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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 2255 journals)
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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (189 journals)                     

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AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 28)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 52)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 10)
Chemical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Product and Process Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 142)
Chemical Society Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 162)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Aided Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Corrosion Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eksergi     Open Access  
Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fluorescent Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Powder Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Heat Exchangers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Hungarian Journal of Industry and Chemistry     Open Access  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Industrial Chemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Gases     Open Access  
Info Chimie Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 111)
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of CO2 Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Information Display     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Organic Semiconductors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Polymer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 267)
Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Pakistan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Reaktor     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Main Group Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Materials Science and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access  
Molecular Imprinting     Open Access  
Nanocontainers     Open Access  
Nanofabrication     Open Access  
Noise Control Engineering Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Petroleum Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Processes and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Plasmas and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 118)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polyolefins Journal     Open Access  
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Recyclable Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research on Chemical Intermediates     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews in Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista Colombiana de Ciencias Químico-Farmacéuticas     Open Access  
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access  
Rubber Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Russian Chemical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Solid Fuel Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
The Chemical Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B : A Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)

           

Journal Cover Geochemistry International
  [SJR: 0.399]   [H-I: 18]   [2 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1556-1968 - ISSN (Online) 0016-7029
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements in serpentinites of
           the oceanic lithosphere as an insight into the magmatic and crustal
           evolution of mantle peridotites
    • Authors: S. A. Silantyev; I. V. Kubrakova; O. A. Tyutyunnik
      Pages: 1019 - 1034
      Abstract: The paper reports result of comparative analysis of the distribution of siderophile (Au, Pt, Pd, Co, Ni, and Cr) and chalcophile (Ag, Cd, Sb, Pb, Zn, Cu, As, and S) elements in ultramafic rock samples of various types of abyssal peridotites. One of the objectives of this research was to obtain reference estimates for the concentrations of siderophile and chalcophile elements in the two end members defining the geochemical evolutionary trends of the material of the suboceanic mantle: a sample of insignificantly depleted mantle material (spinel lherzolite) and extensively carbonated serpentinite after harzburgite, which was formed at the “endpoint” of the ascent of mantle material to the seafloor surface. The distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements is proved to record information on the whole compositional evolution of abyssal peridotites corresponding to the trajectory of their exhumation from mantle depth levels to seafloor outcrops. These data indicate that the bulk-rock compositional parameters of abyssal peridotites can be utilized to estimate the contribution of magmatic and hydrothermal process to the distribution of siderophile and chalcophile elements.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916120107
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 12 (2016)
       
  • Composition and conditions of crystallization of zircon from the
           rare-metal ores of the Gremyakha–Vyrmes Massif, Kola Peninsula
    • Authors: N. V. Sorokhtina; L. N. Kogarko; A. K. Shpachenko; V. G. Senin
      Pages: 1035 - 1048
      Abstract: The first data on the composition and inner structure of zircon, one of the main ore minerals of the rare-metal metasomatites of the Gremyakha–Vyrmes alkaline-ultramafic massif, are reported. Early zircon generations are enriched in Y and REE and contain numerous inclusions of rock-forming and accessory minerals of metasomatites, as well as syngenetic fluid inclusions of calcite, thorite and thorianite. Late generations differ in the elevated Hf content and contain no inclusions. The elevated concentrations of Ca and Th in the central zones of crystals are related to the presence of numerous micron-sized inclusions of calcite and thorium phases. All zircon varieties have extremely low U and Pb contents. Concentrations and distribution patterns of incompatible and rare-earth elements in zircon from the metasomatites of the Gremyakha–Vyrmes Massif are similar to those of syenite pegmatites and magmatic carbonatites around the world. Mineral from these associations shows a positive Ce anomaly and elevated HREE contents. According to the compositions of zircon and thorite inclusion in it and experimental data on the simultaneous synthesis of these minerals, the crystallization temperature of zircon was 700–750°С. Using Ti-in-zircon temperature dependence, late zurcon was formed at temperature of 700–750°С. The rare-metal metasomatites are formed at the final stages of the massif formation, presumably after foidolites. Carbonatites could initiate metasomatic reworking of foidolites and accumulation of trace metals in them. The evolution of the primary alkaline–ultramafic melt toward the enrichment in trace elements was mainly controlled by crystallization differentiation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916120119
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 12 (2016)
       
  • Quantitative parameters of Pleistocene pelagic sedimentation in the
           Atlantic Ocean
    • Authors: M. A. Levitan; T. N. Gel’vi
      Pages: 1049 - 1060
      Abstract: Lithological–facies maps of Eopleistocene and Neopleistocene sediments (with 10 and 20 m isopachs) are compiled for the pelagic part of the Atlantic Ocean based on materials recovered by 283 ocean drilling sites. Data for both maps were calculated using A.B. Ronov’s volumetric method. The calculated results include such quantitative sedimentation parameters of major sediment types as the areas covered by these sediments, their volumes, masses of the dry sedimentary material, and masses of sedimentary material deposited per specified time unit. These parameters are compared for both Eopleistocene and Neopleistocene time, and the data are utilized to separately interpret the results for terrigenous, carbonate, and siliceous sediments. The supply of terrigenous material is proved to have been enhanced in the Pleistocene as a result of both tectonic uplift of continents and climatic changes, including intensification of continental glaciation at high latitudes in both hemispheres. The growth in the productivity of carbonate plankton was overridden by growing generation of bottom and deep water masses and ensuing intensification of the dissolution of pelagic carbonates. The productivity of siliceous plankton practically did not change, perhaps, because of a favorable combination of the supply of dissolved silica and other nutrients from both West and East Antarctica.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916120089
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 12 (2016)
       
  • Distribution of REE, Y, Sc, and Th in the unique complex rare-metal ores
           of the Tomtor deposit
    • Authors: A. V. Lapin; A. V. Tolstov; I. M. Kulikova
      Pages: 1061 - 1078
      Abstract: The REE (Ln), Y, Sc, and Th distribution in the unique complex rare-metal ores of the Tomtor deposit is considered. Significant variability of these components and REE composition is revealed. Ore blocks with elevated Y and HREE contents are identified among prevailing LREE-enriched ores. It is established that the REE variations in the ores are correlated with evolution of REE carriers during epigenetic transformations of the carbonatite weathering products, in particular, with a replacement of Ce-bearing minerals (monazite and florencite) by Y-bearing mineral, xenotime. It is found that LREE and HREE exhibit different behavior during formation of the Tomtor ores, which is expressed in the inert behavior and residual accumulation of Ce-group REE at essential introduction of Y, HREE, Sc, and Th during epigenetic transformation of weathering products of carbonatites, which represent one of the main factors of the formation of the unique rare-metal ores of the Tomtor deposit.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916120065
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 12 (2016)
       
  • Character of spatiotemporal variations in the chemical composition of lake
           water under the influence of emission from copper–nickel plants:
           Prediction of acidification
    • Authors: N. A. Gashkina; T. I. Moiseenko
      Pages: 1079 - 1093
      Abstract: In this paper, we analyze the influence of variations in the emission of sulfur dioxide and solid substances by the Pechenganikel and Severonikel copper–nickel plants in Murmansk oblast on the chemical composition of lake water and development of acidification. The dynamics of ~100 lakes examined in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2009 and response of the chemical composition of the lake waters on the impact of acidifying substances was explored depending on the magnitude of load (distance from the plants), geologically controlled vulnerability of the lake catchments to acid precipitation, and the size of the lakes. Possible further changes in the sulfate concentration and pH values of lake waters were estimated for scenarios assuming an increase or a decrease in sulfur dioxide emission from the plants. It was shown that, in the zone of maximum and high load, a 20% change in sulfur dioxide emission will result in a mean change in sulfate concentration of ±8 μeq/L (which is comparable with the regional background) and a change in pH value of ±0.1 in acid-sensitive lakes and will have almost no effect on these parameters in lakes insensitive to acid precipitation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s001670291612003x
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 12 (2016)
       
  • Processes of the development of the molecular world at early stages of its
           formation: Evidence from the investigation of the behavior of the
           vibrational entropy of molecules
    • Authors: V. I. Baranov; L. A. Gribov; I. V. Mikhailov
      Pages: 929 - 935
      Abstract: We analyzed the possibility of explaining empirical relations in the evolution of the molecular world on the basis of fundamental physical laws and theories of the behavior of the entropy of a system. Quantitative expressions were evaluated describing the entropy of internal motion of atoms in a molecular ensemble (vibrational entropy), which is a term of total entropy with a clear physical meaning. It was shown that vibrational entropy is controlled primarily by the structure of the compound rather than the number and identity of atoms in the molecule. During the early stages of evolution, the appearance of acyclic structures is more advantageous than that of cyclic structures. An increase in the complexity of the molecular world inevitably leads to the appearance of molecules with a complex skeleton formed mainly by bonds of the same elasticity as C–C. The necessity of helical structures, whose spatial elasticity is provided by hydrogen bonds, was explained.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916110021
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Magmatic evolution of the material of the Earth’s lower mantle:
           Stishovite paradox and origin of superdeep diamonds (Experiments at
           24–26 GPa)
    • Authors: Yu. A. Litvin; A. V. Spivak; L. S. Dubrovinsky
      Pages: 936 - 947
      Abstract: The ultrabasic–basic magmatic evolution of the lower mantle material includes important physicochemical phenomena, such as the stishovite paradox and the genesis of superdeep diamonds. Stishovite SiO2 and periclase–wüstite solid solutions, (MgO · FeO)ss, associate paradoxically in primary inclusions of superdeep lower mantle diamonds. Under the conditions of the Earth’s crust and upper mantle, such oxide assemblages are chemically impossible (forbidden), because the oxides MgO and FeO and SiO2 react to produce intermediate silicate compounds, enstatite and ferrosilite. Experimental and physicochemical investigations of melting phase relations in the MgO–FeO–SiO2–CaSiO3 system at 24 GPa revealed a peritectic mechanism of the stishovite paradox, (Mg, Fe)SiO3 (bridgmanite) + L = SiO2 + (Mg, Fe)O during the ultrabasic–basic magmatic evolution of the primitive oxide–silicate lower mantle material. Experiments at 26 GPa with oxide–silicate–carbonate–carbon melts, parental for diamonds and primary inclusions in them, demonstrated the equilibrium formation of superdeep diamonds in association with ultrabasic, (Mg, Fe)SiO3 (bridgmanite) + (MgO · FeO)ss (ferropericlase), and basic minerals, (FeO · MgO)ss (magnesiowüstite) + SiO2 (stishovite). This leads to the conclusion that a peritectic mechanism, similar to that responsible for the stishovite paradox in the pristine lower mantle material, operates also in the parental media of superdeep diamonds. Thus, this mechanism promotes both the ultrabasic–basic evolution of primitive oxide–silicate magmas in the lower mantle and oxide–silicate–carbonate melts parental for superdeep diamonds and their paradoxical primary inclusions.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090032
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Carbon isotopic composition of diamonds in Ukraine and their probable
           polygenetic nature
    • Authors: V. N. Kvasnitsa; V. I. Silaev; I. V. Smoleva
      Pages: 948 - 963
      Abstract: The paper presents newly obtained data on the mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of Ukrainian endogenic and supergenic diamonds, including pioneering data on the carbon isotopic composition of individual diamond crystals. The endogenic diamonds occur as euhedral microcrystals (their morphology varies from octahedral to rhombododecahedral and cubic) with broadly varying concentrations of the structural nitrogen admixture and with mostly low aggregation of nitrogen centers. According to their carbon isotopic composition, Ukrainian diamonds range from kimberlitic–lamproitic to metamorphic and even carbonado-like, i.e., are polygenetic. Our data confirm the earlier conclusion that the supergenic diamonds are of impact genesis.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090020
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Olivine-bearing rocks of the Lapland granulite belt (Baltic Shield)
    • Authors: E. N. Terekhov; T. F. Shcherbakova; A. N. Konilov
      Pages: 964 - 978
      Abstract: Olivine-bearing varieties of garnet–clinopyroxene crystalline schists of the Lapland granulite belt have been studied in detail for the first time. Two types of olivine (iron mole fractions of 27 and 38%) are distinguished. Olivine with lower Fe content occurs as inclusions in clino- and orthopyroxene and in terms of СаО and Cr contents is close to magmatic minerals. Olivine with high Fe content presumably suffered highand moderate-temperature metamorphism. The olivine-bearing rocks contain several grains of omphacite with 30–37 mol % jadeite and garnet with 44–50 mol % pyrope, which can be regarded as relict assemblages of the early stage of eclogitization of a magmatic protolith. The presence of symplectites indicates their retrograde transformation during decompression. The protoliths of the studied rocks could be olivine gabbronorites and pyroxenites. It was found that the rocks contain high-alumina minerals: corundum, spinel, and sapphirine. In addition, Al2O3 content in some amphibole grains is as high as 19 wt %. This indicates that the ascent of the deep-seated rocks was accompanied by interaction with Al-rich fluid. The positive Eu anomaly in the olivine-bearing rocks and some of their minerals is indicative of the reducing character of fluid. Activation of fluid reworking leading to the formation and transformation of the olivine-bearing rocks, transfer of alumina and its precipitation at different depths are related to the processes at the base of the Paleoproterozoic rift system of Karelides.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s001670291609010x
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Gold transport during magmatic degassing: Model experiments
    • Authors: K. I. Shmulovich; P. G. Bukhtiyarov; E. S. Persikov
      Pages: 979 - 988
      Abstract: Interaction of metallic gold with (Na, K)Cl salt melts was investigated by the weight-loss method at 700–1000°C using silica glass ampoules. Interaction was not detected in hermetic evacuated ampoules over the whole temperature interval and even after the addition of 5 wt % Na2SO4 as a possible oxidizer to the salt. Gold solubility increased sharply in open ampoules, but this was accompanied by the evaporation of salt melt and, possibly, AuCl x . The limiting gold solubility in the salt melt at 860°C was estimated as 1 wt % or 10000 ppm. The model of gold transport in a gas phase during magmatic degassing invokes shallow gold extraction by salt melt, melt evaporation, and removal of precipitated metallic particles by the gas phase.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090093
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • The relative role of lower and upper crustal processes in the formation of
           trace element compositions of oils
    • Authors: M. V. Rodkin; D. V. Rundkvist; S. A. Punanova
      Pages: 989 - 995
      Abstract: This study presents the analysis of correlation between trace element compositions of caustobioliths (oils, coals, oil and black shales), upper and lower continental crust, and living matter. It was shown that trace element concentrations in coals and oil shales have the better correlation with the upper crustal values, whereas trace elements in oils correlate well with the lower crustal values. The statistically significant, yet poorer correlation was observed for trace element compositions of oils and living matter as compared to correlations between oils and lower crust. The results suggest that oils are compositionally more homogeneous on a basin scale and possibly have more heterogeneous composition in different petroleum basins. A suite of characteristic trace elements (Cs, Rb, K, U, V, Cr, and Ni) that was used for analysis allowed a consistent interpretation of the relative upper and lower crustal contributions to the trace element composition of oils.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090068
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • System Au–UO 2 –TiO 2 –aqueous fluid at 500°C, 1 Kbar: 2. Fluid of
           El’kon-type gold–uranium mineralization
    • Authors: B. N. Ryzhenko; N. I. Kovalenko; N. I. Prisyagina
      Pages: 996 - 1004
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090081
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Tritium in the snow cover at mid-taiga landscapes in central Yakutia
    • Authors: V. N. Makarov
      Pages: 1005 - 1010
      Abstract: The paper presents data on the distribution of tritium, a hydrogen radioactive isotope, in the snow cover of mid-taiga landscapes in central Yakutia. Regional tritium escape to the atmosphere in the late 20th century and its accumulation in the snow cover resulted from regional atmospheric transfer and corresponded to the concentration of this isotope in the snow cover at the South Pole. Tritium concentration in the snow cover had almost tripled by 2013. Tritium concentration in the snow cover is correlated with the human population of the settlement zone. The long-term anthropogenic contamination in the area is caused first of all by atmospheric fallouts of radioactive products of the 2011 Fukushima accident.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090044
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Some general relations of the development of complex molecular objects at
           early stages of biosphere formation as a consequence of the physical
           properties of condensed medium
    • Authors: V. I. Baranov; L. A. Gribov; V. A. Dement’ev; I. V. Mikhailov
      Pages: 1011 - 1018
      Abstract: We analyzed the character of molecular transformations under conditions of condensed media, in which intermolecular interactions always occur. It was shown that, instead of discrete transfer of external energy into the molecule, the energy characteristics of the condensed medium (appearance of zones) could result in gradual accumulation of internal energy in reaction centers owing to sequential thermal collisions with particles of the medium initiating the chemical reaction. This does not require high temperatures. The established physical properties related to the energy characteristics of condensed media could play an important role in molecular transformations and, consequently, formation of complex molecular objects at early stages of biosphere formation.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916110033
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 11 (2016)
       
  • Diamonds in the products of the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption (Kamchatka)
           and mechanism of their formation
    • Authors: E. M. Galimov; G. A. Karpov; V. S. Sevast’yanov; S. N. Shilobreeva; A. P. Maksimov
      Pages: 829 - 833
      Abstract: The origin of diamonds in the lava and ash of the recent Tolbachik eruption of 2012–2013 (Kamchatka) is enigmatic. The mineralogy of the host rocks provides no evidence for the existence of the high pressure that is necessary for diamond formation. The analysis of carbon isotope systematics showed a similarity between the diamonds and dispersed carbon from the Tolbachik lava, which could serve as a primary material for diamond synthesis. There are grounds to believe that the formation of Tolbachik diamonds was related to fluid dynamics. Based on the obtained results, it was suggested that Tolbachik microdiamonds were formed as a result of cavitation during the rapid movement of volcanic fluid. The possibility of cavitation-induced diamond formation was previously theoretically substantiated by us and confirmed experimentally. During cavitation, ultrahigh pressure is generated locally (in collapsing bubbles), while the external pressure is not critical for diamond synthesis. The conditions of the occurrence of cavitation are rather common in geologic processes. Therefore, microdiamonds of such an origin may be much more abundant in nature than was supposed previously.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100037
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
  • Micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from São Luiz,
           Brazil
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Kagi; Dmitry A. Zedgenizov; Hiroaki Ohfuji; Hidemi Ishibashi
      Pages: 834 - 838
      Abstract: We report cloudy micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from São-Luiz, Brazil which contains inclusions of ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O and former bridgmanite (Mg, Fe)SiO3 and ringwoodite (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. Field emission-SEM and TEM observations showed that the cloudy inclusions were composed of euhedral micro-inclusions with grain sizes ranging from tens nanometers to submicrometers. Infrared absorption spectra of the cloudy inclusions showed that water, carbonate, and silicates were not major components of these micro- and nano-inclusions and suggested that the main constituent of the inclusions was infrared-inactive. Some inclusions were suggested to contain material with lower atomic numbers than that of carbon. Mineral phase of nano- and micro-inclusions is unclear at present. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis clarified that the micro-inclusions contained transition metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) possibly as metallic or sulfide phases. The cloudy inclusions provide an important information on the growth environment of superdeep diamonds in the transition zone or the lower mantle.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100062
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
  • Spectral and structural properties of carbon nanoparticles synthesized in
           natural and anthropogenic processes
    • Authors: S. A. Voropaev; V. S. Sevast’yanov; A. Yu. Dnestrovskii; E. A. Ponomareva; N. V. Dushenko; V. M. Shkinev; A. S. Aronin
      Pages: 873 - 881
      Abstract: In this contribution, we considered the character of carbon nanoparticle formation in the cosmos and during volcanic eruptions of a certain type and compared it with existing methods of synthesis in nanotechnology. Using the methods of electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, we investigated nanodiamond samples synthesized by hydrodynamic cavitation in various hydrocarbon liquids. Different forms of nanometer-sized carbon were distinguished, including complex fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and a face-centered cubic (fcc) carbon phase. The synthesized nanodiamonds were doped with silicon, their photoluminescence spectra were analyzed, and application of the results for geochemistry and cosmochemistry were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100104
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
  • Relationships between textural and photoluminescence spectral features of
           carbonado (natural polycrystalline diamond) and implications for its
           origin
    • Authors: Hidemi Ishibashi; Hiroyuki Kagi; Shoko Odake; Hiroyuki Ohfuji; Hiroshi Kitawaki
      Pages: 882 - 889
      Abstract: Field Emission SEM (FESEM) textural observations, crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses, UV-excited luminescence imaging, and photoluminescence (PL) microspectroscopy excited by 488 nm laser were conducted on two texturally contrasting samples of carbonado, a kind of natural polycrystalline diamond from the Central African Republic (CAR). The investigated carbonado samples A and B show extremely different textures: sample A is made up of faceted crystals accompanied by abundant, small rectangular pores, whereas sample B has a granular texture with coarser crystals and scarce, large pores. Diamond crystals smaller than 2–3 µm are enriched in sample A but depleted in sample B. These textural features indicate that sample B diamonds were annealed under thermodynamically stable P–T conditions. The pore characteristics indicate that fluid permeability was higher for sample A than sample B. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that samples A and B correspond to Group A and B carbonados in the classification of Kagi et al. (1994), respectively, so that sample A reveals emissions from the H3 center without any N–V0 derived emission at 575 nm, whereas sample B shows emissions from the 3H center and the N–V0 defect. In addition, UV-excited luminescence images and photoluminescence spectra for sample B indicate that the rims of diamond crystals within several microns of a pore show luminescence features similar to those of Group AB carbonados (Kagi et al., 1994), indicating that this Group AB material was formed from Group B by irradiation from pore-filling, radioactive-element-bearing materials at a low temperature. The extent of the low-temperature irradiation is considered to depend on fluid permeability, and the Group A material was strongly irradiated due to its permeable texture whereas the Group B material was not significantly irradiated due to its less permeable granular texture. These results indicate that Group B carbonados have retained their original PL spectral features produced under high pressures and temperatures at mantle depths.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100050
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
  • Interaction of Fe and Fe 3 C with hydrogen and nitrogen at 6–20 GPa: a
           study by in situ X-ray diffraction
    • Authors: K. D. Litasov; A. F. Shatskiy; E. Ohtani
      Pages: 914 - 921
      Abstract: A method of in situ X-ray diffraction at Spring-8 (Japan) was used to analyze simultaneously the hydrogen incorporation into Fe and Fe3C, as well as to measure the relative stability of carbides, nitrides, sulfides, and hydrides of iron at pressures of 6–20 GPa and temperatures up to 1600 K. The following stability sequence of individual iron compounds was established in the studied pressure and temperature interval: FeS > FeN > FeC > FeH > Fe. A change in the unit-cell volume as compared to the known equations of state was used to estimate the hydrogen contents in carbide Fe3C and hydride FeHx. Data on hydride correspond to stoichiometry with x ≈ 1. Unlike iron sulfides and silicides, the solubility of hydrogen in Fe3C seemed to be negligibly low—within measurement error. Extrapolating obtained data to pressures of the Earth’s core indicates that carbon and hydrogen are mutually incpompatible in the iron–nickel core, while nitrogen easily substitutes carbon and may be an important component of the inner core in the light of the recent models assuming the predominance of iron carbide in its composition.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100074
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
  • Manifestation of nitrogen interstitials in synthetic diamonds obtained
           using a temperature gradient technique (Fe–Ni–C system)
    • Authors: Yu. V. Babich; B. N. Feigelson; A. I. Chepurov
      Pages: 922 - 927
      Abstract: The IR-peak 1450 cm–1 (H1a-center) associated with nitrogen interstitials have been studied in nitrogen-bearing diamonds synthesized at high P-T parameters in the Fe–Ni–C system. FTIR study shows that manifestation of this nitrogen form is restricted to the regions of active transformation of C-defects into A-defects, which confirms the connection of its formation with C => A aggregation process. An examination of the dependence of the 1450 cm–1 peak on the degree of nitrogen aggregation indicates that H1a-centers are not only formed during C/A aggregation but also disappear simultaneously with the end of C => A transformation. Established facts suggest direct involving of nitrogen as interstitials in the C => A aggregation and serve as strong experimental argument in support of the “interstitial” mechanism of nitrogen migration during aggregation in diamonds containing transition metals.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100025
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
       
 
 
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