Authors:Adam Rafalovich Pages: 343 - 354 Abstract: Sociology has problematized the expanding province of medicine for several decades, and it is important to clarify some of the central questions regarding the medicalization question for those new to this subset of the discipline. With a primary focus on the diagnosis of attention deficit‐hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this paper seeks to accomplish four goals. First, this paper will summarize the general concept of medicalization, including the way that medical practitioners attribute children’s behavioral problems to disease entities. Second, this paper argues that the medicalization of childhood and the rise of the disease entity of ADHD stems from the transformation of children and childhood into objects of scientific study. Third, using the example of ADHD, this paper will attempt to demystify the premise that medicalization emanates from the “monolith” of medicine, but is instead, a process rife with internal contradiction and epistemological disagreement. Fourth, following the uncertainty of etiological positions toward childhood behavior problems, this paper will discuss some of the external critiques of medicalization, including the way that lay actors push back against the medicalization process, and concerns about the effectiveness of technologies used to diagnose and treat ADHD. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12034
Authors:Aleit Veenstra; Giselinde Kuipers Pages: 355 - 365 Abstract: This article reviews consumption practices concerning vintage, a fashion style based on used or retro‐style garments. Existing studies connect vintage with authenticity, nostalgia and identity. We explore how the vintage style deploys and comments on consumer culture, bypassing producers by wearing old garments to communicate ‘authentic’ identities. We argue that existing theories on consumption, fashion and subculture cannot fully explain vintage practices. Bypassing the dichotomies and one‐dimensional explanations of these theories, we show that vintage, with its ambivalent relation to both subcultural distinction practices and mainstream consumer culture, serves as a prism through which to examine and understand the complexities and subtleties of 21st century consumption practices. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12033
Authors:Jan Pakulski Pages: 366 - 376 Abstract: Political sociology suggests two inter‐related leadership trends in advanced democracies: the increasing prominence of political leaders, and the waning influence of political parties, especially the ideological‐programmatic ‘mass parties’ or Volksparteien. These trends intensified and reinforced each other over the last 30–40 years resulting in a rapidly changing physiognomy of contemporary democracy. Democratic politics becomes more elite driven, mass‐mediated and populist in style than in the past. Moreover, the power and elite structures in advanced democracies, as well as the electoral competition, increasingly resemble what Weber labelled ‘leader democracy’. The shift towards ‘leader democracy’ has coincided with the processes of party‐voter dealignment and decline of political parties, the rise of the electronic mass media, and the ascendancy of powerful leaders–reformers in the ‘core’ liberal democracies. The sociological argument about the shift is anchored in a theoretical framework derived from works of Max Weber and Joseph Schumpeter. It depicts democratic political leaders as key political actors embedded in broader elites, motivated by determination and commitment, and empowered by the resources of modern states and the mass media. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12035
Authors:Lisa K. Waldner; Betty A. Dobratz Pages: 377 - 389 Abstract: Graffiti is a popular topic in the sociological, criminological, and linguistic literature with several book length treatments of various types of graffiti including tagging, gang graffiti, murals, and “bombings”. Yet, political sociologists have paid little attention to the role of graffiti as a form of contentious politics despite the often political nature of graffiti messages. As a result, most of the political research on graffiti is by non‐sociologists. We believe this is an oversight and that both political sociologists and social movement scholars need to seriously consider this form of micro‐level political participation. In this review we (1) demonstrate why some forms of graffiti should be considered a serious form of political participation; (2) compare and contrast graffiti to other forms of resistance including squatting and culture jamming; (3) review research findings on graffiti; and (4) discuss some of the conceptual and methodological challenges for doing graffiti research. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12036
Authors:Clara E. Rodríguez; Michael H. Miyawaki, Grigoris Argeros Pages: 390 - 403 Abstract: This review focuses on how Latinos report their race. This is an area that has recently experienced a major surge of interest in both government and academic circles. This review of the literature examines how and why Latinos report their race on the census, in surveys and in more qualitative studies. It reviews the vibrant and growing scholarly literature relevant to the questions of the placement – by self or others – of Latinos along the US color line, what determines it and how the Census has coped and is coping with it. We begin with a brief review of the history of Latino classification in the census and then discuss the factors influencing racial reporting. These include national origin and skin color, acculturation and generational status, socioeconomic status, perceived discrimination and identification with others who have experienced actual discrimination, location, and question format. We end with a discussion of the implications of the recent 2010 Alternative Questionnaire Experiment conducted by the census, and conclude with suggestions for future research. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12032
Authors:Sheryl Skaggs; Jennifer Bridges Pages: 404 - 415 Abstract: In this article, we outline the evidence demonstrating the pervasiveness of sex and race/ethnic workplace discrimination, paying particular attention to the areas of hiring, compensation, and evaluations and promotions. Key sociological explanations for why and how these forms of employment discrimination occur are also examined. Although discrimination is often considered as discrete acts that occur within employment arrangements, the existing research suggests the presence of an underlying set of processes and choices that accumulate over time. These processes have clear implications for how discrimination is understood and the ways in which such events compound over career trajectories. Based on our examination of this literature, we suggest areas for improved theorizing, measurement, and analysis. PubDate: 2013-04-17T22:38:57.540924-05: DOI: 10.1111/soc4.12037
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