- Issue Information
- Pages: 837 - 838
Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
- Criminology and war: where are we going and where have we been?
- Authors: Stephanie M. DiPietro
Pages: 839 - 848
Abstract: Although the metaphor of war (e.g., the war on terror, war on crime, war on drugs) figures prominently in contemporary criminological discourse, criminologists have generally lagged behind other disciplines in studying the reality of war and its implications for crime, punishment, and ideology. In this essay, I first consider potential reasons for criminology's limited role in studying war and make the case for why war warrants a more central place in criminological discourse. Subsequently, I trace some of criminology's early contributions to the study of war in two domains—(a) legal responses to war and (b) the link between war and crime—and reflect upon ways in which the discipline can both broaden its purview and draw from its own intellectual history to engage more critically with the subject of war.
- Citizenship as cultural: Towards a theory of cultural citizenship
- Authors: Jean Beaman
Pages: 849 - 857
Abstract: Traditional notions of citizenship have focused on formal membership, including access to rights, in a national community. More recent scholarship has expanded this definition beyond citizenship as a legal status to focus on struggles for societal inclusion of and justice for marginalized populations, citizenship as both a social and symbolic boundary of exclusion, and post-colonial and post-national citizenship. In this article, I review conceptions of citizenship that involve more than legal rights. After reviewing this scholarship, I discuss the theoretical framework of cultural citizenship – a move to center the cultural underpinnings of modern citizenship in analyses of citizenship as a boundary of inclusion and exclusion. I use the example of France as one site to locate the connections between citizenship and culture and the cultural underpinnings and implications of citizenship more broadly.
- Varieties of Entrepreneurial Capitalism: The Culture of Entrepreneurship
and Structural Inequalities of Work and Business Creation
- Authors: Sean Doody; Victor Tan Chen, Jesse Goldstein
Pages: 858 - 876
Abstract: As the labor market has changed over recent decades, a distinctive culture has evolved in tandem, epitomized by the innovation and dynamism of Silicon Valley. This culture of entrepreneurship celebrates autonomy and risk-taking, legitimizes a shift toward flexible, contingent, and precarious work, and compels workers to continuously network, self-improve, and self-promote. This culture has helped to disseminate entrepreneurial practices to sectors of the economy traditionally characterized by stability and job security. We shed light on these changes by putting forward a new typology distinguishing between four ideal types of entrepreneurial activity: Silicon Valley entrepreneurship, Main Street entrepreneurship, corporate entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurial self-employment. Each adopts the language and normative behaviors of the culture of entrepreneurship, but the ‘entrepreneurs’ working within these domains enjoy starkly different levels of creative and financial autonomy. Integrating scholarship on economic sociology, work and labor, cultural sociology, and critical theory, we explore the underlying dynamics of entrepreneurship that cut across institutional contexts in unexpected and sometimes contradictory ways. The conceptual understanding of entrepreneurship we put forward recognizes both entrepreneurship's relationship to past forms of business creation and its contemporary cultural influence, while also underscoring the various constraints and inequalities intrinsic to these forms of market activity.
- The political consequences of contemporary immigration
- Authors: Maureen A. Eger; Andrea Bohman
Pages: 877 - 892
Abstract: This article synthesizes research on political outcomes associated with increasing immigration, with an emphasis on cross-national studies of European countries, where immigration is a relatively newer phenomenon compared to the United States and other traditional immigrant destinations. We begin with explanations of and research on anti-immigrant sentiment, not a political phenomenon in itself but considered an important precursor to other relevant political attitudes. Next, we review scholarship on the relationship between immigration and support for the welfare state, as well as exclusionary attitudes regarding immigrants' rights to welfare benefits. Then, we review research on immigration and political party preferences, in particular radical right parties, whose platforms often combine anti-immigration and welfare chauvinistic positions. We conclude by discussing how these processes may ultimately shape social policies, which may in turn influence immigration itself.
- The rising importance of local government in the United States: Recent
research and challenges for sociology
- Authors: Linda Lobao
Pages: 893 - 905
Abstract: Local governments have gained increasing responsibilities for public well-being according to a variety of social science literatures. The rise of the local state is often seen as a part of a broader process of state-rescaling or downward shift in national governance under neoliberal development. Yet attention to local government lags in political sociology, which conventionally elevates the national federal state as its object of interest. I summarize four recent bodies of literature that address the new role of local governments. Taken together, these literatures speak to different sides of the debate about whether the rise of local government is detrimental to citizens' well-being. I explain how greater sociological attention to the local state can contribute to this debate as well as inform political sociologists' understanding of the U.S. nation-state itself and provide directions for future research.
- Grow Old With Me! Future Directions of Race, Age, and Place Scholarship
- Authors: Mary E. Byrnes
Pages: 906 - 917
Abstract: This article reviews current theories of age and place to demonstrate a more inclusive perspective in sociology that considers race, age, and place. Scholars who study age have advanced our knowledge about what place means to old people or how environment operates in an oppressive way to aged bodies. Likewise, race scholars have advanced our knowledge about the ways oppression and White supremacy are rooted in place. Yet the two bodies of literature do not inform one another, and there are potentially dangerous gaps in our knowledge that contribute to oppression. The result is age scholarship about environment that lacks a critical race perspective and race scholarship on place that ignores the oppressive conditions of age. By reviewing these pieces, I argue that scholars must inform themselves of the ways in which we overlook important analyses and may potentially contribute to our own ageism.
- On the Job: White Employers, Workers of Color, and Racial Triangulation
- Authors: Adrian Cruz
Pages: 918 - 927
Abstract: This article offers that Claire Jean Kim's theory of racial triangulation provides an ideal framework to study workers of color, the racialization of their labor and the ways in which actual and potential employers neglect and discriminate against these workers. Specifically, the piece determines that racial triangulation theory bolsters analysis of race-based power that employers exert in the construction and maintenance of racial inequality in regard to management of labor and employment possibilities for workers of color. A triangulated approach allows for a sharp focus on employer engineered labor market inequality as they oversee, hire, and refuse to be racially inclusive in hiring practices. Most significantly, racial triangulation theory addresses the forces of racial inequity within the meso-level of U.S. social structure when applied to study of organizational dynamics such as workplaces. I open the article by assaying historical and contemporary studies on workers of color to illustrate white employer domination and the ways in which workers of color are referenced to each other as inferior and superior workers. Subsequently, the article looks to fresh analytical directions in which sociologists can evaluate racism as a triangulated, multidimensional social force in the workplace and other social contexts.
- Racist humor: then and now
- Authors: Raúl Pérez
Pages: 928 - 938
Abstract: While recent scholarship has examined the capacity of race-based humor to “upend” racial inequalities, or has focused on comedic “heroes” who use humor “subversively” to challenge racism, less attention has been paid to the evolution of racist humor and its continued role in supporting dominant racial ideologies. This article reviews key works on the historical and current functions of racist humor in the United States, in order to situate racist humor as a social practice that has contributed to the development, maintenance, and contestation of an ideology of white supremacy. First, I review the historical role of racist humor in supporting pro-slavery ideology, in order to see that racist humor played a critical role in racial formation and domination. I focus on literature that examines the way racial ridicule operated in the pre-civil rights era (e.g., blackface) and the way such race-based comedy was used as a cultural form of racialization that supported the development of an ideology of white supremacy throughout this period. Then, I point to how the widespread use of racist humor of the pre-civil rights era was challenged by the civil rights movement, and how this changed the ways in which racist humor was perceived/operated, in public and private, in the post-civil rights era. Finally, I conclude by suggesting some areas where an examination of racist humor is in need of critical attention and analysis in the current era of “color-blindness.”
- Boundaries and barriers: Racialized dynamics of political power
- Authors: Michael L. Rosino
Pages: 939 - 951
Abstract: Recent sociological works establish the significance and role of the state and political sphere in the enactment of racial oppression and construction of racial categories. However, less understood are the racialized dynamics that mediate exclusion and access to political power, particularly at the meso- and micro-levels. Synthesizing extant theory and research on racial inequality, the state, politics, and power, this article advances a framework centering on boundaries and barriers. First, it discusses the relationship between the state and political sphere, political power, and racial inequality. Next, it explores the literature on the deployment and contestation of racialized boundaries to the symbolic and material benefits of the state. It then examines the literature on racialized barriers to engagement, participation, and influence in the political sphere. The article concludes by suggesting future research in the related areas of agenda-setting and influence and the microdynamics of political power.
- Neoliberalism and Health: The Linkages and the Dangers
- Authors: Ted Schrecker
Pages: 952 - 971
Abstract: A recent book addresses the health effects of neoliberalism using the provocative rubric of ‘neoliberal epidemics’. This article reviews literature on the health effects of neoliberalism starting with the structural adjustment conditionalities mandated by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. It continues with an analysis of how neoliberalism increases economic insecurity and inequality, and the effects on health, with a section specific to the health impacts of austerity measures undertaken after the financial crisis that began in 2007. The next section considers contemporary trade policy as an embodiment of neoliberal ideology, and reviews current and anticipated health effects. The article concludes with a brief examination of two paradoxes that are evident in the research literature on neoliberalism and health.
- What is Trust? A Multidisciplinary Review, Critique, and Synthesis
- Authors: Blaine G. Robbins
Pages: 972 - 986
Abstract: Despite decades of interdisciplinary research on trust, the literature remains fragmented and balkanized with little consensus regarding its origins. This review documents how this came to be and attempts to offer a solution. Specifically, it evaluates issues of conceptualization found in the trust literature. I recommend that we move away from varieties of trust – multidimensional conceptualizations of trust – and toward a single trust concept built around four essential properties: actor A's beliefs, actor B's trustworthiness, the matter(s) at hand, and unknown outcomes. I finish the article by proposing a synthetic structural-cognitive theoretical framework for investigating the causes and consequences of trust in everyday life.