller using chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization
           algorithm for transient calibration of air–fuel ratio control system
    • Authors: Ziyang Li, Quan Zhou, Yunfan Zhang, Ji Li, Hongming Xu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The self-adaptive and highly robust proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller has been developed to regulate air–fuel ratio for gasoline direct injection engines, in order to improve the transient response behaviour and reduce the effort to be spent on calibration of parameter settings. However, even though the proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller can automatically correct the initially calibrated proportional and integral parameters, a more appropriate selection of controller parameter settings will lead to better transient performance. Thus, this article proposes an enhanced intelligent proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller using chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm to automatically define the most optimal parameter settings. An alternative time-domain objective function is applied for the transient calibration programme without the need for prior selection of the search-domain. The real-time transient performance of the enhanced controller is investigated on the air–fuel ratio control system of a gasoline direct injection engine. The experimental results show that the enhanced proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller based on chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization is able to damp out the oscillations with less settling time (up to 75% reduction) and less integral of absolute error (up to 64.07% reduction) compared with the conventional self-adaptive proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller. Repeatability tests indicate that the chaos-enhanced accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm–based proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller is also able to reduce the mean value of objective function by up to 10.61% reduction and the standard deviation of the objective function by up to 28.29% reduction, compared with the conventional accelerated particle swarm optimization algorithm–based proportional-integral-like fuzzy knowledge–based controller.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-17T06:18:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019862079
       
  • Investigation on dynamic characteristics of a plate-type discharge valve
           in a diaphragm pump for SCR system by two-way FSI model
    • Authors: Youcheng Shi, Shudong Yang, Xiwei Pan, Yinshui Liu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A plate-type port valve with rubber valve plate in a miniature diaphragm pump is presented. To investigate the dynamic characteristics of this type of discharge valve, a two-way fluid structure interaction model is proposed. The interaction between the dynamic behavior of the fluid and rubber is considered in the fluid structure interaction model. Based on the fluid structure interaction model, the internal flow of the pump, the deflection of the diaphragm and discharge valve plate is calculated. To verify the validity of the numerical model, a prototype pump is fabricated and tested. The experimental pressures in the working chamber of the pump show the same overall trends with the numerical results. The deviations between the numerical and experimental flowrates are less than 7.2%. The experimental results prove that the numerical model is effective in predicting a complete discharge process of the pump. There is a big difference between the deflection of the center of the valve plate and the edge of the valve plate. The oscillation period of the pressure in the working chamber of the pump is approximately double that of the discharge valve plate. When the pump speed is lower than 2500 r/min, it has little influence on the lag angles of the discharge valve under rated pressure. The lag angles at rated pump speed increase when the backpressures increase. The stress of the discharge valve plate reaches a peak when the valve plate impact on the valve limiter or valve seat.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-16T06:54:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019862168
       
  • Design of a frictional–electromagnetic compound disk brake for
           automotives
    • Authors: Shan Huang, Jiusheng Bao, Shirong Ge, Yan Yin, Tonggang Liu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      According to the disadvantages of serious wear and heat fade of friction pad in frequent and high speed braking of friction brakes, and the insufficient power of electromagnetic brakes in low speed braking, a novel frictional-electromagnetic compound disk brake which combines both of these two brake principles is proposed for automotives in this paper. The excitation coils are designed based on the Zhang Yicheng theory model, and the compound brake prototype is manufactured based on the self-made magnetic brake pads and existing automotive brakes. The magnetic field and dynamic of the brake are simulated by using COMSOL Multiphysics software. The frictional–electromagnetic compound brake tests are implemented on the reconstructive disk brake simulation test bench. The experimental results show that the friction braking torque accounts for more than 90% of the compound braking torque in the process of compound braking, and the trend of the change is the same as that of the compound braking torque. When the initial braking speed exceeds 75 km/h, the electromagnetic braking torque does not increase with the increase in speed, instead, it decreases slightly because of demagnetization. The designed frictional–electromagnetic compound disk brake has good braking performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-16T06:53:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019864210
       
  • A novel method to improve vehicle energy efficiency: Minimization of tire
           power loss
    • Authors: Naser Sina, Mohammad Reza Hairi Yazdi, Vahid Esfahanian
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The importance of energy efficiency, as one of the most crucial issues in automotive industry, has grown more rapidly considering the global energy crisis and climate change in recent years. This paper aims to introduce a method to increase the powertrain efficiency based on the minimization of tire power loss. Slip resistance is taken into account as well as rolling resistance to yield the modified tire resistance considered in this study. It is shown that the general optimal control problem can be reduced to an instantaneous minimization problem in which the equivalent force of tire power loss is to be minimized at each instant of time. Moreover, tire inflation pressure is selected as the control input bearing its major influence on tire resistance and its potential of being controllable in the mind. In addition, a polynomial inverse tire model is developed in order to find the solution of the minimization problem with lower computational cost. The coefficients used in inverse tire model are characterized as a function of friction coefficient, normal load, and inflation pressure so that the reliability and accuracy of the model are guaranteed under different conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed online control system, called Tire Inflation Pressure Regulation System, is simulated in some driving cycles, i.e. NEDC, FTP, HWFET, and ARTEMIS-Urban, and it is shown that up to 2% improvement is achievable.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-15T07:28:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019861241
       
  • Comparative study of motor speed synchronization control for an integrated
           motor–transmission powertrain system
    • Authors: Jianfeng Huang, Jianlong Zhang, Chengliang Yin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper compares several kinds of methods for motor speed synchronization control, which plays an important role in gear shifting of emerging clutchless automated manual transmissions for battery electric vehicles and other powertrain systems for hybrid electric vehicles. Specifically, four controllers, namely, proportional-integral control, disturbance observer–based proportional control, integral sliding mode–based proportional control, and disturbance observer–based act-and-wait control, are compared in transient responses regarding settling time, overshoot, and steady-state error. Each is formulated by combining one nominal controller for speed tracking and another for disturbance compensation. For disturbance observer–based proportional control, model-based determination of the feedback gain and disturbance observer gain is discussed. Simulations and experiments are carried out to study effects of different controller parameter settings and evaluate performances of different methods under different operation conditions with disturbances and uncertainties like plant parameter drift, communication time delay, unknown load torques, and so on. Based on the results, it is advised that disturbance observer–based proportional control with the reference signal set as the nominal speed trajectory be used in practice, since it comes with merits of few controller parameters to be determined as well as robust, consistent, and satisfactory performances.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-13T09:00:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019862894
       
  • Minimizing synchronization time of a gear shifting mechanism by optimizing
           its structural design parameters
    • Authors: Muhammad Irfan, Viktor Berbyuk, Håkan Johansson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A gear shifting mechanism is modeled in GT-Suite software. The mechanism has three main bodies: sleeve, ring, and gear. Results obtained from the simulation show that GT-Suite model can predict gear shifting process. Synchronization processes for three conditions of nominal, road grade, and vibrational motion of the master are studied in six cases by considering the sleeve and the gear as a master alternatively. The optimization based on the GT-Suite model is performed for each case to find the minimum gear shifting time based on variations of 17 structural design parameters. Minimum synchronization time is found almost same in all cases. It is concluded from closeness of the optimization results that average of the parameter values can be considered as optimized values for all cases. At the end, robustness of the optimized structural design parameters are analyzed with respect to the road grade, amplitude, and frequency of oscillatory excitation of rotational motion of the master.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-11T05:35:55Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019860363
       
  • Using a low-cost bluetooth torque sensor for vehicle jerk and transient
           torque measurement
    • Authors: Peter Tawadros, Mohamed Awadallah, Paul Walker, Nong Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents the use and development of a specific wireless torque measurement system that is used to obtain the transient torque performance of vehicle transmissions. The torque sensor is strain-based, using surface-mounted strain gauges on a prop shaft. The gauges are connected to a compact printed circuit board, which is clamped to the shaft next to the strain gauges using a three-dimensional printed housing. The printed circuit board contains an amplifier, low-pass filter, analog-to-digital converter, microcontroller and bluetooth transceiver. The printed housing is impact resistant carbon-reinforced nylon and securely retains the printed circuit board and the battery powering the device. The transmitted torque data are received by a transceiver, which is interfaced to a PC through an RS-232 connection. NI LabVIEW is used to process, display and save data. The wireless torque sensor was installed to the Unit Under Test at the output shaft of the five-speed manual transmission. The Unit Under Test was installed on a dynamometer for verification purposes and the transient torque was recorded under various operational conditions. The transient output torque of the manual transmission is measured and compared with results obtained from simulations performed under similar operating conditions. The two sets of transient responses show a good correlation with each other and hence demonstrate that the torque sensor meets the major design specifications. The data obtained will be used to enhance the fidelity of the software model.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-10T06:39:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019861613
       
  • A novel adaptive and fast deep convolutional neural network for bearing
           fault diagnosis under different working conditions
    • Authors: Kun Xu, Shunming Li, Jinrui Wang, Zenghui An, Yu Xin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Deep learning method is gradually applied in the field of mechanical equipment fault diagnosis because it can learn complex and useful features automatically from the vibration signals. Among the many intelligent diagnostic models, convolutional neural network has been gradually applied to intelligent fault diagnosis of bearings due to its advantages of local connection and weight sharing. However, there are still some drawbacks. (1) The training process of convolutional neural network is slow and unstable. It has more training parameters. (2) It cannot perform well under different working conditions, such as noisy environment and different workloads. In this paper, a novel model named adaptive and fast convolutional neural network with wide receptive field is presented to overcome the aforementioned deficiencies. The prime innovations include the following. First, a deep convolutional neural network architecture is constructed using the scaled exponential linear unit activation function and global average pooling. The model has fewer training parameters and can converge rapidly and stably. Second, the model has a wide receptive field with two medium and three small length convolutional kernels. It also has high diagnostic accuracy and robustness when the environment is noisy and workloads are changed compared with other models. Furthermore, to demonstrate how the wide receptive field convolutional neural network model works, the reasons for high model performance are analyzed and the learned features are also visualized. Finally, the wide receptive field convolutional neural network model is verified by the vibration dataset collected in the background of high noise, and the results indicate that it has high diagnostic performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-06T06:15:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019861028
       
  • Mechanism analysis of vehicle start-up judder based on gradient
           characteristic of Stribeck effect
    • Authors: Renfei Yuan, Guangqiang Wu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper presents a profound mechanism investigation for vehicle start-up judder phenomenon using a combination of experiment and simulation. First, from the experimental analysis, the characteristic frequency of start-up judder is mainly concentrated at about 9 Hz. A 13-degree-of-freedom powertrain branched model is established to numerically reproduce experimental phenomenon. The validity and accuracy of simulation model in reflecting the characteristics of start-up judder are verified by the experimental results in time–frequency domain. Second, through analyzing clutch friction torque, it can be concluded that the closed-loop positive feedback mechanism caused by the negative gradient characteristic of Stribeck effect is the determining factor for the start-up judder. It promotes aggravated fluctuation in rotational speed of clutch driven plate. The introduction process of negative damping that makes powertrain system divergent is explained in detail. Finally, two theoretical measures are proposed to suppress the vehicle start-up judder. One of the measures is to diminish the absolute value of the negative gradient. It weakens the aggravation effect of the closed-loop positive feedback and hence attenuates the start-up judder. Another measure is to change to positive gradient. It forms a closed-loop negative feedback process that causes the almost disappearance of start-up judder. The effectiveness of the two suppression measures verifies the correctness of the start-up judder mechanism proposed in this paper.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-05T07:10:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859820
       
  • Multi-objective vehicle optimization: Comparison of combustion engine,
           hybrid and electric powertrains
    • Authors: Nikola Holjevac, Federico Cheli, Massimiliano Gobbi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The use of optimization techniques has been extensively adopted in vehicle design and with the increasing complexity of systems, especially with the introduction of new technologies, it plays an even more significant role. Market competition, stringent mandatory emission regulations and the need for a future sustainable mobility have raised questions over conventional vehicles and are pushing toward new cleaner and eco-friendly solutions. Fulfilling this target without sacrificing the other vehicle’s requirements leads to extremely challenging tasks for vehicle designers. The use of virtual prototyping emerges as a possible breakthrough allowing to rapidly assess the effect of design changes and the impact of new technologies. The study presented in this work provides a suitable approach to compare different vehicle powertrain architectures through optimization techniques and deploying model-based simulation to rapidly assess vehicle performances. The vehicle model is defined at the components level through scalable models obtained from based on detailed simulation. An optimal energy management is applied to the power sources and transmission gear shifting. The optimization technique consider the main design variables of the various components including vehicle chassis and extensively exploits the design space. The multi-objective optimization considers vehicle’s consumption, emission, range, longitudinal and lateral dynamics, costs and further performances to comprehensively assess the vehicle. The results allow to compare four different powertrain architectures: combustion engine vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle with parallel and series configuration, and battery electric vehicle. The results allows furthermore to identify technological limitations and conflicts among the different objectives. A critical analysis over the main design variables allows to identify the more suitable values and in particular, for combustion engine, gearbox and electric traction drive detailed comparisons are provided.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-04T08:56:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019860364
       
  • Multi-objective optimization of all-wheel drive electric formula vehicle
           for performance and energy efficiency using evolutionary algorithms
    • Authors: Tey Jing Yuen, Rahizar Ramli
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A new method based on constraint multi-objective optimization using evolutionary algorithms is proposed to optimize the powertrain design of a battery electric formula vehicle with an all-wheel independent motor drive. The electric formula vehicle has a maximum combined motor power of 80 kW, which is a constraint for delivering maximum vehicle performance with minimal energy consumption. The performance of the vehicle will be simulated and measured against different driving events, that is, acceleration event, autocross event, and endurance event. Each event demands a different aspect of performance to be delivered by the motor. The respective event lap time or energy rating will be measured for performance assessment. In this study, a non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II and constrained multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition by using differential evolution are employed to optimize the motor transmission ratio, motor torque scaling, and downforce scale of both front and rear wheels against the acceleration event to minimize energy consumption and event lap time while constraining the combined motor power of all wheels to not exceed 80 kW. The optimization will be performed through software-in-the-loop between MATLAB and VI-Grade, where the high-fidelity vehicle will be modeled in VI-Grade and optimization algorithms will be implemented on the host in MATLAB. Results show that the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm II outperforms the constrained multi-objective evolutionary algorithm based on decomposition by using differential evolution in obtaining a wider distributed Pareto solution and converges at a relatively shorter time frame. The optimized results show a promising increase in the performance of the electric formula vehicle in completing those events with the highest combined performance scoring, that is, the lap time of acceleration events improves by 9.18%, that of autocross event improves by 6.1%, and that of endurance event improves by 4.97%, with minimum decrease in energy rating of 32.54%.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T07:36:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859808
       
  • A fast and accurate hybrid simulation model for the large-scale testing of
           automated driving functions
    • Authors: Nicolas Fraikin, Kilian Funk, Michael Frey, Frank Gauterin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The upcoming market introduction of highly automated driving functions and associated requirements on reliability and safety require new tools for the virtual test coverage to lower development expenses. In this contribution, a computationally efficient and accurate simulation environment for the vehicle’s lateral dynamics is introduced. Therefore, an analytic single track model is coupled with a long-short-term-memory neural network to compensate modelling inaccuracies of the single track model. This ‘Hybrid Vehicle Model’ is parameterized with selected training batches obtained from a complex simulation model serving as a reference to simplify the data acquisition. The single track model is parameterized using given catalogue data. Thereafter, the long-short-term-memory network is trained to cover for the single track model’s shortcomings compared to the ground truth in a closed-loop setup. The evaluation with measurements from the real vehicle shows that the hybrid model can provide accurate long-term predictions with low computational effort that outperform results achieved when using the models isolated.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-07-03T07:35:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019861245
       
  • Recent advances in gasoline three-way catalyst formulation: A review
    • Authors: Shawn Rood, Salvador Eslava, Alexis Manigrasso, Chris Bannister
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Development of three-way catalyst technology has been critical in maintaining air quality regulations for gasoline engines via the conversion of pollutants from the internal combustion engine exhaust. The development of improved three-way catalyst formulations is an important challenge for automotive industry. Indeed, in order to meet increasingly stringent environmental regulations around the world, the development of more efficient catalysts depends on a complete understanding of the many parameters related to three-way catalyst design. In this review paper, some of these parameters are examined in relation to three-way catalyst performance, and especially low-temperature activation performance, with a focus on more recently published work. In particular, washcoat composition, platinum group metal ratios and loading, and substrate design are considered. The effect of these parameters with regard to the conversion efficiency of carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides pollutants is summarized.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-29T09:27:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859822
       
  • Yaw and lateral stability control for four-wheel-independent steering and
           four-wheel-independent driving electric vehicle
    • Authors: Chunyan Wang, Bo Heng, Wanzhong Zhao
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Based on the traditional four-wheel steering system, this paper combines the steer-by-wire system and four-wheel-independent driving technology to develop a new steer-by-wire four-wheel-independent steering and four-wheel-independent driving electric vehicle, which can realize four-wheel-independent steering and four-wheel-independent driving. Aiming at the steering actuator redundancy characteristics of the four-wheel-independent steering and four-wheel-independent driving vehicle, a hierarchical control method is proposed in this paper. In view of parameters perturbation of vehicle speed and tire cornering stiffness and the model uncertainty problem, the structure singular value μ is used to study the stability control of four-wheel-independent steering and four-wheel-independent driving vehicle under multiple perturbations in the upper layer, and verifies the advantages of μ controller by comparing it with H∞ control and proportional-integral-derivative control. The lower layer is aimed at the redundancy of vehicle steering actuator, an on-line reconfigurable steering angle and driving force allocation control method based on tire force optimal allocation is proposed. This method can not only optimize the tire longitudinal force and lateral force distribution under normal conditions but also reconstruct the distribution control strategy on-line under fault conditions, realizing active fault tolerance. Finally, simulations by MATLAB/Simulink and hardware-in-the-loop experiments are conducted to verify the proposed control method. The simulation results show that the designed controller can maintain good stability under the conditions of model perturbation, separation pavement, and actuator failure.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-29T09:27:01Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019860614
       
  • Fuzzy sliding mode based active disturbance rejection control for active
           suspension system
    • Authors: Haoping Wang, Yeqing Lu, Yang Tian, Nicolai Christov
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This article deals with the control problem of 7-degrees of freedom full-car suspension system which takes into account the spring-damper nonlinearities, unmodeled dynamics and external disturbances. The existing active disturbance rejection control uses an extended state observer to estimate the “total disturbance” and eliminate it with state error feedback. In this article, a new type of active disturbance rejection control is developed to improve the ride comfort of full car suspension systems taking into account the suspension nonlinearities and actuator saturation. The proposed controller combines active disturbance rejection control and fuzzy sliding mode control and is called Fuzzy Sliding Mode active disturbance rejection control. To validate the system mathematical model and analyze the controller performance, a virtual prototype is built in Adams. The simulation results demonstrate better performance of Fuzzy Sliding Mode active disturbance rejection control compared to the existing active disturbance rejection control.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-29T09:25:22Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019860626
       
  • Pressure control of electro-hydraulic servo loading system in heavy
           vehicle steering testboard based on integral sliding mode control
    • Authors: Heng Du, Youhui Cheng, Shuwei Huang, Minghui Wu, Hui Huang, Yuzheng Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Heavy vehicle steering testboard has a key role to play in the fundamental research of heavy vehicle steering performance, and pressure control of electro-hydraulic servo loading system is the precondition and foundation for achieving accurate dynamic loading of heavy vehicle steering testboard. Commonly used proportional–integral–differential control easily fails to track target pressure signal with high amplitude and frequency, while integral sliding mode control is capable of realizing pressure tracking with high accuracy in engineering for its strong robustness and simplicity. A nonlinear mathematical model of electro-hydraulic servo loading system is established, including the nonlinear characteristics of valve-controlled cylinder system and tire elastic force, and an integral sliding mode controller is also designed in this paper. For further comparison and analyses, based on particle swarm optimization and integral of the time absolute error criterion, a proportional–integral–differential self-tuning controller of electro-hydraulic servo loading system is proposed as well, and the corresponding optimal proportional–integral–differential control gains are obtained. Both numerical simulation and experiment results confirm that, compared with proportional–integral–differential self-tuning control, integral sliding mode control can effectively suppress the disturbance of external loads and reach a better pressure tracking performance.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-28T11:00:21Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859960
       
  • Two-layer structure algorithm for estimation of commercial vehicle mass
    • Authors: Liuliu Cai, Hongliang Wang, Tianle Jia, Pai Peng, Dawei Pi, Erlie Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Aiming at the problem of mass estimation for commercial vehicle, a two-layer structure mass estimation algorithm was proposed. The first layer was the grade estimation algorithm based on recursive least squares method and the second layer was a mass estimation algorithm using the extended Kalman filter. The estimated grade was introduced as the observation quantity of the second layer. The influence of the suspension deformation on grade estimation was considered in the first layer algorithm, which was corrected in real time according to the mass and road grade estimated by the second layer algorithm. The proposed estimation algorithm was validated via a co-simulation platform involving TruckSim and MATLAB/Simulink. Finally, a road test was carried out, and the evaluation method using the root mean square error was proposed. According to the test, the average value of the root mean square error reduces from 871.65 to 772.52, grade estimation is more accurate, and the convergence speed of mass estimation is faster, compared with estimation results of the extended Kalman filter method.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T10:24:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859817
       
  • Two-layer mass-adaptive hill start assist control method for commercial
           vehicles
    • Authors: Pai Peng, Hongliang Wang, Dawei Pi, Erlie Wang, Guodong Yin
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This study aims to develop a two-layer mass-adaptive control framework to improve the hill start assist performance of commercial vehicles equipped with an electronic parking brake system. In the first layer, the desired pressure of the hill start assist control is proposed, then a logic threshold control method is employed to track the time-varying desired pressure. Due to the frequently changing load of the commercial vehicles, the second layer is utilized to estimate the vehicle mass online. The proposed mass-adaptive control method is evaluated via a co-simulation platform involving MATLAB/Simulink, TruckSim and AMESim, and is compared with a one-layer scheme without mass estimation. Finally, we further demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the two-layer mass-adaptive hill start assist framework in vehicle experiments.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T10:21:41Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859802
       
  • Optimal control of regenerative hydraulic composite braking system based
           on a voltage variable charging control scheme
    • Authors: Jun-Cheng Wang, Ren He, Young-Bae Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A double-loop optimal control strategy combined with a voltage variable charging control scheme is developed to enhance the efficiency of energy recovery and improve control precision for a regenerative hydraulic composite braking system. The proposed voltage variable charging control scheme structure aims to regulate a regenerative braking torque using a charging voltage variation based on an existing battery management system. In addition, an experimental test was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the charging voltage control, and a first loop optimal control was developed to evaluate the ideal ground braking force accurately by transforming several state variables into differential equations. A second optimal control loop was subsequently developed to track an ideal slip ratio using a full-information optimal sliding mode control method under the all-braking conditions. Simulation results corroborate that a composite braking system controlled by the proposed control strategy can implement the regenerative braking behavior precisely with a considerable high-energy recovery efficiency.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T10:19:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019859082
       
  • Real-time identification of dry-clutch frictional torque in automated
           transmissions at launch condition
    • Authors: Mojtaba Sharifzadeh, Mario Pisaturo, Adolfo Senatore
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      In this work, a new methodology for online identification of the dry-clutch torque characteristics model in vehicular transmission systems is presented. The proposed approach provides a tool with capability to estimate the clutch torque model parameters directly, using the measurable signals of engine torque and speed within a multiple model predictive control loop, in real time. The first step is to calculate the clutch torque which includes some degree of uncertainty. Then, it is presented an advanced identification approach which is based on trust region and has enough robustness to cover the uncertainty of calculated torque. The structure aims to ensuring a comfortable clutch lock-up by keeping reasonable engagement period and avoiding engine stall. Real-time model simulations in various conditions are also presented to illustrate the superior performance and to demonstrate the effectiveness of the algorithm. The identification method has also been tested on real vehicle equipped with 1.3 L turbocharged diesel engine and six-speed automated manual transmission. Different launch maneuvers have been considered to demonstrate the methodology and promising results have been achieved.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-27T10:17:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019857268
       
  • Numerical research on sloshing of free oil liquid surface based on
           different baffle shapes in rectangular fuel tank
    • Authors: Enhui Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Oil liquid sloshing is a normal physical phenomenon in fuel tank under variable conditions of vehicles. Installing baffles in fuel tank is an effective method to suppress oil liquid sloshing. The influence of different baffle shapes on the pressure of oil liquid sloshing and time-area value is the focus of this work. Four factors influencing the baffle shape and baffles of six different shapes are provided in this research. The pressure history curves of oil liquid sloshing at the central point and on the central line, the history curves of velocity of oil liquid mass and volume, oil liquid pressure contours, and the position diagrams of free oil liquid surface were obtained and compared in fuel tanks with baffles of different shapes. Compared with the sloshing pressure of oil liquid and time-area values in fuel tanks with baffles of different shapes, the sloshing pressure of oil liquid at the central point is the smallest in fuel tank with baffles of corrugated shape, and the sloshing pressure of oil liquid on the central line is the smallest in fuel tank with baffles of straight-line shape. However, the baffles of corrugated shape are most beneficial to reduce time-area values.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-24T12:55:02Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019855569
       
  • The influence of intermediate species on the combustion process of
           n-dodecane flame
    • Authors: Wanhui Zhao, Lei Zhou, Jiayue Qi, Haiqiao Wei
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Split-injection strategy is of great potential to reduce the pollutant emissions without deterioration of engine performance. The combustion of the previously injected fuel has great influence on the ignition of the subsequent second injection. In this study, the main influence of species formed in the first injection on the ignition of the second injection is analysed in detail. Different species are added into the fuel/air mixture to study the influence of the species formed in the first injection on the combustion process of the second injection. Results show that the influence of species addition on the ignition delay is dependent on the initial temperature and oxygen concentration. The presence of acetylene (C2H2) and methane (CH4) prolongs the ignition delay regardless of initial temperatures or oxygen concentrations. However, ethylene (C2H4), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydrogen (H2) and formaldehyde (CH2O) shorten the ignition delay at high temperatures. The temperature increase ahead of the second spray plays a more important role in promoting the overall ignition process regardless of the initial oxygen concentration. Moreover, the effect of species addition on the first- and second-stage ignition processes is also analysed in detail. Different from the results with other species addition, the presence of H2O2 and CH2O in the initial gas leads to the monotonical decrease with the increase in the initial gas temperature, T0.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-24T12:53:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019858279
       
  • Multi-chamber tyre designing for fuel economy
    • Authors: Hamad Sarhan Aldhufairi, Oluremi Ayotunde Olatunbosun, Khamis Essa
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Rolling resistance plays a major role in tyre development due to its significant influence on energy consumption and environmental impact. Numerous efforts to minimise the tyre’s rolling resistance have met with no or minor success because of the tyre’s complexity and the involved compromises. This paper explores a novel design solution of the multi-chamber tyre, as a potential alternative, for low rolling resistance while meeting other driving requirements – a multi-purpose generalised solution (design-for-all). A novel multi-chamber design (base design) with a validated finite element model was used to create the different novel designs. Statistical analysis based on the design of experiment was conducted to identify the best cavity volumes and inflation settings. The ‘design-for-all’ solution offered a 28% reduction in rolling resistance, an enhanced cornering performance, a matching grip and a satisfactory cushioning.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-20T11:23:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019857026
       
  • Improvement of both handling stability and ride comfort of a vehicle via
           coupled hydraulically interconnected suspension and electronic controlled
           air spring
    • Authors: Hengmin Qi, Yuanchang Chen, Nong Zhang, Bangji Zhang, Dong Wang, Bohuan Tan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The trade-off between handling stability and ride comfort is a disadvantage for the bus fitted with passive suspension due to its high center of gravity and heavy load. A novel suspension configuration with both hydraulically interconnected suspension and electronic controlled air spring is created to handle this conflicting requirement. The proposed whole vehicle system model has three subsystems: a 9-degree-of-freedom vehicle multi-body model, hydraulically interconnected suspension model, and electronic controlled air spring. The electronic controlled air spring comprises an air spring and an auxiliary air chamber, and its height can be adjusted by a fuzzy controller. Then, analytical work is performed to evaluate the handling stability and ride comfort of the vehicle with different suspension configurations under various maneuvers and suspension height modes. Finally, the vehicle on-road test is conducted to experimentally validate the proposed models. Both analytical and experimental results indicate that the vehicle fitted with hydraulically interconnected suspension and electronic controlled air spring can obtain high performance for both handling stability and ride comfort.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-19T07:26:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019856538
       
  • Investigation on aerodynamic characteristics of tailing vehicle hood in a
           two-vehicle platoon
    • Authors: Qiliang Li, Wentong Dai, Zhigang Yang, Qing Jia
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Experimental and numerical methods were performed to study the hood aerodynamics of a 1:18 scale vehicle model in a two-vehicle platoon under different fixed intra spacing and dynamic intra spacing at the Reynolds number of 4.9 × 105 and 4.08 × 105 in a 1:15 scale wind tunnel. Blockage ratio was calculated to be 5.6% for experiments. The averaged and fluctuating pressures of the hood of the tailing vehicle are much higher than that of single vehicle, and stronger fluctuation occurs at the front and rear edges of hood. Pressure fluctuation over the tailing vehicle hood increases as the intra spacing diminishes but sharply declines within intra spacing of 0.2 L. The energy of fluctuation is concentrated in frequency bands from 50 to 110 Hz at wind speed of 30 m/s and 40–90 Hz at wind speed of 25 m/s. Energy at the main frequency bands and peak frequencies take up nearly 25% of total energy, respectively. The results of proper orthogonal decomposition show that total energy proportion is 49.6% for the first 11 modes and 67.0% for the first 30 modes, respectively. Relative motion at low speed has no discernible effect on hood behavior and peak frequencies have inclination to decline during the process of vehicle approaching.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-18T12:47:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019857430
       
  • Optimal integrated energy management and shift control in parallel hybrid
           electric vehicles with dual-clutch transmission
    • Authors: Guoqiang Li, Daniel Görges
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This paper addresses the integration of the energy management and the shift control in parallel hybrid electric vehicles with dual-clutch transmission to reduce the fuel consumption, decrease the pollutant emissions, and improve the driving comfort simultaneously. Dynamic programming with a varying weighting factor in the cost function is proposed to balance the shift frequency and the fuel consumption for the power-split control and gear schedule design. Simulation results present that the drivability can be improved with a varying weighting factor due to fewer shift events while the fuel consumption is only slightly increased compared to dynamic programming with a constant weighting factor. A shift-energy-management strategy integrating the upshift and power-split control based on a multi-objective optimization is presented where model predictive control is employed to ensure engine load rate constraints. The strategy can smoothen the engine torque through torque compensation from the electric motor to prevent engine transient emissions resulting from a sudden load change. In a simulation study, the NOx and HC emissions could be reduced by 1.4% and 2.6% with 2% increase of the overall fuel consumption for the Federal Test Procedure 75 by smoothening the engine torque. For the New European Driving Cycle, 0.9% and 1.1% reduction of NOx and HC emissions could be achieved with only 0.3% more fuel consumption.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-18T12:47:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019857419
       
  • A heuristic investigation into the design of a dynamic yaw controller for
           a high-speed tracked vehicle
    • Authors: David J Purdy
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      This work presents a heuristic investigation into the design of a dynamic yaw controller for a high-speed tracked vehicle to prevent it from oversteering. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first time this problem has been examined. Accidents involving tracked vehicles generally result in significant damage, serious injury and, in some cases, loss of life; this is due to their size and mass. A system that makes these vehicles operate safely in difficult and stressful situations would be welcomed. A switched mode structure is proposed for the dynamic yaw controller based on switching lines in the β phase plane. The lines are selected from the response of the vehicle at a speed, just before it goes into oversteer. The dynamic yaw controller is shown to prevent the vehicle from oversteering when it initiates a turn at its maximum speed on an off-road sandy track, with a coefficient of friction between the tracks and ground of 0.68. At a reduced coefficient of 0.5, the dynamic yaw controller applies the brakes continuously, which brings the vehicle to a stop; whether this is good or not depends on the situation.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-15T07:10:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019852528
       
  • Vibration source identification of a heavy commercial vehicle cab based on
           operational transfer path analysis
    • Authors: Zhiyong Zhang, Da Pan, Wenguang Wu, Caixia Huang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Operational transfer path analysis is applied in this study to identify the vibration source and its critical transfer path. A simple analytical five-degrees-of-freedom mechanical isolation system is first taken as an example to illustrate the analysis flow and to validate the accuracy of operational transfer path analysis. The acceleration amplitude spectrum of the receiver is used to prove the accuracy, and the path contribution of each path is used to identify the critical path. Operational transfer path analysis is then applied to the cab mount system of a heavy commercial vehicle to identify the vibration source and its critical transfer path. The vibration energy propagation capabilities from the four cab mounts to the driver’s seat are analyzed by operational transfer path analysis with the path contribution analysis, and the maximum vibration source is identified by the path operation contribution analysis. The analysis and evaluation method of the operational transfer path analysis introduced in this study can provide a research foundation and reference for vibration or noise source identification in mechanical systems.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-13T09:27:00Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019854608
       
  • Study on kinematic characteristics of planetary multistage face gears
           transmission
    • Authors: Qingchun Hu, Xingbin Chen, Zhongyang Xu, Qianli Mai, Chune Zhu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A planetary gear transmission system with multistage face gears combinations as core component can easily realize the variable speed in differential transmission ratios with structural advantages. In order to improve the transmission stability and loading capacity, it is necessary to set up a reasonable kinematic model for multistage face gears pair. This study focuses on the kinematic characteristics of multistage face gears structure with double crown surface by the methods of numerical calculation and experimental verification. The transmission error and efficiency solving models are established by numerical calculation method to analyze the influences of each factor in detail. Then the correctness of the above numerical models are verified with transmission error and efficiency experiment. In addition, the numerical results are compared with the experimental results to further indicate the important influences of the multistage face gears components on the transmission error and efficiency of whole transmission system. The results can provide references for the dynamic and experimental study of multistage face gears in some degree.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-13T09:25:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019855908
       
  • Optimization of synchronizer cone angle with regard to manufacturing
           tolerances of cone roundness and cone angle
    • Authors: Daniel Häggström, Ulf Sellgren, Stefan Björklund
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      The effects of manufacturing tolerances on the maximum focal temperature has been investigated by transient thermomechanical simulations. Both relative cone angle and cone out-of-roundness for molybdenum and carbon fibre reinforced polymer synchronizers were evaluated. It was shown that cone out-of-roundness significantly increases the focal contact temperature for that specific cone but has little impact on the opposing cone. Two populations of measured synchronizers were evaluated, and it was shown that the maximum focal surface temperature can be decreased in almost all tolerance cases by introducing a relative angle between the cones.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T10:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019854594
       
  • Optimal design of passenger vehicle seat with the use of negative
           stiffness elements
    • Authors: Georgios Papaioannou, Artemios Voutsinas, Dimitrios Koulocheris
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      A seat that provides good vibration isolation is of prime importance for passenger’s safety and health. The main conflict in seat suspensions implies that the increasing initial deformation of the system (increase in “static discomfort”) leads to better isolation of accelerations (increase in “dynamic comfort”). Many researchers have focused on overcoming or at least suppressing this conflict between load support capacity and vibration isolation by modeling new suspension systems, such as the so-called negative suspension systems. However, apart from the modeling of new suspension systems, optimization is an important part in designing a seat and finding the best compromise between these two objectives. Thus, in this work, four types of seat suspension systems with embedded negative stiffness elements are implemented and optimized in order to be benchmarked. Three of them have already been tested either in passenger or in an off-road vehicle seat. All the vibration isolators are optimized with genetic algorithms in respect to static and dynamic factors of ride comfort by applying constraints oriented to the objectives and the design of the structure. The optimization is implemented for two excitations, which correspond to a vehicle driving over road profiles of Classes A and B, and the common solutions are outlined.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-12T10:32:15Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019854879
       
  • Experimental investigation into simulated aging effects of common-rail
           injector nozzles: Influences on injection rate, spray characteristics, and
           engine performance
    • Authors: Sebastian Schuckert, Oliver Hofmann, Georg Wachtmeister
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.
      Emission performance of combustion engines has gained outstanding importance with both legislators and customers over the past years. Injector aging, such as nozzle wear or coking, results in the deterioration of injection and emission parameters. In this study, the influences of aging effects on injection rate, fuel spray as well as engine performance and emissions were assessed. Nozzles, which had previously been operated in a vehicle engine and were likely to have suffered from aging, showed no aging-induced characteristics during injection rate and spray measurements and were not investigated further. Therefore, nozzles with different nozzle hole diameters were utilized to simulate the different aging effects. Injection rate measurements demonstrated, that for smaller energizing times, a nozzle with smaller nozzle holes can deliver a higher injected mass than a nozzle with bigger nozzle holes. The adaptation of energizing time or injection pressure demonstrated the potential to compensate the change in engine load due to smaller or bigger nozzle holes. For bigger nozzle holes, the adaptation of injection pressure in order to restore the target load returned lower NOx emissions, whereas the adaptation of the energizing time always yielded lower soot emissions compared to the reference nozzle. For small nozzle holes, the optimization of the start of energizing reduced specific NOx emissions without increasing specific soot emissions. The comparison of measured injection rate and fuel spray characteristics to the ones reported in literature confirms the possibility of simulating nozzle wear by increased nozzle holes and coking by smaller nozzle holes. The results of this study are of vital interest to the research of aging effects and add useful knowledge about compensation methods for nozzle aging.
      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-11T12:23:27Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019855289
       
  • Mode control of electro-mechanical suspension systems for vehicle height,
           levelling and ride comfort
    • Authors: Baek-soon Kwon, Young-jin Hyun, Kyongsu Yi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-06T11:57:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019851028
       
  • Study of comfort performance of novel car seat design for long drive
    • Authors: Hassan Iftekhar, Raja Muhammad Waseem Ullah Khan, Muhammad Ayub Asghar, Abdul Qadeer, Muhammad Umair, Yasir Nawab, Syed Talha Ali Hamdani
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-05T10:13:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019852279
       
  • Sliding-mode control of automotive selective catalytic reduction systems
           with state estimation
    • Authors: Yao Ma, Junmin Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-06-04T12:12:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019853968
       
  • Impact of the wastegate opening on radial turbine performance under steady
           and pulsating flow conditions
    • Authors: Ahmed Ketata, Zied Driss, Mohamed Salah Abid
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-28T06:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019852494
       
  • Oil-treated pleated fibrous air filters for motor vehicle engine intake
           application
    • Authors: Ajay Kumar Maddineni, Dipayan Das, Ravi Mohan Damodaran
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-24T05:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019850379
       
  • Variation modes of vehicle interior roominess
    • Authors: Sang-Don Lee, Seung-Lye Kim
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-24T05:56:31Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019844394
       
  • Radial basis function surrogate model-based optimization of guardrail post
           embedment depth in different soil conditions
    • Authors: Sedat Ozcanan, Ali Osman Atahan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-21T06:33:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848548
       
  • Design of a hybrid proportional electromagnetic dynamic vibration absorber
           for control of idling engine vibration
    • Authors: Tao Fu, Subhash Rakheja, Wen-Bin Shangguan
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-20T06:45:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019845720
       
  • Path control in limit handling and drifting conditions using State
           Dependent Riccati Equation technique
    • Authors: Erik Wachter, Mohsen Alirezaei, Fredrik Bruzelius, Antoine Schmeitz
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-20T06:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019850737
       
  • Applied nonlinear control of vehicle stability with control and state
           constraints
    • Authors: Amin Tahouni, Mehdi Mirzaei, Behrouz Najjari
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T08:15:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848858
       
  • A driving cycle construction methodology combining k-means clustering and
           Markov model for urban mixed roads
    • Authors: Yuhui Peng, Yuan Zhuang, Yinghui Yang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-17T08:14:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848873
       
  • The aerodynamic development of the new Porsche Cayenne
    • Authors: Thomas Wolf
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-16T05:01:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019843004
       
  • Vehicle lane keeping system based on TSK fuzzy extension control
    • Authors: Hongbo Wang, Wei Cui, Zhi Xia, Wuhua Jiang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-16T05:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019849257
       
  • Active control of vehicle’s interior sound field by using multichannel
           H∞ robust controller
    • Authors: Golsa Ghanati, Shahram Azadi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-14T11:17:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848523
       
  • Dynamic modeling and experimental validation of skid-steered wheeled
           vehicles with low-pressure pneumatic tires on soft terrain
    • Authors: Shouxing Tang, Shihua Yuan, Xueyuan Li, Junjie Zhou
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-13T12:13:47Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019847302
       
  • Investigation of friction-induced vibration in a disk brake model,
           including mode-coupling and gyroscopic mechanisms
    • Authors: Ahmed Ghorbel, Becem Zghal, Moez Abdennadher, Lassâad Walha, Mohamed Haddar
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-10T09:52:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019845723
       
  • Fuel consumption reduction by introducing best-mode controller for hybrid
           electric vehicles
    • Authors: Behrooz Mashadi, Mahdi Khadem Nahvi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-09T08:03:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848190
       
  • Variable steering ratio control of steer-by-wire vehicle to improve
           handling performance
    • Authors: Xiaodong Wu, Wenqi Li
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-08T08:13:14Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019848174
       
  • Adaptive fuzzy radial basis function neural network integral sliding mode
           tracking control for heavy vehicle electro-hydraulic power steering
           systems
    • Authors: Heng Du, Lin Wang, Jinda Chen, Hui Huang, Yunchao Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-06T10:27:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019846378
       
  • Thermal comparison of heavy vehicle wheel assemblies under alpine braking
    • Authors: Joshua Subel, Frank W Kienhöfer
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T11:14:36Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019844359
       
  • A novel manoeuvre stability controller based on vehicle state prediction
           and intellectual braking torque distribution
    • Authors: Liqin Zhang, Yang Wu, Boyuan Li, Bangji Zhang, Nong Zhang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-03T11:13:56Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019845717
       
  • Experimental investigation of the cooling characteristics of a monobloc
           cast iron brake disc with fingered hub
    • Authors: Marko Tirovic, Stergios Topouris, Glenn Sherwood
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T11:47:19Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019838642
       
  • Damaged-aircraft trailer dynamics simulation and vibration optimization
    • Authors: Zhenyu Hong, Xiaoli Yu, Dongsheng Zhang, Zhenpeng He
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-05-02T11:46:37Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019845727
       
  • Trajectory planning and combined control design for critical high-speed
           lane change manoeuvres
    • Authors: Hadi Sazgar, Shahram Azadi, Reza Kazemi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-30T05:58:52Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019845253
       
  • Analytical model and material equivalent methods for steady state heat
           partition coefficient between two contact discs in multi-disc clutch
    • Authors: Cenbo Xiong, Man Chen, Liangyao Yu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-27T06:32:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019846389
       
  • Oil film separation and drag torque in disengaged wet brakes
    • Authors: N Morris, J Davies, M Leighton, PD King, H Rahnejat
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-25T06:57:51Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019844358
       
  • Running-in behaviour of thermal barrier coatings in the combustion chamber
           of a diesel engine
    • Authors: Anders Thibblin, Siamak Kianzad, Stefan Jonsson, Ulf Olofsson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-10T02:20:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019841173
       
  • Crashworthy structures for future vehicle architecture of autonomous pods
           and heavy quadricycles on public roads: A review
    • Authors: Andrew Harrison, Jesper Christensen, Christophe Bastien, Stratis Kanarachos
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-10T02:20:07Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019841195
       
  • Hybrid optimization and its applications for multi-mode plug-in hybrid
           electric vehicle
    • Authors: Yiran Zhang, Han Zhao, Kang Huang, Mingming Qiu, Lizhen Geng
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:56:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019837858
       
  • Experimental study on the effect of different components collocations on
           flow of automotive cooling fan
    • Authors: Suping Wen, Yuwei Hao, Zhixuan Zhang, Yifei Wang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:55:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019840959
       
  • From fundamental study to practical application of kerosene in compression
           ignition engines: An experimental and modeling review
    • Authors: Kun Lin Tay, Wenbin Yu, Feiyang Zhao, Wenming Yang
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:55:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019841218
       
  • A proposed driving cycle for brake emissions investigation for test stand
    • Authors: Guido Perricone, Mattia Alemani, Jens Wahlström, Ulf Olofsson
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:54:23Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019841222
       
  • Numerical investigation of marine diesel engine turbocharger compressor
           tonal noise
    • Authors: Chen Liu, Yipeng Cao, Yang Liu, Wenping Zhang, Pingjian Ming
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-08T11:53:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019841808
       
  • Numerical study on lubrication performance of engine main bearing with
           rough surface considering axial movement of crankshaft
    • Authors: Biao Li, Jun Sun, Shaoyu Zhu, Yangyang Fu, Enming Miao, Xiaoyong Zhao, Hu Wang, Qin Teng, Yanping Ren, Guixiang Zhu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T10:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019838415
       
  • A novel decision-making unit for automated maneuver of articulated
           vehicles in real traffic situations
    • Authors: Saeed Shojaei, Ali Rahmani Hanzaki, Shahram Azadi, Mohammad Amin Saeedi
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T10:51:45Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019838380
       
  • Application of Udwadia–Kalaba approach to semi-active suspension
           control of a heavy-duty truck
    • Authors: Kang Huang, Yuan-Jie Xian, Chen-Ming Li, Ming-Ming Qiu
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-04T10:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019836836
       
  • Particle number size distribution from direct-injection premixed
           combustion engine fueled with gasoline/diesel blends
    • Authors: Qiao Wang, Wanchen Sun, Liang Guo, Luyan Fan, Peng Cheng, Guoliang Li, Jiakun Du
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-02T09:20:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019838128
       
  • Comparing the recovery performance of different thermoelectric generator
           modules in an exhaust system of a diesel engine both experimentally and
           theoretically
    • Authors: Mehmet Akif Kunt, Haluk Gunes
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-04-01T09:51:59Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019837786
       
  • A recent review of hybrid automotive systems in Gulf Corporation Council
           region
    • Authors: Faisal O Mahroogi, Sunny Narayan
      First page: 3579
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-26T12:29:39Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019836055
       
  • Effects of vehicle front-end safety countermeasures on pedestrian head
           injury risk during ground impact
    • Authors: Liangliang Shi, Yong Han, Hongwu Huang, Wei He, Fang Wang, Bingyu Wang
      First page: 3588
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-08T10:21:33Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019828845
       
  • Turbulence modeling effects on the aerodynamic characterizations of a
           NASCAR Generation 6 racecar subject to yaw and pitch changes
    • Authors: Chen Fu, C Patrick Bounds, Christian Selent, Mesbah Uddin
      First page: 3600
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-11T05:47:53Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019826475
       
  • Experimental and simulation study of thermal accumulation in an enclosed
           vehicle
    • Authors: Sing Ngie David Chua, Boon Kean Chan, Soh Fong Lim
      First page: 3621
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-11T05:48:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019827691
       
  • Multi-objective optimization strategy of adaptive cruise control
           considering regenerative energy
    • Authors: Di Wu, Bo Zhu, Dongkui Tan, Nong Zhang, Jiaxin Gu
      First page: 3630
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-15T08:54:29Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019830200
       
  • Investigation of the power losses of the hybrid transmission DE-REX based
           on modeling and measurement
    • Authors: Ye Shen, Andreas Viehmann, Stephan Rinderknecht
      First page: 3646
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-19T06:53:38Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019829655
       
  • Method for determining gasoline surrogate component proportions and
           development of reduced chemical kinetics model of the determined surrogate
           fuel
    • Authors: Jun Kong, Yanxin Qin, Zhaolei Zheng
      First page: 3658
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-19T06:53:09Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019828852
       
  • Research and analysis of the wheeled vehicle load spectrum editing method
           based on short-time Fourier transform
    • Authors: Zongkai Liu, Chuan Peng, Xiaoqiang Yang
      First page: 3671
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-21T09:27:06Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019830205
       
  • Coupled analysis of the unsteady aerodynamics and multi-body dynamics of a
           small car overtaking a coach
    • Authors: Jun Liu, Zhengqi Gu, Taiming Huang, Shuya Li, Ledian Zheng, Kai Sun
      First page: 3684
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-23T07:29:35Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019831559
       
  • Estimation of feasible ranges of functional tire characteristics based on
           tire dimension, inflation pressure, and wheel load
    • Authors: Adrian Strigel, Ulrico Peckelsen, Hans-Joachim Unrau, Frank Gauterin
      First page: 3700
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-23T07:30:54Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019831575
       
  • Load spectrum for automotive wheels hub based on mixed probability
           distribution model
    • Authors: Shuanglong Geng, Xintian Liu, Xiaobing Yang, Zhengyun Meng, Xiaolan Wang, Yansong Wang
      First page: 3707
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-02-27T06:23:13Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019832433
       
  • The prediction of braking noise in regenerative braking system using
           closed-loop coupling disk brake model
    • Authors: Pu Gao, Jiageng Ruan, Yongchang Du, Paul D Walker, Nong Zhang
      First page: 3721
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T09:00:03Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019832766
       
  • Application of fuzzy inference system for analysis of oil field data to
           optimize combustion engine maintenance
    • Authors: David Vališ, Libor Žák, Zdenek Vintr
      First page: 3736
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-01T09:00:40Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019833521
       
  • Optimization design of heat dissipation structure of inserts supporting
           run-flat tire
    • Authors: Liguo Zang, Yizhang Cai, Baosheng Wang, Rongdong Yin, Fen Lin, Peng Hang
      First page: 3746
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-08T02:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019833562
       
  • Control-oriented modelling of three-way catalitic converter for
           fuel-to-air ratio regulation in spark ignited engines
    • Authors: Carlos Guardiola, Héctor Climent, Benjamín Pla, Marcelo Real
      First page: 3758
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T09:49:04Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019833822
       
  • Derivation of road noise improvement factor within a suspension system
           using the inverse substructuring method
    • Authors: Yeon June Kang, Jun Gu Kim, David P Song, Kang Duck Ih
      First page: 3775
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T09:48:25Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019835624
       
  • Refinement of the two-color pyrometry method for application in a direct
           injection diesel and natural gas compression-ignition engine
    • Authors: Mahdiar Khosravi, Patrick Kirchen
      First page: 3787
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T09:50:24Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019832774
       
  • Measurement of articulation angle by image template matching
    • Authors: Christopher de Saxe, David Cebon
      First page: 3801
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-11T09:49:44Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019833819
       
  • Detection of engine misfire using characteristic harmonics of angular
           acceleration
    • Authors: Qixin Song, Wenzhi Gao, Pan Zhang, Jiankang Liu, Ziqing Wei
      First page: 3816
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-13T11:52:42Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019834104
       
  • Active camber system for lateral stability improvement of urban vehicles
    • Authors: Mansour Ataei, Chen Tang, Amir Khajepour, Soo Jeon
      First page: 3824
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-18T11:50:17Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019832436
       
  • Safety considerations on teenage pedestrian–bus impact
    • Authors: Salvatore Golfo, Gabriele Virzì Mariotti, Filippo Carollo, Antonella Argo, Gabriele Barbaraci
      First page: 3839
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-21T10:07:46Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019835617
       
  • Creeping control strategy for Direct Shift Gearbox based on the
           investigation of temperature variation of the wet multi-plate clutch
    • Authors: Jianpeng Wu, Biao Ma, Heyan Li, Jikai Liu
      First page: 3857
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-21T10:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019836313
       
  • Dynamical analysis of B-train vehicle combination with liquid cargo
    • Authors: Nilson Barbieri, Rubem Penteado de Melo, Key Fonseca de Lima, Gabriel de Sant’Anna Vitor Barbieri
      First page: 3871
      Abstract: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, Ahead of Print.

      Citation: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering
      PubDate: 2019-03-21T10:10:57Z
      DOI: 10.1177/0954407019838127
       
 
 
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