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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
  [SJR: 0.576]   [H-I: 49]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0946-672X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Serum concentrations of trace elements and their relationships with
           paraoxonase-1 in morbidly obese women
    • Authors: Fedra Luciano-Mateo; Noemí Cabré; Martí Nadal; Anabel García-Heredia; Gerard Baiges-Gaya; Anna Hernández-Aguilera; Jordi Camps; Jorge Joven; José Luis Domingo
      Pages: 8 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Fedra Luciano-Mateo, Noemí Cabré, Martí Nadal, Anabel García-Heredia, Gerard Baiges-Gaya, Anna Hernández-Aguilera, Jordi Camps, Jorge Joven, José Luis Domingo
      The metabolic alterations associated with obesity include mineral dysregulation. Essential trace elements are nutrients with a relevant function in a large number of cellular processes and multiple roles in the correct functioning of metabolic enzymes. Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory enzyme that is compromised in obesity. In the present study, the potential alterations in trace elements in morbidly obese women were assessed in relation to serum PON1 activity and concentration, as well as to other obesity-related comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus and fatty liver. We recruited 41 morbidly obese women and 51 control individuals. The serum concentrations of 30 elements, PON1 paraoxonase and lactonase activities, and PON1 concentration were measured. We observed significant alterations in the levels of As, Ba, Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Se, Sr, and Zn in obese women; some of them (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Mg, and Se) being significantly correlated with serum PON1 values. The most relevant changes were observed in the concentrations of As, Sr and Mg, the last of which was also significantly associated with diabetes mellitus. The current results raise the possibility that increased ingestion and/or storage of a number of trace elements may be factors predisposing to obesity-related comorbidities and metabolic alterations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.023
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Essential elements in synovial fluid samples obtained from patients living
           in Northern Poland
    • Authors: Pawel Konieczynski; Grzegorz Szreder; Ewelina Tamowska; Marek Wesolowski
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Pawel Konieczynski, Grzegorz Szreder, Ewelina Tamowska, Marek Wesolowski
      Many people after 50 year of life suffer pains caused by osteoarthritis (OA), which make their life difficult and painful. There is a probable association of OA with the concentration of certain elements in body fluids. Therefore the aim of the study was to relate the level of essential elements in synovial fluids of patients with OA with the treatment using antiarthritic drugs. Thus, flame-atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, K, Ca and Mg in 74 samples of synovial fluids taken from 36 patients. Prior to analysis, the samples of synovial fluids were centrifuged and obtained supernatants were digested by microwave technique. It was found that the level of investigated essential elements was differentiated in patients suffering with OA. High correlation between Zn and K, Na and K, as well as Cu and Mn were revealed. Based on cluster analysis, synovial fluids of patients treated with Diprophos, Euflexxa and Synocrom, can be found almost in all clusters. ANOVA has shown that there is a significant difference between Na level in synovial fluids of patients treated with antirheumatic drugs, and those who were not treated. For the patients treated with Euflexxa, similar relations for Ca and K exist. Principal component analysis has shown that essential elements responsible for variability within studied samples, are Ca, Mg, Cu, Mn and Fe. However, there were no statistically significant relations between the studied macro- and microelements, and treatment using specific preparations.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.027
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Effects of furosemide administration on the concentration of essential and
           toxic elements in Wistar rats by inductively coupled plasma optical
           emission spectrometry
    • Authors: Luiz Raimundo Seneterri Silva Rodrigues dos Santos; Aníbal de Freitas Santos; Maria das Graças Andrade Korn
      Pages: 25 - 29
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Luiz Raimundo Seneterri Silva Rodrigues dos Santos, Aníbal de Freitas Santos, Maria das Graças Andrade Korn
      Furosemide can interfere with the metabolism of chemical elements, changing their levels in several tissues, thus causing imbalance. In this study, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) was used for multi-element analysis (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mg, Pb, Se and Zn) after microwave-assisted digestion, to evaluate the effect of furosemide (loop diuretic) on the composition of these essential and toxic elements in biological samples (liver, kidney, heart, lung and serum) of Wistar rats. Male and female Wistar rats (n = 40, 180–350 g) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n = 20/group). The results were expressed as μg/g dry weight. The mean tissue concentrations (minimum-maximum in μg/g) of Cu, Fe, Mg and Zn in the biological samples ranged between 5.2 and 1023.5. The levels of Cd, Pb and Se were below the detection limit of the ICP OES. Accuracy was assessed by microwave-assisted digestion and recovery values of 83–116% were obtained. Liver had significantly higher trace element concentrations in most of the analyzed samples. Mg showed a significant reduction (for males and females) in its levels in the heart. In both genders, there was similarity in the Cu concentration reduction (around 16%) for all tissues. The highest iron losses were found for serum (52% and 12%) for male and female rats, respectively. Reductions in Zn occurred between 0.3 and 18.0%, mainly for kidneys and heart, respectively. This study demonstrated that furosemide altered the concentration of some elements in rats.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.029
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Boron intake, osteocalcin polymorphism and serum level in postmenopausal
    • Authors: Olcay Boyacioglu; Seda Orenay-Boyacioglu; Hatice Yildirim; Mehmet Korkmaz
      Pages: 52 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Olcay Boyacioglu, Seda Orenay-Boyacioglu, Hatice Yildirim, Mehmet Korkmaz
      The relationship between daily boron intake and osteocalcin-mediated osteoporosis was studied in boron-exposed postmenopausal women. It is known that boron and osteocalcin are important in bone metabolism, however the effect of boron in bone metabolism has not been fully discovered. The study was performed on 53 postmenopausal women aged 55–60 living in parts of Balikesir, Turkey, where the subjects are naturally exposed to high (≥1 mg/L) or low (<1 mg/L) boron concentration in drinking water. 24-h urine samples were collected from all participants and creatinine clearance was detected. Boron intake levels of the subjects whose clearance levels were between 80–124 mL/min were measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in urine samples. Serum osteocalcin levels of the subjects were measured by osteocalcin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Osteocalcin polymorphism rs1800247 was detected using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Serum osteocalcin levels in boron-exposed postmenopausal women were significantly higher than that of control group (P ≤ 0.05) and the correlation between the serum osteocalcin level and rs1800247 polymorphism was not significant in both groups (P > 0.05). The differences in the distribution of osteocalcin genotypes and alleles in postmenopausal women were not significant between the boron exposed and the control groups (P > 0.05). Serum osteocalcin level in the CC genotype was significantly higher compared to the TC genotype in boron-exposed group (P ≤ 0.05). Our study suggests that daily boron intake of 1 mg/L may affect bone metabolism in postmenopausal women positively.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Origin of thyroid dysfunction at the Saharawi refugee camps
    • Authors: N. Pichel; M. Vivar
      First page: 57
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): N. Pichel, M. Vivar

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Measuring zinc in biological nanovesicles by multiple analytical
    • Authors: Francesco Piacenza; Antje Biesemeier; Marco Farina; Francesco Piva; Xin Jin; Eleonora Pavoni; Lorenzo Nisi; Maurizio Cardelli; Laura Costarelli; Robertina Giacconi; Andrea Basso; Elisa Pierpaoli; Mauro Provinciali; James C.M. Hwang; Antonio Morini; Andrea di Donato; Marco Malavolta
      Pages: 58 - 66
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Francesco Piacenza, Antje Biesemeier, Marco Farina, Francesco Piva, Xin Jin, Eleonora Pavoni, Lorenzo Nisi, Maurizio Cardelli, Laura Costarelli, Robertina Giacconi, Andrea Basso, Elisa Pierpaoli, Mauro Provinciali, James C.M. Hwang, Antonio Morini, Andrea di Donato, Marco Malavolta
      Exosomes are nanovesicles known to mediate intercellular communication. Although it is established that zinc ions can act as intracellular signaling factors, the measurement of zinc in circulating nanovesicles has not yet been attempted. Providing evidence of the existence of this zinc fraction and methods for its measurement might be important to advance our knowledge of zinc status and its relevance in diseases. Exosomes from 0.5 ml of either fresh or frozen human plasma were isolated by differential centrifugation. A morphological and dimensional evaluation at the nanoscale level was performed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Energy Dispersive X-Ray Microanalysis (EDX) revealed the elemental composition of exosomes and their respective total Zinc content on a quantitative basis. The zinc mole fraction (in at%) was correlated to the phosphorous mole fraction, which is indicative for exosomal membrane material. Both fresh (Zn/P 0.09 ± 0.01) and frozen exosomes (Zn/P 0.08 ± 0.02) had a significant zinc content, which increased up to 1.09 ± 0.12 for frozen exosomes when treated with increasing amounts of zinc (100–500 μM; each p < 0.05). Interestingly, after zinc addition, the Calcium mole fractions decreased accordingly suggesting a possible exchange by zinc. In order to estimate the intra-exosomal labile zinc content, an Imaging Flow Cytometry approach was developed by using the specific membrane permeable zinc-probe Fluozin-3AM. A labile zinc content of 0.59 ± 0.27 nM was calculated but it is likely that the measurement may be affected by purification and isolation conditions. This study suggests that circulating nano-vesicular-zinc can represent a newly discovered zinc fraction in the blood plasma whose functional and biological properties will have to be further investigated in future studies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.010
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Reconsideration of the immunotherapeutic pediatric safe dose levels of
    • Authors: James Lyons-Weiler; Robert Ricketson
      Pages: 67 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): James Lyons-Weiler, Robert Ricketson
      FDA regulations require safety testing of constituent ingredients in drugs (21 CFR 610.15). With the exception of extraneous proteins, no component safety testing is required for vaccines or vaccine schedules. The dosing of aluminum in vaccines is based on the production of antibody titers, not safety science. Here we estimate a Pediatric Dose Limit that considers body weight. We identify several serious historical missteps in past analyses of provisional safe levels of aluminum in vaccines, and provide updates relevant to infant aluminum exposure in the pediatric schedule considering pediatric body weight. When aluminum doses are estimated from Federal Regulatory Code given body weight, exposure from the current vaccine schedule are found to exceed our estimate of a weight-corrected Pediatric Dose Limit. Our calculations show that the levels of aluminum suggested by the World Health Organization place infants at risk of acute, repeated, and possibly chronic exposures of toxic levels of aluminum in modern vaccine schedules. Individual adult exposures are on par with Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake “limits”, but some individuals may be aluminum intolerant due to genetics or previous exposures. Vaccination in neonates and low birth-weight infants must be re-assessed; other implications for the use of aluminum-containing vaccines, and additional limitations in our understanding of neurotoxicity and safety levels of aluminum in biologics are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.025
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Efficient zinc uptake is critical for the ability of Pseudomonas
           aeruginosa to express virulence traits and colonize the human lung
    • Authors: Maria Chiara Mastropasqua; Iain Lamont; Lois W. Martin; David W. Reid; Melania D’Orazio; Andrea Battistoni
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Maria Chiara Mastropasqua, Iain Lamont, Lois W. Martin, David W. Reid, Melania D’Orazio, Andrea Battistoni
      We have recently shown that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an opportunistic pathogen that chronically infects the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and other forms of lung disease, is extremely efficient in recruiting zinc from the environment and that this capability is required for its ability to cause acute lung infections in mice. To verify that P. aeruginosa faces zinc shortage when colonizing the lungs of human patients, we analyzed the expression of three genes that are highly induced under conditions of zinc deficiency (zrmA, dksA2 and rpmE2), in bacteria in the sputum of patients with inflammatory lung disease. All three genes were expressed in all the analyzed sputum samples to a level much higher than that of bacteria grown in zinc-containing laboratory medium, supporting the hypothesis that P. aeruginosa is under zinc starvation during lung infections. We also found that the expression of several virulence traits that play a central role in the ability of P. aeruginosa to colonize the lung is affected by disruption of the most important zinc importing systems. Virulence features dependent on zinc intake include swarming and swimming motility and the ability to form biofilms. Furthermore, alterations in zinc assimilation interfere with the synthesis of the siderophore pyoverdine, suggesting that zinc recruitment could modulate iron uptake and affect siderophore-mediated cell signaling. Our results reveal that zinc uptake is likely to play a key role in the ability of P. aeruginosa to cause chronic lung infections and strongly modulates critical virulence traits of the pathogen. Taking into account the recent discovery that zinc uptake in P. aeruginosa is promoted by the release of a small molecular weight molecule showing high affinity for zinc, our data suggest novel and effective possibilities to control lung infections by these bacteria.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.009
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Health risk assessment of arsenic in Realgar and NiuHuangJieDu Tablets
           based on pharmacokinetic study
    • Authors: Xiao Wu; Shanhu Wu; Yuexin Liu; Rong Guan; Fangmei Liang; Min Song; Taijun Hang
      Pages: 81 - 86
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 48
      Author(s): Xiao Wu, Shanhu Wu, Yuexin Liu, Rong Guan, Fangmei Liang, Min Song, Taijun Hang
      NiuHuangJieDu Tablets (NHJDT), a popular realgar (As4S4) containing patented traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is widely used in the treatment of acute tonsillitis, pharyngitis, periodontitis and mouth ulcer. However, arsenic is considered as one of the most toxic elements, leading to growing concerns about the quality and safety of realgar-containing TCMs recently. In this study, health risk assessment of arsenic in realgar and NHJDT was conducted through oral administration of both substances to rats with single and multiple doses, respectively. The total blood arsenic concentration was used as the health risk indicator and determined by hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry after modified Kjeldahl digestion, and then applied to the pharmacokinetic study. For single oral dose study in rats, the low, medium, and high doses of realgar and NHJDT were set equivalent to 1, 5 and 20 times the human therapeutic dose (1.3 mg realgar/kg), respectively. Multiple doses were given at low and high dose levels every 12 h for seven consecutive days, respectively. Significant differences in the total blood arsenic pharmacokinetic profiles were observed between the corresponding realgar and NHJDT groups. These results indicated that NHJDT significantly reduced the total blood arsenic exposure present in realgar, and the detoxification mechanism might be attributed to herb–herb interactions in NHJDT. However, the accumulation of blood total arsenic was significant due to the long elimination half-life and high accumulation index in both realgar and NHJDT groups. Therefore, the potential health risk of arsenic caused by the administration of realgar-containing TCMs should be taken into account for excessive or long-term medication. Precautions should be taken for the clinical application of realgar-containing TCMs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.012
      Issue No: Vol. 48 (2018)
  • Aberrant crypt foci are regionally affected by zinc treatment in a
           1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis model
    • Authors: Hichem Moulahoum; Belkacem Mohamed Amine Boumaza; Meriem Ferrat; Andras-Laszlo Nagy; Diana Elena Olteanu; Abdelkader Bounaama; Simona Clichici; Bahia Djerdjouri
      Pages: 21 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Hichem Moulahoum, Belkacem Mohamed Amine Boumaza, Meriem Ferrat, Andras-Laszlo Nagy, Diana Elena Olteanu, Abdelkader Bounaama, Simona Clichici, Bahia Djerdjouri
      Zinc is a trace element widely known for its marked antioxidant properties. To gain more insight into the site- and time- specific mechanisms by which it induces chemoprevention, this study was elaborated over a pre-cancerous model of colon carcinogenesis. Colon cancer was induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice (20 mg/kg for 2 weeks) and groups of animals were supplemented with or without zinc sulfate (ZnSO4, 200 mg/L) in drinking water for 4, 10 or 14 weeks. Colon tissues were collected for pathological observation, analyzing aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formations, multiplicity and distribution. Similarly, histological assessment and mucin production, as well as oxidative stress markers estimation was performed for the different groups. Results showed a significant increase in ACF and AC numbers, ACF multiplicity and demonstrated stronger distal occurrence than in the proximal after DHM administration. Histopathological analysis presented marked structural alterations and mucin loss in the distal than the proximal colons. A significant increase in myeloperoxidase (MPO), nitric oxide (NO), L-ornithine and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels was observed followed by a significant decrease in antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)). Oral ZnSO4 supplementation (continuous or partial) induced significant decrease in ACF, AC numbers and multiplicity, restored histological architecture and mucin production, and a significant decrease in proinflammatory markers while it reduced antioxidants to normal levels. From this study, insight was obtained on the use of ZnSO4 as a chemopreventive agent and shed light on its potential, as a supplement in nutraceutical approaches.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T18:55:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Rough and tough. How does silicic acid protect horsetail from fungal
    • Authors: Gea Guerriero; Chinnoi Law; Ian Stokes; Katie L. Moore; Christopher Exley
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Gea Guerriero, Chinnoi Law, Ian Stokes, Katie L. Moore, Christopher Exley
      Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) plants grew healthily for 10 weeks under both Si-deficient and Si-replete conditions. After 10 weeks, plants grown under Si-deficient conditions succumbed to fungal infection. We have used NanoSIMS and fluorescence microscopy to investigate silica deposition in the tissues of these plants. Horsetail grown under Si-deficient conditions did not deposit identifiable amounts of silica in their tissues. Plants grown under Si-replete conditions accumulated silica throughout their tissues and especially in the epidermis of the outer side of the leaf and the furrow region of the stem where it was continuous and often, as a double layer suggestive of a barrier function. We have previously shown, both in vivo (in horsetail and thale cress) and in vitro (using an undersaturated solution of Si(OH)4), that callose is a “catalyst” of plant silica deposition. Here we support this finding by comparing the deposition of silica to that of callose and by showing that they are co-localized. We propose the existence of a synergistic mechanical protection by callose and silica against pathogens in horsetail, whereby the induction of callose synthesis and deposition is the first, biochemical line of defence and callose-induced precipitation of silica is the second, adventitious mechanical barrier.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.015
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Nanoceria Ameliorates Doxorubicin Induced Cardiotoxicity: Possible
           Mitigation via Reduction of Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
    • Authors: Swetha Sangomla; Mohd Aslam Saifi; Amit Khurana; Chandraiah Godugu
      Pages: 53 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Swetha Sangomla, Mohd Aslam Saifi, Amit Khurana, Chandraiah Godugu
      Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most commonly used anticancer drugs but its use has been limited due to constraints of cardiotoxic side effects. The precise mechanism underlying cardiotoxicity is not yet fully understood but oxidative stress has been found to be a primary mechanism behind this. In addition, DOX induced cardiotoxicity also shows involvement of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α. Since oxidative stress plays major role in DOX induced cardiotoxicity, different antioxidants have been tried to prevent cardiotoxicity of DOX. Nanoparticles have risen up as a promising material with a wide variety of actions, and cerium oxide nanoparticles or nanoceria (NC) is one of such kind with great antioxidant potential. NC has emerged as a promising antioxidant in different pathological conditions. The present study was aimed to investigate possible protective effects of NC in DOX induced cardiotoxicity. Cardiotoxicity was induced in Swiss mice by DOX administration through i.p. route at a dose level of 15 mg/kg in two divided doses on alternate days. In our study, NC was found to mitigate cardiotoxic potential of DOX and prevented weight loss. NC restored the levels of cardiac injury markers lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatinine kinase MB (CK-MB). Moreover, NC reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased endogenous antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase levels. In addition, NC decreased proinflammatory cytokine levels and also prevented the alteration in normal structure of heart samples. Our study showed protective effects of NC in DOX induced cardiotoxicity which can become a potential therapeutic intervention against DOX induced cardiotoxicity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.016
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Metal transport capabilities of anticancer copper chelators
    • Authors: Anikó Gaál; Gábor Orgován; Victor G. Mihucz; Ian Pape; Dieter Ingerle; Christina Streli; Norbert Szoboszlai
      Pages: 79 - 88
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Anikó Gaál, Gábor Orgován, Victor G. Mihucz, Ian Pape, Dieter Ingerle, Christina Streli, Norbert Szoboszlai
      In the present study, several Cu chelators [2,2′-biquinoline, 8-hydroxiquinoline (oxine), ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDTC), Dp44mT, dithizone, neocuproine] were used to study Cu uptake, depletion and localization in different cancer cell lines. To better understand the concentration dependent fluctuations in the Cu intracellular metal content and Cu-dependent in vitro antiproliferative data, the conditional stability constants of the Cu complex species of the investigated ligands were calculated. Each investigated chelator increased the intracellular Cu content on HT-29 cells causing Cu accumulation depending on the amount of the free Cu(II). Copper accumulation was 159 times higher for Dp44mT compared to the control. Investigating a number of other transition metals, intracellular accumulation of Cd was observed only for two chelators. Intracellular Zn content slightly decreased (cca. 10%) for MCF-7 cells, while a dramatic decrease was observed on MDA-MB-231 ones (cca. 50%). A similar decrease was observed for HCT-116, while Zn depletion for HT-29 corresponded to cca. 20%. The IC50 values were registered for the investigated four cell lines at increasing external Cu(II) concentration, namely, MDA-MB-231 cells had the lowest IC50 values for Dp44mT ranging between 7 and 35 nM. Thus, Zn depletion could be associated with lower IC50 values. Copper depletion was observed for all ligands being less pronounced for Dp44mT and neocuproine. Copper localization and its colocalization with Zn were determined by μ-XRF imaging. Loose correlation (0.57) was observed for the MCF-7 cells independently of the applied chelator. Similarly, a weak correlation (0.47) was observed for HT-29 cells treated with Cu(II) and oxine. Colocalization of Cu and Zn in the nucleus of HT-29 cells was observed for Dp44mT (correlation coefficient of 0.85).

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Selenium and selenium species in feeds and muscle tissue of Atlantic
    • Authors: Veronika Sele; Robin Ørnsrud; Jens J. Sloth; Marc H.G. Berntssen; Heidi Amlund
      Pages: 124 - 133
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Veronika Sele, Robin Ørnsrud, Jens J. Sloth, Marc H.G. Berntssen, Heidi Amlund
      Selenium (Se) is an essential element for animals, including fish. Due to changes in feed composition for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), it may be necessary to supplement feeds with Se. In the present work, the transfer of Se and Se species from feed to muscle of Atlantic salmon fed Se supplemented diets was studied. Salmon were fed basal fish feed (0.35 mg Se/kg and 0.89 mg Se/kg feed), or feed supplemented either with selenised yeast or sodium selenite, at low (1–2 mg Se/kg feed) and high (15 mg Se/kg feed) levels, for 12 weeks. For the extraction of Se species from fish muscle, enzymatic cleavage with protease type XIV was applied. The extraction methods for Se species from fish feed were optimised, and two separate extraction procedures were applied, 1) enzymatic cleavage for organic Se supplemented feeds and 2) weak alkaline solvent for inorganic Se supplemented feeds, respectively. For selenium speciation analysis in feed and muscle tissue anion-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS for analysis of inorganic Se species and cation-exchange HPLC-ICP-MS for analysis of organic Se species, were applied. In addition, reversed phase HPLC-ICP-MS was applied for analysis of selenocysteine (SeCys) in selected muscle samples. The results demonstrated that supplemented Se (organic and inorganic) accumulated in muscle of Atlantic salmon, and a higher retention of Se was seen in the muscle of salmon fed organic Se diets. Selenomethionine (SeMet) was the major Se species in salmon fed basal diets and diets supplemented with organic Se, accounting for 91–118% of the total Se. In contrast, for muscle of salmon fed high inorganic Se diet, SeMet accounted for 30% of the total Se peaks detected. Several unidentified Se peaks were detected, in the fish fed high inorganic diet, and analysis showed indicated SeCys is a minor Se species present in this fish muscle tissue.
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      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Hair in Parkinson's disease patients exhibits differences in Calcium, Iron
           and Zinc concentrations measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry
           − FAAS
    • Authors: Altair B dos Santos; Kristi A Kohlmeier; Marcelo E Rocha; George E Barreto; Jeferson A Barreto; Ana Carla A de Souza; Marcos A Bezerra
      Pages: 134 - 139
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Altair B dos Santos, Kristi A Kohlmeier, Marcelo E Rocha, George E Barreto, Jeferson A Barreto, Ana Carla A de Souza, Marcos A Bezerra
      Imbalances in metals have emerged as playing a role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Monitoring of metal levels could serve as a biomarker of presence, or future development, of this disease. To this end, we evaluated the ability of flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) to assess the concentrations of Ca, Fe and Zn in hair of PD patients and to investigate if there was an association with age and disease duration. Hair samples were collected from 26 clinically-diagnosed PD patients, and 33 healthy individuals. Concentrations of Ca and Fe were lower in PD patients when compared to control, whereas, a higher concentration of Zn was detected in PD patients. Levels of Ca and Fe did not vary with age nor with the duration of PD. While Zn did not present variation with duration of the disease, there was a correlation with age as PD patients older than 65 years exhibited a higher concentration of Zn than controls. We conclude that FAAS is useful for detecting differences in Fe, Ca and Zn in hair samples of patients with PD. Hair samples required for this method are easy to collect, and the technique relies on a simple method of digestion of the organic matrix. The ease of use of FAAS should allow for more frequent monitoring of metallic levels in patients in a variety of small clinical situations, thereby offering the hope of allowing systematic tracking of metal levels as the disease progresses, or prior to the defining motor symptoms.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Effect of hypotensive therapy combined with modified diet or zinc
           supplementation on biochemical parameters and mineral status in
           hypertensive patients
    • Authors: Joanna Suliburska; Katarzyna Skrypnik; Monika Szulińska; Justyna Kupsz; Paweł Bogdański
      Pages: 140 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Joanna Suliburska, Katarzyna Skrypnik, Monika Szulińska, Justyna Kupsz, Paweł Bogdański
      Background Hypotensive therapy leads to a number of trace elements metabolism disturbances. Zinc balance is frequently affected by antihypertensive treatment. Aim To evaluate the effect of a hypotensive treatment, modified diet and zinc supplementation on mineral status and selected biochemical parameters in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients on monotherapy. Methods In the first stage, arterial hypertension in ninety-eight human subjects was diagnosed. In the second stage, antihypertensive monopharmacotherapy was implemented. In the third stage, patients were randomized into three groups and continued antihypertensive monotherapy: group D received an optimal-mineral-content diet, group S received zinc supplementation, and group C had no changes in diet or zinc supplementation. Iron, zinc, and copper concentrations in serum, erythrocytes, urine, and hair were determined. Lipids, glucose, ceruloplasmin, ferritin, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were assayed in serum. Results Antihypertensive monotherapy decreased zinc concentration in serum and erythrocytes and increased the level of zinc in urine, decreased CAT and SOD activity, TNF-α concentration in serum, and increased the level of NO in the serum. Zinc supply led to an increase in zinc concentration in serum, erythrocytes, and hair (in group S only). In the groups with higher zinc intake, decreased glucose concentration in the serum was observed. Significant correlation was seen between the zinc and glucose serum concentrations. Conclusion Hypotensive drugs disturb zinc status in newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. Antihypertensive monotherapy combined with increased zinc supply in the diet or supplementation favorably modify zinc homeostasis and regulate glucose status without blood pressure affecting in patients with hypertension.
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      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.016
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • How amending calcareous soils with municipal solid waste compost affects
           Fe fractionation and availability to plant
    • Authors: Amir Bostani
      Pages: 149 - 155
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Amir Bostani
      The solubility of iron (Fe), as an important micronutrient for plant growth, is not high in the calcareous soils, and hence efficient methods must be used to increase its availability for plant use. Accordingly, a two-year research work was conducted to investigate the effects of composted municipal solid wastes (MSW) on Fe accumulation and fractionation in a calcareous soil. Treatments including MSW levels at (0 (control), 15 (MSW1), 30 (MSW2) and 60 (MSW3) t ha−1 dry weight) and usage time (yearly (T1) or biyearly usage (T2)) were tested in a factorial experiment on the basis of a completely randomized block design with three replications. The compost was salty and contained the total Fe of 16200 mg kg−1. The concentrations of plant available Fe fractions including the exchangeable (EX), carbonates-bound (CA), organically-bound (OM), and Fe-Mn-oxide-bound (FM) as well as the residual (RE), DTPA- and Total-Fe fraction were determined. MSW increased levels significantly enhanced Fe concentration in different soil fractions as the least and the highest Fe concentrations were resulted by the control and the MSW3 treatments, respectively. The effects of T treatment were also significant on different Fe fractions excluding CA fraction. The Fe fractionation using the Tessier consecutive extraction method indicated the following order of Fe distribution and concentration in different soil fractions: RE > FM > OM > CA > EX. Iron was mostly found in the following fractions RE (>90%), FM (>6%) and OM (>2%). Different soil properties including EC (positively), pH (negatively), CEC (positively) and organic matter (positively) were highly and significantly correlated with different Fe fractions indicating how the use of MSW can affect the properties of calcareous soils. It is possible to increase Fe availability in different soil fractions using composted municipal solid wastes, which is of agronomical, health and environmental significance.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • An assessment of exposure to rare earth elements among patients receiving
           long-term parenteral nutrition
    • Authors: Aubrey L. Galusha; Pamela C. Kruger; Lyn J. Howard; Patrick J. Parsons
      Pages: 156 - 163
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): Aubrey L. Galusha, Pamela C. Kruger, Lyn J. Howard, Patrick J. Parsons
      Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are exposed to potentially toxic elements, which may accumulate in bone. Bone samples collected from seven PN patients (average = 14 years) and eighteen hip/knee samples were analyzed for Al as part of a previous investigation. Yttrium was serendipitously detected in the PN bone samples, leading to the present investigation of rare earth elements (REEs). A method for quantitating fifteen REEs in digested bone was developed based on tandem ICP-MS (ICP-MS/MS) to resolve spectral interferences. The method was validated against nine biological reference materials (RMs) for which assigned values were available for most REEs. Values found in two NIST bone SRMs (1400 Bone Ash and 1486 Bone Meal) compared favorably to those reported elsewhere. Method detection limits ranged from 0.9 ng g−1 (Tm) to 5.8 ng g−1 (Y). Median REE values in the PN patient group were at least fifteen times higher than the “control” group, and exceeded all previously reported data for eleven REEs in human bones. REE content in PN bones normalized to the Earth’s upper crust revealed anomalies for Gd in two patients, likely from exposure to Gd-containing contrast agents used in MRI studies. A retrospective review of the medical record for one patient revealed an almost certain case of nephrogenic systemic fibrosis, associated with Gd exposure. Analysis of two current PN formulations showed traces of REEs with relative abundances similar to those found in the PN bones, providing convincing evidence that PN solutions were the primary source of REEs in this population.
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      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.013
      Issue No: Vol. 47 (2018)
  • Lithium chloride attenuates mitomycin C induced necrotic cell death in
           MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells via HMGB1 and Bax signaling
    • Authors: Mahdieh Razmi; Azra Rabbani-Chadegani; Fatemeh Hashemi-Niasari; Parinaz Ghadam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Mahdieh Razmi, Azra Rabbani-Chadegani, Fatemeh Hashemi-Niasari, Parinaz Ghadam
      The clinical use of potent anticancer drug mitomycin C (MMC) has limited due to side effects and resistance of cancer cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lithium chloride (LiCl), as a mood stabilizer, can affect the sensitivity of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells to mitomycin C. The cells were exposed to various concentrations of mitomycin C alone and combined with LiCl and the viability determined by trypan blue and MTT assays. Proteins were analyzed by western blot and mRNA expression of HMGB1 MMP9 and Bcl-2 were analyzed by RT-PCR. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cell cycle arrest and percent of apoptotic and necrotic cells. Concentration of Bax assessed by ELISA. Exposure of the cells to mitomycin C revealed IC50 value of 20 μM, whereas pretreatment of the cells with LiCl induced synergistic cytotoxicity and IC50 value declined to 5 μM. LiCl combined with mitomycin C significantly down-regulated HMGB1, MMP9 and Bcl-2 gene expression but significantly increased the level of Bax protein. In addition, the content of HMGB1 in the nuclei decreased and pretreatment with LiCl reduced the content of HMGB1 release induced by MMC. LiCl increased mitomycin C-induced cell shrinkage and PARP fragmentation suggesting induction of apoptosis in these cells. LiCl prevented mitomycin C-induced necrosis and changed the cell death arrest at G2/M-phase. Taking all together, it is suggested that LiCl efficiently enhances mitomycin C-induced apoptosis and HMGB1, Bax and Bcl-2 expression may play a major role in this process, the findings that provide a new therapeutic strategy for LiCl in combination with mitomycin C.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.011
  • School meals’ centesimal and mineral composition and their nutritional
           value for Brazilian children
    • Authors: Fabiana C.O. França; Iziane S. Andrade; Mariangela V. Lopes Silva; Maurício S. Lordêlo; Renata G. Costa; José A. Menezes-Filho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Fabiana C.O. França, Iziane S. Andrade, Mariangela V. Lopes Silva, Maurício S. Lordêlo, Renata G. Costa, José A. Menezes-Filho
      The assessment of meals served under the Brazilian National School Meal Program (PNAE) is an important tool to verify its adequacy to the proposed parameters and the nutritional needs of school-aged children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the centesimal and mineral composition of the meals offered by the program and adequacy to the nutritional recommendations in three municipalities of the state of Bahia, Brazil. Centesimal composition of meals was determined according to the reference guidelines and mineral composition was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Non-parametric analysis of variance was used to test the differences of the medians among the municipalities and Student-t test to compare the means between the two sampling periods. There were inadequacies in the carbohydrate, lipid and protein contents, and none of the municipalities reached the recommendation of 20%. Mineral concentration, especially Fe, Se, Cu and K were much lower than expected. Sodium levels were three-folds higher than the recommended, being worrisome due to higher risk of elevated blood pressure. There were inadequacies with regard to the PNAE guidelines, and there is a need to reevaluate the meals that are being offered to better meet childreńs needs and to form healthy habits from childhood.
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      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.013
  • The effects of zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes on murine, rat
           and human precision-cut lung slices
    • Authors: Julia Krabbe; André Esser; Stephanie Kanzler; Till Braunschweig; Svetlana Kintsler; Jan Spillner; Thomas Schröder; Sebastian Kalverkamp; Galina Balakirski; Benjamin Gerhards; Annette D. Rieg; Thomas Kraus; Peter Brand; Christian Martin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Julia Krabbe, André Esser, Stephanie Kanzler, Till Braunschweig, Svetlana Kintsler, Jan Spillner, Thomas Schröder, Sebastian Kalverkamp, Galina Balakirski, Benjamin Gerhards, Annette D. Rieg, Thomas Kraus, Peter Brand, Christian Martin
      Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of metal inert gas brazing welding fumes containing zinc and copper have been demonstrated in humans. Here, murine, rat and human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) were incubated in welding fume containing media with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml for 24 or 48 h. 24 h incubation were determined either by incubation for the total time or for only 6 h followed by a 18 h post-incubation phase. Cytotoxicity, proliferation and DNA repair rates, and cytokine levels were determined. Welding fume particle concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml showed no toxic effects on PCLS of all three species, while for 10 and 100 μg/ml a concentration-dependent toxicity occurred. Proliferation and DNA repair rates were reduced for all tested concentrations and incubation times. Additionally, the cytokine levels in the supernatants were markedly reduced, while after 6 h of exposure with 18 h of post-incubation time a trend towards increased cytokine levels occurred. PCLS are a reliable and feasible method to assess and offer a prediction of toxic effects of welding fume particles on human lungs. Rat PCLS showed similar responses compared to human PCLS and are suitable for further evaluation of toxic effects exerted by welding fume particles.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.008
  • Iron and innate antimicrobial immunity—Depriving the pathogen,
           defending the host
    • Authors: Manfred Nairz; Stefanie Dichtl; Andrea Schroll; David Haschka; Piotr Tymoszuk; Igor Theurl; Günter Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Manfred Nairz, Stefanie Dichtl, Andrea Schroll, David Haschka, Piotr Tymoszuk, Igor Theurl, Günter Weiss
      The acute-phase response is triggered by the presence of infectious agents and danger signals which indicate hazards for the integrity of the mammalian body. One central feature of this response is the sequestration of iron into storage compartments including macrophages. This limits the availability of this essential nutrient for circulating pathogens, a host defence strategy known as ‘nutritional immunity’. Iron metabolism and the immune response are intimately linked. In infections, the availability of iron affects both the efficacy of antimicrobial immune pathways and pathogen proliferation. However, host strategies to withhold iron from microbes vary according to the localization of pathogens: Infections with extracellular bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella or Yersinia stimulate the expression of the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin which targets the cellular iron-exporter ferroportin-1 causing its internalization and blockade of iron egress from absorptive enterocytes in the duodenum and iron-recycling macrophages. This mechanism disrupts both routes of iron delivery to the circulation, contributes to iron sequestration in the mononuclear phagocyte system and mediates the hypoferraemia of the acute phase response subsequently resulting in the development of anaemia of inflammation. When intracellular microbes are present, other strategies of microbial iron withdrawal are needed. For instance, in macrophages harbouring intracellular pathogens such as Chlamydia, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Listeria monocytogenes or Salmonella Typhimurium, ferroportin-1-mediated iron export is turned on for the removal of iron from infected cells. This also leads to reduced iron availability for intra-macrophage pathogens which inhibits their growth and in parallel strengthens anti-microbial effector pathways of macrophages including the formation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumour necrosis factor. Iron plays a key role in infectious diseases both as modulator of the innate immune response and as nutrient for microbes. We need to gain a more comprehensive understanding of how the body can differentially respond to infection by extra- or intracellular pathogens. This knowledge may allow us to modulate mammalian iron homeostasis pharmaceutically and to target iron-acquisition systems of pathogens, thus enabling us to treat infections with novel strategies that act independent of established antimicrobials.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.007
  • Circadian calcium feeding regime in laying hens related to zinc
           concentration, gene expression of circadian clock, calcium transporters
           and oxidative status
    • Authors: Xue Lin; Yilin Liu; Tiantian Meng; Chunyan Xie; Xin Wu; Yulong Yin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Xue Lin, Yilin Liu, Tiantian Meng, Chunyan Xie, Xin Wu, Yulong Yin
      The study was conducted to investigate the effects of different circadian calcium feeding regimes on parameters of Zn status and gene expression of circadian clock, calcium transporters and oxidative status in laying hens. In total, 180 of 41-weeks Brown Hy-line laying hens were assigned randomly into three groups, 1-CON group (Control Ca, diets contained 3.4% Ca at both 0730 and 1530 h), 2-HL group (High-low Ca, diets contained 3.6%–3.2% Ca respectively) and 3-LH group (Low-high Ca, diets contained 3.2%–3.6% Ca respectively), which were fed a certain amount of control diet at 0730 h and 1530 h. Blood, tibia, jejunum and kidney samples were collected at 4 h intervals with initial starting at 0800 h after 10 weeks of experiment. Compared with the CON group: 1) the serum zinc in HL group increased at 2000 h, but lower at 1600 h in LH group (P < 0.05). 2) in jejunum, circadian clock genes including CLOCK and BMAL1 expression of HL group were down-regulated at 0000 h and 1600 h, as well as CLOCK, BMAL1, Cry2, Per3 and calcium transporter gene NCX1 in LH group at 2000 h (P < 0.05). 3) in kidney, CLOCK, Cry1, Cry2 and Per3 of LH group were up-regulated at 0400 h, CLOCK at 0000 h as well, while CLOCK at 2000 h were down-regulated (P < 0.05). 4) in kidney, the calcium transporters including PMCA, CaBP and CA of LH group were up-regulated at 0000 h, but PMCA and CaBP of LH group were down-regulated at 0800 h, 1200 h and 1600 h, as well as CA at 1600 h and PMCA at 2000 h of LH group (P < 0.05), and the oxidative gene SOD of the LH group was up-regulated at 0400 h, as well as CAT at 0400 h, SOD and GPX1 at 1200 h in HL group, but SOD at 1600 h and 2000 h, and GPX1 at 1600 h were down-regulated in LH group (P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that the dynamic circadian calcium feeding regime affected circadian rhythms of serum zinc concentration as well as the expression of certain genes related to the circadian clock, calcium transport and antioxidative capacity, and circadian calcium feeding regimes may therefore be considered with regard to improving the calcium usability.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.002
  • Strategies for the development of selenium-based anticancer drugs
    • Authors: Philippe Collery
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Philippe Collery
      Many experimental models demonstrated that inorganic and organic selenium (Se) compounds may have an anticancer activity. However, large clinical studies failed to demonstrate that Se supplementations may prevent the outcome of cancers. Moreover, there are few randomized trials in cancer patients and there is not yet any Se compound recognized as anticancer drug. There is still a need to develop new Se compounds with new strategies. For that, it may be necessary to consider that Se compounds may have a dual role, either as anti-oxidant or as pro-oxidant. Experimental studies demonstrated that it is as pro-oxidant that Se compounds have anticancer effects, even though cancer cells have a pro-oxidant status. The oxidative status differs according to the type of cancer, the stage of the disease and to other parameters. We propose to adapt the doses of the Se compounds to markers of the oxidative stress, but also to markers of angiogenesis, which is strongly related with the oxidative status. A dual role of Se on angiogenesis has also been noted, either as pro-angiogenesis or as anti-angiogenesis. The objective for the development of new Se compounds, having a great selectivity on cancer cells, could be to try to normalize these oxidative and angiogenic markers in cancer patients, with an individual adaptation of doses.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.024
  • Dietary intake of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc
           in a Northern Italy community
    • Authors: Tommaso Filippini; Silvia Cilloni; Marcella Malavolti; Federica Violi; Carlotta Malagoli; Marina Tesauro; Ilaria Bottecchi; Angela Ferrari; Luciano Vescovi; Marco Vinceti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Marcella Malavolti, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Marina Tesauro, Ilaria Bottecchi, Angela Ferrari, Luciano Vescovi, Marco Vinceti
      This study provides the dietary intakes of six trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc), generally characterized by both nutritional and toxicological features depending on their exposure. Being diet the most relevant source of exposure to trace elements in non-professionally exposed subjects, we measured content of these trace elements in foods composing the typical Italian diet using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and assessing dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we eventually estimated dietary daily intake of trace elements in a Northern Italian community. In the 890 analyzed food samples, the main contributors to cadmium intake are cereals, vegetables and sweets, while cereals, beverages and vegetable are to primary source of manganese. The primary contributors for copper are cereals, fresh fruits and vegetables, while for chromium are beverages, cereals and meat. The main source of selenium intake are cereals and meat, followed by fish, seafood and milk and dairy products, while of zinc intake are meat, cereals, milk and dairy products. In our Italian population sample, the estimated median (interquartile range) dietary daily intakes are 5.00 (3.17–7.65), 56.70 (36.08–86.70) and 66.53 (40.04–101.32) μg/day for cadmium, chromium and selenium, and corresponding figures are 0.98 (0.61–1.49), 2.34 (1.46–3.52) and 8.50 (5.21–12.48) mg/day for copper, manganese and zinc. The estimated intakes are generally within the average intake reported in other European populations, and in such cases well above the daily dietary intakes recommended by national international agencies, avoiding the risk of excess or deficiency. The present estimated intake data can be used to examine a specific trace element of interest and would afford enhanced health protection from those trace elements characterized by both nutritional and toxicological effects.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.001
  • Investigation on the factors that influence the prevalence of thyroid
           nodules in adults in Tianjin, China
    • Authors: Lili Fan; Long Tan; Yanting Chen; Cong Du; Mei Zhu; Kunling Wang; Hongyan Wei; Wei Wang; Min Gao; Yixin Zhang; Tingkai Cui; Wen Chen; Jun Shen; Wanqi Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Lili Fan, Long Tan, Yanting Chen, Cong Du, Mei Zhu, Kunling Wang, Hongyan Wei, Wei Wang, Min Gao, Yixin Zhang, Tingkai Cui, Wen Chen, Jun Shen, Wanqi Zhang
      Studies have shown that prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) has been increasing recently. However, the factors that may influence TN prevalence is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to understand the prevalence of TNs and identify possible factors that are associated with the prevalence of TNs in Tianjin, China. Subjects aged 18 years or older were randomly collected and all subjects received thyroid ultrasonography, physical examination and questionnaires. Subjects (n = 2647) were divided into the case group in which the subjects had TNs and the control group in which the subjects did not have TNs. Potential influencing factors on TNs including sex, age, iodine status, thyroid volume, thyroid hormone (TSH), thyroid autoantibody TPOAb, TGAb and living habits were analyzed. Our results showed that the overall TN prevalence was 26.7%. The prevalence of TNs in women was higher than that in men (P < 0.05). TN prevalence increased with age (P < 0.001), and a U-shaped curve relationship between urine iodine concentrations (UICs) and prevalence of TNs was observed. The positive rate of TPOAb and goiter rate in case group was higher than that in control group (P < 0.05). The thyroid volume in case group was larger than that in control group (P < 0.001). Other factors that may influence TNs included high blood pressure, iodized salt, menopause, seafood intake, and education levels. None of UIC, TSH, TPOAb and TGAb were associated with TN prevalence in regression models. In conclusion, our results showed that TNs prevalence in Tianjin was high. TNs prevalence was higher in women than in men, and it increases with age. The older, female, high education level physical labor and goiter are independent risk factors for TNs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.004
  • Effects of dietary sodium selenite and organic selenium sources on immune
           and inflammatory responses and selenium deposition in growing pigs
    • Authors: Michaela Falk; Aksel Bernhoft; Tore Framstad; Brit Salbu; Helene Wisløff; Trond M. Kortner; Anja B. Kristoffersen; Marianne Oropeza-Moe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Michaela Falk, Aksel Bernhoft, Tore Framstad, Brit Salbu, Helene Wisløff, Trond M. Kortner, Anja B. Kristoffersen, Marianne Oropeza-Moe
      The essential trace element selenium (Se) unfolds its physiological activity through selenoproteins. Almost half of these proteins have antioxidant properties, which are essential to minimize perturbations, as i.e. lipid peroxidation, damage to proteins and nucleic acids, caused by reactive oxygen species. Lack of Se and the resulting decrease in antioxidant capacity are thought to be related to degeneration of myocytes in the heart (Mulberry heart disease) and skeletal muscle (nutritional myopathy) in pigs. This study was conducted to compare effects of different dietary Se sources (sodium selenite [NaSe], Se-enriched yeast [Se yeast] or L-selenomethionine [SeMet]) and one Se-deficient control diet on the expression of selected genes, hematological and clinical biochemical parameters, and muscle morphology in two parallel trials with finisher pigs. Se concentrations in blood plasma and tissues were also monitored. From the pigs in one of the parallel groups, muscle samples obtained from Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) before and during the trial were examined. The pigs in the other parallel group were challenged once with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:41:21Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.03.003
  • Optimal dosage and early intervention of L-ascorbic acid inhibiting
           K2Cr2O7-induced renal tubular cell damage
    • Authors: Tzeng-Jih Lin; Yeou-Lih Huang; Jung-San Chang; Kuan-Ting Liu; Meng-Chi Yen; Fen-Wei Chen; Yueh-Lun Shih; Jo-Chi Jao; Po-Chi Huang; I-Jeng Yeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Tzeng-Jih Lin, Yeou-Lih Huang, Jung-San Chang, Kuan-Ting Liu, Meng-Chi Yen, Fen-Wei Chen, Yueh-Lun Shih, Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chi Huang, I-Jeng Yeh
      Chromium poisoning can cause renal failure and death. Chromium intoxication may be managed using L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C) therapy. However, the evidence supporting the effectiveness of this treatment is insufficient, and the mechanism of action has not been clarified in renal cells. In this study, our results showed that the optimal regimen of L-ascorbic acid therapy in human epithelial renal proximal tubule cells, HK-2 cells, was 30 μg/mL. Supplementation of L-ascorbic acid with 30 μg/mL and within 8 hours of chromium intoxication (K2Cr2O7, Cr6+) was effective to inhibit renal tubular cell damage by blocking generation of free radicals, cell apoptosis, and autophagy. Intracellular chromium concentrations were estimated using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment of L-ascorbic acid within 8 hours of chromium intoxication significantly decreased the entry of chromium into the cells. Moreover, concomitant administration of L-ascorbic acid with repeatedly dosing at 8-hourly intervals had a better protective effect at lower concentration of L-ascorbic acid when compared to single dosing of L-ascorbic acid at an early time point of chromium intoxication. These findings might help physicians develop effective therapy strategies in renal failure.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.022
  • Mössbauer spectroscopic study of transformations of iron species by the
           cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (formerly Spirulina platensis)
    • Authors: Yurii D. Perfiliev; Alexandr Kh. Tambiev; Maxim A. Konnychev; Anatoly V. Skalny; Elena S. Lobakova; Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Yurii D. Perfiliev, Alexandr Kh. Tambiev, Maxim A. Konnychev, Anatoly V. Skalny, Elena S. Lobakova, Mikhail P. Kirpichnikov
      In the present paper, Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of dry biomass samples of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis (formerly known as Spirulina platensis) were performed with regard to metabolic iron accumulation. 57Fe Mössbauer parameters of iron in the biomass correspond to ferrihydrite. Spectra of iron hydroxides in A. platensis biomass differ from those of iron complexes with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid injected to Zarrouk culture medium. The limit of saturation of A. platensis trichomes with iron in the form of ferrihydrite was found to be 5 μg/ml (0.09 μmol/ml) Fe in the culture medium. Conglomerates precipitated in the medium at higher iron concentrations also contain ferrihydrite but the ratio of the crystal lattice forms is different from that in the biomass.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.030
  • Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of 2,2`-dipyridyl diselenide
           through reduction of inducible nitric oxide synthase, nuclear factor-kappa
           B and c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation levels in the mouse spinal
    • Authors: Suzan Gonçalves Rosa; César Augusto Brüning; Ana Paula Pesarico; Ana Cristina Guerra de Souza; Cristina Wayne Nogueira
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Suzan Gonçalves Rosa, César Augusto Brüning, Ana Paula Pesarico, Ana Cristina Guerra de Souza, Cristina Wayne Nogueira
      Appropriate treatment of pain requires analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs generally associated with undesirable side effects and not fully effective in a significant proportion of patients. Organoselenium compounds elicit a plenty of pharmacological effects in different animal models. Among these compounds, the 2,2`-dipyridyl diselenide (DPD) has a potent antioxidant effect and low toxicity. In this way, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible DPD antinociceptive effect and its mechanism of action, as well as the safety of the compound. Female Swiss mice were treated with vehicle or DPD (0.01–50 mg/kg) intragastrically. Dose–response curve and time-course of the antinociceptive effect of DPD were performed on formalin and tail immersion tests. Morphine (2.5 mg/kg, subcutaneous, 15 min earlier) was used as a positive control in behavioral tests. The results showed that DPD presents a rapid antinociceptive effect in low doses, without changing the spontaneous locomotor activity and parameters of toxicity in mice. The DPD antinociceptive effect was also confirmed in male Swiss mice in both formalin and tail immersion tests. In addition, DPD reduced the paw edema induced by 2.5% formalin and ear edema induced by 2.5% croton oil. L-arginine (600 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) reduced the DPD antinociceptive effect in the first phase of the formalin test. Moreover, DPD attenuated the increase in iNOS, NF-κB and JNK phosphorylation in the spinal cord of mice injected with formalin. These results showed that DPD exerts peripheral and central nociceptive actions associated with anti-inflammatory effect and this organoselenium compound could be an interesting alternative therapy for pain treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.021
  • Total content and in vitro bioaccessibility of Tellurium in Brazil nuts
    • Authors: Otávio Berenguel; Gustavo de S. Pessôa; Marco A.Z. Arruda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Otávio Berenguel, Gustavo de S. Pessôa, Marco A.Z. Arruda
      Alongside the Brazil nut’s role as an excellent source of vitamins, oil, fatty acids, lipids and nutrients, it is also recognized as a rich source of selenium. The pathway along which selenium and sulfur are metabolized in plants is theorized to be the same as that used for tellurium. Total tellurium content and its bioaccessibility are then evaluated by ICP-MS. Interferences and sample preparation are evaluated for the accurate determination of tellurium, and the accuracy determined through analysis of the certified reference material 1643e. A concentration of 4.02 ± 0.391 ng g−1 is obtained as an average concentration through external and internal calibrations. Through this reliable result, tellurium bioaccessibility in Brazil nuts is obtained via an in vitro validated unified bioaccessibility method. Values of 32% and 30% of total tellurium are available in the gastric and gastrointestinal fractions, respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:59:12Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.026
  • Assessment of metals bioaccumulation and bioavailability in mussels
           Mytilus galloprovincialis exposed to outfalls pollution in coastal areas
           of Casablanca
    • Authors: Zineb Mejdoub; Younes Zaid; Hmimid Fouzia; Mostafa Kabine
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Zineb Mejdoub, Younes Zaid, Hmimid Fouzia, Mostafa Kabine
      The present work aims to study the metallic contamination of four sampling sites located nearby major sewage outfalls of the Casablanca coast (Morocco), using indigenous mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis as bioindicators of pollution. This research offered the opportunity to study trace metals bioaccumulation mechanisms, which represent a major factor in assessment processes of the pollution effects in coastal ecosystem health. The bioavailability and the bioaccumulation of trace metals (Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb) were evaluated in order to compare the metallic contamination in mussels’ tissues and find a possible correlation with physiological parameters of this filter feeding species. Our results showed a significant spatiotemporal variation of bioaccumulation, compared to control. A significant correlation coefficient between metals (Zn and Pb) bioavailability and physiological index (CI) was revealed in mussels from the most polluted location. The seasonal variation of trace metal accumulation was also raised; the highest values recorded during the dry period.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.018
  • Blood Lead and Cadmium in Age Related Macular Degeneration in a Turkish
           Urban Population
    • Authors: Elif Damar Güngör; Fatma Yülek; Utku Serkant; Yasin Toklu; Asım Hocaoğlu; Şaban Şimsek
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Elif Damar Güngör, Fatma Yülek, Utku Serkant, Yasin Toklu, Asım Hocaoğlu, Şaban Şimsek
      Purpose To evaluate the blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) levels in age related macular degeneration (AMD) in a turkish urban population. Methods Blood Pb and Cd levels of 31 AMD patients and 24 age and gender matched controls with no sign of AMD were measured using dual atomic absorption spectrophotometer system (AAS). History of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, myocardial infarction and stroke were obtained from all subjects. Degree of AMD was grade 4 according to the Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading system. Median blood Pb and Cd levels were compared by using Students’ t test. Results Demographic properties like smoking status, presence of diabetes mellitus or hypertension, cerebrovascular occlusion history, serum cholesterol and lipid levels were not significantly different between groups except history of ischemic heart disease (3.22% vs 25% in AMD and control groups respectively, p = 0.022). Overall in AMD group blood Pb level was 2.83 ± 0.15 μg/l and it was 2.63 ± 0.23 μg/l in control group (p = 0.36). The Cd level was 3.25 ± 0.20 μg/l in AMD group and 3.11 ± 0.25 μg/l in control group (p = 0.67). The mean Pb (2.38 ± 0.88 μg/l vs 2.91 ± 1.37 μg/l for AMD vs control, p = 0.61) and Cd levels (3.06 ± 1.34 μg/l vs 3.35 ± 1.26 μg/l for AMD vs control, p = 0.56) in current and previous smokers with AMD were not significantly different from those of the current and previous smokers in control group. Conclusion Blood Pb and Cd levels which reflect short term exposure were not significantly different in AMD patients and the control group. The difference was not significant either after involvement of previous or current smoker subjects.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T03:09:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.019
  • Altered homeostasis of trace elements in the blood of SCA2 patients
    • Authors: Stefania Squadrone; Paola Brizio; Cecilia Mancini; Maria Cesarina Abete; Alfredo Brusco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Stefania Squadrone, Paola Brizio, Cecilia Mancini, Maria Cesarina Abete, Alfredo Brusco
      Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a neurological disorder characterized by cerebellar dysfunction. The possible association between metals and neurodegenerative diseases is under constant investigation, with particular focus on their involvement in oxidative stress and their potential role as biomarkers of these pathologies. Whole blood samples of SCA2 patients and of healthy individuals were subjected to multi-elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Reduced levels of manganese and copper were found in SCA2 patients, while zinc and vanadium concentrations were significantly higher in patients compared to controls. Copper, manganese and zinc are cofactors of many enzymes (such as superoxide dismutase, SOD) involved in the cellular antioxidant response, whereas vanadium is a transition metal able to produce reactive radicals. A marked decrease of the antioxidant response has been previously reported in SCA2 patients. We suggest that an unbalance of transitional elements in the blood may reflect altered antioxidant homeostasis in SCA2 patients and could constitute a future peripheral biomarker for this disease. In addition, we suggest a possible role of vanadium in the altered lipid metabolism of SCA2 patients.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.011
  • Evaluation of immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid in chickens
    • Authors: Iwona Sembratowicz; Katarzyna Ognik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Iwona Sembratowicz, Katarzyna Ognik
      Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are one of the most examined nanomaterials, but information about their immunogenic potential is still insufficient. Understanding interaction of AuNPs with immune system is essential in designing their safety and possibilities of biomedical applications. An experiment was conducted to determine immunotropic activity of gold nanocolloid (AuNPs) administered orally to chickens depending on dose and duration time. 162 birds were assigned to 9 experimental groups of 18 birds each. The control group (C) did not receive AuNPs. Groups: T10.5, T11.0, T11.5, T12.0, received nano-gold in a rate of 0.5 mg/kg body weight/d, 1.0 mg/kg body weight/d, 1.5 mg/kg body weight/d and 2.0 mg/kg body weight/d in 8–14, 22–28 and 36–42 days of the life. The birds in groups T20.5, T21.0, T21.5, T22.0, received nano-gold in the same doses, but only in 8–10, 22–24 and 36–38 days of life. Phagocytic activity of leukocytes was determined in vitro using Staphylococcus aureus 209P strain, their respiratory burst activity was quantified by nitroblue tetrazolium reduction test. Serum lysozyme content was determined by the turbidimetric method. The Wintrobe method was used to determine the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Ceruloplasmin in the blood plasma was estimated by the p-phenylenediamine colorimetric method. The level of chicken immunoglobulins: IgA, IgM and IgY and interleukin IL-6 in the blood were determined using ELISA tests. The lowest dose of AuNPs, independently on duration time had no effect on immune parameters of chickens. In all other groups receiving nano-gold for a shorter period (T2), there was an increase in the respiratory burst activity of leukocytes and a drop in lysozyme activity in blood. The higher doses (1.5 and 2.0 mg/kg body weight/d) of the nano-gold administered for the longer time period had a pro-inflammatory effect, as indicated by an increase in the level of interleukin 6 and ceruloplasmin activity as well as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. They also contributed to an elevation of class IgA and IgY contents in blood. The results of the study revealed that the influence of nano-gold on immune response of chickens were dependent both on dose and duration time. Long lasting administration of higher doses of AuNPs contributed to adverse effect in form of inflammation response. To avoid the development of inflammatory reaction, administered dose of nano-gold should not exceed 1.0 mg/kg body weight/d.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:35:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.006
  • Blood boron levels and anthropometric measurements in prepubertal children
    • Authors: Suzan
      Abstract: Publication date: May 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 47
      Author(s): S. Songül Yalçin, Suzan Yalçin
      This study was conducted to assess the blood boron levels (BBL) in prepubertal children in the West and Central Anatolia regions of Turkey and its relationship with chosen anthropometric measurements. A multistage sampling design that combined multicluster (West Anatolia vs. Central Anatolia regions and rural vs. urban residents) and simple random sampling methods were used for the sample selection. BBL was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Weight, height, mid-arm circumference, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured. Z-scores for weight-for-age, height-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were calculated. Furthermore, arm-muscle area, arm-fat area, and fat percentage were measured. This study enrolled 2126 children, of whom 50.7% were male. The mean age was 8.9 years. The mean concentration of BBL was 15.6 μg/L (interquartile range: 11.7–19.6 μg/L). Children in urban areas had significantly higher BBL than those in rural areas (17.2 ± 5.5 vs. 11.9 ± 4.6 μg/L; p < .001). Children in the West Anatolia region had significantly lower BBL than those in the Central Anatolia region (14.5 ± 5.9 μg/L vs. 17.8 ± 5.0 μg/L; p < .001). BBL was not affected by maternal education, occupation, sex, and anemia. BBL was found to be significantly lower in children with low BMI, low triceps skinfold thickness, low arm fat area, and low-fat percentage. Change in BBL was associated with the region and residence in Turkey. BBL differed between well-nourished and malnourished children. Further studies are needed to evaluate the relationship between anthropometry and BBL.

      PubDate: 2018-02-04T18:55:52Z
  • Acute exposure to methylmercury chloride induces fast changes in swimming
           performance, cognitive processes and oxidative stress of zebrafish (Danio
           rerio) as reference model for fish community
    • Authors: Stefan-Adrian Strungaru; Madalina Andreea Robea; Gabriel Plavan; Elena Todirascu-Ciornea; Alin Ciobica; Mircea Nicoara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Stefan-Adrian Strungaru, Madalina Andreea Robea, Gabriel Plavan, Elena Todirascu-Ciornea, Alin Ciobica, Mircea Nicoara
      Fishes are the first group of vertebrates that respond when the environment is contaminated with pollutants resulted from anthropogenic activities. The development of the toxicity tests is bringing new evidence about the toxicological effects of the pollutants upon the life forms. Behavioural abnormalities in the swimming performance and cognitive processes were well associated with the response of organisms to pollutants from environment. The aim of the paper was to study the behavioural changes of zebrafish (memory, swimming performances and aggression) and oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde) during 32 hours of acute exposure with methylmercury (II) chloride to measure its neurotoxicity effects upon fish community. The experiments from this study tested and measured the fish community response to methylmercury concentrations (1 μg L−1 and 15 μg L−1) in the first hours after it contamination based on zebrafish model. The changes of the behaviour in the case of a fish species may lead in the end to their population reduction based on less reproductive success, lower food resource exploitation and problems in the predator avoidance. The behavioural tests described in the present study can be applied to measure the neurotoxicity of other metals compounds, to do plans and protocols for avoiding future ecological disasters. The behavioural changes of zebrafish exposed to methylmercury (II) chloride were similar to mammal models and they will have applications in future research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.019
  • Thyroid function alterations attributed to high iodide supplementation in
           maternal rats and their offspring
    • Authors: Xue Liang; Yanni Feng; Laixiang Lin; Iruni Roshanie Abeysekera; Umar Iqbal; Tingting Wang; Ying Wang; Xiaomei Yao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Xue Liang, Yanni Feng, Laixiang Lin, Iruni Roshanie Abeysekera, Umar Iqbal, Tingting Wang, Ying Wang, Xiaomei Yao
      Objective Our aim was to investigate thyroid function alterations attributed to high iodide supplementation in maternal rats and their offspring. Methods Depending on their iodide intake, the pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal iodide intake (NI), 10 times high iodide intake (10 HI) and 100 times high iodide intake (100 HI) groups. Iodine concentration in the urine and maternal milk; iodine content and mitochondrial superoxide production; expression of TRα1, TRβ1, NIS and Dio1 in both the thyroid and mammary glands were all measured. The offspring were exposed to different iodide-containing water (NI, 10 HI and 100 HI) from weaning to postnatal day 180 (PN180). Serum thyroid hormone levels were measured in both maternal rats and their offspring. Results Iodine concentration in the urine and maternal milk, as well as iodine content in the thyroid and mammary glands was significantly increased in both the 10 HI and 100 HI groups (p < 0.05). In the 100 HI group of maternal rats, low FT3 levels, high FT4, TPOAb and TgAb levels were detected. In addition, an increased mitochondrial superoxide production and decreased expression of TRα1, TRβ1, NIS and Dio1 in the thyroid and mammary glands was found (p < 0.05). A positive staining of CD4+ that co-localized with TRβ1 in the infiltrated cells within the thyroid follicles was observed. At PN180 in the offspring, the FT3 and FT4 levels showed a significant decrease, while the levels of serum TSH, TPOAb and TgAb were significantly increased in both 10 HI and 100 HI groups (p < 0.05). Conclusion In maternal rats, although normal thyroid function can be maintained following 10 HI, thyroiditis can be induced following 100 HI on lactation days 7, 14, and 21. In the offspring at PN180, hypothyroidism complicated with thyroiditis can occur in both the 10 HI and 100 HI groups.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.018
  • Associations of maternal iodine status and thyroid function with adverse
           pregnancy outcomes in Henan Province of China
    • Authors: Jin Yang; Yang Liu; Hongjie Liu; Heming Zheng; Xiaofeng Li; Lin Zhu; Zhe Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Jin Yang, Yang Liu, Hongjie Liu, Heming Zheng, Xiaofeng Li, Lin Zhu, Zhe Wang

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.013
  • Gold and silver quantification from gold-silver nanoshells in HaCaT cells
    • Authors: Stéphane Faucher; Samantha Soulé; Anne-Laure Bulteau; Joachim Allouche; Gaëtane Lespes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Stéphane Faucher, Samantha Soulé, Anne-Laure Bulteau, Joachim Allouche, Gaëtane Lespes
      A method to determine total gold (Au) and/or silver (Ag) elemental concentrations from gold nanoparticles, Au-Ag nanoshells (NS) and silica coated Au-Ag nanoshells was developed, evaluated and validated. Samples were mineralized in a mixture of concentrated aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid at 65 °C for 4 hours. Mineralized solutions were diluted and standard solutions were prepared in aqua regia 5%. ICP-MS analysis was performed with or without the use of a reaction cell (CRC). For the determination of elemental concentrations of nanopowders and test suspensions, the average recovery was 99 ± 2% and 101 ± 2% for gold and silver respectively. The repeatability was evaluated by the Relative Standard Deviation (RSD). The overall analytical RSD was ≤4% (n = 3) and the RSD associated to ICP-MS analysis was ≤2% (n = 10). The limits of detection were 0.005 and 0.002 μg(element) L−1 (analyzed solution), and the limits of quantitation 0.017 and 0.005 μg(element) L−1 (analyzed solution), for 197Au and 109Ag respectively. The Ag/Au mass ratios of the NS in the different samples considered are all equal to (0.93 ± 0.04). From this information, the average thickness of gold and silver layers in the nanoshells was deduced, being 7.5 ± 0.5 and 23 ± 3 nm respectively. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied to in vitro studies to evaluate NS cellular uptake in HaCaT keratinocyte cells confirming the method robustness toward biological medium. Experiments in cell culture medium gave coherent concentrations, 70 to 100% of uncoated or silica-coated NS being recovered, distributed between the culture medium and the cells (internalized). The analytical repeatability (over the whole procedure, or that of the ICP-MS analysis only) remains in the same order of magnitude as in test suspensions. Minimum concentrations less than or equal to 1 μg(element) g−1(suspension) were determined with the same accuracy.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.017
  • A Perspective of Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Rats Treated with Silver and
           Titanium Nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs)
    • Authors: Lilian Cristina Pereira; Murilo Pazin; Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes; Airton da Cunha Martins; Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos; Márcio Cesar Pereira; João Paulo Mesquita; Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues; Fernando Barbosa; Daniel Junqueira Dorta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
      Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys. This situation has increased environmental and occupational exposure to AgNPs and TiNPs, which has placed demand for the risk assessment of NPs. Indeed, the same properties that make nanomaterials so attractive could also prove deleterious to biological systems. Of particular concern is the effect of NPs on mitochondria because these organelles play an essential role in cellular homeostasis. In this scenario, this work aimed to study how AgNPs and TiNPs interact with the mitochondrial respiration chain and to analyze how this interaction interferes in the bioenergetics and oxidative state of the organelles after sub-chronic exposure. Mitochondria were exposed to the NPs by gavage treatment for 21 days to check whether co-exposure of the organelles to the two types of NPs elicited any mitochondrion-NP interaction. More specifically, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups. Groups I, II, III, and IV received mineral oil, TiNPs (100 μg/kg/day), AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), and TiNPs + AgNPs (100 μg/kg/day), respectively, by gavage. The liver was immediately removed, and the mitochondria were isolated and used within 3 h. Exposure of mitochondria to TiNPs + AgNPs lowered the respiratory control ratio, causing an uncoupling effect in the oxidative phosphorylation system. Moreover, both types of NPs induced mitochondrial swelling. Extended exposure of mitochondria to the NPs maintained increased ROS levels and depleted the endogenous antioxidant system. The AgNPs and TiNPs acted synergistically—the intensity of the toxic effect on the mitochondrial redox state was more significant in the presence of both types of NPs. These findings imply that the action of the NPs on mitochondria underlie NP toxicity, so future application of NPs requires special attention.

      PubDate: 2018-02-03T18:51:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.007
    • Authors: Clara Barneo-Caragol; Eduardo Martínez-Morillo; Susana Rodríguez-González; Paloma Lequerica-Fernández; Ignacio Vega-Naredo; Francisco V.Álvarez Menéndez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Clara Barneo-Caragol, Eduardo Martínez-Morillo, Susana Rodríguez-González, Paloma Lequerica-Fernández, Ignacio Vega-Naredo, Francisco V.Álvarez Menéndez
      Background Preeclampsia (PE) is considered a specific vascular disease in which endothelial dysfunction may be the crucial factor of its pathogenesis. It has been suggested that strontium (Sr) may play a role in the pathophysiology of PE. Our group established in a previous study the serum levels of Sr in healthy pregnancies, and the main aim of the present study was to evaluate Sr concentrations and oxidative status in preeclamptic women. Methods The study population included women with early-onset PE (E-PE, n = 39), late-onset PE (L-PE, n = 67) and serial samples from a subset of preeclamptic women (PE-ss, n = 20). The control group included women with gestational hypertension (GH, n = 56) and healthy pregnancies (samples collected in the 1st (n = 50), 2nd (n = 51) and 3rd trimesters (n = 53)). Strontium, calcium (Ca), uric acid (UA), placental growth factor (PlGF), soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1), N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant activity (TAA) were measured in these samples. Results Mean Sr levels were significantly higher in PE than in control groups (p ≤ 0.0001). Calcium values were found to be significantly lower in E-PE compared to control groups (p = 0.03). Higher levels of NT-proBNP were found in PE vs. control groups (p < 0.001). sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was higher in E-PE compared to L-PE and GH (p < 0.001). Uric acid levels in PE were significantly higher than in control groups (p < 0.0001). There was a strong positive correlation between UA and Sr in the E-PE serial samples (r = 0.80, p < 0.0001). Lipid peroxidation and lipid peroxidation/TAA ratios were found to be higher in PE, with lower values of TAA. Conclusion The higher levels of Sr and the alterations of redox status found in preeclamptic women, along with the strong correlation between UA and Sr suggest that this element may be involved in the pathogenesis of PE.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T17:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.003
  • Green silver nanoparticles from novel Brassicaceae cultivars with enhanced
           antimicrobial potential than earlier reported Brassicaceae members
    • Authors: Amarjeet Singh; Bhavana Sharma; Renu Deswal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Amarjeet Singh, Bhavana Sharma, Renu Deswal
      In the present study, we report perhaps for the first time the use of novel varieties of Brassica oleracea var. botrytis and Raphanus sativus as potential bioreductant to synthesize highly stable silver nanoparticles (AgNPs, no aggregation observed for six months), which is a significant finding as plant extract-directed Ag NPs are intrinsically unstable and tend to aggregate. The reduction of Ag+ to Ag0 nanostructures was confirmed using UV–Visible spectroscopy showing SPR spectra at 400–435 nm. Nanosight and transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed monodisperse spherical AgNPs (4–18 nm). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis revealed that the polyphenolics and other secondary metabolites including glucosinolates in the aqueous extracts may act as reducing/capping agent for the nanoparticle synthesis. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the face centered cubic crystalline (fcc) structure of AgNPs. Controlled synthesis of AgNPs was achieved by varying experimental parameters (AgNO3 concentration, extract volume, pH and temperature). AgNPs exhibited strong antibacterial activity at significantly lower concentration (5 ppm) against both Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Myroides, Psuedomonas aeruginosa) and Gram positive (Kocuria, and Promicromonospora) bacteria. In the present study, the green AgNPs showed (10–30%) better antimicrobial efficacy than chemical AgNPs and AgNPs from other Brassicaceae members. These green AgNPs may have promising application in nano-drug formulation to combat bacterial infections, in future.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T17:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.001
  • Oral administration of liquid iron preparation containing excess iron
           induces intestine and liver injury, impairs intestinal barrier function
           and alters the gut microbiota in rats
    • Authors: Shenglin Fang; Zhao Zhuo; Xiaonan Yu; Haichao Wang; Jie Feng
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Shenglin Fang, Zhao Zhuo, Xiaonan Yu, Haichao Wang, Jie Feng
      The aim of this study was to determine the toxicological effects of excess iron in a liquid iron preparation (especially on intestinal barrier function) and the possible etiology of side effects or diseases caused by the excess iron. In study 1, forty male Sprague-Dawley rats (4–5 wk old) were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle (0.01 mol/L HCl) or 1 ml liquid iron preparation containing 8 mg, 16 mg or 24 mg of iron for 30 d. Iron status, oxidative stress, histology (H&E staining), ultrastructure (electron microscopy) and apoptosis (TUNEL assay) in the intestines and liver were assessed. The cecal microbiota was evaluated by 16S rRNA sequencing. In study 2, twenty rats with the same profile as above were subjected to oral gavage with 1 ml vehicle or 24 mg Fe for 30 d. The intestinal barrier function was determined by in vivo studies and an Ussing chamber assay; tight junction proteins and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines were observed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In study 1, the intestinal mucosa and liver showed apparent oxidative stress. In addition, iron concentration-dependent ultrastructural alterations to duodenal enterocytes and hepatocytes and histological damage to the colonic mucosa were detected. Notably, apoptosis was increased in duodenal enterocytes and hepatocytes. Impaired intestinal barrier function and lower expression of intestinal tight junction proteins were observed, and the phenotype was more severe in the colon than in the duodenum. A trend toward higher expression of serum pro-inflammatory cytokines might indicate systemic inflammation. Furthermore, the caecal microbiota showed a significant change, with increased Defluviitaleaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Coprococcus and reduced Lachnospiraceae and Allobaculum, which could mediate the detrimental effects of excess iron on gut health. We concluded that excessive iron exposure from liquid iron preparation induces oxidative stress and histopathological alterations in the intestine and liver. Impaired intestinal barrier function could increase iron transportation, and inflammation along with oxidative stress-enhanced liver iron deposition may cause further liver injury in a vicious circle. These effects were accompanied by lower intestinal segment damage and altered gut microbial composition of rats toward a profile with an increased risk of gut disease.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T17:25:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.01.002
  • Diagnostic potential of major and trace elements in the serum of bladder
           cancer patients
    • Authors: Sven Wach; Katrin Weigelt; Bernhard Michalke; Verena Lieb; Robert Stoehr; Bastian Keck; Arndt Hartmann; Bernd Wullich; Helge Taubert; Anwar Chaudhri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
      Author(s): Sven Wach, Katrin Weigelt, Bernhard Michalke, Verena Lieb, Robert Stoehr, Bastian Keck, Arndt Hartmann, Bernd Wullich, Helge Taubert, Anwar Chaudhri
      Major and trace elements may play a role in the diagnosis of diseases. In this study, we investigated the concentration of 26 major and trace elements in the serum by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) – optical emission spectrometry (OES) and ICP-sector field-mass spectrometry (sf-MS). We analyzed the serum from a discovery cohort of 6 bladder cancer (BCa) patients and 12 healthy controls as well as from a validation cohort of 21 BCa patients, 29 non-tumor bladder patients (with acute and chronic inflammation) and 18 healthy controls. Patients were recruited after written consent was obtained at one medical center. Serum was prepared from peripheral blood prior to surgical treatment. Differences in the levels of major and trace elements were determined by a nonparametric Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal-Wallis statistics. In the discovery cohort, we measured significantly increased levels of calcium, mercury, potassium, lithium, nickel, phosphorus and strontium and a significantly decreased level of sodium in BCa patients compared with healthy controls. These findings were reassessed in our validation cohort. We measured significantly increased levels of boron, calcium, cadmium, copper, chromium, lead, lithium, potassium, magnesium, nickel, sulfur, strontium, titan, vanadium and zinc and significantly decreased levels of iron and molybdenum. When we studied the concordance for the discovery and validation cohorts, concentrations of five elements were detected as significantly increased in BCa patients compared with healthy controls: calcium, lithium, potassium, nickel, and strontium. Interestingly, the levels of three elements (calcium, potassium and strontium) were also significantly increased in non-tumor bladder patients compared with healthy controls. But no element was significantly altered between non-tumor bladder patients and BCa patients. In summary, we suggest that determination of the elements calcium, lithium, nickel and strontium in the serum could be a new and promising tool for the early diagnosis of BCa.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T00:47:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.12.010
  • Usefulness of laser ablation ICP-MS for analysis of metallic particles
           released to oral mucosa after insertion of dental implants
    • Authors: Adam Sajnóg; Anetta Hanć; Ryszard Koczorowski; Krzysztof Makuch; Danuta Barałkiewicz
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 46
      Author(s): Adam Sajnóg, Anetta Hanć, Ryszard Koczorowski, Krzysztof Makuch, Danuta Barałkiewicz
      Despite the fact that titanium is considered highly biocompatible, its presence in the oral cavity (an environment of frequently changing pH and temperature) may result in the release of titanium from intraosseous implants into the oral mucosa, causing a range of reactions from the human body. Fragments of oral mucosa collected from patients after dental implant insertion were analyzed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The study revealed an elevated content of elements (Ti, Al, V) which are components of the metal implants and temporary cover screws. Dynamic ablation of the tissue surface was used in order to obtain maps of the content and distribution of analyzed elements. The material consisted of 30 oral mucosa tissue fragments collected 3–5 months after implantation and 10 samples collected before implantation (control group). The application of optical microscope allowed for indication and confirmation of the location of metal particles prior to LA-ICP-MS analysis. The so-obtained map permitted location of regions containing metal particles. LA-ICP-MS analysis revealed groups of samples with similar properties of metal particles, thus confirming that those metal particles were the main source of the elevated content of metals (Ti, Al, V) in the tissue after implantation. A calibration strategy based on matrix matched solid standards with powdered egg white proteins as matrix material was applied with 34S as an internal standard. The accuracy of the analytical method was verified by ablating pellets of certified reference material ERM-BB422 Fish muscle.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-30T06:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2017)
  • Aluminium in brain tissue in autism
    • Authors: Matthew Mold; Dorcas Umar; Andrew King; Christopher Exley
      Pages: 76 - 82
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 46
      Author(s): Matthew Mold, Dorcas Umar, Andrew King, Christopher Exley
      Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder of unknown aetiology. It is suggested to involve both genetic susceptibility and environmental factors including in the latter environmental toxins. Human exposure to the environmental toxin aluminium has been linked, if tentatively, to autism spectrum disorder. Herein we have used transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry to measure, for the first time, the aluminium content of brain tissue from donors with a diagnosis of autism. We have also used an aluminium-selective fluor to identify aluminium in brain tissue using fluorescence microscopy. The aluminium content of brain tissue in autism was consistently high. The mean (standard deviation) aluminium content across all 5 individuals for each lobe were 3.82(5.42), 2.30(2.00), 2.79(4.05) and 3.82(5.17) μg/g dry wt. for the occipital, frontal, temporal and parietal lobes respectively. These are some of the highest values for aluminium in human brain tissue yet recorded and one has to question why, for example, the aluminium content of the occipital lobe of a 15year old boy would be 8.74 (11.59) μg/g dry wt.' Aluminium-selective fluorescence microscopy was used to identify aluminium in brain tissue in 10 donors. While aluminium was imaged associated with neurones it appeared to be present intracellularly in microglia-like cells and other inflammatory non-neuronal cells in the meninges, vasculature, grey and white matter. The pre-eminence of intracellular aluminium associated with non-neuronal cells was a standout observation in autism brain tissue and may offer clues as to both the origin of the brain aluminium as well as a putative role in autism spectrum disorder.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T00:15:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2017)
  • Mono and dihydroxy coumarin derivatives: Copper chelation and reduction
    • Authors: Maria Carmen Catapano; Jana Karlíčková; Václav Tvrdý; Sweta Sharma; Ashok K. Prasad; Luciano Saso; Anil K. Chhillar; Jiří Kuneš; Milan Pour; Virinder S. Parmar; Přemysl Mladěnka
      Pages: 88 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 46
      Author(s): Maria Carmen Catapano, Jana Karlíčková, Václav Tvrdý, Sweta Sharma, Ashok K. Prasad, Luciano Saso, Anil K. Chhillar, Jiří Kuneš, Milan Pour, Virinder S. Parmar, Přemysl Mladěnka
      Due to the limited array of the currently available copper chelators, research of such compounds continues to be of clinical interest. Notably, o-dihydroxycoumarins have been previously shown to be potent iron chelators under neutral conditions. Within this study, the interaction of a series of natural coumarins and their synthetic analogs with copper has been evaluated in order to obtain structure-activity relationships under different pathophysiological pH conditions. Both competitive and non-competitive methods have been employed. Analysis of cupric ion reduction has also been performed. Under mildly competitive conditions, cupric chelation was observed for o-dihydroxycoumarins, and partially for o-diacetoxycoumarin. Non-competitive studies showed that cuprous ions are not chelated at all and that the stoichiometries of the most active 6,7- and 7,8-dihydroxycoumarins to cupric ions ranged from 1:1 to 2:1 depending on pH and concentration. Interestingly, under highly competitive conditions, coumarins were not capable of chelating cupric ions, either. Reduction experiments have shown that 13 out of the 15 coumarins included in this study reduced cupric ions. However, significant differences depending on their structures were apparent in their potencies. O-dihydroxycoumarins were the most potent ones again. Conclusion O-dihydroxycoumarins are moderately active cupric ion chelators with potent copper reducing properties.

      PubDate: 2017-12-09T23:57:33Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2017.11.014
      Issue No: Vol. 46 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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