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CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (188 journals)                     

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AATCC Journal of Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering     Hybrid Journal  
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 27)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Advances in Applied Ceramics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 50)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biofuel Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioEng Reviews     Full-text available via subscription  
Chemical and Engineering News     Free   (Followers: 11)
Chemical and Materials Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Engineering Research Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Product and Process Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 129)
Chemical Society Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 148)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal  
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computer Aided Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
CORROSION     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Corrosion Engineering, Science and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Corrosion Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Eksergi     Open Access  
Emerging Trends in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Fluorescent Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Gels     Open Access  
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Handbook of Powder Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Heat Exchangers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Hungarian Journal of Industry and Chemistry     Open Access  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Indonesian Journal of Chemical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Industrial Chemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Industrial Gases     Open Access  
Info Chimie Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Engineering & Process Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 105)
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of CO2 Utilization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food Processing & Technology     Open Access  
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Information Display     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers and Materials     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Modern Chemistry & Chemical Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Molecular Catalysis A: Chemical     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Organic Semiconductors     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymer and Biopolymer Physics Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Polymer Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Polymer Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Polymer Science Part C : Polymer Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Polymers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Polymers and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the American Chemical Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 249)
Journal of the Bangladesh Chemical Society     Open Access  
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India) : Series E     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Pakistan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Taiwan Institute of Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Water Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Jurnal Bahan Alam Terbarukan     Open Access  
Jurnal Inovasi Pendidikan Kimia     Open Access  
Jurnal Reaktor     Open Access  
Jurnal Teknologi Dan Industri Pangan     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Main Group Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Materials Chemistry and Physics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Materials Science and Applied Chemistry     Open Access  
Materials Sciences and Applied Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Modern Chemistry & Applications     Open Access  
Molecular Imprinting     Open Access  
Nanocontainers     Open Access  
Nanofabrication     Open Access  
Noise Control Engineering Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ochrona Srodowiska i Zasobów Naturalnych : Environmental Protection and Natural Resources     Open Access  
Petroleum Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Physics and Chemistry of Glasses - European Journal of Glass Science and Technology Part B     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Plasma Processes and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Plasmas and Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Polymer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 105)
Polymer Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Polymer Composites     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Polyolefins Journal     Open Access  
Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Recyclable Catalysis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Research on Chemical Intermediates     Hybrid Journal  
Reviews in Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Revista Cubana de Química     Open Access  
Revista ION     Open Access  
Revista Mexicana de Ingeniería Química     Open Access  
Rubber Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Russian Chemical Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Science and Engineering of Composite Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Solid Fuel Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
South African Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
South African Journal of Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Surface Engineering and Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Sustainable Chemical Processes     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Synthesis Lectures on Chemical Engineering and Biochemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription  
The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
The Chemical Record     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Theoretical Foundations of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transition Metal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Transylvanian Review of Systematical and Ecological Research     Open Access  
Visegrad Journal on Bioeconomy and Sustainable Development     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für Naturforschung B : A Journal of Chemical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)


Journal Cover Geochemistry International
  [SJR: 0.399]   [H-I: 18]   [2 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1556-1968 - ISSN (Online) 0016-7029
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2336 journals]
  • Deep differentiation of alkali ultramafic magmas: Formation of carbonatite
    • Authors: I. D. Ryabchikov; L. N. Kogarko
      Pages: 739 - 747
      Abstract: The study of melt microinclusions in olivine megacrysts from meimechites and alkali picrites of the Maimecha–Kotui alkali ultramafic and carbonatite province (Polar Siberia) revealed that the melt compositions corrected for loss of olivine due to post-entrapment crystallization of olivine on inclusion walls (differentiates of primary meimechite magma) match well to the composition of nephelinites and olivine melilitites belonging to carbonatite magmatic series. Modeling of fractional crystallization of meimechite magmas results in the high-alkali melt compositions corresponding to the silicate–carbonate liquid immiscibility field. The appearance of volatile-rich melts at the base of magma-generating plume systems at early stages of partial melting can be explained by extraction of incompatible elements including volatiles, by near-solidus melts at low degrees of partial melting, and meimechites are an example of such magmas. Subsequent accumulation of CO2 in the residual melt results in generation of carbonate magma.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s001670291609007x
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Isotopic characteristics of the ermakovskoe
           fluorite–bertrandite–phenakite deposit (Western Transbaikalia)
    • Authors: G. S. Ripp; I. A. Izbrodin; E. I. Lastochkin; A. G. Doroshkevich; M. O. Rampilov; V. F. Posokhov
      Pages: 748 - 764
      Abstract: Isotope-geochemical study of the Ermakovskoe fluorine–beryllium deposit was carried out to estimate the ore sources and role of host carbonate rocks in its formation. We analyzed oxygen and carbon isotope compositions in marbles, skarn carbonates, ore and post-ore parageneses; oxygen isotope compositions in oxides, silicates, apatite; and sulfur isotope composition in sulfides and sulfates. Sources of fluids participating in the rock and ore formation were determined using hydrogen and oxygen isotope compositions in hydroxyl-bearing minerals: phlogopite from marbles, vesuvian from skarns, eudidymite and bertrandite from ore parageneses, and bavenite of the post-ore stage. Isotopic studies suggest crustal source of sulfur, oxygen, and carbon dioxide, while oxygen and hydrogen isotope compositions in the hydroxyl-bearing minerals points to the contribution of meteoric waters in the formation of the fluorine-beryllium ores.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916090056
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Zirconology of miaskites from the Ilmeny Mountains, South Urals
    • Authors: A. A. Krasnobaev; P. M. Valizer; S. V. Busharina; E. V. Medvedeva
      Pages: 765 - 780
      Abstract: It is shown that the replacement and long evolution of miaskitic zircons led to the formation of two main age groups: 420–380 Ma (I) and 260–240 Ma (II). The age of miaskites is estimated at 440–445 Ma. Zircons I bear traces of fragmentation, dissolution, and replacement; they have “flat” REE patterns typical of metasomatic (hydrothermal) types, which is caused by allochthonous nature of the studied miaskites. Zircons II with differentiated REE patterns are similar to magmatic varieties, but have metamorphic origin. Mineralogical–geochemical and age characteristics of zircons in combination with structural–compositional features of miaskites define their metasomatic nature. The origin of the early zircon generations was related to the Ordovician rifting, while late generations were formed during shear deformations at the final stage of the evolution of the Uralian orogen.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916070041
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Linear growth rate and sectorial growth dynamics of diamond crystals grown
           by the temperature-gradient techniques (Fe–Ni–C system)
    • Authors: Y. V. Babich; B. N. Feigelson; A. I. Chepurov
      Pages: 781 - 787
      Abstract: The paper reports data on the linear growth rates of synthetic diamond single crystals grown at high P–T parameters by the temperature-gradient technique in the Fe–Ni–C system. Techniques of stepwise temperature changes and generation of growth microzoning were applied to evaluate the growth rates of various octahedral and cubic growth sectors and variations in these rates with growth time. The maximum linear growth rates of the order of 100–300 µm/h were detected at the initial activation of crystal growth, after which the growth rates nonlinearly decreased throughout the whole growth time to 5–20 µm/h. The fact that the linear growth rates can broadly vary indicates that the inner structure and growth dynamics of single diamond crystals grown by the temperature-gradient technique should be taken into account when applied in mineral–geochemical studies (capture of inclusions, accommodation of admixture components, changes of the defective structure, etc.).
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916080036
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Y–REE-Rich zircons of the Timan region: Geochemistry and economic
    • Authors: A. B. Makeyev; S. G. Skublov
      Pages: 788 - 794
      Abstract: Mineralogical–geochemical studies of zircon from the Ichet’yu occurrence revealed unusually high Y and HREE contents (correlative with the P content) in the inner parts and zones of approximately 10% of the grains. They represent the intermediate members of the zircon–xenotime join with a heterovalent scheme of isomorphism Zr4+ + Si4+ → (Y + HREE)3+ + P5+. Geochronological and mineralogical–geochemical data suggest that the Middle Timan basement (the most probable source of zircon of the Ichet’yu occurrence) is made up of the Paleoproterozoic rocks and possibly represents a continuation beneath the Mezen syneclise and Middle Timan of the Paleoproterozoic collisional structure, to which the Arkhangelsk diamond province is confined.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916080073
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Hydrogeochemistry at mining districts
    • Authors: R. F. Abdrakhmanov; R. M. Akhmetov
      Pages: 795 - 806
      Abstract: The Southern Urals exemplifies hydrogeochemical environments at mining districts. Information obtained by studying the geochemistry of nonferrous-metal industrial wastes (both mine and dump drainage) is important not only because these wastes are potential sources of base metals but also in the context of geoecological problems. The Southern Urals is one of Russia’s principal producers of Cu and Zn concentrates for metallurgical processing: the region produces 12–15% Cu and 49% Zn concentrates in the country and 35% Cu and 69% Zn concentrates in the Urals. The Yubileinoe, Podol’skoe, Sibai, Uchaly, Novy Uchaly, and Gai deposits are the largest in the Urals. The ores of these deposits contain certain components (Se, Te, Cd, Co, Ga, Ge, In, Be, etc.) that are environmental contaminants. The volume of mine and dump drainage in the Southern Urals amounts to 9 million m3/year, and its mineralization varies from 3.0 to 30–40 g/L, occasionally as high as 365 g/L, with a sulfate, chloride–sulfate calcic–magnesian, magnesian–sodic, and magnesian–calcic composition of the waters. The minor and trace elements of the regional waste waters whose concentrations exceed the regional background values are Cu, Zn (one to four orders of magnitude), As, Cd (one to three orders of magnitude), Li and Be (one to two orders of magnitude). All waste waters transfer various contaminants into environmental subsystems and most actively modify the composition of the groundwaters. At the same time, dump drainage is a potentially important secondary source of valuable mineral components.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916080024
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Geochemistry of sediments from Lake Grand, Northeast Russia
    • Authors: P. S. Minyuk; V. Ya. Borkhodoev
      Pages: 807 - 816
      Abstract: Major and trace element distribution in the bottom sediments from Hole 13 drilled in Lake Grand, Magadan district, was studied using the method of principal components. It was established that geochemical characteristics are correlated with environmental changes. The sediments of cold MIS2 and MIS4 are characterized by the enriched TiO2, MgO, Al2O3, Fe2O3, and Cr and low Na2O, K2O contents, which is related to the grain-size composition of sediments. Sediments of warm stages show an opposite tendency. High concentration peaks of iron, phosphorus, and manganese correspond to the accumulation levels of vivianite and ferromanganese rocks. Silica is represented by biogenic and abiogenic varieties. Maximum SiO2 contents were found in the Late Holocene sediments and mark the high biological productivity of the basin. Revealed variations of some elements are correlated with the Heinrich events.
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916070065
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Geochemical features of mature hydrocarbon systems and indicators of their
    • Authors: S. A. Punanova; T. L. Vinogradova
      Pages: 817 - 823
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916080103
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Calculation of equilibria in CO 2 –water–salt systems using
           the Frezchem model
    • Authors: M. V. Mironenko; V. B. Polyakov; G. M. Marion
      Pages: 824 - 828
      PubDate: 2016-09-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916080085
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 9 (2016)
  • Behavior of lanthanides during the formation of the Svetloe deposit,
    • Authors: Yu. A. Popova; A. Yu. Bychkov; S. S. Matveeva
      Pages: 732 - 738
      PubDate: 2016-08-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916060057
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 8 (2016)
  • Diamonds in the products of the 2012–2013 Tolbachik eruption (Kamchatka)
           and mechanism of their formation
    • Authors: E. M. Galimov; G. A. Karpov; V. S. Sevast’yanov; S. N. Shilobreeva; A. P. Maksimov
      Pages: 829 - 833
      Abstract: The origin of diamonds in the lava and ash of the recent Tolbachik eruption of 2012–2013 (Kamchatka) is enigmatic. The mineralogy of the host rocks provides no evidence for the existence of the high pressure that is necessary for diamond formation. The analysis of carbon isotope systematics showed a similarity between the diamonds and dispersed carbon from the Tolbachik lava, which could serve as a primary material for diamond synthesis. There are grounds to believe that the formation of Tolbachik diamonds was related to fluid dynamics. Based on the obtained results, it was suggested that Tolbachik microdiamonds were formed as a result of cavitation during the rapid movement of volcanic fluid. The possibility of cavitation-induced diamond formation was previously theoretically substantiated by us and confirmed experimentally. During cavitation, ultrahigh pressure is generated locally (in collapsing bubbles), while the external pressure is not critical for diamond synthesis. The conditions of the occurrence of cavitation are rather common in geologic processes. Therefore, microdiamonds of such an origin may be much more abundant in nature than was supposed previously.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100037
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from São Luiz,
    • Authors: Hiroyuki Kagi; Dmitry A. Zedgenizov; Hiroaki Ohfuji; Hidemi Ishibashi
      Pages: 834 - 838
      Abstract: We report cloudy micro- and nano-inclusions in a superdeep diamond from São-Luiz, Brazil which contains inclusions of ferropericlase (Mg, Fe)O and former bridgmanite (Mg, Fe)SiO3 and ringwoodite (Mg, Fe)2SiO4. Field emission-SEM and TEM observations showed that the cloudy inclusions were composed of euhedral micro-inclusions with grain sizes ranging from tens nanometers to submicrometers. Infrared absorption spectra of the cloudy inclusions showed that water, carbonate, and silicates were not major components of these micro- and nano-inclusions and suggested that the main constituent of the inclusions was infrared-inactive. Some inclusions were suggested to contain material with lower atomic numbers than that of carbon. Mineral phase of nano- and micro-inclusions is unclear at present. Microbeam X-ray fluorescence analysis clarified that the micro-inclusions contained transition metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn) possibly as metallic or sulfide phases. The cloudy inclusions provide an important information on the growth environment of superdeep diamonds in the transition zone or the lower mantle.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100062
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Fundamentals of the mantle carbonatite concept of diamond genesis
    • Authors: Yu. A. Litvin; A. V. Spivak; A. V. Kuzyura
      Pages: 839 - 857
      Abstract: In the mantle carbonatite concept of diamond genesis, the data of a physicochemical experiment and analytical mineralogy of inclusions in diamond conform well and solutions to the following genetic problems are generalized: (1) we substantiate that upper mantle diamond-forming melts have peridotite/eclogite–carbonatite–carbon compositions, melts of the transition zone have (wadsleyite ↔ ringwoodite)–majorite–stishovite–carbonatite–carbon compositions, and lower mantle melts have periclase/wüstite–bridgmanite–Ca-perovskite–stishovite–carbonatite–carbon compositions; (2) we plot generalized diagrams of diamondforming media illustrating the variable compositions of growth melts of diamonds and paragenetic phases, their genetic relationships with mantle matter, and classification relationships between primary inclusions; (3) we study experimentally equilibrium diagrams of syngenesis of diamonds and primary inclusions characterizing the diamond nucleation and growth conditions and capture of paragenetic and xenogenic minerals; (4) we determine the fractional phase diagrams of syngenesis of diamonds and inclusions illustrating regularities in the ultrabasic–basic evolution and paragenetic transitions in diamond-forming systems of the upper and lower mantle. We obtain evidence for physicochemically similar melt–solution ways of diamond genesis at mantle depths with different mineral compositions.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100086
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Indicator reactions of K and Na activities in the upper mantle: Natural
           mineral assemblages, experimental data, and thermodynamic modeling
    • Authors: O. G. Safonov; V. G. Butvina
      Pages: 858 - 872
      Abstract: The paper presents a review of data on mineral assemblages and reactions that are potential indicators of K and Na activities in upper mantle fluids and melts modifying upper mantle rocks in the course of mantle metasomatism. Results of experimental modeling of these reactions are discussed. These data are utilized to calculate phase reactions in $$\log \left( {{a_{{H_2}O}}} \right) - \log \left( {{a_{{K_2}O}}} \right)and\log \left( {{a_{{H_2}O}}} \right) - \log \left( {{a_{N{a_2}O}}} \right)$$ space by minimizing the Gibbs free energy (constructing pseudosections). The calculations of this type make it possible to estimate variations in K and Na activities in processes modifying upper mantle rocks, to predict successions of mineral assemblages that are formed when these parameters vary, and to compare metasomatic processes in rocks of various composition. The approach is illustrated by examples of peridotite and eclogite xenoliths in kimberlite and alkaline basalt.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100098
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Spectral and structural properties of carbon nanoparticles synthesized in
           natural and anthropogenic processes
    • Authors: S. A. Voropaev; V. S. Sevast’yanov; A. Yu. Dnestrovskii; E. A. Ponomareva; N. V. Dushenko; V. M. Shkinev; A. S. Aronin
      Pages: 873 - 881
      Abstract: In this contribution, we considered the character of carbon nanoparticle formation in the cosmos and during volcanic eruptions of a certain type and compared it with existing methods of synthesis in nanotechnology. Using the methods of electron diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, we investigated nanodiamond samples synthesized by hydrodynamic cavitation in various hydrocarbon liquids. Different forms of nanometer-sized carbon were distinguished, including complex fullerenes, nanodiamonds, and a face-centered cubic (fcc) carbon phase. The synthesized nanodiamonds were doped with silicon, their photoluminescence spectra were analyzed, and application of the results for geochemistry and cosmochemistry were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100104
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Relationships between textural and photoluminescence spectral features of
           carbonado (natural polycrystalline diamond) and implications for its
    • Authors: Hidemi Ishibashi; Hiroyuki Kagi; Shoko Odake; Hiroyuki Ohfuji; Hiroshi Kitawaki
      Pages: 882 - 889
      Abstract: Field Emission SEM (FESEM) textural observations, crystal size distribution (CSD) analyses, UV-excited luminescence imaging, and photoluminescence (PL) microspectroscopy excited by 488 nm laser were conducted on two texturally contrasting samples of carbonado, a kind of natural polycrystalline diamond from the Central African Republic (CAR). The investigated carbonado samples A and B show extremely different textures: sample A is made up of faceted crystals accompanied by abundant, small rectangular pores, whereas sample B has a granular texture with coarser crystals and scarce, large pores. Diamond crystals smaller than 2–3 µm are enriched in sample A but depleted in sample B. These textural features indicate that sample B diamonds were annealed under thermodynamically stable P–T conditions. The pore characteristics indicate that fluid permeability was higher for sample A than sample B. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra indicate that samples A and B correspond to Group A and B carbonados in the classification of Kagi et al. (1994), respectively, so that sample A reveals emissions from the H3 center without any N–V0 derived emission at 575 nm, whereas sample B shows emissions from the 3H center and the N–V0 defect. In addition, UV-excited luminescence images and photoluminescence spectra for sample B indicate that the rims of diamond crystals within several microns of a pore show luminescence features similar to those of Group AB carbonados (Kagi et al., 1994), indicating that this Group AB material was formed from Group B by irradiation from pore-filling, radioactive-element-bearing materials at a low temperature. The extent of the low-temperature irradiation is considered to depend on fluid permeability, and the Group A material was strongly irradiated due to its permeable texture whereas the Group B material was not significantly irradiated due to its less permeable granular texture. These results indicate that Group B carbonados have retained their original PL spectral features produced under high pressures and temperatures at mantle depths.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100050
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • The mineralogy of Ca-rich inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds
    • Authors: D. A. Zedgenizov; A. L. Ragozin; V. V. Kalinina; H. Kagi
      Pages: 890 - 900
      Abstract: This paper discusses mineralogy of Ca-rich inclusions in ultra-deep (sublithospheric) diamonds. It was shown that most of the Ca-rich majoritic garnets are of metabasic (eclogitic) affinity. The observed variation in major and trace element composition is consistent with variations in the composition of the protolith and the degree of enrichment or depletion during interaction with melts. Major and trace element compositions of the inclusions of Ca minerals in ultra-deep diamonds indicate that they crystallized from Ca-carbonatite melts that were derived from partial melting of eclogite bodies in deeply subducted oceanic crust in the transition zone or even the lower mantle. The occurrence of merwinite or CAS inclusions in ultra-deep diamonds can serve as mineralogical indicators of the interaction of metaperidotitic and metabasic mantle lithologies with alkaline carbonatite melts. The discovery of the inclusions of carbonates in association with ultra-deep Ca minerals can not only provide additional support for their role in the diamond formation process but also help to define additional mantle reservoirs involved in global carbon cycle.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100116
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Mineralogical and geochemical patterns of mantle xenoliths from the Jixia
           region (Fujian Province, southeastern China)
    • Authors: G. S. Zhang; A. V. Bobrov; J. S. Long; W. H. Han
      Pages: 901 - 913
      Abstract: The paper discusses the results of mineralogical and petrographic studies of spinel lherzolite xenoliths and clinopyroxene megacrysts in basalt from the Jixia region related to the central zone of Cenozoic basaltic magmatism of southeastern China. Spinel lherzolite is predominantly composed of olivine (Fo89.6–90.4), orthopyroxene (Mg# = 90.6–92.7), clinopyroxene (Mg# = 90.3–91.9), and chrome spinel (Cr# = 6.59–14.0). According to the geochemical characteristics, basalt of the Jixia region is similar to OIB with asthenospheric material as a source. The following equilibrium temperatures and pressures were obtained for spinel peridotite: 890–1269°C and 10.4–14.8 kbar. Mg# of olivine and Cr# of chrome spinel are close to the values in rocks of the enriched mantle. It is evident from analysis of the textural peculiarities of spinel lherzolite that basaltic melt interacted with mantle rocks at the xenolith capture stage. Based on an analysis of the P–T conditions of the formation of spinel peridotite and clinopyroxene megacrysts, we show that mantle xenoliths were captured in the course of basaltic magma intrusion at a significantly lower depth than the area of partial melting. However, capture of mantle xenoliths was preceded by low-degree partial melting at an earlier stage.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100049
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Interaction of Fe and Fe 3 C with hydrogen and nitrogen at 6–20 GPa: a
           study by in situ X-ray diffraction
    • Authors: K. D. Litasov; A. F. Shatskiy; E. Ohtani
      Pages: 914 - 921
      Abstract: A method of in situ X-ray diffraction at Spring-8 (Japan) was used to analyze simultaneously the hydrogen incorporation into Fe and Fe3C, as well as to measure the relative stability of carbides, nitrides, sulfides, and hydrides of iron at pressures of 6–20 GPa and temperatures up to 1600 K. The following stability sequence of individual iron compounds was established in the studied pressure and temperature interval: FeS > FeN > FeC > FeH > Fe. A change in the unit-cell volume as compared to the known equations of state was used to estimate the hydrogen contents in carbide Fe3C and hydride FeHx. Data on hydride correspond to stoichiometry with x ≈ 1. Unlike iron sulfides and silicides, the solubility of hydrogen in Fe3C seemed to be negligibly low—within measurement error. Extrapolating obtained data to pressures of the Earth’s core indicates that carbon and hydrogen are mutually incpompatible in the iron–nickel core, while nitrogen easily substitutes carbon and may be an important component of the inner core in the light of the recent models assuming the predominance of iron carbide in its composition.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100074
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
  • Manifestation of nitrogen interstitials in synthetic diamonds obtained
           using a temperature gradient technique (Fe–Ni–C system)
    • Authors: Yu. V. Babich; B. N. Feigelson; A. I. Chepurov
      Pages: 922 - 927
      Abstract: The IR-peak 1450 cm–1 (H1a-center) associated with nitrogen interstitials have been studied in nitrogen-bearing diamonds synthesized at high P-T parameters in the Fe–Ni–C system. FTIR study shows that manifestation of this nitrogen form is restricted to the regions of active transformation of C-defects into A-defects, which confirms the connection of its formation with C => A aggregation process. An examination of the dependence of the 1450 cm–1 peak on the degree of nitrogen aggregation indicates that H1a-centers are not only formed during C/A aggregation but also disappear simultaneously with the end of C => A transformation. Established facts suggest direct involving of nitrogen as interstitials in the C => A aggregation and serve as strong experimental argument in support of the “interstitial” mechanism of nitrogen migration during aggregation in diamonds containing transition metals.
      PubDate: 2016-10-01
      DOI: 10.1134/s0016702916100025
      Issue No: Vol. 54, No. 10 (2016)
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