- Issue Information
- Pages: 417 - 418
Abstract: No abstract is available for this article.
- Conceptualizing Journalistic Careers: Between Interpretive Community and
Tribes of Professionalism
- Authors: Oren Meyers; Roei Davidson
Pages: 419 - 431
Abstract: Professionalism is a concept that centers on specialization of labor and control of occupational practice. It has traditionally been used to describe and define individuals who are affiliated with an occupational community that has managed to secure a certain measure of autonomy and jurisdiction over an area of expertise and has a claim to a public service ethos. In this review essay, we consider the changing professional status of journalism. Whether or not journalism is “truly” a profession, it is clear that a discourse of journalistic professionalism plays a crucial role in legitimizing the journalistic occupation. Consequently, this essay explores different approaches towards the professionalization of journalism and positions this discussion within two interrelated contexts: first, it investigates the ramifications of the current crisis in western news media on journalistic professionalism. Next, the essay probes the professional standing of journalism in view of the development of new digital technologies that are re‐shaping essential aspects of journalistic work. We conclude that journalism has lost some of its cohesion and fragmented into tribes of professionalism practiced by a diverse set of actors.
- Defining Women's Global Political Empowerment: Theories and Evidence
- Authors: Amy C. Alexander; Catherine Bolzendahl, Farida Jalalzai
Pages: 432 - 441
Abstract: Although women's access to political power has increased tremendously, nowhere are women equal to men in their influence over and exercise of political authority. Scholarship on women's political empowerment is uneven and incomplete. This article interrogates ‘women's political empowerment’, considering its definition, measurement, and application. First, we establish that academics and practitioners have not articulated a clear definition of women's political empowerment. To fill this gap, we put forward a new definition that conceptualizes women's political empowerment as a transformative process. We then review existing social science literature on women's political empowerment. We argue that scholars must expand research to develop a broader vision of women's political empowerment and develop measures that capture this breadth.
- Varieties of Field Theory and the Sociology of the Non‐profit Sector
- Authors: Emily Barman
Pages: 442 - 458
Abstract: This paper reviews the use of field theory in the sociological study of the non‐profit sector. The review first shows how field theory, as a conceptual framework to explain social action, provides a valuable sociological counterweight to prevailing economic and psychological orientations in the interdisciplinary scholarship on the non‐profit sector. However, despite its certain shared assumptions, field theory in sociology encompasses three distinct, albeit interrelated, approaches: the Bourdieusian, New Institutionalist, and Strategic Action Fields perspectives. I comparatively outline the key analytical assumptions and causal claims of each version of field theory, whether and how it recognizes the specificity of the non‐profit sector and then delineate its application by sociologists to the non‐profit sector. I show how scholars' employment of each articulation of field theory to study non‐profit activity has been influenced by pre‐existing scholarly assumptions and normative claims about this third space. The article concludes by summarizing the use of these varieties of field theory in the sociology of the non‐profit sector and by identifying future directions in this line of research.
- The Impact of Anti‐Gay Politics on the LGBTQ Movement
- Authors: Amy L. Stone
Pages: 459 - 467
Abstract: Since the late 1970s, the Religious Right has mobilized to oppose the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) movement in the United States. Sociologists have studied the relationship between these two movements as a classic movement‐countermovement dynamic, in which the strategies, actions, and framing of one movement impact the other. I analyze the way Religious Right reactive and proactive opposition to gay rights has affected the LGBTQ movement. First, I provide an overview of the literature on the negative impacts of the Religious Right, including the diversion of movement goals, transformation of frames, and marginalization of queer politics. Second, I examine the way Religious Right activism may increase mobilization.
- Resisting Assimilation and Other Forms of Integration
- Authors: Jesus A. Garcia
Pages: 468 - 476
Abstract: This paper discusses a de‐centered and critical examination of race‐relations cycle theory and studies. This assessment of minority integration argues that theorists and researchers continue to estimate the degree of individual and group assimilation in terms of unidirectional conclusions established by the canons of assimilation. From these foundations and into 21st century studies, immigrant and native‐born minority integration are still primarily contextualized as unidirectional despite the reality of modern diversity and the lack of full assimilation among native‐born non‐White minorities. Thus, new subcultural descriptions and discussions for contemporary process of social integration should be developed and grounded in the contemporary empirical experiences of minorities.
- Rethinking Activism and Expertise within Environmental Health Conflicts
- Authors: Florencia Arancibia
Pages: 477 - 490
Abstract: This review presents the contributions of research on the intersection of science and social movements, its theoretical and methodological limitations, and potential solutions for its further development. Three different types of relationships between activism and knowledge have been identified within environmental health conflicts: (i) lay – activists requesting help from sympathetic scientists in order to conduct independent studies; (ii) expert – activists promoting new research agendas and sub‐fields within established scientific disciplines; and (iii) expert – activists acting beyond the limits of the academic community and partnering with social movements. In this review, I argue that much of the existing literature considers expertise as “something” possessed by individuals, and heavily emphasizes the difference between “lay” and “expert” activists. This entails two main theoretical reductionisms: (i) reification of knowledge; and (ii) overlooking the contribution of activism to expertise and vice versa. I propose considering expertise as the property of a network and focusing future research within environmental health conflicts on the co‐emergence and construction of a network of expertise (Eyal 2013) or ethno‐epistemic assemblage (Irwin & Michael 2003) and social movements. Through this symmetrical network approach, we will be able to develop a more consistent theory of the co‐production of activism and expertise, as well as its political implication to fight environmental health injustice.
- Beyond Individualised Approaches to Diabetes Type 2
- Authors: Claire R. Williams; Barbara Buttfield
Pages: 491 - 505
Abstract: Explanations for type 2 diabetes are broadened beyond the individual body and ‘bad lifestyles’ to include major institutions, the social and material contexts of food and eating, and employment. Precarious employment, a social determinant of health, encourages changes to food practices, lowers working conditions, worsens health, can bring poverty and increases shift work, a causal risk factor for diabetes. Scientists have played a part in revolutionising foods and technologies which minimise labour and movement. There are excess additives in processed food. Genetic explanations for the higher rates of diabetes in First Nations peoples give way to social explanations: colonial history, British/Euro‐American cuisine, food insecurity, trauma and social conditions resulting in chronic stress. Self‐management education takes a ‘nutritionist’ approach towards food and eating and tends to minimise the social context and skills of those with the condition particularly women workers in poorer social groups who have higher rates of diabetes (T2DM).
- An Assortative Adoption Marketplace: Foster Care, Domestic, and
- Authors: Elizabeth Raleigh
Pages: 506 - 517
Abstract: Among sociologists of the family, there has been relatively little attention paid to child adoption. When it is mentioned, many characterize the process as a universal family form. The goal of this review is to complicate this subject by disaggregating adoption into three different market segments: foster care, domestic, and transnational. Specifically, the paper argues that adoption is an assortative process that stratifies parents and children. Of the members of the adoption triad (e.g. the birthmother, adoptive parent(s), and adopted child), prospective adoptive parents possess the greatest degree of choice when deciding which market segment to pursue. However, their options are often tempered by strict eligibility requirements and financial restraints. Drawing broadly on the extant sociological and child welfare literature, the bulk of the review is devoted to identifying and analyzing how these social forces funnel parents and children into forever families. I pay particular attention to the demographic profiles of children and adoptive parents, including how transracial adoption factors into foster care, domestic, and intercountry adoptions.
- Wealth Inequality: Historical Trends and Cross‐National Differences
- Authors: Basak Kus
Pages: 518 - 529
Abstract: This article provides an overview of the recent literature on wealth inequality from a comparative and historical perspective. I first discuss how the stock, composition, and distribution of wealth changed from the 18th century onwards. In the second part of the paper, I move on to the causal questions: What factors drive wealth inequality? Why does the distribution of wealth vary across nations? In the third and concluding section I briefly discuss the socio‐political challenges posed by increasing wealth inequality, and identify several key questions for research going forward.
- Teaching & Learning Guide for: An Assortative Adoption Marketplace:
Foster Care, Domestic, and Transnational Adoptions
- Authors: Elizabeth Raleigh
Pages: 530 - 536