- Issue Information
- Pages: 641 - 642
Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
- Rethinking Homophobia and Deviant Youth Masculinities: Constructing and
Interrogating Progress Toward Equality
- Authors: Amie Levesque
Pages: 643 - 651
Abstract: In this article, I examine the discourse of progress toward equality for gender and sexually deviant youths to show that overemphasizing progress decenters the lived experiences of these young people. A survey of masculinity theories like hegemonic masculinity, inclusive masculinity, and fag discourse illuminates divergent ways of thinking about progress as it relates to youth masculinities and social inequality. While young people may have more opportunities to explore meanings of gender and sexuality in schools or in the media, current scholarly debates complicate the presumptions that marginalized youths have reached full equality within these institutions. Cases of bullying based on gender presentation or sexual orientation appear in daily news feeds, and this phenomenon is supported by empirical data. Harder to detect are the less visible, emergent homophobias and microaggressions which must be considered when theorizing about masculinities and progress toward equality.
- Masculinities Through a Cross‐Disciplinary Lens: Lessons from
Sociology and Psychology
- Authors: Carla A. Pfeffer; Christabel L. Rogalin, Cari A. Gee
Pages: 652 - 672
Abstract: There are considerable (and growing) bodies of literature within sociology and psychology addressing the various ways in which masculinities are socially constructed and interactional, yet rarely are the two disciplines presented together. In this paper, we provide a selective integrated review of the literatures within psychology and sociology focusing on the social construction of masculinities. Rather than providing an exhaustive overview, this review places selected key sociological and psychological frameworks and empirical findings on masculinities in dialogue, providing insight into areas where scholars of masculinities may benefit from considering cross‐disciplinary incorporation of key findings within their scholarship.
- Masculinity and Sexual Violence: Assessing the State of the Field
- Authors: Anjuli Fahlberg; Mollie Pepper
Pages: 673 - 683
Abstract: Despite strong evidence that men perpetrate most acts of sexual violence, little is known about the factors that lead some men to commit such harmful acts. A growing body of feminist scholarship has begun to explore this question, although the disciplinary and geographic breadth of these studies has prevented the development of a cohesive research agenda. This literature review contributes to this task by reviewing the major theoretical contributions to the study of masculinity and sexual violence, detailing some of the ways in which sexual violence aids in the production of masculine individuals, groups, and states. Taken as a whole, we argue that this body of scholarship views sexual violence as a mechanism through which social constructions of masculinity are produced and reproduced, although the forms that this violence takes vary by context. We conclude with a discussion of some of the theoretical and empirical limitations of this research and consider the implications of these findings for public policy.
- Social Class and Political Engagement in the United States
- Authors: Daniel Laurison
Pages: 684 - 697
Abstract: The relationship between class and political engagement in the United States is well‐established: people with lower incomes, who have less education, or who work outside the professional and managerial occupations do less of all forms of political engagement. They vote less than better‐off people, are less likely to give money to candidates, pay less attention to politics, and contact their representatives less often than those with more resources. They are also less likely to believe they can influence political decisions or to feel entitled to participate in politics. This article reviews the dominant (individualist and institutionalist) approaches to explaining inequalities in political participation and highlights recent “relational” work that offers a more integrated perspective on political engagement and class position.
- Special Needs Under Siege: From Classrooms to Incarceration
- Authors: Charles Bell
Pages: 698 - 705
Abstract: Several research articles have documented the disproportionate representation of minorities in school discipline and incarceration settings. In the 2009–2010 school year, research shows nationally 17 percent of African‐American, 8 percent of Native American, and 7 percent Latino American students were suspended at least one time (Losen and Gillespie ). In addition, studies show African‐American and Latino males represent the largest percentage of inmates in correctional facilities (i.e. jails and prisons) throughout the United States (Sakala ). While research has documented the relationship between race and the school‐to‐prison pipeline, the relationship between race, intellectual and emotional disabilities, and the school‐to‐prison pipeline has been relatively unexplored. According to Losen and Gillespie (), 25 percent of Black students who were labeled with an intellectual or emotional disability were suspended from school in the 2009–2010 school year compared to 9 percent for White students diagnosed with an intellectual or emotional disability. Furthermore, data show 70 percent of juvenile inmates were diagnosed with learning disabilities and 33 percent were reading below a 4th grade level (Hubner and Wolfson ). The current review seeks to explore the complex relationship between disability, race, and the school‐to‐prison pipeline to highlight how minority students with special needs are placed on a trajectory towards settings of incarceration.
- Experiencing ‘Illegality’ as a Family? Immigration
Enforcement, Social Policies, and Discourses Targeting Mexican
- Authors: Cassaundra Rodriguez
Pages: 706 - 717
Abstract: Mexican mixed‐status families have been front and center in embroiled national debates about the place of undocumented immigrants and their citizen family members in this country. These families face unique obstacles, including possible family fragmentation caused by deportation, challenges to birthright citizenship, and they are often targeted by anti‐immigrant elected officials and political pundits that perpetuate a racialized discourse that casts even citizen children in these families as an abomination of US citizenship. Therefore, “illegality” may be a familial experience that can be endured by citizens and non‐citizens alike. Despite their unique vulnerabilities, researchers know very little about how mixed‐status families experience belonging in the country while managing possible tensions and inequalities shaped by immigration status. In this article, I review the research on punitive immigration enforcement and the scholarship on social policies and discourse targeting mixed‐status families. I conclude by reviewing new directions in sociological research and suggest avenues for research that may examine mixed‐status families' subjectivities, belonging, and negotiations of family relationships.
- Racial Identity Contestation: Mapping and Measuring Racial Boundaries
- Authors: Nicholas Vargas; Jared Kingsbury
Pages: 718 - 729
Abstract: Survey based research typically uses a single measure of racial self‐classification to study racial inequality and to make group based comparisons. Race, however, is multidimensional; experienced not only in accord with how one self‐identifies, but also in relation to how one is perceived racially by others. For example, an individual can self‐identify racially as Black, but be perceived by most others as non‐Black. We refer to this experience as racial identity contestation. We briefly review the growing set of literature on related topics, detail the divergent approaches to measuring racial identity contestation with survey data, and compare descriptive estimates of racial identity contestation across methodological approaches. Moreover, we seek to cull others into considering the analytic utility of racial identity contestation for research on racial boundaries. We argue that a focus on racial identity contestation can be leveraged as an analytical tool to better understand the topography of ongoing racial projects by mapping social definitions of who is and is not typically perceived as a member of a particular racial group.
- Parenting and Digital Media: From the Early Web to Contemporary Digital
- Authors: Deborah Lupton; Sarah Pedersen, Gareth M. Thomas
Pages: 730 - 743
Abstract: Parents have accessed websites, online discussion forums and blogs for advice, information and support since the early days of the World Wide Web. In this article, we review the literature in sociology and related social research addressing the ways in which digital media have been used for parenting‐related purposes. We begin with the longer‐established media of parenting websites, online discussion forums, blogs, email, mobile phones and message and video services and then move on to the newer technologies of social media and apps. This is followed by a section on data privacy and security issues. The concluding section summarises some major issues arising from the review and points to directions for further research.