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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.182
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 63  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0614 - ISSN (Online) 0175-7598
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • A Pichia pastoris single-cell biosensor for detection of enzymatically
           produced methanol
    • Authors: Tomoyuki Takeya; Hiroya Yurimoto; Yasuyoshi Sakai
      Abstract: We conducted single-cell analyses of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris to develop a biosensor for the detection of methanol produced by heterologous enzymes. In this biosensor, methanol and its subsequent metabolism induce expression of a gene encoding a fluorescent protein that was placed under the control of a methanol-inducible promoter. Using quantitative analyses of fluorescence microscopy images, a methanol-inducible promoter and a host strain were selected, and preculture and assay conditions were optimized to improve the methanol detection limit. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of the distribution and geometric mean of cellular fluorescence intensity against various concentrations of methanol revealed a detection limit of 2.5 μM. Finally, this biosensor was applied to evaluate the activity of a heterologously expressed pectin methylesterase (PME). The cellular fluorescence intensity was proportional to the copy number of the PME expression cassette, the protein level, and the enzyme activity. This biosensor can be used for high-throughput screening of single cells harboring high methanol-producing activity, and thereby, the development of a bioconversion process using methanol-producing enzymes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9144-9
       
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin Rv2872 is an RNase involved in vancomycin
           stress response and biofilm development
    • Authors: Xiaoyu Wang; Xiaokang Zhao; Hao Wang; Xue Huang; Xiangke Duan; Yinzhong Gu; Nzungize Lambert; Ke Zhang; Zhenhao Kou; Jianping Xie
      Abstract: Bacterial toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are emerging important regulators of multiple cellular physiological events and candidates for novel antibiotic targets. To explore the role of Mycobacterium tuberculosis function, unknown toxin gene Rv2872 was heterologously expressed in Mycobacterium smegmatis (MS_Rv2872). Upon induction, MS_Rv2872 phenotype differed significantly from the control, such as increased vancomycin resistance, retarded growth, cell wall, and biofilm structure. This phenotype change might result from the RNase activity of Rv2872 as purified Rv2872 toxin protein can cleave the products of several key genes involved in abovementioned phenotypes. In summary, toxin Rv2872 was firstly reported to be a endonuclease involved in antibiotic stress responses, cell wall structure, and biofilm development.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9132-0
       
  • C-terminal Ser/Thr residues are vital for the regulatory role of Ste7 in
           the asexual cycle and virulence of Beauveria bassiana
    • Authors: Zhi-Kang Wang; Qing Cai; Sen-Miao Tong; Sheng-Hua Ying; Ming-Guang Feng
      Abstract: The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase Ste7 has a conserved Ser/Thr loop (S/T-X4(6)-S/T) that can activate the MAPK Fus3 or Kss1 for the regulation of pheromone response and filamentous growth in model yeast. Here, we show that not only the loop but also four C-terminal Ser/Thr residues are essential for Ste7 to function in the Fus3 cascade of Beauveria bassiana, a filamentous fungal insect pathogen. Mutagenesis of either looped S216/T220 or C-terminal S362 resulted in the same severe defects in conidial germination, hyphal growth, aerial conidiation, and submerged blastospore production as the ste7 deletion, followed by a complete loss of virulence and similarly increased cell sensitivities to osmotic salts, oxidants, heat shock and UV-B irradiation. Mutagenesis of three other Ser/Thr residues (S391, S440, and T485) also caused severe defects in most of the mentioned phenotypes. These defects correlated well with dramatically reduced transcript levels of some phenotype-related genes. These genes encode a transcription factor (CreA) essential for carbon/nitrogen assimilation, developmental activators (BrlA, AbaA, and WetA) and upstream transcription factor (FluG) required for conidiation, P-type N+/K+ ATPases (Ena1–5) required for intracellular N+/K+ homeostasis, and antioxidant enzymes involved in multiple stress responses. Our study unveils that the loop and four C-terminal Ser/Thr residues are all vital for the regulatory role of Ste7 in the growth, conidiation, virulence, and/or stress tolerance of B. bassiana and perhaps other filamentous fungi.
      PubDate: 2018-06-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9148-5
       
  • Polymeric solvent engineering for gram/liter scale production of a
           water-insoluble isoflavone derivative, ( S )-equol
    • Authors: Pyung-Gang Lee; Sang-Hyuk Lee; Joonwon Kim; Eun-Jung Kim; Kwon-Young Choi; Byung-Gee Kim
      Abstract: A potent phytoestrogen, (S)-equol, is a promising isoflavone derivative drawing our great attention owing to its various biological and clinical benefits. Through selective activation of the estrogen receptor ERβ or androgen receptor, (S)-equol reduces menopausal symptoms, osteoporosis, skin aging, hair loss, and incidence of prostate or ovarian cancers without adverse effects. Traditional biosynthesis of (S)-equol exploited non-productive natural equol-producing anaerobic bacteria that mainly belong to Coriobacteriaceae isolated from human intestine. Recently, we developed a recombinant Escherichia coli strain which could convert daidzein into (S)-equol effectively under an aerobic condition. However, the yield was limited up to about the 200 mg/L level due to unknown reasons. In this study, we identified that the bottleneck of the limited production was the low solubility of isoflavone (i.e., 2.4 mg/L) in the reaction medium. In order to solve the solubility problem without harmful effect to the whole-cell catalyst, we applied commercial hydrophilic polymers (HPs) and a polar aprotic co-solvent in the reaction medium. Among the examined water-soluble polymers, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-40k was verified as the most promising supplement which increased daidzein solubility by 40 times and (S)-equol yield up to 1.22 g/L, the highest ever reported and the first g/L level biotransformation. Furthermore, PVP-40k was verified to significantly increase the solubilities of other water-insoluble natural polyphenols in aqueous solution. We suggest that addition of both HP and polar aprotic solvent in the reaction mixture is a powerful alternative to enhance production of polyphenolic chemicals rather than screening appropriate organic solvents for whole-cell catalysis of polyphenols.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9137-8
       
  • Effective management of soft rot of ginger caused by Pythium spp. and
           Fusarium spp.: emerging role of nanotechnology
    • Authors: Mahendra Rai; Avinash P. Ingle; Priti Paralikar; Netravati Anasane; Rajendra Gade; Pramod Ingle
      Abstract: Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) is a tropical plant cultivated all over the world due to its culinary and medicinal properties. It is one of the most important spices commonly used in food, which increases its commercial value. However, soft rot (rhizome rot) is a common disease of ginger caused by fungi such as Pythium and Fusarium spp. It is the most destructive disease of ginger, which can reduce the production by 50 to 90%. Application of chemical fungicides is considered as an effective method to control soft rot of ginger but extensive use of fungicides pose serious risk to environmental and human health. Therefore, the development of ecofriendly and economically viable alternative approaches for effective management of soft rot of ginger such diseases is essentially required. An acceptable approach that is being actively investigated involves nanotechnology, which can potentially be used to control Pythium and Fusarium. The present review is aimed to discuss worldwide status of soft rot associated with ginger, the traditional methods available for the management of Pythium and Fusarium spp. and most importantly, the role of various nanomaterials in the management of soft rot of ginger. Moreover, possible antifungal mechanisms for chemical fungicides, biological agents and nanoparticles have also been discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9145-8
       
  • Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) nanofibres spun with copper nanoparticles: an
           anti- Escherichia coli membrane for water treatment
    • Authors: J. J. Ahire; D. P. Neveling; L. M. T. Dicks
      Abstract: Copper nanoparticles (CNPs) were mixed with polyacrylonitrile (PAN) and electrospun into nanofibres (CuPAN nanofibres). PAN nanofibres containing 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% copper (w/v) displayed beads-on-string morphology with protrusions of copper particles. The diameter of the CuPAN nanofibres differed according to the copper content, ranging from 386 nm (1.0%, w/v, copper) to 922 nm (5.0%, w/v, copper). No chemical interaction of copper with PAN was observed when studied with X-ray diffraction, ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and TGA (thermogravimetric analysis). None of the CuPAN nanofibres showed signs of degradation after 7 days in water. Bacteria suspended in random mobility buffer and filtered through a 3% CuPAN nanofibre membrane (25 mm diameter, 75–80 μm thickness), at a filtration rate of 20 ml min−1, reduced the cell numbers of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) from 3.3 × to 2.1 × 106 cfu ml−1 and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 1.2 × 10 to 1.3 × 103 cfu ml−1. Membranes produced with 1.0, 3.0 and 5.0% (w/v) CuPAN inhibited the growth of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), ETEC and MRSA, as shown with LIVE/DEAD™ BacLight™ staining. Real-time bactericidal activity of CuPAN membranes was recorded by staining the cells with SYTO 9 and PI, followed by flow cytometry. Filter membranes made from CuPAN fibres may be used to reduce pathogenic E. coli cell numbers in potable water.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9051-0
       
  • Short, auto-inducible promoters for well-controlled protein expression in
           Escherichia coli
    • Authors: Ona Anilionyte; Hong Liang; Xiaoqiang Ma; Liming Yang; Kang Zhou
      Abstract: Expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli often requires use of inducible promoters to shorten the lag phase and improve protein productivity and final protein titer. Synthetic molecules that cannot be metabolized by E. coli, such as isopropyl thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), have been frequently used to trigger the protein expression during early exponential growth phase. This practice has many drawbacks, including high cost and toxicity of IPTG, complex operating procedure, and non-uniform protein expression pattern (some cells in the population do not express recombinant proteins). A few auto-inducible protein expression systems have been developed recently to overcome some of these limitations, but they required use of an additional plasmid or presence of large (a few kilobases) DNA part to be functional, making plasmid construction to be difficult, especially when multiple genes need to be expressed. In this study, by using RNA sequencing, we identified a short, endogenous promoter (PthrC) that can be auto-induced during early exponential growth phase, and improved its performance by use of native and mutated regulatory elements. We found that the developed mutants of PthrC drove uniform protein expression—close to 100% of cells were fluorescent when green fluorescence protein was used as target protein—and cells carrying them could achieve much higher cell density than those with T7 promoter (PT7), a commonly used inducible promoter. In terms of promoter strength (product protein quantity per cell), the developed promoter mutants can cover a range of strength, from 30 to 150% of maximal strength of PT7. One strong mutant (PthrC3_8) was found to work well at a large range of temperature (22, 30, 37 °C) and in various media, and was also confirmed to cause less stress to host cell than PT7 when they were used to express a toxic protein. We foresee that PthrC3 and its mutants will be useful genetic parts for various applications including metabolic engineering and biocatalysis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9141-z
       
  • Back to the past—forever young: cutting-edge biochemical and
           microbiological tools for cultural heritage conservation
    • Authors: Roberto Mazzoli; Maria Gabriella Giuffrida; Enrica Pessione
      Abstract: Ancient documents and milestones of human history such as manuscripts and textiles are fragile and during aging undergo chemical, physical, and biological deterioration. Among the different causes of damage, also human intervention plays a role since some restoration strategies proved to be transient and/or they generated further damage. Outdoor monuments undergo deterioration since they are exposed to pollution, weathering, microbial attack (giving rise to undesired pigmentation, discoloration or true dissolution, corrosion, and overall decay), as well as man-made damage (i.e., graffiti). This review article reports the best-fitting strategies used to restore wall paintings, outdoor monuments, textiles, and paper documents to their ancient beauty by employing “soft” biobased approaches such as viable bacteria or suitable enzymes.
      PubDate: 2018-06-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9121-3
       
  • Comparative analysis of fermentation and enzyme expression profiles among
           industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains
    • Authors: Kiyoka Uebayashi; Hiroshi Shimizu; Fumio Matsuda
      Abstract: Industrial diploid strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are selected from natural populations and then domesticated by optimizing the preferred properties for producing products such as bread, wine, and sake. In this study, for comparing the fermentation performance of various industrial yeasts, seven diploid strains of S. cerevisiae, namely, BY4947 (laboratory yeast derived from S288C), Kyokai7 and Kyokai9 (sake yeasts), Red Star and NBRC0555 (bread yeasts), and QA23 and EC1118 (wine yeasts), were cultivated in a synthetic medium. The fermentation profiles of the seven yeast strains showed significant differences. The specific ethanol production rates of sake yeasts (Kyokai7 and Kyokai9) and wine strains (QA23 and EC1118) were higher and lower than those of laboratory strains, respectively. Targeted proteome analysis was also conducted to investigate the variation in the expression of metabolism-related enzymes. The expression profiles of central metabolism-related enzymes showed considerable variations among the industrial strains. Upregulation of the TCA cycle in wine strains was observed both in the synthetic and grape-juice media. These results suggested that these variations should be consequences of complex interactions between the domestication process, genetic polymorphism, and environmental factors such as the fermentation conditions.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9128-9
       
  • Role of plant phytochemicals and microbial enzymes in biosynthesis of
           metallic nanoparticles
    • Authors: Muhammad Ovais; Ali Talha Khalil; Nazar Ul Islam; Irshad Ahmad; Muhamamd Ayaz; Muthupandian Saravanan; Zabta Khan Shinwari; Sudip Mukherjee
      Abstract: Metal-based nanoparticles have gained tremendous popularity because of their interesting physical, biological, optical, and magnetic properties. These nanoparticles can be synthesized using a variety of different physical, chemical, and biological techniques. The biological means are largely preferred as it provides an environmentally benign, green, and cost-effective route for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. These bioresources can act as a scaffold, thereby playing the role of reducing as well as capping agents in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles. Medicinal plants tend to have a complex phytochemical constituent such as alcohols, phenols, terpenes, alkaloids, saponins, and proteins, while microbes have key enzymes which can act as reducing as well as stabilizing agent for NP synthesis. However, the mechanism of biosynthesis is still highly debatable. Herein, the present review is directed to give an updated comprehensive overview towards the mechanistic aspects in the biosynthesis of nanoparticles via plants and microbes. Various biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites in plants and key enzyme production in microbes have been discussed in detail, along with the underlying mechanisms for biogenic NP synthesis.
      PubDate: 2018-06-07
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9146-7
       
  • The discovery and development of microbial bleomycin analogues
    • Authors: Jieqian Kong; Liwei Yi; Yi Xiong; Yong Huang; Dong Yang; Xiaohui Yan; Ben Shen; Yanwen Duan; Xiangcheng Zhu
      Abstract: The bleomycins (BLMs) belong to a subfamily of glycopeptide antibiotics and are clinically applied in combination chemotherapy regimens to treat various malignancies. But the therapeutic applications of BLMs are restricted by the accompanied dose-dependent lung toxicity and potential incidence of lung fibrosis. Many efforts have been devoted to develop novel BLM analogues, for seeking of drug leads with improved antitumor activity and/or reduced lung toxicity. The progresses in the biosynthetic studies of BLMs have greatly expedited the process to achieve such goals. This review highlights the discovery and development of microbial BLM analogues in the past two decades, especially those derived from engineered biosynthesis. Moreover, the summarized structure-activity relationship, which is specifically focusing on the sugar moiety, shall shed new insights into the prospective development of BLM analogues.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9129-8
       
  • The impacts of Lachancea thermotolerans yeast strains on winemaking
    • Authors: Santiago Benito
      Abstract: At one time, Saccharomyces spp. yeasts were the only option for use in winemaking due to their unique abilities to metabolize all grape juice sugars to ethanol. However, during the previous decade, several commercial non-Saccharomyces yeast products appeared in the biotechnology market. Some of them have slowly begun to establish new enological resources to solve modern winemaking challenges in the new century. Among these challenges, acidification in the warm-growing regions is of great concern for improving wine quality from those areas, particularly in light of the predictions of serious climate change. This review explores one of the most popular commercialized non-Saccharomyces yeast options in warm viticultural regions, Lachancea thermotolerans, and its influences on wine quality parameters, such as lactic acid, ethanol, glycerol, volatile acidity, volatile profiles, isovaleric acid, mannoproteins, polysaccharides, color, anthocyanins, amino acids, and sensory perception.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9117-z
       
  • Comprehensive optimization of the metabolomic methodology for metabolite
           profiling of Corynebacterium glutamicum
    • Authors: Qiongqiong Zhang; Xiaomei Zheng; Yu Wang; Jiandong Yu; Zhidan Zhang; Taiwo Dele-Osibanjo; Ping Zheng; Jibin Sun; Shiru Jia; Yanhe Ma
      Abstract: Metabolomics has been a potential tool for strain improvement through analyzing metabolite changes in the context of different conditions. However, the availability of a universal metabolite profiling analysis is still a big challenge. In this study, we presented an optimized liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry-based metabolomics methodology for Corynebacterium glutamicum, an important industrial workhorse. It was found that quenching the cellular metabolism with 5-fold volume of − 20 °C 40% methanol was highly recommended due to its lower cell damage rate and higher intracellular metabolite recovery rate. For extracting intracellular metabolites, ethanol/water (3:1, v/v) at 100 °C combined with acidic acetonitrile/water (1:1, v/v, with 0.1% formic acid) at − 20 °C achieved the unbiased metabolite profiling of C. glutamicum. The established methodology was then applied to investigate the intracellular metabolite differences between C. glutamicum ATCC 13032 and an mscCG-deleted mutant under biotin limitation condition. It was observed that in the presence of the functional l-glutamate exporter MscCG, biotin limitation led to accumulation of intracellular 2-oxoglutarate but not l-glutamate. Deletion of mscCG severely inhibited l-glutamate excretion and resulted in a dramatical increase of intracellular l-glutamate, which in turn affected the metabolite profile. The optimized metabolomics methodology holds promise for promoting studies on metabolic mechanism of C. glutamicum.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9095-1
       
  • Transposon-based identification of a negative regulator for the antibiotic
           hyper-production in Streptomyces
    • Authors: Shuai Luo; Xin-Ai Chen; Xu-Ming Mao; Yong-Quan Li
      Abstract: Production of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces is regulated by a complex regulatory network precisely, elaborately, and hierarchically. One of the main reasons for the low yields of some high-value secondary metabolites is the repressed expression of their biosynthetic gene clusters, supposedly by some gene cluster out-situated negative regulators. Identification of these repressors and removal of the inhibitory effects based on the regulatory mechanisms will be an effective way to improve their yields. For proof of the concept, using an antibiotic daptomycin from Streptomyces roseosporus, we introduced Himar1-based random mutagenesis combined with a reporter-guided screening strategy to identify a transcriptional regulator PhaR, whose loss-of-function deletion led to about 2.68-fold increase of the gene cluster expression and approximately 6.14-fold or 43% increased daptomycin production in the flask fermentation or in the fed-batch fermentation, respectively. Further study showed that PhaR negatively regulates the expression of daptomycin biosynthetic gene cluster by direct binding to its promoter (dptEp). Moreover, phaR expression gradually drops down during fermentation, and PhaR is positively auto-regulated by directly binding to its own promoter, which results in positive feedback regulation to persistently reduce phaR expression. Meanwhile, the declining PhaR protein remove its repressive effects during daptomycin production. All these results support that our strategy would be a powerful method for genetic screening and rational engineering for the yield improvement of antibiotics, and could be potentially used widely in other Streptomyces species.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9103-5
       
  • Effects of the histone-like protein HU on cellulose degradation and
           biofilm formation of Cytophaga hutchinsonii
    • Authors: Zhiwei Guan; Ying Wang; Lijuan Gao; Weican Zhang; Xuemei Lu
      Abstract: Cytophaga hutchinsonii, belonging to Bacteroidetes, is speculated to use a novel cell-contact mode to digest cellulose. In this study, we identified a histone-like protein HU, CHU_2750, in C. hutchinsonii, whose transcription could be induced by crystalline but not amorphous cellulose. We constructed a CHU_2750-deleted mutant and expressed CHU_2750 in Escherichia coli to study the gene’s functions. Our results showed that although the deletion of CHU_2750 was not lethal to C. hutchinsonii, the mutant displayed an abnormal filamentous morphology, loose nucleoid, and obvious defects in the degradation of crystalline cellulose and cell motility. Further study indicated that the mutant displayed significantly decreased cell surface and intracellular endoglucanase activities but with β-glucosidase activities similar to the wild-type strain. Analyses by real-time quantitative PCR revealed that the transcription levels of many genes involved in cellulose degradation and/or cell motility were significantly downregulated in the mutant. In addition, we found that CHU_2750 was important for biofilm formation of C. hutchinsonii. The main extracellular components of the biofilm were analyzed, and the results showed that the mutant yielded significantly less exopolysaccharide but more extracellular DNA and protein than the wild-type strain. Collectively, our findings demonstrated that CHU_2750 is important for cellulose degradation, cell motility, and biofilm formation of C. hutchinsonii by modulating transcription of certain related genes, and it is the first identified transcriptional regulator in these processes of C. hutchinsonii. Our study shed more light on the mechanisms of cellulose degradation, cell motility, and biofilm formation by C. hutchinsonii.
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9071-9
       
  • EcXyl43 β-xylosidase: molecular modeling, activity on natural and
           artificial substrates, and synergism with endoxylanases for lignocellulose
           deconstruction
    • Authors: Ornella M. Ontañon; Silvina Ghio; Rubén Marrero Díaz de Villegas; Florencia E. Piccinni; Paola M. Talia; María L. Cerutti; Eleonora Campos
      Abstract: Biomass hydrolysis constitutes a bottleneck for the biotransformation of lignocellulosic residues into bioethanol and high-value products. The efficient deconstruction of polysaccharides to fermentable sugars requires multiple enzymes acting concertedly. GH43 β-xylosidases are among the most interesting enzymes involved in hemicellulose deconstruction into xylose. In this work, the structural and functional properties of β-xylosidase EcXyl43 from Enterobacter sp. were thoroughly characterized. Molecular modeling suggested a 3D structure formed by a conserved N-terminal catalytic domain linked to an ancillary C-terminal domain. Both domains resulted essential for enzymatic activity, and the role of critical residues, from the catalytic and the ancillary modules, was confirmed by mutagenesis. EcXyl43 presented β-xylosidase activity towards natural and artificial substrates while arabinofuranosidase activity was only detected on nitrophenyl α-L-arabinofuranoside (pNPA). It hydrolyzed xylobiose and purified xylooligosaccharides (XOS), up to degree of polymerization 6, with higher activity towards longer XOS. Low levels of activity on commercial xylan were also observed, mainly on the soluble fraction. The addition of EcXyl43 to GH10 and GH11 endoxylanases increased the release of xylose from xylan and pre-treated wheat straw. Additionally, EcXyl43 exhibited high efficiency and thermal stability under its optimal conditions (40 °C, pH 6.5), with a half-life of 58 h. Therefore, this enzyme could be a suitable additive for hemicellulases in long-term hydrolysis reactions. Because of its moderate inhibition by monomeric sugars but its high inhibition by ethanol, EcXyl43 could be particularly more useful in separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) than in simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) or consolidated bioprocessing (CBP).
      PubDate: 2018-06-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9138-7
       
  • Decay of sewage-associated bacterial communities in fresh and marine
           environmental waters and sediment
    • Authors: Warish Ahmed; Christopher Staley; Thomas Kaiser; Michael J. Sadowsky; Sonya Kozak; David Beale; Stuart Simpson
      Abstract: Understanding the microbial quality of recreational waters is critical to effectively managing human health risks. In recent years, the development of new molecular methods has provided scientists with alternatives to the use of culture-based fecal indicator methods for investigating sewage contamination in recreational waters. Before these methods can be formalized into guidelines, however, we must investigate their utility, including strengths and weaknesses in different environmental media. In this study, we investigated the decay of sewage-associated bacterial communities in water and sediment from three recreational areas in Southeast Queensland, Australia. Outdoor mesocosms with water and sediment samples from two marine and one freshwater sites were inoculated with untreated sewage and sampled on days 0, 1, 4, 8, 14, 28, and 50. Amplicon sequencing was performed on the DNA extracted from water and sediment samples, and SourceTracker was used to determine the decay of sewage-associated bacterial communities and how they change following a contamination event. No sewage-associated operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected in water and sediment samples after day 4; however, the bacterial communities remained changed from their background measures, prior to sewage amendment. Following untreated sewage inoculation, the mesocosm that had the most diverse starting bacterial community recovered to about 60% of its initial community composition, whereas the least diverse bacterial community only recovered to about 30% of its initial community composition. This suggests that a more diverse bacterial community may play an important role in water quality outcomes after sewage contamination events. Further investigation into potential links between bacterial communities and measures of fecal indicators, pathogens, and microbial source tracking (MST) markers is warranted and may provide insight for recreational water decision-makers.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9112-4
       
  • Characterization of an atypical, thermostable, organic solvent- and
           acid-tolerant 2 ′ -deoxyribosyltransferase from Chroococcidiopsis
           thermalis
    • Authors: Jon Del Arco; Pedro Alejandro Sánchez-Murcia; José Miguel Mancheño; Federico Gago; Jesús Fernández-Lucas
      Abstract: In our search for thermophilic and acid-tolerant nucleoside 2′-deoxyribosyltransferases (NDTs), we found a good candidate in an enzyme encoded by Chroococcidiopsis thermalis PCC 7203 (CtNDT). Biophysical and biochemical characterization revealed CtNDT as a homotetramer endowed with good activity and stability at both high temperatures (50–100 °C) and a wide range of pH values (from 3 to 7). CtNDT recognizes purine bases and their corresponding 2′-deoxynucleosides but is also proficient using cytosine and 2′-deoxycytidine as substrates. These unusual features preclude the strict classification of CtNDT as either a type I or a type II NDT and further suggest that this simple subdivision may need to be updated in the future. Our findings also hint at a possible link between oligomeric state and NDT’s substrate specificity. Interestingly from a practical perspective, CtNDT displays high activity (80–100%) in the presence of several water-miscible co-solvents in a proportion of up to 20% and was successfully employed in the enzymatic production of several therapeutic nucleosides such as didanosine, vidarabine, and cytarabine.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9134-y
       
  • Biotechnological applications of occlusion bodies of Baculoviruses
    • Authors: M. G. López; M. Diez; V. Alfonso; O. Taboga
      Abstract: The ability of Baculoviruses to hyper-express very late genes as polyhedrin, the major component of occlusion bodies (OBs) or polyhedra, has allowed the evolution of a system of great utility for biotechnology. The main function of polyhedra in nature is to protect Baculovirus in the environment. The possibility of incorporating foreign proteins into the crystal by fusing them to polyhedrin (POLH) opened novel potential biotechnological uses. In this review, we summarize different applications of Baculovirus chimeric OBs. Basically, the improvement of protein expression and purification with POLH as a fusion partner; the use of recombinant polyhedra as immunogens and antigens, and the incorporation of proteins into polyhedra to improve Baculoviruses as bioinsecticides. The results obtained in each area and the future trends in these topics are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-06-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9130-2
       
  • Hematite and multi-walled carbon nanotubes stimulate a faster syntrophic
           pathway during methanogenic beet sugar industrial wastewater degradation
    • Authors: John Justo Ambuchi; Zhaohan Zhang; Yue Dong; Linlin Huang; Yujie Feng
      Abstract: The quest to understand and subsequently improve the role played by bacteria and archaea in the degradation of organic matter both in natural and engineered anaerobic ecosystems has intensified the utilization of nanoparticles. Microbial communities are known to syntrophically cooperate during the anaerobic conversion of substrates into methane gas via the direct exchange of electrons. In this study, the role of hematite (Fe2O3—750 mg/L) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs—1500 mg/L) during the degradation of beet sugar industrial wastewater (BSIW) in a batch experiment was investigated. Hematite and MWCNTs enhanced methane gas generation by 35 and 20%, respectively. Furthermore, microbial syntrophic communities might have exchanged metabolic electrons more directly, with hematite and MWCNTs serving as electron conduits between the homoacetogens and methanogens, thereby establishing a direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) pathway. Additionally, hematite and MWCNTs enriched the bacteria Firmicutes while Chloroflexi reduced in abundance. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy demonstrated that extracellular polymeric substances had noticeable interactions with both hematite and MWCNTs. Our findings provide vital information for more understanding of the response of microbes to hematite and MWCNTs in a complex natural environment.
      PubDate: 2018-06-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00253-018-9100-8
       
 
 
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