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  Subjects -> ENGINEERING (Total: 1953 journals)
    - CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (153 journals)
    - CIVIL ENGINEERING (148 journals)
    - ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (81 journals)
    - ENGINEERING (1110 journals)
    - ENGINEERING MECHANICS AND MATERIALS (290 journals)
    - HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING (45 journals)
    - INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING (52 journals)
    - MECHANICAL ENGINEERING (74 journals)

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING (153 journals)                  1 2     

ACS Combinatorial Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Acta Crystallographica Section B: Structural Science, Crystal Engineering and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Acta Polymerica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Additives for Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Adhesion Adhesives & Sealants     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Advanced Chemical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Powder Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Advances in Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Polymer Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Pure and Applied Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Analytical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Applied Petrochemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery     Partially Free   (Followers: 5)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brazilian Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Catalysts     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Chemical and Petroleum Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Process Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chemical and Process Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemical Communications     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemical Engineering & Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Engineering and Processing: Process Intensification     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Engineering and Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chemical Engineering Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Engineering Research and Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chemical Engineering Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Chemical Geology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Chemical Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Product and Process Modeling     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chemical Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 264)
Chemical Society Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ChemInform     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry & Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry Central Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry of Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 177)
Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemSusChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chinese Chemical Letters     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of Chemical Physics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Coke and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Coloration Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Aided Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Computers & Chemical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corrosion Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Crystal Research and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Education for Chemical Engineers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
European Polymer Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Fibers and Polymers     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Focusing on Modern Food Industry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers of Chemical Science and Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Geochemistry International     Hybrid Journal  
Handbook of Powder Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
High Performance Polymers     Hybrid Journal  
Indian Chemical Engineer     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Chemical Technology (IJCT)     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Industrial Chemistry Library     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Chemoinformatics and Chemical Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Industrial Chemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Polymeric Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Science and Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Waste Resources     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ISRN Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ISRN Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Applied Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Electrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Polymer Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 167)
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Chemical Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Sciences     Partially Free   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Coatings     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Fuel Chemistry and Technology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Fuels     Open Access  
Journal of Geochemical Exploration     Hybrid Journal  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Chemical Engineering Science
   [12 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0009-2509
     Published by Elsevier Homepage  [2563 journals]   [SJR: 1.033]   [H-I: 103]
  • Nucleation and crystal growth kinetics during solidification: The role of
           crystallite withdrawal rate and external heat and mass sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): D.V. Alexandrov
      A complete analytical solution of the integro-differential model describing the transient nucleation and growth of the crystals at the intermediate stage of phase transitions is constructed. The roles of external heat/mass sources appearing in the balance equations and the crystallite withdrawal rate entering in the Fokker–Planck equation are detailed. An exact analytical solution of the Fokker–Planck equation is found for arbitrary nucleation mechanisms and growth kinetics. Two important cases of the Weber–Volmer–Frenkel–Zel׳dovich and Meirs kinetics are considered in some detail. A non-linear time-dependent integral equation with memory kernel for the metastability level is analytically solved on the basis of the saddle-point method for the Laplace integral in the case of mixed kinetic-diffusion regime of crystal growth, which is of frequent occurrence. It is shown that the desupercooling/desupersaturation rate decreases with increasing the crystal withdrawal rate and intensities of external sources. The density distribution function becomes more and more broad with time. In addition, this function increases with decreasing the crystallite withdrawal rate and with increasing intensities of external sources.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Protein adsorptive behavior on mesoporous titanium dioxide determined by
           geometrical topography
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rong An , Wei Zhuang , Zhuhong Yang , Xiaohua Lu , Jiahua Zhu , Yanfang Wang , Yihui Dong , Nanhua Wu
      This work develops a linearly predictive model that investigates the relationship between the geometrical topography of mesoporous titanium dioxide (TiO2) and protein adsorption at the isoelectric point. Proteins with different sizes, Bovine Serum Albumin, Myoglobin and Lysozyme, were employed as model molecules to analyze proein-TiO2 interactions. Mesoporous TiO2 surfaces with a range of pore sizes served as a model of topography were utilized as substrates to study the effects of topography on protein adsorption. By fitting the amount of adsorbed proteins to the varying geometrical topographies, a linear relationship was obtained to estimate the protein–surface interaction. It was found that the three proteins avidly adsorb on TiO2 surface with strengthening coupling geometrical effects. The interaction between proteins and mesoporous TiO2 with varying geometrical topographies was further examined by the adhesive force measurements via atomic force microscopy (AFM). The adsorption of protein Chicken Ovalbumin confirmed that the linear curve, describing protein–surface interaction, could be used as a general tool to predict protein adsorption at the isoelectric point. Furthermore, High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) results at the macro-scale also demonstrated the accuracy of the predictive adsorption model. According to this model, TiO2 surfaces with well-designed geometrical topographies can be constructed efficiently and expected for various applications such as fouling resistance, proteins separation and immobilization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Corrigendum to ‘‘Numerical modeling of stagnation-flows on
           porous catalytic surfaces: CO oxidation on Rh/Al2O3” [Chem. Eng.
           Sci. 104 (2013) 899–907]
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Hüseyin Karadeniz , Canan Karakaya , Steffen Tischer , Olaf Deutschmann



      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Difference in pore contact angle and the contact angle measured on a flat
           surface and in an open space
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Xingxun Li , Xianfeng Fan , Stefano Brandani
      Pore wetting is of importance to many industrial processes, such as microfluidics, petroleum engineering, CO2 storage and biophysical processes. Due to lack of measurement techniques, pore wetting has been estimated by using the contact angle measured on a flat surface. This may give misled the interpretation of multiphase flow behavior in porous media. In this study, the static contact angles of various liquids were investigated in single glass capillaries to indicate the difference between pore contact angle and the contact angle measured on flat surfaces. The liquids used are deionised water, 1-propanol, n-decane and crude oil. The glass capillaries used had a pore size range from 100 to 1000μm. The experiments were designed to consider the effects of glass pore size, surface tension and chemical structure of liquid on pore contact angle. The results indicate that the contact angle of liquids in a pore cannot be simply treated as 0° which is commonly applied in literature. The static contact angle in glass pores varies with pore size and the applied liquids. When the pore size of glass capillary decreases from 1000 to 300μm, the pore contact angles of DI water, 1-propanol, n-decane and crude oil increase from 20° to 30°, 19° to 39°, 20° to 26° and 15° to 20°, respectively. The static pore contact angle of a liquid in a glass capillary is different from the contact angle on a flat glass surface. This indicates that the previous application of a contact angle on a flat surface to a pore medium case might be inappropriate for some cases.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Impact of fluid elasticity on miscible viscous fingering
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Sahil Malhotra , Mukul M. Sharma
      An experimental study is performed to investigate the impact of fluid elasticity on miscible viscous fingering. Rectilinear flow experiments are performed by displacing aqueous Boger fluids (constant-viscosity elastic fluids) with water. The observations are compared to those in Newtonian fluids (glycerol solutions) of the same viscosity. Elasticity is observed to reduce the width of fingers, leading to formation of thinner and longer fingers in fully developed flow. The shielding effect is reduced due to fluid elasticity resulting in growth of multiple fingers as compared to a single thick dominant finger observed for Newtonian fluids. The dominant wave number for the onset of instabilities is observed to be higher in more elastic fluids i.e. the interface breaks down into greater number of fingers in the more elastic fluid. Data is presented to show that fluid elasticity retards the growth of fingers. Elastic effects are observed to reduce the thin film of the displaced fluid on the walls of the Hele–Shaw cells.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • CFD simulation of solids residence time distribution in a CFB riser
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Leina Hua , Junwu Wang , Jinghai Li
      Solids residence time distribution (RTD) in circulating fluidized bed risers is a critical parameter for evaluating reactor performances, however, it is still very difficult to be predicted via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation due to the complexity of particle clustering phenomenon. This paper tries to establish an effective CFD model to reasonably predict solids RTD of gas–solids riser flows by means of properly addressing the paramount role of particle clusters in determining solids RTD. The gas–solids hydrodynamic characteristics were solved by Eulerian–Eulerian model, where an energy minimization multi-scale (EMMS) drag model was applied to modify the gas–solids drag force to account for the influence of particle clusters. The motion of tracer particles was calculated using species transport equation, where the diffusion coefficient of particles, a vital parameter indicating particle diffusion capacity, was investigated thoroughly. The established CFD model was validated against the available experimental data in the literature. It was shown that axial profiles of solids volume fraction and radial profiles of solids mass flux can be well predicted with EMMS drag model, but not with homogeneous drag model. The proper prediction of bed hydrodynamics is also very crucial to the success of solids RTD simulation. On the other hand, the effect of the diffusion coefficient of particles, the magnitude of which can span a range from 10−5 m2/s to 10m2/s, is minor when compared with the convective transport mechanism, at least for the specific cases we studied. In addition, the importance of the sampling time resolution and tracer injection time for a RTD curve was addressed. The simulation results showed that a low time resolution often results in the loss of some micro-scale information, i.e. drastically smoothing the fluctuations of the RTD curve, and an inappropriate assessment of the tracer injection time can lead to a significant change of the RTD curve.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Experimental investigation of hysteresis in the break-up of liquid
           curtains
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): J.O. Marston , S.T. Thoroddsen , J. Thompson , M.G. Blyth , D. Henry , J. Uddin
      Findings from an experimental investigation of the break-up of liquid curtains are reported, with the overall aim of examining stability windows for multi-layer liquid curtains composed of Newtonian fluids, where the properties of each layer can be kept constant or varied. For a single-layer curtain it is known that the minimum flow rate required for initial stability can be violated by carefully reducing the flow rate below this point, which defines a hysteresis region. However, when two or three layers are used to form a composite curtain, the hysteresis window can be considerably reduced depending on the experimental procedure used. Extensive quantitative measurements of this hysteresis region are provided alongside an examination of the influence of physical properties such as viscosity and surface tension. The origins of curtain break-up for two different geometries are analysed; first where the curtain width remains constant, pinned by straight edge guides; and second where the curtain is tapered by angled edge guides. For both cases, the rupture speed is measured, which appears to be consistent with the Taylor–Culick velocity. Observations of the typical linearly spaced jets which form after the break-up has transpired and the periodicity of these jets are compared to the Rayleigh–Taylor wavelength and previous experimental measurements. Furthermore, the curtain stability criterion originally developed by Brown (1961), summarised in terms of a Weber number, has recently been extended to multi-layer curtains by Dyson et al. (2009); thus this report provides the first experimental measurements which puts this to the test. Ultimately, it is found that only the most viscous and polymer-based liquids violate this criterion.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • A fractional calculus approach to the dynamic optimization of biological
           reactive systems. Part II: Numerical solution of fractional optimal
           control problems
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rasiel Toledo-Hernandez , Vicente Rico-Ramirez , Ramiro Rico-Martinez , Salvador Hernandez-Castro , Urmila M. Diwekar
      This second paper of our series is concerned with the formulation and solution strategies of fractional optimal control problems (FOCP). Given the sets of fractional differential equations representing the behavior of fermentation and thermal hydrolysis reactive systems, here we formulate the corresponding FOCP’s and describe suitable techniques for solving them. An analytical/numerical strategy that combines the optimality conditions and the gradient method for FOCP as well as the predictor–corrector fractional integrator is used to obtain optimal dilution rate profiles for the fermentation case-study. For the case of the thermal hydrolysis, the strategy involves discretization of the FOCP to formulate it as a Non-Linear Programming problem; then, the solution algorithm involves the use of an NLP solver and the shooting technique coupled to an inverse Laplace transformation subroutine. The optimal profiles show the performance of the numerical solution approaches proposed and the effect of the fractional orders in the optimal results.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Numerical simulations of fluid dynamics in carrier structures for
           catalysis: characterization and need for optimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): T. Horneber , C. Rauh , A. Delgado
      3D fluid dynamic numerical simulations of different structured open-cell foams are presented: a cubic lattice, the tetrakaidecahedron geometry (Kelvin cell geometry), and the diamond structure. The simulations are done with the open-source software OpenFOAM. Beneath the pressure drops of the different structures, which are compared using dimensionless numbers such as Reynolds number and Euler number, also the development of velocity and its frequency distribution, as an important parameter for chemical reactions, are evaluated. As a main result, the diamond structure provides good conditions with respect to dwell time distributions for the underlying chemical reaction. All the results give a deep knowledge in terms of the underlying principles and optimization approaches.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • A fractional calculus approach to the dynamic optimization of biological
           reactive systems. Part I: Fractional models for biological reactions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rasiel Toledo-Hernandez , Vicente Rico-Ramirez , Gustavo A. Iglesias-Silva , Urmila M. Diwekar
      This series of two papers is concerned with both the modeling and the optimization of systems whose governing equations contain fractional derivative operators. In this first work, we show that the dynamics of some reactive systems displaying atypical behavior can be represented by fractional order differential equations. We consider three different instances of fermentation processes and one case of a thermal hydrolysis process. We propose a fractional fermentation model and, based on experimental data, a non-linear fitting approach that includes fractional integration is used to obtain the fractional orders and kinetics parameters. On the other hand, since the ordinary thermal hydrolysis model used as a reference was derived from fundamental principles, a formal fractionalization approach was used in this work to obtain the corresponding fractional model. Results show the feasibility and capabilities of fractional calculus as a tool for modeling dynamic systems in the area of process systems engineering.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • The influence of Marangoni convection on fluid dynamics of oscillating
           single rising droplets
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Roland F. Engberg , Mirco Wegener , Eugeny Y. Kenig
      The impact of solutal Marangoni convection on fluid dynamics and mass transfer cannot be described by means of analytical methods, due to their inherently three-dimensional, highly unsteady and non-linear nature. Hence, experimental and – to an increasing degree – numerical efforts are needed to reveal the underlying phenomena. This paper presents three-dimensional numerical simulations of an oscillating single droplet rising in a quiescent ambient liquid, with and without the Marangoni effect induced by the interfacial mass transfer of a solute. For the simulations, a CFD code based on the level set method was implemented in the open-source software OpenFOAM ® . Experiments in the oscillating droplet regime have been carried out with the toluene/acetone/water system for different initial solute concentrations (reflecting different strengths of Marangoni convection) to obtain data for the validation of the numerical results. Comparisons between experimental and simulation results regarding the velocity, shape and trajectories of a rising droplet show a good qualitative and quantitative agreement. This will provide a basis for comprehensive mass transfer studies at deformable and oscillating droplets with simultaneous interfacial phenomena, such as Marangoni convection and surfactant adsorption, in the future.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Unequal granular temperature model for motion of platelets to the wall and
           red blood cells to the center
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Dimtri Gidaspow , Vishak Chandra
      The experimentally measured motion of platelets to the wall and red blood cells to the center is explained by unequal granular temperature kinetic theory. The migration of platelets to walls of the blood vessels in the presence of red blood cells is caused by the high granular pressure produced by the random oscillations of the red blood cells and the dissipation of platelet random energy at the walls. At the wall the shear has the highest value. This produces a high granular pressure and temperature which drive the red blood cells towards the center. An analytical solution for the platelet concentration was derived.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Experimental study on particle characteristics in an opposed multi-burner
           gasifier
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Yan Gong , Guangsuo Yu , Qinghua Guo , Zhijie Zhou , Fuchen Wang , Yongdi Liu
      Based on the bench-scale opposed multi-burner (OMB) coal-water slurry (CWS) gasifier, temperature distributions of particles at different spatial regions, reactivity characteristics of particles and their interactions were studied with a variety of visualization techniques. The particles in gasifier are mainly classified to five types, and the principles of transformation between them are concluded as: low temperature particle without wake (LTP) could transform to low temperature particle with high temperature wake (LTP-HTW) when contacted with high temperature flame, then transform to LTP as reactions terminate and the particles become non-reactive; low temperature particle with low temperature wake (LTP-LTW) would transform to LTP-HTW when transfer to high temperature regions; as LTP-HTW adhere to the refractory wall, their wakes vanish and particles transform to high temperature particle without wake (HTP); high temperature particle with high temperature wake (HTP-HTW) could finally transform to HTP after the end of reactions. Particle groups with irregular shapes, flake-shaped and hollowed spherical structure are the forms of existence for larger size particles in gasifier.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Design, fabrication, and testing of a DC MHD micropump fabricated on
           photosensitive glass
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Chun Taek Kim , Jongkwang Lee , Sejin kwon
      A theoretical and experimental investigation of the performance of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) micropump fabricated on photosensitive glass for circulating liquid metal is presented. A one-dimensional design and analysis tool has been developed and employed to design the pump, which has a uniform rectangular cross section of 5mm × 0.8mm and a length of 20mm; perpendicular magnetic fluxes and an axial electric current are generated in the pump. Experimental results are presented for the circulation of liquid Ga using NdFeB permanent magnets that produce 0.375T. The maximum pressure increase generated is 2.82kPa at 6A DC; the maximum efficiency is 0.46% at 2A DC, where the flow rate is 40ml/min.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Falling film melt crystallization (III): Model development, separation
           effect compared to static melt crystallization and process optimization
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Xiaobin Jiang , Wu Xiao , Gaohong He
      This article describes the development of a model for the processes of crystal layer growth and sweating in static melt crystallization (SMC). Model foundations and fractal porous media theory were introduced from models of falling film melt crystallization (FFMC). Consistent simulation results were obtained for this model without using a fitting parameter. A systematic comparison of SMC and FFMC was conducted to reveal the advantages and disadvantages of separation in these two melt crystallization modes. The resulting models were used to optimize key operational profiles in FFMC and SMC. The average effective distribution coefficients K eff ¯ of calcium and sodium ion impurities were determined to be 0.03 and 0.025, respectively, for a combined FFMC and SMC operation. The separation potential of melt crystallization is being explored using various models and simulations for application in the industrial preparation of ultrapure chemicals.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Taylor dispersion in oscillatory flow in rectangular channels
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Jinkee Lee , Anubhav Tripathi , Anuj Chauhan
      This paper focuses on exploring the effect of the side walls on dispersion in oscillatory Poiseuille flows in rectangular channels. The method of multiple time scales with regular expansions is utilized to obtain analytical expressions for the effective dispersivity D 3 D ⁎ . The dispersion coefficient is of the form D 3 D ⁎ / P e 2 = f ( Ω ≡ ω h 2 / D , S c ≡ D / ν , χ ≡ w / h ) where P e ≡ < u > h / D , <u> is the root mean square of the cross-section averaged velocity, ω is the angular velocity, 2w and 2h are, respectively, the width and the height of the cross-section, D is the solute diffusivity, and ν is the fluid kinematic viscosity. The analytical results are compared with full numerical simulations and asymptotic expressions. Also effect of various parameters on dispersion coefficient is explored. For small oscillation frequency Ω the dispersion coefficient approaches the time averaged dispersion of the Poiseuille flow and for large Ω , D 3 D ⁎ scales as Pe 2/Ω2 where Pe=<u>h/D. Due to its relative simplicity, the 2D model is frequently utilized for calculating dispersion in channels. However at small dimensionless frequencies the 2D model can significantly underestimate the dispersion, particularly for channels with large χ. At large Ω the dispersion coefficient predicted from the 2D model becomes reasonably accurate, particularly for channels with large χ. For a square channel, the 2D prediction is reasonably accurate for all frequencies. The results of this study will enhance our understanding of transport in microscale systems that are subjected to oscillating flows, and potentially aid technological advances in diverse areas relevant to microfluidic devices.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions by using fluidized zeolite A
           beads: Hydrodynamic and sorption studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Mina Jovanovic , Zeljko Grbavcic , Nevenka Rajic , Bojana Obradovic
      This study investigated potentials of fluidized bed systems with zeolite A beads for removal of heavy metal ions from aqueous solutions. Two commercial zeolite bead fractions (0.7 and 2.2mm in diameter) were used, while Cu(II) served as a model ion. Fluidized bed systems were characterized first regarding the hydrodynamic properties so that the operating regime was determined between the minimum fluidization velocity and the terminal velocity, corresponding to 0.2 and 5.6cms−1, respectively, for smaller beads, and 2.0 and 13.2cms−1, respectively, for larger beads. Cu(II) sorption kinetics was studied next in the fluidized system with recirculation and at the initial Cu(II) concentration of 300mgdm−3 at selected superficial velocities of 2.6 and 3.0cms−1, for small and large beads, respectively. In parallel, Cu(II) sorption kinetics was studied in shaken flasks. In both systems and for both zeolite A bead fractions, intra-particle diffusion was shown to be the rate limiting step. Calculated Cu(II) diffusivities were in the range of (2–15)×10–13 m2 s−1 with slightly higher values determined in fluidized bed systems and for larger beads. These slight variations were explained by minor differences in the texture of small and large beads. Still, diffusion through the zeolite lattice was indicated as the slowest step in the process. The maximal sorption capacity of zeolite A beads for Cu(II) at 20°C was predicted as 23.3mgg−1 based on the Langmuir model applied to the sorption isotherm. Results from the present study have shown potentials for the use of zeolite A beads in fluidized bed systems for removal of heavy metals from industrial wastewaters.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Nonlinear frequency response analysis of forced periodic operation of
           non-isothermal CSTR using single input modulations. Part I: Modulation of
           inlet concentration or flow-rate
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Daliborka Nikolić , Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern , Menka Petkovska
      Periodic operations of a non-isothermal CSTR with n-th order reaction, subject to a single input modulation, is analysed using the nonlinear frequency response (NFR) method, introduced in our previous publications. The method is based on deriving the asymmetrical second order frequency response function (FRF) and analysing its sign. In Part I of this paper, periodic operation with modulation of the inlet concentration or flow-rate of the reaction stream is analysed. As a result, conditions regarding the reaction order, process parameters and frequency of the input modulation are identified that need to be fulfilled in order to achieve process improvement through the periodic operation compared to conventional steady state operation. The method is applied for a numerical example from literature and the results obtained by the NFR method are compared with the results of numerical simulation. Good agreement is obtained, except for imposed forcing frequencies close to the resonant frequency and high forcing amplitudes.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Influence of energy spectrum distribution on drop breakage in turbulent
           flows
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Luchang Han , Shenggao Gong , Yongqiang Li , Ningning Gao , Jin Fu , He′an Luo , Zhifen Liu
      This work focused on the influence of energy spectrum distribution on drop breakage in turbulent flows. An improved breakage model in terms of general energy spectrum function was presented. It can be coupled with available forms of energy spectrum and can be applied to the wider operating conditions such as the wider size range of drops. Unlike previous work that only considered the inertia subrange spectrum, this work simulated the breakage in the framework of wide energy spectrum and accounted for the necessity of considering the wide energy spectrum distribution. The improved model coupled with wide energy spectrum function can theoretically explain the recent experimental phenomena observed by Maaß and Kraume, 2012. Determination of breakage rates using single drop experiments. Chem. Eng. Sci. 70, 146–164. That is, breakage frequency increases to a maximum and then decreases with increasing parent drop size. This is because the non-monotone energy spectrum function can distinguish three spectrum ranges, i.e., containing-energy range, inertia subrange and dissipation range, and the treatment that parent drop size always falls in the inertia subrange is no longer required in this work. While when only the energy spectrum of inertia subrange is applied to the whole size range of eddies, the predicted breakage frequency monotonously increases with parent drop diameter. Therefore, the energy spectrum distribution has a crucial influence on the evolution of the breakage frequency with parent drop size.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Inter-particle coating variability in a continuous coater
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Rahul Kumar , Carl Wassgren
      The influence of particle axial motion on inter-particle coating variability is studied in a rotating drum continuous coater. A mathematical framework based on renewal theory is developed and an expression for inter-particle coating variability is obtained that accounts for the variance in the residence time of particles inside the coater. This model makes no assumptions on the nature of the particle axial motion. Discrete element method simulations have shown, however, that the particle axial motion can be accurately modeled by a combination of advective and diffusive motion characterized by an axial Peclet number. Using this advective-diffusive model, it was found that in order to maintain an inter-particle coating variability of less than 1%, typical of what might be needed for functional pharmaceutical tablet coatings, a Peclet number of 20,000 is required. Such a large Peclet number would necessitate essentially plug flow for typical continuous coater lengths of 1–2m, or coater lengths of at least 15m for typical feed rates and spherical particle diffusion coefficients.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Residence time distribution and reaction rate in the horizontal rotating
           foam stirrer reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): M.A. Leon , T.A. Nijhuis , J. van der Schaaf , J.C. Schouten
      The performance of a multistage horizontal rotating foam stirrer reactor in semi-continuous operation was studied for the selective hydrogenation of functionalized alkynes to alkenes, an important process in the fine chemicals industry. This new type of multiphase reactor consists of a horizontal vessel compartmentalized by vertical baffles and equipped with an impeller in each compartment. The impeller is a donut-shaped foam block, which is also used as catalyst support. The advantage of this reactor configuration compared to batch slurry reactors is the better catalyst handling, since the catalyst is fixed on the stirrer. In addition, a higher selectivity towards the desired product is achieved as a result of a narrower residence time distribution. A reactor model consisting of stirred tanks in series with backflow and dead volume was used to describe the liquid flow behaviour. The effects of liquid flow rate, backmixing and number of stages for the hydrogenation reaction are discussed, and optimal operation conditions are suggested.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Multi-component mass transfer behavior in catalytic membrane reactors
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Harro Mengers , Nieck E. Benes , Kitty Nijmeijer
      Numerical simulations are presented to compare mass transfer at the bulk fluid-membrane interface of two types of membrane reactors, for arbitrary equilibrium reactions: the catalytic membrane reactor (CMR) in which the location of the reaction and separation coincide, and the inert membrane reactor (IMR) in which locations of reaction and separation distinct. The Maxwell–Stefan theory is adopted to describe this multi-component mass transport and to take friction between the species in the reaction mixture into account. Simulation results are presented that aid selection of the most appropriate reactor configuration for different reaction equilibrium characteristics. Effects of process conditions, membrane properties, and possibilities to optimize reactor design are discussed. Three regimes can be distinguished, based on the value of reaction equilibrium constant (K eq ). At very low K eq , the CMR outperforms the IMR, and in particular a high membrane area/reactor volume ratio (A/V), a high product permeance, and a large residence time are required. At moderate K eq , the CMR potentially outperforms the IMR, and conversion benefits in particular from a high A/V ratio and sufficiently high mass transfer. For high K eq the performance of the IMR is superior as compared to the CMR. The simulation results indicate that, in particular for the CMR, a mass transport description that can properly address multi-component mass transport characteristics is vital. The results predicted based the Maxwell–Stefan theory will not be captured adequately by a model based on, for instance, the law of Fick.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Nonlinear frequency response analysis of forced periodic operation of
           non-isothermal CSTR using single input modulations. Part II: Modulation of
           inlet temperature or temperature of the cooling/heating fluid
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Daliborka Nikolić , Andreas Seidel-Morgenstern , Menka Petkovska
      Periodic operation of a non-isothermal CSTR subject to a single input modulation is analyzed considering a nth order reaction and using the nonlinear frequency response (NFR) method, introduced in our previous publications. The method is based on deriving the asymmetrical second order frequency response function (FRF) and analyzing its sign. In Part I of this paper, the periodic modulations of inlet concentration or flow-rate of the reaction stream were investigated. In this Part II, periodic operations are analyzed for modulations of the temperature of the inlet reaction stream or the temperature of the heating/cooling fluid. Conditions that need to be fulfilled in order to achieve process improvement through periodic operation are identified. The method is applied for the same numerical example taken from literature which was used in Part I. The results obtained by the NFR method are compared with the results of numerical simulations. Good agreement is obtained, except for forcing frequencies close to the resonant frequency. In these cases, even the sign of the DC component was not predicted correctly.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • A full transient three-dimensional study on the effect of pulsating
           exhaust flow under real running condition on the thermal and chemical
           behavior of closed-coupled catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Soo-Jin Jeong
      The engine-out flow is highly transient and hot, and may place tremendous thermal and inertial loads on a closed-coupled catalyst. Therefore, time-dependent and detailed flow and thermal field simulation may be crucial. The aim of this study is to develop combined chemical reaction and multi-dimensional fluid dynamic mathematical model and to study the effect of unsteady pulsating thermal and flow characteristics on thermal reliability of closed-coupled catalyst. The effect of cell density on the conversion performance under real running condition is also investigated. Unlike previous studies, the present study focuses on coupling between the problems of pulsating flow pattern and catalyst thermal response and conversion efficiency. The results are expressed in terms of temporal evolution of flow, pollutant and temperature distribution as well as transient characteristics of conversion efficiency. Fundamental understanding of the flow and thermal phenomena of closed-coupled catalyst under real running condition is presented. It is shown that instants of significantly low values of flow uniformity and conversion efficiency exist during exhaust blow-down and the temporal variation of flow uniformity is very similar in pattern to one of conversion efficiency. It is also found that the location of hot spot in monolith is directly affected by transient flow pattern in closed-coupled catalyst.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Modeling of power characteristics for multistage rotor–stator mixers
           of shear-thinning fluids
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): Huashuai Wu , Shuli Shu , Ning Yang , Guoping Lian , Shiping Zhu , Mingyan Liu
      Multistage rotor–stator (RS) mixers are widely utilized to generate high shear rate in dispersion processes such as foam generation and emulsification, featuring narrow gaps between rotors and stators in the axial direction and close clearance between rotors and vessel wall in the radial direction. In this study, CFD simulation of the multistage RS mixers is carried out for Newtonian and shear-thinning power-law fluids to investigate the strain rate distribution and power characteristics, both of which are critical for bubble or droplet size distribution and process optimization. The simulation indicates that the shear-thinning power-law fluids lead to large fluid dead zones in the laminar regime compared to the Newtonian fluids, whereas such dead zone disappears in turbulent regime. But the area of higher strain rate of the power-law fluid near the tip of rotors is greater than that of Newtonian fluid. The average strain rate in turbulent flow is much higher than that in laminar flow, and the tails of strain rate distribution become longer as the flow index n decreases. The radial clearance ratio is found to have a non-negligible effect on the proportionality constant K p between the power number and Reynolds number. For non-Newtonian fluids, CFD simulation indicates that the shear rate proportionality K s nearly keeps constant in the laminar regime and is insensitive to the flow index n, showing that the Metzner–Otto concept is still suitable for the multistage RS systems. However K s is strongly dependent on the radial clearance ratio and the axial gap, and hence new correlations are proposed for K p and K s to consider this effect. Then a new correlation for the power number is established and can serve as a unified correlation for Newtonian and shear-thinning power-law fluids in the laminar regime in multistage RS systems.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Operational characteristics of oscillatory micro-screen emulsifier:
           Coupling effects and energy dissipation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 27 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 117
      Author(s): H.G. Gomaa , J. Liu , R. Sabouni , J. Zhu
      Production of oil in water (O/W) emulsion using oscillatory high porosity woven metal microscreen (WMMS) is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The investigation included coupling effects of design and operating parameters on droplet size and distribution. Results demonstrate the ability to produce emulsions with predictable characteristics and to achieve high dispersed phase concentrations at low energy requirements. Increasing oscillation intensity resulted in smaller droplet size due to the increase in both surface shear and surfactant transfer rate to the droplets surface. The expansion rate of the later increased with increasing the dispersed phase flow resulting in faster surfactant depletion. Using bi-surfactants in both the continuous and dispersed phases resulted in smaller droplet size due to lower interfacial tension. Decreasing the emulsification channel width decreased droplet size due to the increase in the relative surface shear as well as the energy dissipation density. The presence of surface roughness resulted in smaller droplet sizes but had an adverse effect on the dispersion uniformity, which was also affected by lateral vibrations. Both led to localized energy dissipation and droplets breakage near the edges. An order of magnitude assessment of power consumption showed favourable energy requirement (kWh/m3) of the proposed approach compared to other techniques.


      PubDate: 2014-07-18T16:17:35Z
       
  • Molecular weight/branching distribution modeling of
           low-density-polyethylene accounting for topological scission and
           combination termination in continuous stirred tank reactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Nazila Yaghini , Piet D. Iedema
      We present a comprehensive model to predict the molecular weight distribution (MWD), 1 1 Molecular weight distribution. and branching distribution of low-density polyethylene (ldPE), 2 2 Low density polyethylene. for free radical polymerization system in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR). 3 3 Continuous stirred tank reactor. The model accounts for branching, by branching moment or pseudo-distributions. The common free radical polymerization reactions including chain scission have been considered in the model. Non-linear or the so-called topological scission has been modeled using approximate fragment length distributions derived from scission, applied to branching topologies. To model the distributions, the Galerkin-FEM method based on the same principles as PREDICI® has been applied and implemented in MATLAB©. The fundamental numerical problem arising from topological scission has been solved. Thus, the model provides more accurate results, allowing a precise comparison to earlier results and to Monte Carlo simulations.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Multi-stage energy analysis of steam explosion process
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Wenjie Sui , Hongzhang Chen
      Owing to the deficiency of investigating steam explosion on energy utilization, in this study, we analyze the heat transfer mechanism and energy consumption of steam explosion process. Based on years of research, we propose that energy consumption of steam explosion not only involves holding pressure and instantaneous decompression stages but also the upward stage of pressure. On this basis, a multi-stage heat transfer model of steam explosion process integrating technical features is established. Results reveal the significance of pressure boost stage which contributes the vast majority of total energy consumption. The amount of steam consumption per unit mass of dry materials m′ is presented to quantitatively evaluate the energy consumption under various factors, in which initial moisture content is considered as the most important factor. Several rational operational strategies for improving energy efficiency are proposed including controlling low moisture content of materials (<40%), adopting low-temperature and long-time parameters as well as properly reducing particle size. Such representations not only contribute to utilization of energy but considerably facilitate optimization, simulation, design and control of steam explosion process, consequently improving the large-scale deployment of steam explosion technology.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Numerical simulation of carbon dioxide (CO2) absorption and interfacial
           mass transfer across vertically wavy falling film
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Jianguang Hu , Xiaogang Yang , Jianguo Yu , Gance Dai
      The process of CO2 absorption in many currently used chemical devices can be typically characterised and analysed by mass transfer across a thin falling film gas–liquid interface. There is still a lack of general predictability of the transfer quantity based on the basic hydrodynamic parameters involved in such mass transfer processes, and certain important phenomena associated with the transfer still remain unexplained. A novel concept that utilises the correlation between the vorticity neighbouring the falling film gas–liquid interface and the gas concentration to characterise CO2 absorption mass transfer by the falling film is proposed in this work. Numerical simulations using a volume of fluid (VOF) approach were performed for a vertical falling film arrangement. The wave hydrodynamics and the associated mass transfer are discussed, and the numerical results are compared with the existing experimental empirical relationships. In particular, the mass transfer across the falling film interface is interpreted as the passive scalar entrapment and entrainment by the interfacial vortices. The numerical simulation clearly indicates that two types of vortices exist: wall-bounded vortices associated with primary shear in the falling film and interfacial vortices associated with weaker shear in the vicinity of the interface. The numerical simulation reveals that mass transfer across the falling film is highly correlated with the interfacial vorticity Ω i , thus indicating the use of c Ω i ¯ is able to characterise the mass transfer across the falling film gas–liquid interface.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • On the kinetics of the isomerization of glucose to fructose using Sn-Beta
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Nafiseh Rajabbeigi , Ana I. Torres , Christopher M. Lew , Bahman Elyassi , Limin Ren , Zhuopeng Wang , Hong Je Cho , Wei Fan , Prodromos Daoutidis , Michael Tsapatsis
      Process design and techno-economic evaluation of glucose isomerization on Sn-Beta require reliable catalytic reaction rate expressions and kinetic constants. Here, the isomerization of sugars (glucose, fructose and mannose) in water using Sn-Beta is investigated at various temperatures ranging from 70 to 130°C. It is shown that the catalyst deactivates during the course of the reaction. A phenomenological model that describes the isomerization reaction in the presence of deactivation is developed and the corresponding kinetic constants are estimated from experimental data.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Surfactant-mediated settleability and dewaterability of activated sludge
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Long-Fei Wang , Ling-Ling Wang , Wen-Wei Li , Dong-Qin He , Hong Jiang , Xiao-Dong Ye , Hai-Ping Yuan , Nan-Wen Zhu , Han-Qing Yu
      The activated sludge process is widely used for wastewater treatment, and the settleability and dewaterability of activated sludge are crucial to the operation of wastewater treatment plants. In this study the surfactant-mediated settleability and dewaterability of activated sludge were investigated. It is found that dose of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) caused substantial release of extracellular polymer substances (EPS), especially proteins, from sludge. Laser light scattering (LLS) results reveal that the released EPS became stretched and more expanded when the SDS dosage was increased. The sludge dewaterability was significantly deteriorated at a dosage of 2.084g/L SDS, and meanwhile the capillary suction time (CST) and specific resistance of filtration (SRF) increased by 6.3 and 5.1 times, respectively, than the raw sludge. The correlations between the EPS contents and the sludge properties, i.e., CST, SRF, moisture content of filter-cake and sludge volume index, were evaluated and the significant roles of proteins in governing the EPS properties as well as the settleability and dewaterability of sludge were further confirmed. This study elucidates how the settleability and dewaterability of activated sludge were affected by surfactants via changing the properties and structure of the released EPS from sludge.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Agro-industrial acidic oil as a renewable feedstock for biodiesel
           production using (1R)-(–)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Adeeb Hayyan , Mohd Ali Hashim , Maan Hayyan
      A mixture of low grade industrial oils such as acidic crude palm oil (ACPO) and sludge palm oil (SPO) was used for biodiesel production. A novel organic acid, (1R)-(–)-camphor-10-sulfonic acid (10-CSA), was introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. 10-CSA shows high activity as a catalyst in the reduction of free fatty acid (FFA) and high conversion of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). The effects of reaction temperature, reaction time and molar ratio on FFA reduction and FAME conversion were studied. The FFA content was reduced from 8% to less than 1% under optimum conditions. The final product (biodiesel fuel) produced from treated oils (ACPO and SPO) meets international biodiesel standards. This is the first time 10-CSA has been introduced as a catalyst for esterification reaction. This catalyst can treat a wide range of acidic raw materials for biodiesel production. 10-CSA is a promising catalyst and can be used for various chemical reactions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Characterization of the particle–wall frictional forces in pseudo-2D
           fluidized beds using DEM
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): F. Hernández-Jiménez , T. Li , E. Cano-Pleite , W. Rogers , A. Acosta-Iborra
      In this work a numerical study of a pseudo-2D gas fluidized bed is carried out using the MFIX-DEM code with a twofold aim. The first aim is to check whether the DEM code reproduces the overall experimental value of the frictional force of the walls on the particles in the pseudo-2D bed in bubbling regime, previously measured by Hernández-Jiménez et al. (2013) by means of a global force balance in the bed. The second aim of this work is to perform a local study of the wall–particle frictional forces, using the results of the DEM simulations. The results showed that the force balance proposed by Hernández-Jiménez et al. (2013) is consistent with the DEM simulations, corroborating that the particle–wall overall force can be considered equal to the velocity of the centre of mass times a global particle–wall interaction coefficient, c. Besides, it was found that the most probable value of the local coefficient c in the DEM simulations is similar to the global value experimentally obtained. As expected, the DEM results showed that this particle–wall interaction coefficient, c, increases with the particle–wall friction coefficient. Coincidence between simulations and experiments is maximum if an angle of internal friction very close to 30° is considered in the DEM particle–wall interaction.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Comparison of solids suspension criteria based on electrical impedance
           tomography and visual measurements
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Petri Tervasmäki , Jari Tiihonen , Heikki Ojamo
      Different approaches have been adopted to quantify the performance of stirred vessels in suspending sinking solids into liquid phase. In this study we used electrical impedance tomography (EIT) to estimate the solids distribution in a lab-scale stirred vessel with a diameter of 362mm. Also visual measurements were performed to determine the cloud height and just suspended impeller speed. Quartz sand with a density of 2650kg/m3 was employed as the solid phase with different particle size fractions from 50 to 180µm and solids volume fractions of 7.5% and 15%. The effect of impeller type was studied by using two axial flow impellers, a pitched blade turbine and a hydrofoil impeller. Two different states—partial and homogeneous suspensions—were defined from the EIT data in addition to visual measurement of complete off-bottom suspension and cloud height. Partial suspension was determined from the EIT data, and it was reached at relatively low agitation rates. Visual measurements and data from the literature also support this observation, and EIT was proved to be a suitable method to quantify a repeatable partial suspension criterion. Complete off-bottom suspension was measured visually by determining the agitation rate at which there were no stationary solid particles at the vessel bottom for longer than 2s. However, the applicability of this widely used criterion was questioned in the case of dense suspensions of small particles. Homogeneous suspension was estimated from the EIT data, and it was reached by approximately doubling the impeller revolution rate from the partial suspension criterion. The hydrofoil impeller reached all states of suspension with lower power consumption compared to the pitched blade turbine.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Reaction mechanism for glycerol dehydration in the gas phase over a solid
           acid catalyst determined with on-line gas chromatography
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Isabelle Martinuzzi , Yassine Azizi , Jean-François Devaux , Serge Tretjak , Orfan Zahraa , Jean-Pierre Leclerc
      Gas phase glycerol dehydration to form acrolein over a solid acid catalyst was studied to understand the formation of by-products and to establish a detailed reaction mechanism. The experiments were conducted in an isothermal fixed bed reactor operated under various conditions (temperature, space-time velocity, concentration). From a methodological point of view, many secondary products of the reaction were passed separately over the catalyst to understand the different pathways of glycerol dehydration. Our scientific contribution to the analytical method is that all of the products were analyzed simultaneously using a multivalve on-line gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector and a thermal conductivity detector. Two products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography, and the unknown products (2-methyl 2-cyclopenten-1-one, 3-methyl 2-cyclopenten-1-one and 2,3-butanedione) were identified by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Several new compounds were found. Based on the determined products, a detailed reaction mechanism was proposed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • The impact of Marangoni convection on fluid dynamics and mass transfer at
           deformable single rising droplets – A numerical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Roland F. Engberg , Mirco Wegener , Eugeny Y. Kenig
      In this paper, fluid dynamics and mass transfer of single droplets rising in a quiescent ambient liquid are considered. For the first time, full three-dimensional simulations of a deformable droplet dominated by Marangoni convection induced by concentration gradients were performed. A level set based code accounting for the mutual coupling of mass and momentum transfer was developed and implemented in the open-source computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package OpenFOAM ® . The liquid/liquid extraction test system toluene/acetone/water was investigated, and numerical results were compared with experimental data from the literature. The code captures and reproduces the characteristic experimental results: the two-step acceleration behaviour, the temporary reduction of the drop rise velocity, and the enhancement of mass transfer depending on the initial solute concentration. The lateral break-out in the drop path at the instant of reacceleration has only been observed experimentally so far. Our simulations reproduce this phenomenon, confirming the existence of pressure gradients across the droplet. Furthermore, our results reveal that the break-out effect is governed by rear vortex detachment.
      Graphical abstract image Highlights

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Investigation of flow hydrodynamics and regime transition in a
           gas–solids fluidized bed with different riser diameters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Guizhi Qiu , Jiamin Ye , Haigang Wang , Wuqiang Yang
      It is important to understand the flow hydrodynamics behavior of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) reactor for efficient operation. The objective of this research is to identify and characterize the flow regimes in a fluidized bed with different riser diameters. For this purpose, electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) combined with pressure measurement has been used to investigate the flow characteristics and flow regime transitions. Experiment was carried out in a cold gas–solids fluidized bed to investigate the flow regimes and the transition velocities. Three risers of different diameter, 10, 12 and 15cm, are designed and used for comparison. A twin-plane ECT sensor and a differential pressure transducer are used to obtain the solids volume fraction and differential pressure in the bottom region. Different flow regimes including bubbling, slugging and turbulent flow regime were formed with two distinct transition velocities. The flow characteristics are investigated in terms of solids volume fraction, bubble diameter and bubble rising velocity. The transition velocities are compared based on the ratio of the static bed height to bed diameter (H st /D) and the measured position (i.e. the axial position and radial position).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Ligament-type liquid disintegration by a spinning wheel
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Benjamin Bizjan , Brane Širok , Marko Hočevar , Alen Orbanić
      In this paper, liquid disintegration by a spinning wheel was investigated experimentally. The mechanism of ligament formation on a spinning wheel was studied using photographs taken by a high-speed camera. Three different liquids with Newtonian properties were used at various flow rates and the wheel rotational speed was varied in a wide range. The atomization process was found to be significantly different from the spinning disc and cups atomization due to the highly non-uniform circumferential ligament distribution and the absence of the direct drop formation mode. Nevertheless, the dependence of ligament number and diameter on the input process parameters is similar as with other types of centrifugal atomizers due to the same underlying hydrodynamic instabilities.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Continuous purification of active pharmaceutical ingredients using
           multistage organic solvent nanofiltration membrane cascade
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Ludmila Peeva , Joao da Silva Burgal , Irina Valtcheva , Andrew G. Livingston
      Downstream processing accounts for a large fraction of the production costs in pharmaceutical manufacturing. Organic solvent nanofiltration performed in a membrane cascade offers an interesting possibility for a continuous downstream processing unit operation. This work demonstrates continuous purification of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Roxithromycin from potential Genotoxic Impurity (GTI) 4-dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP) in a simple and efficient two stage membrane cascade. Cascade performance is initially evaluated via mathematical simulations, and then validated experimentally. We demonstrated that by careful selection of operating parameters, high purity of the API >99% could be achieved from feed stream purity of 78%. The continuous cascade could be easily coupled with an adsorption column, utilising an inexpensive non-selective adsorbent such as charcoal, as a solvent recovery stage. The combined continuous process generates orders of magnitude less waste than a batch diafiltration which makes it an attractive alternative purification process for pharmaceutical industry.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Multi-scale flow simulation of automotive catalytic converters
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Cansu Ozhan , Daniel Fuster , Patrick Da Costa
      The flow distribution within the automotive catalytic converter is an important controlling factor on the overall conversion efficiency. Capturing the flow features minimizing the computational cost is the first important step towards the solution of the complex full engineering problem. In this work we present a novel approach that combines physical and numerical multi-resolution techniques in order to correctly capture the flow features inside an automotive catalytic converter. While Adaptive Mesh Refinement techniques are optimized in order to minimize the computational effort in the divergent region, a novel subgrid model is developed to describe the flow inside the catalytic substrate placed between the convergent and divergent regions. The proposed Adaptive Mesh Refinement methods are tested for two test cases representative of the flow features found in the divergent region of a catalytic converter. The performance of the new subgrid model is validated against the non-uniformity index and the radial velocity profile data obtained by Benjamin et al. (2002). The effective coupling of AMR techniques and the subgrid model significantly reduces the error of the numerical predictions to 5–15% in conditions where the full simulation of the problem is out of current computational capabilities.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Measurements of hydrate film fracture under conditions simulating the rise
           of hydrated gas bubbles in deep water
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Sheng-Li Li , Chang-Yu Sun , Guang-Jin Chen , Zhi-Yun Li , Qing-Lan Ma , Lan-Ying Yang , Amadeu K. Sum
      In view of gas hydrate formation in the containment of deep water oil/gas blowout, the evolution of methane hydrate films on gas bubbles rising naturally in deep water was simulated and observed by visual microscopy. The results reveal that hydrate films on gas bubbles formed at conditions corresponding to deeper depths (higher pressure) rose intact for longer distances and showed more pronounced fractures on the film. Secondary hydrate growth happened along the cracks of the hydrate film as the hydrated bubble rose upward. The fractured hydrate films were more likely to close with secondary growth when formed at subcoolings higher than 3.0K. The strength of methane hydrate film formed on the surface of a suspended gas bubble was examined by rapidly decreasing the external pressure of the hydrate film soon after its formation. The maximum tension that the hydrate film could withstand without fracturing as well as the tensile strength were evaluated for hydrate films formed at 277.2K and different subcoolings. It was found that the tensile strength of hydrate film increased with increasing subcooling at the formation conditions.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Risk-based operational performance analysis using loss functions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Seyed Javad Hashemi , Salim Ahmed , Faisal I. Khan
      This paper proposes a risk-based process performance assessment methodology using loss functions. The proposed method helps to overcome the existing challenges in assessing impacts of deviations of process variables on safety and economy of a process operation. The inverted Beta loss function is used to incorporate the effects of process deviations on the safety and quality losses. The demand rate adjustment factor is used to model the effect of process deviations on the failure probability of safety systems. The probability of a failed process state due to abnormal events is continuously updated based on the current value of the characteristic variables. The use of the loss function approach in combination with probability updating provides a continuously revised risk estimation. Such a real-time risk profile provides a leading performance indicator for decision-making at an operational level. As an example, a temperature surge in a continuous stirred tank reactor is used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed methodology.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Numerical modelling of breakage and adhesion of loose fine-particle
           agglomerates
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Duy Nguyen , Anders Rasmuson , Kyrre Thalberg , Ingela Niklasson Bjo¨rn
      In this study, discrete element method (DEM) simulations are used to examine the breakage and capturing behaviour of loose fine-particle agglomerates on impact with a target particle. The model system is an agglomerate composed of 5µm fine particles and a 200µm target particle. The cohesion between fine particles was modelled using the Johnson, Kendall and Roberts (JKR) theory. In contrast to the breakage of hard agglomerates which break in large fragments, as commonly investigated, loose agglomerates break in finer fragments. Impact velocity was found to be a significant parameter not only for the adhesion strength but also for the structure of the particles captured on the target. The capture ratio of the agglomerate as well as the thickness of the particle layer covering the target decreases with increasing impact velocity. High impact velocity results in finer fragments attached to the target with greater tensile strength due to the re-structuring mechanism that occurs during impact. Accordingly, impact velocity is one of the critical parameters governing the structure resulting after collision. However, the effect of material properties, e.g. surface energy, material hardness and plasticity, on adhesion behaviour should be investigated to obtain a full picture of the breakage-adhesion regime map.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Robust multicomponent IR-to-concentration model regression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Daniel J. Griffin , Martha A. Grover , Yoshiaki Kawajiri , Ronald W. Rousseau
      Infrared absorbance measurements can be made in situ and rapidly. Calibrating these measurements to give solution compositions can therefore yield a powerful tool for process monitoring and control. In many applications it is desirable to monitor the concentrations of multiple components in a complex solution under varying process conditions (which may introduce error in the absorbance measurements). Establishing a model that is capable of accurately predicting the concentrations of multiple components from infrared absorbance measurements that may be corrupted by error requires a carefully designed calibration procedure—a key part of which is model regression. In this article, a number of commonly used multivariate regression techniques are examined in the context of developing a model for simultaneously predicting the concentrations of four solutes from noisy infrared absorbance measurements. In addition, a tailored support vector regression algorithm—designed to produce a robust (measurement error-insensitive) calibration model—is developed, tested, and compared against these established regression algorithms.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Partial oxidation of methane over a ruthenium phthalocyanine catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Yuan Zhu , Robert Barat
      The partial oxidation of He-diluted CH4 with O2 has been studied in a laboratory flow reactor packed with fragmented pellets of zeolite-encaged Ru phthalocyanine catalyst. Gas compositions (CH4, O2, CO, CO2, and H2) were determined by on-line GC/TCD. Absolute system pressure was maintained at 445kPa. Most experiments were performed at a constant gas space velocity=0.717/s. Data were obtained over wide ranges of temperature (523–648K) and CH4/O2 feed molar ratio (0.5–6.5). Observed conversion of CH4 increased with temperature. Product selectivities of H2 and CO increased, while that of CO2 decreased, with increasing temperature and feed CH4/O2. Based on data analysis with an integral plug flow packed bed reactor model, the power law kinetic rate for CH4 conversion was observed to be first order in each of O2 and CH4. A non-linear Arrhenius plot of the global rate constants, together with a Mears correlation analysis, suggests that an external mass transfer resistance becomes active above 573K in this system.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Forces acting on a single introduced particle in a solid–liquid
           fluidised bed
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Zhengbiao Peng , Swapnil V. Ghatage , Elham Doroodchi , Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi , Geoffrey M. Evans , Behdad Moghtaderi
      In a liquid fluidised bed system, the motion of each phase is governed by fluid–particle and particle–particle interactions. The particle–particle collisions can significantly affect the motion of individual particles and hence the solid–liquid two phase flow characteristics. In the current work, computational fluid dynamics–discrete element method (CFD–DEM) simulations of a dense foreign particle introduced in a monodispersed solid–liquid fluidised bed (SLFB) have been carried out. The fluidisation hydrodynamics of SLFB, settling behaviour of the foreign particle, fluid–particle interactions, and particle–particle collision behaviour have been investigated. Experiments including particle classification velocity measurements and fluid turbulence characterisation by particle image velocimetry (PIV) were conducted for the validation of prediction results. Compared to those predicted by empirical correlations, the particle classification velocity predicted by CFD–DEM provided the best agreement with the experimental data (less than 10% deviation). The particle collision frequency increased monotonically with the solid fraction. The dimensionless collision frequency obtained by CFD–DEM excellently fit the data line predicted by the kinetic theory for granular flow (KTGF). The particle collision frequency increased with the particle size ratio (d P2/d P1) and became independent of the foreign particle size for high solid fractions when the fluidised particle size was kept constant. The magnitude of collision force was 10–50 times greater than that of gravitational force and maximally 9 times greater than that of drag force. A correlation describing the collision force as a function of bed voidage was developed for St p>65 and d P2/d P1≤2. A maximum deviation of less than 20% was obtained when the correlation was used for the prediction of particle collision force.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Gas mixing study in freely bubbling and turbulent gas–solid
           fluidized beds with a novel infrared technique coupled with digital image
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): T.Y.N. Dang , F. Gallucci , M. van Sint Annaland
      A novel experimental technique using a high speed Infrared (IR) camera combined with an improved Digital Image Analysis (DIA) method for non-invasive concentration measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution has recently been developed by Dang et al. (2013). This paper reports the extension of the IR technique to freely bubbling and turbulent fluidization regimes to investigate and quantify lateral gas mixing characteristics in gas–solid fluidized beds. The mechanism of lateral gas mixing in the bubbling regime studied with the novel technique is in good agreement with values reported in the literature. The experimental results, interpreted with a plug flow model with superimposed dispersion for a homogeneous flow, show that the lateral gas mixing coefficient first increases with the increase of superficial gas velocities from the bubbling to the turbulent flow regime and then decreases for even higher velocities, which is consistent with earlier literature studies. The dependency of the lateral gas mixing coefficient on the Reynolds number using Amos׳ correlation (Amos and Mineo, 1993) has shown large discrepancies at low gas velocities (where the equation was extrapolated), while a good match was obtained at higher gas velocities. The experimental findings reported in this paper indicate that the novel IR/DIA technique can successfully be applied for mass transfer and gas mixing studies in gas–solids multiphase flows.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Modelling of the interaction between a falling n-heptane droplet and hot
           solid surface
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Monica Gumulya , Ranjeet P. Utikar , Vishnu Pareek , Moses O. Tade , Subhasish Mitra , Geoffrey M. Evans
      Accurate prediction of the interactions between evaporating liquid droplets and solids are critical for many industrially important processes. A model based on coupled Level Set-Volume of Fluid approach was developed to simulate the interaction of evaporating liquid droplets with hot solid surfaces. The model incorporates appropriate source terms in the multiphase calculations to account for the heat and mass transfer. Accurate and stable numerical procedure was developed and incorporated in open source solver OpenFOAM. A brief discussion on the model development along with several key issues that are associated with this process was presented. The resulting numerical model was validated through the experimental data of Chandra and Avedisian (Chandra, S., Avedisian, C.T., 1991. Proc. R. Soc. Lond., Ser. A 432, 13–41). Although some discrepancies were found between the numerical results and experimental data, the model was found to be capable of reproducing the reduced droplet spreading rate as the temperature of the surface is increased away from the saturation temperature. The decrease in rate of surface wetting results from the combined effects of surface tension, viscous forces and evaporation at the liquid-solid-vapour contact line. Further, the effects of increased pressure at the solid-liquid interface resulting from the rapid evaporation of the liquid, which in some cases can be quite severe such that the liquid gets lifted-off from the surface, were also captured, in good agreement with experimental observations. Finally, the effects of the solid temperature on the evaporation and heat transfer rates of the droplets were presented and analysed.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Scalability of mass transfer in liquid–liquid flow
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): A. Woitalka , S. Kuhn , K.F. Jensen
      We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow transitions from Taylor flow to stratified flow and further to dispersed flow at elevated flow rates. In addition, we address the scale-up behavior of mass transfer coefficients and the extraction efficiency by using reactors on the micro- and the milli-scale. Flow imaging enables us to identify the different flow regimes and to connect them to the trends observed in mass transfer, and the obtained results highlight the dependence of mass transfer on flow patterns. Furthermore, the results show that on the milli-scale fluid–structure interactions are driving the phase dispersion and interfacial mass transfer, and such a reactor design ensures straightforward scalability from the micro- to the milli-scale.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
  • Structure-dependent drag in gas–solid flows studied with direct
           numerical simulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 6 September 2014
      Source:Chemical Engineering Science, Volume 116
      Author(s): Guofeng Zhou , Qingang Xiong , Limin Wang , Xiaowei Wang , Xinxin Ren , Wei Ge
      Quantification of drag F is critical to the simulation of gas–solid flows in both discrete particle models and two-fluid models. It is commonly accepted that for homogeneous flow the drag is a function of solid volume fraction ϕ and particle Reynolds number Re p (based on the mean slip velocity and particle radius). However, its adequacy for heterogeneous flows encountered more frequently is in debate yet. In this work, we reveal the strong structural dependence of the drag in both a simple case of two particles and a typical case with stepwise heterogeneity, demonstrating the necessity for a structure-dependent drag description. To quantify such dependence, flow past idealized static suspensions with linear heterogeneity is studied first, which confirms a general form F(Re p,ϕ, ∇ϕ ,θ) suggested previously, where θ is the angle between the gradient ∇ϕ and the mean slip velocity. In the studied range of 5<Re p<30, F depends linearly on Re p for a given static particle configuration. However, the concrete expressions are yet to be found. Then for dynamic gas–solid suspension, large-scale simulations enabled by supercomputing systems reveal a much more complicated dependen on one hand, the drag coefficients on individual particles scatter even in the absence of distinct heterogeneity; and on the other hand, with the presence of distinct heterogeneity, the drag predicted by Wen and Yu (1966) deviates significantly from the simulation value in both direction and magnitude. A purely bottom-up statistical approach to establish a drag correlation in this case seems difficult and a theoretical elucidation is needed.


      PubDate: 2014-06-14T14:56:44Z
       
 
 
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