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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.932
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0946-672X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Manganese-induced changes in glandular trichomes density and essential
           oils production of Mentha aquatica L. at different growth stages
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Mehrdad Nazari, Fatemeh Zarinkamar, Bahram Mohammad Soltani, Vahid NiknamAbstractProduction and accumulation of essential oils in plants are influenced by intrinsic and environmental factors. Here, we attempted to elucidate the effect of manganese (Mn) supply on the density of glandular trichomes and the production of essential oils in Mentha aquatica (water mint; syn. Mentha hirsuta Huds.) at the different growth stages. To this aim, plants were treated with 100 μM of Mn (supplied as MnSO4·H2O) at early and late vegetative stages of growth. Then, the control and treated plants were harvested, and biochemical, morphological and molecular analyses indicated that Mn supply has affected M. aquatica at the different growth stages. The biomass, Mn accumulation, glandular trichomes density, essential oils yield and expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid biosynthesis pathway (1-Deoxy d-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase (Dxs), geranyl diphosphate synthase (Gpps), isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase (Ippi), β-caryophyllene synthase (Cps), limonene synthase (Ls) and menthofuran synthase (Mfs)) were increased by Mn supply at both growth stages. However, the increased rates of the assayed parameters were varied between the early and late vegetative stages. Moreover, the content and chemical composition of terpenoid components were affected by Mn supply and plant growth stage. There were positive and weak correlations among the study variables under the Mn supply at the different growth stages. Given these findings, we propose that the application of Mn supply at both early and late vegetative stages elevates the growth, density of glandular trichomes and production of essential oils in M. aquatica.
       
  • Effects of boron-containing compounds on cardiovascular disease risk
           factors – A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Ionuţ Donoiu, Constantin Militaru, Oana Obleagă, John M. Hunter, Johny Neamţu, Andrei Biţă, Ion Romulus Scorei, Otilia Constantina RogoveanuAbstractBoron is considered to be a biological trace element but there is substantial and growing support for it to be classified as an essential nutrient for animals and humans, depending on its speciation. Boron-containing compounds have been reported to play an important role in biological systems. Although the exact biochemical functions of boron-containing compounds have not yet been fully elucidated, previous studies suggest an active involvement of these molecules in the mediation of inflammation and oxidative stress. Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are known to amplify the effects of the main cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, diet, obesity, arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes (as modifiable risk factors), and hyperhomocysteinemia and age (as independent risk factors). However, the role of boron-containing compounds in cardiovascular systems and disease prevention has yet to be established.This paper is a review of boron-containing compounds’ existence in nature and their possible functions in living organisms, with a special focus on certain cardiovascular risk factors that may be diminished by intake of these compounds, leading to a reduction of cardiovascular morbidity and/or mortality.
       
  • Respiratory complex II in mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytotoxicity:
           Insight from cadmium
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Elena A. BelyaevaAbstractIn the present work we studied action of several inhibitors of respiratory complex II (CII) of mitochondrial electron transport chain, namely malonate and thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTFA) on Cd2+-induced toxicity and cell mortality, using two rat cell lines, pheochromocytoma PC12 and ascites hepatoma AS-30D and isolated rat liver mitochondria (RLM). It was shown that malonate, an endogenous competitive inhibitor of dicarboxylate-binding site of CII, restored in part RLM respiratory function disturbed by Cd2+. In particular, malonate increased both phosphorylating and maximally uncoupled respiration rates in KCl medium in the presence of CI substrates as well as palliated changes in basal and resting state respiration rates produced by the heavy metal on the mitochondria energized by CI or CII substrates. Notably, malonate enhanced Cd2+-induced swelling of the mitochondria energized by CI substrates in KCl and, in a much lesser extent and at higher [Cd2+], in sucrose media but did not influence on the Cd2+ effects in NaCl medium. Besides, malonate did not affect swelling in sucrose media of RLM energized by CIV substrates under using of Cd2+ or Ca2+ whereas it strongly increased the mitochondrial swelling produced by selenite. In addition, malonate produced some protection against Cd2+-promoted necrotic death of AS-30D and PC12 cells and reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation evoked by Cd2+ in PC12 cells. Importantly, TTFA, an irreversible competitive inhibitor of Q-binding site of CII, per se induced apoptosis of AS-30D cells which was inhibited by co-treatment with Cd2+ as well as decreased the Cd2+-enhanced intracellular ROS formation. In turn, decylubiquinone (dUb) at low μM concentrations did not protect AS-30D cells against the Cd2+-induced necrosis and enhanced the Cd2+-induced apoptosis of the cells. High μM concentrations of dUb were highly toxic for the cells. As consequence, the findings give new evidence indicative of critical involvement of CII in mechanism(s) of Cd2+-produced cytotoxicity and support the notion on CII as a perspective pharmacological target in mitochondria dysfunction-mediated conditions and diseases.
       
  • Sub-acute intravenous exposure to Fe2O3 nanoparticles does not alter
           cognitive performances and catecholamine levels, but slightly disrupts
           plasma iron level and brain iron content in rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Dalel Askri, Souhir Ouni, Said Galai, Benoit Chovelon, Josiane Arnaud, Sylvia G. Lehmann, Mohsen Sakly, Michel Sève, Salem AmaraAbstractEngineered nanomaterials are used in various applications due to their particular properties. Among them, Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (Fe2O3-NPs) are used in Biomedicine as theranostic agents i.e. contrast agents in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and cancer treatment. With the increasing production and use of these Fe2O3-NPs, there is an evident raise of Fe2O3-NPs exposure and subsequently a higher risk of adverse outcomes for the environment and Human. In the present paper, we investigated the effects of an intravenous daily Fe2O3-NPs exposure on Wistar rat for one week. As results, we showed that several hematological parameters and transaminase (ALT and AST) levels as well as organ histology remained unchanged in treated rats. Neither the catecholamine levels nor the emotional behavior and learning / memory capacities of rats were impacted by the sub-acute intravenous exposure to Fe2O3-NPs. However, iron level in plasma and iron content homeostasis in brain were disrupted after this exposure. Thus, our results demonstrated that Fe2O3-NPs could have transient effects on rat but the intravenous route is still safer that others which is encouraging for their use in medical and/or biological applications.
       
  • Nickel-induced neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, striatum and cortex;
           an ultrastructural insight, and the role of caspase-3 and α-synuclein
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Omamuyovwi M. Ijomone, Sunday Y. Olatunji, Joshua O. Owolabi, Thajasvarie Naicker, Michael AschnerAbstractHuman overexposure to nickel (Ni) emanating from the increasing application of Ni compounds in modern technology is a major public health concern. Nickel has been shown to be teratogenic, immunotoxic, genotoxic and carcinogenic. The current knowledge on Ni neurotoxicity is still relatively limited. We have previously demonstrated that Ni treatment alters cognitive and locomotor behaviors, induces oxidative stress and neurodegeneration in brains of rats. In this study, we examine the ultrastructural changes to neurons in the hippocampus, striatum and cortex of the brain following Ni treatment, as well as attempt to delineate the roles for caspase-3 and α-synuclein in Ni-induced neurodegeneration. Rats were treated with either saline, 10 or 20 mg/kg of nickel chloride for 4 weeks via oral gavage. Electron microscopy analysis revealed ultrastructural alterations in neurons of the hippocampus, striatum and cortex following Ni treatment. Mitochondria structural integrity within neurons were markedly compromised. We also detected elevated caspase-3 activity in hippocampus and striatum, as well as overexpression of α-synuclein in the cortex following Ni treatment. Our study demonstrates that mitochondria are a key target in Ni-induced neurodegeneration. Additionally, we implicate apoptotic pathway via caspase-3 action as the executioner and perturbation of α-synuclein expression in Ni-induced neurodegeneration.
       
  • High CO2 effects on growth and biometal contents in the pioneer species
           Senna reticulata: climate change predictions
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Augusto Cesar Fonseca Saraiva, André Mesquita, Terezinha Ferreira de Oliveira, Rachel Ann Hauser-DavisAbstractThe aim of the present study consisted in evaluating the effects of CO2 enrichment on the growth and biometal/nutrient content and accumulation in Senna reticulata germinated under two different carbon dioxide concentrations: atmospheric (360 mg L−1) and elevated (720 mg L−1). Biometal/nutrient determinations were performed on three different plant portions (leaflets, stem and root) using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. In general, the biometal and nutrient stoichiometries in roots were increased, probably due to reduced transpiration, and consequent biometal accumulation. An Artifical Neural Network analysis suggests that Mg, Na and Fe display the most different behavior when comparing plants germinated at atmospheric and elevated CO2 conditions. Biomass and growth increases and certain elemental levels indicate that S. reticulata benefits from increased CO2 levels, however some results indicate the contrary, making further studies in this context necessary, as these changes may lead to direct effects on food safety, crop yields, and phytoremediation efficiency.
       
  • Trace elements influence the hatching success and emergence of Caretta
           caretta and Chelonia mydas
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Namany Lourpen Nascimento Souza, Maria Tereza Weitzel Dias Carneiro, Elisangela Flávia Pimentel, Alexandra Frossard, Jordana Borini Freire, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Paulo Dias Ferreira JúniorTrace elements from industrial, domestic and agricultural activities can be transferred into marine environments, affecting the survival of sea species. Due to their global distribution, sea turtles are recognized as indicators of ocean pollution. The aim of this work was to quantify Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the eggs and offspring of Caretta caretta and Chelonia mydas from two important nesting beaches, Guanabara Beach, Anchieta, and Trindade/Martim Vaz Island, Espírito Santo, Brazil. C. mydas pups and eggs collected on Trindade/Martim Vaz Island presented significant differences in Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn and Sr (p 
       
  • Amniotic fluid minerals, trace elements, and prenatal supplement use in
           humans emerge as determinants of fetal growth
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Lauren M. Jalali, Kristine G. KoskiAbstractAmniotic fluid (AF), which is swallowed by the developing fetus, contains minerals and trace elements, but their association with fetal growth has not been explored. Our objectives were to assess (1) whether concentrations of AF minerals and trace elements were associated with changes in 5 fetal ultrasound measurements (estimated weight, bi-parietal diameter, head circumference, abdominal circumference, femur length) between 16–20 and 32–36 wks gestation and (2) whether a prenatal supplement was associated with concentrations of AF minerals and trace elements or the 5 fetal ultrasound measurements. We measured, using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 15 minerals and trace elements (aluminum, arsenic, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, nickel, potassium, rubidium, selenium, silver strontium, zinc) in amniotic fluid collected from 176 pregnant women undergoing age-related amniocentesis for genetic testing (15.7 ± 1.1 wks). AF mineral concentrations, prenatal supplement use, and determinants of ultrasound measurements during early and late pregnancy were used in models to assess their impact on change in fetal ultrasound measurements. Positive associations were identified for change in bi-parietal diameter with AF calcium, for change in head circumference with AF copper and nickel, and for change in femur length with AF selenium. Arsenic was negatively associated with estimated fetal weight, and this relationship was modified by prenatal supplement use. Additionally, AF chromium concentrations were lower in women taking prenatal supplements. In conclusion, AF minerals were associated with fetal ultrasound indices, supporting a biological role for calcium, copper, nickel and selenium in promoting in-utero fetal growth. Evidence of a mineral-vitamin interaction between arsenic and folic acid in prenatal supplements and mineral-mineral interaction between iron and chromium would suggest that attention be paid to mineral and trace element formulation of prenatal supplements.
       
  • The effects of long-term low selenium diet on the expression of CHST-3,
           CHST-12 and UST in knee cartilage of growing rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Liyun Wang, Xiong Guo, Jianhua Yi, Chengjuan Qu, Jian Lei, Qingquan Guo, Jing HanAbstractObjectivesTo investigate the effect of low selenium diet on rat´s knee cartilage and expression of chondroitin sulfate (CS) sulfated enzymes in articular and epiphyseal-plate cartilage of rats’ femur and tibia.MethodsTwenty-four SD rats were randomly divided into two groups with six female and six male in each group: control group (selenium 0.18 mg/kg), and low selenium group (selenium 0.02 mg/kg). After 109 days, the rats were sacrificed. The ultrastructural changes in chondrocytes of rat knee cartilage were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The morphology and pathology changes of knee cartilage were examined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) and toluidine blue (TB) staining. The localization and expression of enzymes involved in CS sulfation, including chondroitin 6-O-sulfotransferase 1 (CHST-3), chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 2 (CHST-12) and uronyl 2-O-sulfotransferase (UST) were examined by immunohistochemical staining and semi-quantitative analysis.ResultsIn low selenium group, ultrastructural changes of chondrocytes were observed in articular cartilage of femur (AF), articular cartilage of tibia (AT), epiphyseal-plate cartilage of femur (EF) and epiphyseal-plate cartilage of tibia (ET); however, no significant changes in chondrocytes number were observed in the above AF, AT, EF or ET. Moreover, reduced thickness of cartilage layer in AF, EF and ET was detected along with reduced staining areas of sulfated glycosaminoglycan in EF and ET in low selenium group. In addition, positive staining rate of CHST-3 was lower in AF, AT and EF, while positive staining rates of CHST-12 and UST were lower in AF, AT, EF and ET in low selenium group when compared with control group.ConclusionsLow selenium undermines the ultrastructure of chondrocytes, inhibits the normal development of cartilage and the expression of CS sulfated enzymes.
       
  • Spatial variations in soil selenium and residential dietary selenium
           intake in a selenium-rich county, Shitai, Anhui, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Zedong Long, Linxi Yuan, Yuzhu Hou, Gary S. Bañuelos, Yongxian Liu, Liping Pan, Xiaodong Liu, Xuebin YinAbstractShitai, a selenium (Se)-rich county in Anhui, China, has been reported for its resident longevity in the last 20 years. A recent survey by the Anhui Bureau of Geological Survey showed that soil Se contents in the Shitai area ranged from 0.05 to 51.20 mg/kg, with an average of 0.56 mg/kg. To explore the potential relationship between longevity and natural-occurring Se contents in Shitai county, Se concentrations were determined in Shitai’s food chain (including soils and foods) and the daily Se intakes and hair Se contents were calculated for the residents. In the present study, 33 soil samples, 66 food samples and 82 hair samples were randomly collected from field sites, local food markets and male and female residents in downtown Shitai and in four nearby villages (Dashan, Xianyu, Yongfu and Yuantou). The total Se contents in all samples and the levels of water soluble, exchangeable, acid soluble, organic bound and residual Se in soil samples were determined with hydride generation - atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The total Se contents in soils ranged from 227 to 2603 μg/kg, with the averages of 1607 ± 242 μg/kg in Dashan, 1149 ± 118 μg/kg in Xianyu, 521 ± 157 μg/kg in Yongfu, and 363 ± 140 μg/kg in Yuantou. The soil bioavailable Se content (soluble and exchangeable Se) in Dashan was highest (14.98%), followed by Xianyu (13.69%), Yongfu (13.18%) and Yuantou (9.38%). For food samples, the highest Se concentration of grains was 468.5 μg/kg in Dashan, while lowest was observed in downtown (41.7 μg/kg). The estimated daily Se intake of residents in Dashan reached 298.4 μg/d/adult, which is about 5 times higher than the recommend nutrient intake in China (60 μg/d/adult), and 6–10 times higher than the levels observed in Xianyu (47.6 μg/d/adult), Yuantou (46.1 μg/d/adult), Yongfu (40.0 μg/d/adult), and downtown (30.0 μg/d/adult). Although hair Se contents in Dashan (male: 709.2 μg/kg; female: 589.2 μg/kg) were significantly higher than those at the other study sites, no significant relationships between daily Se intakes and hair Se contents were observed. The present study demonstrated that Se levels in soils, foods, resident dietary intake and human hairs in Shitai County varied significantly; therefore, the region could be a unique field site to study the direct relationship between Se and human health.
       
  • Zinc status at baseline is not related to acute changes in serum zinc
           concentration following bouts of running or cycling
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Anna Chu, Peter Petocz, Samir SammanAbstractZinc status is implicated in physiological functions related to exercise performance and physical activity. We have previously demonstrated significant changes in serum zinc concentrations following a bout of aerobic exercise, suggestive of a relationship between zinc metabolism and exercise-related functions. In the present study, we aim to determine the association between pre-exercise serum zinc concentration and immediate changes in serum zinc concentration following an aerobic exercise bout.We have previously conducted a systematic literature search of PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and SPORTDiscus, for studies that investigated the acute effects of aerobic exercise on zinc biomarkers. In the current study, we undertook a secondary analysis using mixed effects meta-regression modelling to determine the relationship between baseline serum zinc concentration and the change in serum zinc concentration immediately after exercise.Meta-regression models revealed no significant relationship between baseline serum zinc concentration and the change in serum zinc concentration following a bout of exercise when all comparisons were included (slope –0.11 ± 0.07 [standard error]; P> 0.05). When comparisons were stratified by exercise modality, no significant relationships were observed for exercise bouts involving cycling or running. The current analyses were limited by the available literature and low statistical power of the meta-regression models.Based on the current available data, the present analysis revealed limited evidence for a relationship between pre-exercise serum zinc concentration and immediate changes in serum zinc levels following a bout of aerobic exercise. Subgroup meta-regression analyses stratified by the mode of exercise bouts did not differ from the overall results. This suggests that zinc status at baseline is not related to acute changes in serum zinc concentration following bouts of aerobic exercise.
       
  • Reversing the adverse biochemical effects in lead-intoxicated rats by
           N,N`- bis[(1,2-didehydro-1-hydroxy-2-thioxopyrid-4-yl)-carbonyl]- L-lysine
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Samah A. Ata, Kamal I. Abu-Dari, Maha F. Tutunji, Mohammad S. MubarakAbstractN,N`-Bis[(1,2-didehydro-1-hydroxy-2-thioxopyrid-4-yl)-carbonyl]- L-lysine (HTPL) is a novel newly synthesized compound intended to be used for the chelation of lead in intoxicated animals. Subchronic lead intoxication experiments were carried out on Wistar male rats; these rats were intoxicated with lead and then treated with HTPL. Results were compared with those obtained with known compounds used for lead chelation therapy, such as disodium ethylnediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccininc acid (DMSA), using different routes of administration. Biological samples of whole blood and urine were collected and analyzed for urinary proporphyrins, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, and zinc protoporphyrin. Results revealed that HTPL can remarkably reverse the toxic effects of lead intoxication at biochemical levels. Additionally, results showed that this agent is as good or even more potent than calcium disodium ethylnediaminetetraacetic acid (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccininc acid (DMSA) in reversing the toxic effect of lead. More importantly, HTPL was found effective when administrated intraperitoneally and orally.
       
  • Boron enhances early embryonic gene expressions and improves fetal
           development of rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Sinan Ince, Metin Erdogan, Hasan Huseyin Demirel, Yuksel Agca, Gamze Dal, Cevdet UguzAbstractBoron is present as several different components in nature. Besides its industrial use, it is an essential element and is playing a very important role in the metabolism. In this study, it was aimed to determine the in vivo effects of boron on mRNA expression of HEX, NANOG, and OCT-3/4 genes in embryo and histological changes during fetal development. Therefore, totally 60 female rats were allocated into 5 equal groups. Experimental groups are as the followings; positive control (fed with standart rat diet), negative control (fed with boron free diet), low boron group (fed with boron free diet and given 0.04 μg boron/ml via gastric gavage), marginal boron group (fed with boron free diet and given 0.3 μg boron/ml via gastric gavage) and normal boron group (fed with boron free diet and given 2 μg boron/ml via gastric gavage). Experimental period was performed for 14 days. Embryos were collected after 4 days of mating and the expression and protein levels of early embryonic genes namely HEX, NANOG, and OCT-3/4 were determined by using Real-Time PCR. Also, 10–20 day embryo and fetus development were histologically determined. According to the results, mRNA expression and protein levels of early embryonic genes were increased in boron groups while decreased in boron deficient group. Histopathologically, tissue and organ developments were definitely observed in the boron groups. In conclusion, mRNA expression levels of early embryonic genes decreased in boron deficient group and boron has an important role for fetal development.
       
  • Estimation of dietary intake of cadmium from cadmium in blood or urine in
           East Asia
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Masayuki Ikeda, Haruo Nakatsuka, Takao Watanabe, Shinichiro ShimboAbstractBackground and aimCadmium (Cd) is an ubiquitous environmental toxic pollutant. As daily foods are an almost exclusive source of exposure for general populations, it is of public health importance to know the level of dietary intake of cadmium (Cd-D). The purpose of this study is to examine whether Cd in blood (Cd-B) or urine (Cd-U) correlates with Cd-D in East Asia, and in case it is, whether it is possible to estimate Cd-D from Cd-B or Cd-U. It should be added that the measurement of Cd-D is quite hand-consuming in practice.Materials and methodsLiterature was retrieved for publication on Cd-B and Cd-U in combination with Cd-D. Twenty three data sets thus obtained for East Asia were subjected to regression analysis to investigate the possibility to estimate Cd-D from Cd-B or Cd-U.ResultsIn Japan and Korea, large correlation coefficients (p > 0.7) were observed between Cd-B and Cd-D, as well as between Cd-U and Cd-D. In China, the coefficient was>0.7 between Cd-B and Cd-D. Furthermore, correlation was significant for Cd-B and Cd-D, as well as Cd-U and Cd-D, when 19 sets for Japan, Korea and China were combined for analysis.DiscussionMajor reasons for successful analysis may be predominant use of women-based data. Women have been less smoking than men in East Asia, and possible confounding effects of smoking on Cd exposure might be minimized.ConclusionBased on significant correlations, Cd-D can be estimated from Cd-B or Cd-U in East Asia.
       
  • Analysis of aluminum, minerals and trace elements in the milk samples from
           lactating mothers in Hamadan, Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Masoumeh Taravati Javad, Aliasghar Vahidinia, Fateme Samiee, Jomana Elaridi, Mostafa Leili, Javad Faradmal, Alireza RahmaniAbstractThe present cross-sectional study is aimed at analyzing the breast milk of lactating mothers in Hamadan, Iran for aluminum and several minerals and trace elements. Ten governmental health care centers were utilized to facilitate collection of breast milk samples. The breast milk samples were collected at 1, 2, 6, 7, and 12 months postpartum from one hundred healthy lactating women, who delivered full-term newborns. Detection of sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), magnesium (Mg) and aluminum (Al) levels was conducted with the use of Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This method has shown high accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and linearity for the wide range of concentrations. The accumulated data were not normally distributed; thus, the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test was used in the statistical analysis of the results. Mean concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg, and Na were 0.75, 1.38, 0.35, 255, 34.58, and 155.72 μg/mL, respectively. The mean level of Al, a well-known neurotoxic metal, was determined to be an alarming 0.191 μg/mL. Moreover, 95% of participants contained very harmful concentrations of Al in their milk. This study also revealed Zn deficiency in about 50% of milk samples. Further investigation is needed to elucidate sources of exposure and factors that may influence maternal and fetal exposure to aluminum.
       
  • Effect of manganese on neural endocrine hormones in serum of welders and
           smelters
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Shi-Yan Ou, Hai-Lan Luo, Richard B. Mailman, Zhao-Cong Li, Yu-Wen Zhang, Mei Cai, Xiao-Wei Huang, Shao-Jun Li, Yue-Ming JiangBackgroundAlthough manganese (Mn)-induced neurotoxicity effects are well known among occupational Mn exposure, few reports have investigated the effects on endocrine systems among welders and smelters.ObjectiveTo determine the effect of high level occupational manganese (Mn) exposure on neuropsychological parameters and hormonal status.MethodsWe used a cross-sectional design with 52 welders, 48 smelters and 43 age-matched office workers from the same factory in China. We analyzed serum endocrine hormones level and airborne Mn concentrations. Erythrocyte and urine Mn levels were quantified using inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.ResultsThe geometric mean of air Mn concentrations for the welders and smelters were 19.7 and 273.1 μg/m3, respectively. Mn concentrations in erythrocytes of smelters were markedly greater than those in controls and welders, but there was no difference between the erythrocytes Mn levels of Control and welders. We also found an increase of Mn levels in the urine of both welders and smelters vs. controls; Mn levels in urine of smelters were higher than in welders. Self-reported neurobehavioral symptoms were higher in welders and smelters than in controls. Finally, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of welders were significantly lower than in controls, whereas smelters had lower prolactin (PRL), testosterone (TST) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentrations than either controls or welders.ConclusionsThese results show that smelters have higher Mn exposure than do welders, and that Mn levels in erythrocytes or urine can be a marker for exposure. Moreover, high level occupational Mn exposure increases adverse neurobehavioral effects, and also may disrupt endocrine systems.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Changes in serum level of trace elements in pulmonary tuberculosis
           patients during anti-tuberculosis treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Zahra Sepehri, Donya Arefi, Nima Mirzaei, Asma Afshari, Zohre Kiani, Alireza Sargazi, Abolfazl Panahi Mishkar, Hamid Owaysee Oskoee, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Aliyeh Sargazi, Saeid GhavamiAbstractIntroductionsTuberculosis is spreading throughout the globe, while it is a crucial cause of death in developing countries. In this study, trace elements concentrations and their alterations were determined in TB patients during anti-tuberculosis treatment period.Materials and methodsWe have collected blood samples from a total of 180 TB patients with pulmonary Tuberculosis, and 180 healthy controls in Sistan, Iran. The serum iron, copper, lead, calcium, arsenic and selenium concentrations were detected at the beginning of anti-TB chemotherapy, at the end of 2nd, 4th and 6th month after treatment initiation. Data were then analyzed using SPSS version 20.Results and discussionsAlthough Ca, Pb, and As levels did not change during the treatment period, serum concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Se were diminished in TB patients significantly during treatment in comparison with controls (P 
       
  • Aqueous humor selenium level and open-angle glaucoma
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Anselm G.M. Jünemann, Bernhard Michalke, Marianna Lucio, Anwar Chaudhri, Ursula Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Robert Rejdak, Marek Rękas, Bettina HohbergerAbstractPurposeSelenium supplementation was seen to be linked to glaucoma disease in a previous study (Lillico A. JE, Reid M et al. (2002) Selenium Supplementation and Risk of Glaucoma in the NPC trial University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ., Arizona Cancer Center). As aqueous humor levels of selenium seemed to be associated with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), the aim of this study was to analyze concentrations of selenium in aqueous humor samples of patients with POAG and pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PEXG) in comparison to normal samples.Patients and MethodsThirty-eight aqueous humor samples from patients undergoing cataract surgery were collected: Eleven patients with PEXG (age 65.8 ± 10.69, female 6, male 5), 12 patients with POAG (age 65.3 ± 10.50, female 7, male 5) and 15 patients without glaucoma (age 70.9 ± 12.83, female 10, male 5, controls). Aqueous humor levels of selenium were measured by Flow-Injection-Inductively-Coupled-Plasma-DRC-Mass-Spectrometry (ICP-DRC-MS).ResultsMaximum likelihood estimation of the least squares means (LS-means) and the relative 95% confidence limits of selenium aqueous humor levels were 6.90 ± 1.03 μg/L (control), 6.74 ± 1.14 μg/L (POAG) and 8.25 ± 1.18 μg/L (PEXG). The data were modeled using a generalized linear model (GLM) analysis, where selenium was set as dependent variable. The model was corrected for group differences in age and gender. The data show no differences among all the calculated differences between the least square means (LS means), taking in consideration the simultaneous 95% confidence limit and the multiple comparison tests with Tukey-Cramer adjustment. The evaluation of the model disclosed that POAG and PEXG patients had no significantly different aqueous humor selenium concentrations compared to controls and to each other. However, the quantile regression analysis of selenium aqueous humor levels showed differences in quantiles for open-angle glaucoma patients considering age and gender.ConclusionAs no significant difference in aqueous humor concentration of selenium was detected between open-angle glaucoma and controls, however, quantile analysis showed differences in quantiles levels for different age ranges in open-angle glaucoma patients, the trace element selenium seemed to be linked to glaucoma disease, yet not in a major role.
       
  • Low hair copper concentration is related to a high risk of nonalcoholic
           fatty liver disease in adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Soo-Hyun Lee, Moon-Jong Kim, Young-Sang Kim, Hyejin Chun, Bo Youn Won, Joo-Ho Lee, Kunhee Han, Kyu-Sung Rim, Kyung-Chae ParkAbstractCopper, an essential micronutrient, is required for lipid metabolism, mitochondrial function, iron metabolism, and antioxidant defense. Copper deficiency has been linked to alterations in lipid metabolism and various metabolic processes of the liver, including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD); however, most of these studies relied on copper measurements in the blood or tissues. In this study, we investigated the association between hair copper concentration and NAFLD in Korean adults, independent of metabolic syndrome status. Clinical and laboratory parameters, including factors of metabolic syndrome, were analyzed in 751 Korean adults divided into quintiles, according to hair copper concentration. Lower hair copper concentration was significantly correlated with higher body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Subjects with NAFLD showed significantly lower hair copper concentrations, and the risk of NAFLD was significantly higher for the lower hair copper quintile groups even after adjusting for metabolic syndrome-related factors. Overall, this study suggests that lower hair copper concentration could be associated with NAFLD, independent of metabolic syndrome factors.
       
  • Yield, growth and Fe uptake of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) affected by
           Fe-nano, Fe-chelated and Fe-siderophore fertilization in the calcareous
           soils
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Hilma Sabet, Forogh MortazaeinezhadCumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) from the Apiaceae family and as an important medicinal plant is greatly used for food production and medicinal purposes. The plant requires macro- and micro-nutrients including iron (Fe), which is not available under calcareous conditions. Accordingly, it was hypothesized the proper source (including the new methods of fertilization) and concentration of Fe can provide cumin with its required amounts of Fe under calcareous soils. The objectives were to determine: 1) the most efficient source of Fe fertilization (by spraying) on cumin yield and Fe uptake, and 2) the most optimum Fe concentration for cumin growth, yield production and seed fortification. A field experiment, as a completely randomized block design, with three replicates was conducted in the city of Aligudarz, Lorestan province, Iran. The cumin plants were sprayed twice during the season, before and after flowering (with a 10 day interval) according to the manufacturing Company. Three different types of Fe fertilization including Fe-nano-chelated (Fe-N), Fe-chelated (Fe-C) and Fe-siderophore (Fe-S) with the concentrations of 0 (control), 0.5 and 1 g/l were used for the experiment. Different plant parameters including grain Fe, crop yield, weight of 1000 grains, grain length, root length and stem length were determined. The highest yield of single plant was resulted by Fe-N1 (250 mg). Fe-N1 (3.8 g) and Fe-C1 (4.0 g) resulted in the highest weight of 1000 grains. However, the highest Fe concentration was related to treatment Fe-S1 (9.4 mg/kg). Plants treated with Fe-N (24.9 cm) and Fe-C (25.0 cm) treatments had the highest plant height. The highest root length was resulted by the Fe-N (8.9 cm) and Fe-C (9.1 cm) treatments. The control treatment resulted in the highest rate of root length/stem length (0.41). Treating the plants with Fe-C treatments resulted in the highest and significantly different grain length (6.8 mm). The concentration of 1 g/l of nano, chelated and siderophores were the most effective, significantly enhancing cumin yield and grain fortification. The results indicated the significant effects of Fe-N on plant yield and Fe uptake followed by the Fe-C method. The findings of this research work indicated that the Fe-N and the Fe-C methods were the most efficient methods enhancing cumin growth and yield. However, the most efficient method for seed fortification was the Fe-S method. The findings are of great nutritional, environmental and economical significance.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Butan-1-ol as an extractant solvent in dispersive liquid-liquid
           microextraction in the spectrophotometric determination of aluminium
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Lucas Carvalho Lima, Rodrigo Papai, Ivanise GaubeurAbstractDetermining aluminium ions at μg L−1 scale currently requires either costly analytical techniques such as inductively coupled plasma, and/or graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) is designed to promote separation and preconcentration, thus making it possible to determine the analyte of interest without significant matrix influence. This study was aimed at the development of a spectrophotometric method to determine Al3+ after microextraction of its complex with quercetin. Butan-1-ol was used as a novel extractant solvent in the DLLME process. The parameters influencing complexation and microextraction, such as the amount of quercetin and volume of extractant were evaluated by univariate analysis. In optimised conditions were estimated for the proposed method: linear range from 7.5 to 165.0 μg L−1, LOD of 2.0 μg L−1, and LOQ of 7.0 μg L−1. The accuracy was checked by applying the proposed method to water (NIST SRM-1643e) and rice flour (NIST SRM-1568c) certified reference materials and spike-and-recovery trials with distinct samples (mineral water, green tea, thermal spring water, contact lens disinfecting solution, saline concentrate for hemodialysis and urine).
       
  • Investigations on the binding of ethylmercury from thiomersal to proteins
           in influenza vaccines
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Philipp Strohmidel, Michael Sperling, Uwe KarstAbstractThis study investigates the binding of ethylmercury (EtHg+) released from the preservative thiomersal by hydrolysis to proteins in influenza vaccines via ultrafiltration and subsequent total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF) analysis as well as size exclusion chromatography (SEC) hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Binding of EtHg+ to the protein fraction was shown by means of ultrafiltration and TXRF in a qualitative matter. SEC/ICP-MS was applied to gain more information about the molecular weight of the bound protein and quantitative information. First experiments showed the necessity of a rinsing step during elution with a thiol-containing compound to prevent unspecific binding or mercury species to the chromatographic system. Adduct formation of EtHg+ and a high-molecular compound could be observed for different concentrations of EtHg+ applied. The mercury-containing fraction was larger than 133 kDa, indicating binding to hemagglutinin, which is the active ingredient in influenza vaccines. The applied SEC/ICP-MS method allowed for external calibration with EtHg+ and a binding of 141 μg L−1 Hg was shown for a vaccine solution that was incubated with EtHg+ (25 mg L−1 Hg).
       
  • Nanosilver crystals capped with Bauhinia acuminata phytochemicals as new
           antimicrobials and mosquito larvicides
    • Abstract: Publication date: December 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 50Author(s): Naiyf S. Alharbi, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M. Khaled, Taghreed N. Almanaa, Sami A. Alyahya, Mohammed N. Al-anbr, Kasi Gopinath, Arumugam SudhaTo develop novel nanoformulated insecticides and antimicrobials, herein we produced Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) using the Bauhinia acuminata leaf extract. This unexpensive aqueous extract acted as a capping and reducing agent for the formation of AgNPs. We characterized B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs by UV–vis and FTIR spectroscopy, XRD and TEM analyses. UV–vis spectroscopy analysis of B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs showed a peak at 441.5 nm. FTIR shed light on functional groups from the phytoconstituents involved in nanosynthesis. XRD of B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs suggested a face-centered cubic structure, with a highly crystalline nature. TEM of B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs revealed mean size of 25 nm, with round shape. AgNPs tested at 60 μg/mL inhibited the growth of 5 bacteria and 3 fungal pathogens. In the insecticidal assays on important mosquito species, LC50 of the aqueous extract of B. acuminata leaves on the larvae of Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus were 204.07, 226.02, and 249.24 μg/mL, respectively. The B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs exhibited higher larvicidal efficacy, with LC50 values of 24.59, 27.19, and 30.19 μg/mL, respectively. Therefore, herein we developed a single-step, reliable, inexpensive, and environmentally non-toxic synthesis process to obtain AgNPs with high bioactivity against pathogens and vectors. Given the effective antimicrobial and larvicidal activity, nanoparticles fabricated using plant extracts and extremely low concentrations of trace elements, such as silver, can be exploited for multipurpose activities. Our results pointed out that B. acuminata-synthesized AgNPs have a promising potential in antimicrobial food packaging, as well as a foliar spray to control plant pathogens in the field, and to synergize the efficacy of fungicidal and larvicidal formulations.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • FESTEM
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s):
       
  • Characterization of Caco-2 cells stably expressing the protein-based zinc
           probe eCalwy-5 as a model system for investigating intestinal zinc
           transport
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Maria Maares, Claudia Keil, Susanne Thomsen, Dorothee Günzel, Burkhard Wiesner, Hajo HaaseAbstractIntestinal zinc resorption, in particular its regulation and mechanisms, are not yet fully understood. Suitable intestinal cell models are needed to investigate zinc uptake kinetics and the role of labile zinc in enterocytes in vitro. Therefore, a Caco-2 cell clone was produced, stably expressing the genetically encoded zinc biosensor eCalwy-5. The aim of the present study was to reassure the presence of characteristic enterocyte-specific properties in the Caco-2-eCalwy clone. Comparison of Caco-2-WT and Caco-2-eCalwy cells revealed only slight differences regarding subcellular localization of the tight junction protein occludin and alkaline phosphatase activity, which did not affect basic integrity of the intestinal barrier or the characteristic brush border membrane morphology. Furthermore, introduction of the additional zinc-binding protein in Caco-2 cells did not alter mRNA expression of the major intestinal zinc transporters (zip4, zip5, znt-1 and znt-5), but increased metallothionein 1a-expression and cellular resistance to higher zinc concentrations. Moreover, this study examines the effect of sensor expression level on its saturation with zinc. Fluorescence cell imaging indicated considerable intercellular heterogeneity in biosensor-expression. However, FRET-measurements confirmed that these differences in expression levels have no effect on fractional zinc-saturation of the probe.
       
  • The effects of zinc- and copper-containing welding fumes on murine, rat
           and human precision-cut lung slices
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Julia Krabbe, André Esser, Stephanie Kanzler, Till Braunschweig, Svetlana Kintsler, Jan Spillner, Thomas Schröder, Sebastian Kalverkamp, Galina Balakirski, Benjamin Gerhards, Annette D. Rieg, Thomas Kraus, Peter Brand, Christian MartinAbstractRecently, the pro-inflammatory effects of metal inert gas brazing welding fumes containing zinc and copper have been demonstrated in humans. Here, murine, rat and human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) were incubated in welding fume containing media with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml for 24 or 48 h. 24 h incubation were determined either by incubation for the total time or for only 6 h followed by a 18 h post-incubation phase. Cytotoxicity, proliferation and DNA repair rates, and cytokine levels were determined. Welding fume particle concentrations of 0.1 and 1 μg/ml showed no toxic effects on PCLS of all three species, while for 10 and 100 μg/ml a concentration-dependent toxicity occurred. Proliferation and DNA repair rates were reduced for all tested concentrations and incubation times. Additionally, the cytokine levels in the supernatants were markedly reduced, while after 6 h of exposure with 18 h of post-incubation time a trend towards increased cytokine levels occurred.PCLS are a reliable and feasible method to assess and offer a prediction of toxic effects of welding fume particles on human lungs. Rat PCLS showed similar responses compared to human PCLS and are suitable for further evaluation of toxic effects exerted by welding fume particles.
       
  • The effects of zinc supplementation on primary human retinal pigment
           epithelium
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Po-Jung Pao, Eszter Emri, Safiya Bishar Abdirahman, Talha Soorma, Hui-Hui Zeng, Stefanie M. Hauck, Richard B. Thompson, Imre LengyelPopulation-based and interventional studies have shown that elevated zinc levels can reduce the progression to advanced age-related macular degeneration. The objective of this study was to assess whether elevated extracellular zinc has a direct effect on retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE), by examining the phenotype and molecular characteristics of increased extracellular zinc on human primary RPE cells. Monolayers of human foetal primary RPE cells were grown on culture inserts and maintained in medium supplemented with increasing total concentrations of zinc (0, 75, 100, 125 and 150 μM) for up to 4 weeks. Changes in cell viability and differentiation as well as expression and secretion of proteins were investigated. RPE cells developed a confluent monolayer with cobblestone morphology and transepithelial resistance (TER)>200 Ω*cm2 within 4 weeks. There was a zinc concentration-dependent increase in TER and pigmentation, with the largest effects being achieved by the addition of 125 μM zinc to the culture medium, corresponding to 3.4 nM available (free) zinc levels. The cells responded to addition of zinc by significantly increasing the expression of Retinoid Isomerohydrolase (RPE65) gene; cell pigmentation; Premelanosome Protein (PMEL17) immunoreactivity; and secretion of proteins including Apolipoprotein E (APOE), Complement Factor H (CFH), and High-Temperature Requirement A Serine Peptidase 1 (HTRA1) without an effect on cell viability. This study shows that elevated extracellular zinc levels have a significant and direct effect on differentiation and function of the RPE cells in culture, which may explain, at least in part, the positive effects seen in clinical settings. The results also highlight that determining and controlling of available, as opposed to total added, zinc will be essential to be able to compare results obtained in different laboratories.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Aluminium (Al) speciation in serum and urine after subcutaneous venom
           immunotherapy with Al as adjuvant
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Bernhard Michalke, Matthias F. Kramer, Randolf BrehlerAbstractBackgroundAluminium is associated with disorders and is the commonly used vaccine adjuvant. Understanding the mechanisms of how Al is transported, metabolized or of its toxicity depends on the knowledge of Al-interactions with bioligands, i.e. Al-species. Al-speciation in serum is difficult because of low concentration and the risk of exogenous Al contamination. Furthermore, Al-measurements may be hampered according to various interferences. This study aims for developing quality controlled protocols for reliable Al- and Al-species determination and for investigating probable differences in Al (-speciation) after Al-containing subcutaneous immunotherapy (SIT).MethodsSample donors were recruited either for the control group (“class-0”, they never had been treated with SIT containing an Al-depot extract) or for the SIT-group (“class-1”, they previously had been treated with SIT for insect venom allergy with an Al-depot extract). Blood was drawn for medical reasons and serum prepared. Additionally, some sample donors collected 24-h-urine. They had been informed (and they consented) about the scientific use of their samples. The study was approved by the ethic committee of the “Medical Association Westphalia-Lippe” and of the University of Münster, evaluating the study positively (No. 2013-667-f-S).We applied quality controlled sample preparation and interference-free Al detection by ICP sectorfield-mass spectrometry. Al-species were analysed using size-exclusion-chromatography-ICP-qMS.FindingsAl-concentrations or speciation in urine samples showed no differences between class-0 and class-1. Al-citrate was the main uric Al-species. In serum elevated Al-concentrations were found for both classes, with class-1 samples being significantly higher than class-0 (p = 0.041), but class-0 samples being approximately 10-fold too high compared to reference values from non-exposed persons. We identified gel-monovettes as contamination source. In contamination-free samples from HNO3-prewashed gel-free monovettes (n = 27) there was no difference in the serum Al concentration between the two patient groups (p = 0.669)InterpretationThorough cleaning of sample preparation ware and use of gel-free monovettes is decisive for an accurate Al analysis in serum. Without these steps, wrong analysis and wrong conclusions are likely. We conclude that gel-monovettes are unsuitable for blood sampling with subsequent Al-analysis. Whether Al in serum is elevated after SIT treatment containing an Al-depot extract, or not, remains inconclusive as the non-contaminated sample size was small.
       
  • Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons disrupt a model in vitro
           blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): S.M. Müller, F. Ebert, J. Bornhorst, H.-J. Galla, K.A. Francesconi, T. SchwerdtleAbstractLipid-soluble arsenicals, so-called arsenolipids, have gained a lot of attention in the last few years because of their presence in many seafoods and reports showing substantial cytotoxicity emanating from arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs), a prominent subgroup of the arsenolipids. More recent in vivo and in vitro studies indicate that some arsenolipids might have adverse effects on brain health.In the present study, we focused on the effects of selected arsenolipids and three representative metabolites on the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (B-CSF-B), a brain-regulating interface. For this purpose, we incubated an in vitro model of the B-CSF-B composed of porcine choroid plexus epithelial cells (PCPECs) with three AsHCs, two arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) and three representative arsenolipid metabolites (dimethylarsinic acid, thio/oxo-dimethylpropanoic acid) to examine their cytotoxic potential and impact on barrier integrity. The toxic arsenic species arsenite was also tested in this way and served as a reference substance. While AsFAs and the metabolites showed no cytotoxic effects in the conducted assays, AsHCs showed a strong cytotoxicity, being up to 1.5-fold more cytotoxic than arsenite. Analysis of the in vitro B-CSF-B integrity showed a concentration-dependent disruption of the barrier within 72 h. The correlation with the decreased plasma membrane surface area (measured as capacitance) indicates cytotoxic effects. These findings suggest exposure to elevated levels of certain arsenolipids may have detrimental consequences for the central nervous system.
       
  • Species fractionation in a case-control study concerning Parkinson’s
           disease: Cu-amino acids discriminate CSF of PD from controls
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Desiree Willkommen, Marianna Lucio, Philippe Schmitt-Kopplin, Malaz Gazzaz, Michael Schroeter, Ali Sigaroudi, Bernhard MichalkeAbstractBackgroundParkinson’s disease is affecting about 1% of the population above 65 years. Improvements in medicine support prolonged lifetime which increases the total concentration of humans affected by the disease. It is suggested that occupational and environmental exposure to metals like iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) can influence the risk for Parkinson’s disease. These metals play a key role as cofactors in many enzymes and proteins.MethodsIn this case-control study, we investigated the Mn-, Fe-, Cu- and Zn-species in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by size-exclusion chromatography hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) and the total concentration of these metals by inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-sf-MS).ResultsThe investigation of total metal concentration and speciation provided only minor changes, but it produced strong significance for a number of ratios. The analysis revealed a strong change in the ratio between total concentration of Fe and the amino acid-fraction of Cu. This could be observed when analyzing both the respective element concentrations of the fraction (which also depends on individual variation of the total element concentration) as well as when being expressed as percentage of total concentration (normalization) which more clearly shows changes of distribution pattern independent of individual variation of total element concentrations.ConclusionSpeciation analysis, therefore, is a powerful technique to investigate changes in a case-control study where ratios of different species play an important role.
       
  • Development, validation and application of an ICP-MS/MS method to quantify
           minerals and (ultra-)trace elements in human serum
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Sören Meyer, Mariya Markova, Gabriele Pohl, Talke A. Marschall, Olga Pivovarova, Andreas F.H. Pfeiffer, Tanja SchwerdtleMulti-element determination in human samples is very challenging. Especially in human intervention studies sample volumes are often limited to a few microliters and due to the high number of samples a high-throughput is indispensable. Here, we present a state-of-the-art ICP-MS/MS-based method for the analysis of essential (trace) elements, namely Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se and I, as well as food-relevant toxic elements such as As and Cd. The developed method was validated regarding linearity of the calibration curves, method LODs and LOQs, selectivity and trueness as well as precision. The established reliable method was applied to quantify the element serum concentrations of participants of a human intervention study (LeguAN). The participants received isocaloric diets, either rich in plant protein or in animal protein. While the serum concentrations of Mg and Mo increased in participants receiving the plant protein-based diet (above all legumes), the Se concentration in serum decreased. In contrast, the animal protein-based diet, rich in meat and dairy products, resulted in an increased Se concentration in serum.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The role of zinc in calprotectin expression in human myeloid cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Simone Lienau, Lothar Rink, Inga WesselsAbstractElevated levels of calprotectin and other inflammatory mediators have been observed in inflammatory diseases paralleling serum hypozincemia. While a role of zinc in the regulation of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 expression has been established, the direct interrelation of zinc and calprotectin (S100A8/S100A9 heterodimer) expression is so far missing. In the present study, we analyzed mRNA and protein levels of S100A8 and S100A9 in monocytic Mono Mac (MM)1 and early myeloid THP-1 and U937 cells to elucidate the effect of zinc deficiency on their expression. We could depict that zinc deficiency alone enhances mRNA and protein expression of calprotectin in myeloid cells, independently from maturity stage. Moreover, pre-existing zinc deficiency augmented lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced calprotectin expression in CD14+ MM1, but not in CD14− U937 or CD14− THP-1 cells. Zinc deficiency and LPS seem therefore to activate different intracellular pathways. Our findings suggest that zinc does not only regulate the activity of calprotectin but also its expression by human myeloid cells.
       
  • Zinc aspartate suppresses proliferation and Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine
           production of pre-activated human T cells in vitro
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Karina Guttek, Linda Wagenbrett, Annegret Reinhold, Kurt Grüngreiff, Dirk ReinholdAbstractThe essential trace element zinc, necessary for many biological processes of living organisms, plays a regulatory role in the maintenance of immune functions. Zinc deficiency affects components of both the innate and the adaptive immune system. On the other side, zinc is capable of suppressing activation and proliferation of human T cells.In the present study, we investigated the effect of zinc aspartate (Unizink®), an approved drug to treat zinc deficiency, on pre-activated human T cells (T cell blasts) in vitro. T cells of healthy donors were stimulated for 48 h with anti‐CD3/CD28 antibodies. After this time period, zinc aspartate or the immunosuppressive drugs cyclosporin A, dexamethasone, and rapamycin were added for additional 24 h to these cell cultures. Subsequently, T cell proliferation and cytokine production was measured.In contrast to cyclosporine A and dexamethasone, only zinc aspartate and rapamycin were capable of suppressing the proliferation and Th1 (IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-5), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokine production of pre-activated T cells.This data suggest that zinc aspartate has the capacity to suppress proliferation and cytokine production of pre-activated human T cells in vitro. Thus, administration of zinc aspartate may have beneficial effects on T cell‐mediated autoimmune diseases.
       
  • Prolonged stimulation of insulin release from MIN6 cells causes zinc
           depletion and loss of β-cell markers
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Rebecca Lawson, Wolfgang Maret, Christer HogstrandAbstractZinc is integral for the normal function of pancreatic β-cells in glycaemic control. Large amounts of zinc are secreted from β-cells following insulin exocytosis and regulated replenishment is required, which is thought to be mediated by the ZIP family of zinc importer proteins. Within Type 2 Diabetic patients, β-cells are stressed through prolonged stimulation by hyperglycaemia and this is thought to be a major factor contributing to loss of β-cell identity and mass. However, the consequences for the β-cell zinc status remain largely unexplored. We used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to show that 24 h treatment of MIN6 cells with potassium chloride, mimicking hyperglycaemic stimulation, reduces the total cellular zinc content 2.8-fold, and qPCR to show an increase in mRNA expression for metallothioneins (Mt1 and Mt2) following 4 and 24 h of stimulation, suggestive of an early rise in cytosolic zinc. To determine which ZIP paralogues may be responsible for zinc replenishment, we used immunocytochemistry, Western blot and qPCR to demonstrate initial ZIP1 protein upregulation proceeded by downregulation of mRNA coding for ZIP1, ZIP6, ZIP7 and ZIP14. To assign a biological significance to the decreased total cellular zinc content, we assessed expression of key β-cell markers to show downregulation of mRNA for MafA, Mnx-1, Nkx2.2 and Pax6. Our data suggest hyperglycaemia-induced zinc depletion may contribute to loss of β-cell markers and promote β-cell dedifferentiation through disrupting expression of key transcription factors.
       
  • A short 18 items food frequency questionnaire biochemically validated to
           estimate zinc status in humans
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Sarah Trame, Inga Wessels, Hajo Haase, Lothar RinkAbstractInadequate dietary zinc intake is wide-spread in the world's population. Despite the clinical significance of zinc deficiency there is no established method or biomarker to reliably evaluate the zinc status.The aim of our study was to develop a biochemically validated questionnaire as a clinically useful tool that can predict the risk of an individual being zinc deficient.From 71 subjects aged 18–55 years blood and urine samples were collected. Zinc concentrations in serum and urine were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. A food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) including 38 items was filled out representing the consumption during the last 6 months obtaining nutrient diet scores. Latter were calculated by multiplication of the particular frequency of consumption, the nutrient intake of the respective portion size and the extent of the consumed quantity. Results from the FFQ were compared with nutrient intake information gathered in 24-h dietary recalls. A hemogram was performed and cytokine concentrations were obtained using Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay.Reducing the items of the primary FFQ from 38 to 18 did not result in a significant variance between both calculated scores. Zinc diet scores showed highly significant correlation with serum zinc (r = 0.37; p 
       
  • Effect of nitrogen and zinc fertilization on zinc and iron bioavailability
           and chemical speciation in maize silage
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Djordje Grujcic, Thomas Hesselhøj Hansen, Søren Husted, Milanka Drinic, Bal Ram SinghAbstractAgronomic biofortification is one of the main strategies for alleviation of micronutrient deficiencies in food and feed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of N supply on total concentration of Zn and Fe and their chemical species in the soluble extracts of maize silage grown under field conditions. Total concentrations of Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn, S and P were measured by flow-injection inductive coupled plasma (ICP) – mass spectrometer (MS). Soluble Fe and Zn were extracted and analyzed by size exclusion−inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the same set-up for total elemental and speciation analysis enabled direct quantitative comparison of the detected speciated molecules with the total element sample content. N or Zn treatment, except in control plots, did not significantly affect concentrations of Zn and Fe in the maize silage and grain samples. Significant positive correlation was observed between Zn and Fe maize silage (r = 0.64, p 
       
  • Antioxidant responses of edible and model plant species subjected to
           subtoxic zinc concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Adriano Sofo, Inês Moreira, Concetta Eliana Gattullo, Luisa Louro Martins, Miguel MouratoZinc (Zn) is a common heavy metal in polluted soils, as it is a widespread pollutant deriving both from natural sources and anthropogenic activities. The antioxidant tolerance/defence mechanisms against oxidative stress induced by subtoxic concentrations of Zn (50 and 150 μM ZnSO4) were studied in a widespread edible plant (lettuce; Lactuca sativa L.) and in an important model plant (Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.). After 10 days (Arabidopsis) and 20 days (lettuce) of Zn exposure, Zn uptake/translocation was evaluated in both roots and shoots, while indicators of oxidative stress and stress intensity, total antioxidant capacity, and enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidative defence were measured in leaves. From an overall comparison of the two species, Zn root uptake in Arabidopsis subjected to 50 and 150 μM ZnSO4 was approximately 3- and 5-fold lower than in lettuce, while Zn translocation from roots to apical leaves was more efficient in Arabidopsis (23.7 vs 21.3% at 50 μM ZnSO4 and 19.3 vs 12.9% at 150 μM ZnSO4). Generally, a higher degree of Zn-induced oxidative stress (863.8 vs 21.3 μg g−1 FW H2O2 and 1.33 vs 0.75 μM g−1 FW MDAeq at 150 μM ZnSO4) and antioxidant response (441.2 vs 258.5 mM g−1 FW TEAC and 91.0 vs 54.9% RSA at 150 μM ZnSO4) were found in lettuce. The aim of this study is understanding (a) if subtoxic Zn levels can affect Zn uptake and translocation in the studied species and (b) if this eventual Zn absorption can influence plant oxidative status/antioxidant response. Considering that soil contamination by Zn can affect crop production and quality, the results of this research could be important for environmental, nutritional and human health issues.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Zinc in soils, water and food crops
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Christos Noulas, Miltiadis Tziouvalekas, Theodore KaryotisAbstractA basic knowledge of the dynamics of zinc (Zn) in soils, water and plants are important steps in achieving sustainable solutions to the problem of Zn deficiency in crops and humans. This paper aims at reviewing and discussing the relevant aspects of the role of Zn in the soil–water–plant agro biological system: from the origins of Zn in soils and water to soil Zn deficiency distribution and the factors affecting soil Zn availability to plants, therefore to elucidate the strategies potentially help combating Zn deficiency problems in soil-plant-human continuum. This necessitates identifying the main areas of Zn-deficient soils and food crops and treating them with Zn amendments, mainly fertilizers in order to increase Zn uptake and Zn use efficiency to crops. In surface and groundwater, Zn enters the environment from various sources but predominately from the erosion of soil particles containing Zn. In plants is involved in several key physiological functions (membrane structure, photosynthesis, protein synthesis, and drought and disease tolerance) and is required in small but nevertheless critical contents. Several high revenue food crops such as beans, citrus, corn, rice etc are highly susceptible to Zn deficiency and biofortification is considered as a promising method to accumulate high content of Zn especially in grains. With the world population continuing to rise and the problems of producing extra food rich in Zn to provide an adequate standard of nutrition to increase, it is very important that any losses in production easily corrected so as Zn deficiencies are prevented.
       
  • Dietary zinc intake and whole blood zinc concentration in subjects with
           type 2 diabetes versus healthy subjects: A systematic review,
           meta-analysis and meta-regression
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): José C. Fernández-Cao, Marisol Warthon-Medina, Victoria Hall Moran, Victoria Arija, Carlos Doepking, Nicola M. LoweAbstractThe aim of this systematic review, meta-analysis and meta-regression was to examine the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and concentration of zinc in whole blood, as well as dietary zinc intake. Searches were performed using Ovid MEDLINE, Embase (Ovid) and The Cochrane Library (CENTRAL). Observational studies conducted on diabetic and healthy adults, with data on dietary zinc intake and/or concentration of zinc in whole blood, were selected. The search strategy yielded 11,150 publications and the manual search 6, of which 11 were included in the meta-analyses. Mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI), were calculated using the generic inverse-variance method with random-effects models. Heterogeneity was assessed by the Cochran Q-statistic and quantified by the I2 statistic. Meta-regressions and stratified analysis were used to examine whether any covariate had influence on the results. The pooled MD for the dietary zinc intake meta-analysis was −0.40 (95% CI: −1.59 to 0.79; I2 = 61.0%). Differences between diabetic and non-diabetic subjects became significant in the presence of complications associated with diabetes (MD = −2.26; 95% CI: −3.49 to −1.02; I2 = 11.9%). Meta-regression showed that for each year since the diagnosis of diabetes the concentration of zinc in whole blood decreased in diabetic patients regarding healthy controls [MD (concentration of zinc in blood) = 732.61 + (−77.88303) × (duration of diabetes in years)], which is not generally explained by a lower intake of zinc.
       
  • Influence of zinc supplementation on immune parameters in weaned pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Veronika Kloubert, Karoline Blaabjerg, Tina Sørensen Dalgaard, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Lothar Rink, Inga WesselsZinc is an essential trace element, highly important for a well functioning immune system. In case of zinc deficiency, proper immune functions are not ensured thus leading to various diseases. Weaning of pigs from the sow causes stress, increasing susceptibility to infections. Moreover, low feed intake during the first two weeks post-weaning, accompanied by low zinc intake, results in temporary zinc deficiency. Therefore, supporting the immune system by zinc supplementation might improve its function and thereby the pigs’ health and well-being. In this study, the immune status of weaned pigs was analyzed under different conditions of zinc supplementation. More precisely, the daily porcine diet was either left unsupplemented (0 ppm), or was supplemented with low (100 ppm), or high (2500 ppm) amounts of additional zinc in the form of zinc oxide (ZnO) (Zn0, Zn100, and Zn2500, respectively). Porcine innate and adaptive immune cells of the different dietary groups were analyzed. Results revealed an improved innate immune capacity, represented by increased phagocytosis and slightly increased oxidative burst in cells from the Zn2500 pigs and Zn100 pigs, respectively. Apart from that, zinc supplementation improved adaptive immunity, as seen by increased numbers of CD3+ T cells as well as increased numbers of CD3+CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, elevated interleukin (IL)-2 production and decreased IL-10 production. Although not significant, supplementing 2500 ppm zinc slightly decreased killing activity of natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, the optimal concentration for zinc supplementation of weaned pigs two weeks post-weaning needs to be further studied, presumably establishing an optimal concentration between 100 ppm and 2500 ppm zinc. Genome comparisons indicate that the porcine genome is more closely related to the human genome than the murine genome is related to the human genome. Therefore, the pig seems to be a suitable organism to study human immunity and diseases. Results obtained in the current study might therefore be transferable to the human immune system.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Localization of the zinc binding tubulin polymerization promoting protein
           in the mice and human eye
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Robert G. Tripon, Judit Oláh, Tajwar Nasir, Lajos Csincsik, Chee Lok Li, Sándor Szunyogh, Haiyan Gong, Jane M. Flinn, Judit Ovádi, Imre LengyelTubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network by its bundling and acetylation enhancing activities that can be modulated by the binding of zinc to TPPP/p25. Its expression is essential for the differentiation of oligodendrocytes, the major constituents of the myelin sheath, and has been associated with neuronal inclusions. In this paper, evidence is provided for the expression and localization of TPPP/p25 in the zinc-rich retina and in the oligodendrocytes in the optic nerve. Localization of TPPP/p25 was established by confocal microscopy using calbindin and synaptophysin as markers of specific striations in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and presynaptic terminals, respectively. Postsynaptic nerve terminals in striations S1, S3 and S5 in the IPL and a subset of amacrine cells show immunopositivity against TPPP/p25 both in mice and human eyes. The co-localization of TPPP/p25 with acetylated tubulin was detected in amacrine cells, oligodendrocyte cell bodies and in synapses in the IPL. Quantitative Western blot revealed that the TPPP/p25 level in the retina was 0.05–0.13 ng/μg protein, comparable to that in the brain. There was a central (from optic nerve head) to peripheral retinal gradient in TPPP/p25 protein levels. Our in vivo studies revealed that the oral zinc supplementation of mice significantly increased TPPP/p25 as well as acetylated tubulin levels in the IPL. These results suggest that TPPP/p25, a microtubule stabilizer can play a role in the organization and reorganization of synaptic connections and visual integration in the eye.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Reduced plaque size and inflammation in the APP23 mouse model for
           Alzheimer’s disease after chronic application of polymeric nanoparticles
           for CNS targeted zinc delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Antonietta Vilella, Daniela Belletti, Ann Katrin Sauer, Simone Hagmeyer, Tasnuva Sarowar, Martina Masoni, Natalia Stasiak, John J.E. Mulvihill, Barbara Ruozi, Flavio Forni, Maria Angela Vandelli, Giovanni Tosi, Michele Zoli, Andreas M. GrabruckerAbstractA local dyshomeostasis of zinc ions in the vicinity of amyloid aggregates has been proposed in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) due to the sequestration of zinc in senile plaques. While an increase in zinc levels may promote the aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ), increased brain zinc might also be beneficial rescuing some pathological alterations caused by local zinc deficiency. For example, increased Aβ degradation by metalloproteinases, and a reduction in inflammation can be hypothesized. In addition, zinc may allow a stabilization of the number of synapses in AD brains. Thus, to evaluate whether altering zinc-levels within the brain is a promising new target for the prevention and treatment of AD, we employed novel zinc loaded nanoparticles able to deliver zinc into the brain across the blood-brain barrier. We performed in vivo studies using wild type (WT) and APP23 mice to assess plaque load, inflammatory status and synapse loss. Furthermore, we performed behavioral analyses. After chronically injecting these nanoparticles for 14 days, our results show a significant reduction in plaque size and effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-18. On behavioral level we could not detect negative effects of increased brain zinc levels in APP23 mice and treatment with g7-NP-Zn normalized the observed hyperlocomotion of APP23 mice. Therefore, we conclude that a targeted increase in brain zinc levels may have beneficial effects in AD.
       
  • Changes in zinc status and zinc transporters expression in whole blood of
           patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS)
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Daniela Florea, Jorge Molina-López, Christer Hogstrand, Imre Lengyel, Antonio Pérez de la Cruz, Manuel Rodríguez-Elvira, Elena PlanellsAbstractIntroductionCritically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of many nutrients and especially zinc, depleting their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the zinc status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying the association with expression of zinc transporters.Material and methodsThis investigation was a prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. Twelve critically ill patients from different hospitals and 12 healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent were recruited. Data on daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, inflammation, clinical and nutritional parameters, plasma and blood cell zinc concentrations, and levels of transcripts for zinc transporters in whole blood were taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay.ResultsZinc levels on critical ill patient are diminish comparing with the healthy control (HS: 0.94 ± 0.19; CIPF: 0.67 ± 0.16 mg/dL). The 58% of critical ill patients showed zinc plasma deficiency at beginning of study while 50.0% of critical ill after 7 days of ICU stay. ZnT7, ZIP4 and ZIP9 were the zinc transporters with highest expression in whole blood. In general, all zinc transporters were significantly down-regulated (P 
       
  • Zn-net special issue
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Nicola Lowe, Lothar Rink
       
  • Obesity, diabetes and zinc: A workshop promoting knowledge and
           collaboration between the UK and Israel, november 28–30, 2016 – Israel
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Alicia Jenkins, Imre Lengyel, Guy A. Rutter, Nicola Lowe, Iris Shai, Amir Tirosh, Tunde Petro, Mogher Khamaisi, Simon Andrews, Niv Zmora, Atan Gross, Wolfgang Maret, Eli C. Lewis, Arie Moran
       
  • Low-dose Thimerosal (ethyl-mercury) is still used in infants` vaccines:
           Should we be concerned with this form of exposure'
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): José G. DóreaAbstractIn developing countries, Thimerosal-containing vaccines (TCV) are the main causes of organic Hg exposure for newborns, neonates, and infants immunized with TCV. This article addresses early-life exposure to this unique organic mercury compound (ethylmercury-EtHg) and the risks of its exposure. English language studies pertaining to Thimerosal/EtHg toxicity and exposure during early life were searched in PubMed; and, those publications judged to be relevant to the topic of this review were selected. The risk from the neurotoxic effects of pre- and post-natal Hg exposures depend, in part, on aggravating or attenuating environmental and/or genetic-associated factors. Health authorities in charge of controlling infectious disease dismiss the toxicology of mercury (immunological and subtle neurological effects as insignificant) related to low-dose Thimerosal. The review addresses the evidence that brings into question the safety of Thimerosal that is still present in vaccines given to pregnant women, infants, and children in developing countries, and recognizes the ethical imperative to extend the use of Thimerosal-free vaccines to developing countries, not just developed countries.
       
  • Selectivity and sensitivity of molybdenum oxide-polycaprolactone nanofiber
           composites on skin cancer: Preliminary in-vitro and in-vivo implications
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Indrakumar Janani, Rachita Lakra, Manikantan Syamala Kiran, Purna Sai KorrapatiCancer nanomedicine has emerged as a revolution in the last decade opening up promising strides for the cancer treatment. The major challenge in these therapeutic approaches resides in the failure of clinical trials owing to the immunological cancer microenvironment. Therefore, the success of next generation nanomedicine depends on tunable physicochemical nanomaterial design and corresponding clinical trials by integrating targeted delivery with mitigated toxicity. The present study deals with the fabrication of nanofibrous scaffold impregnated with molybdenum nanoparticles for targeted skin cancer therapeutics. Molybdenum oxide, a transitional metal oxide is gaining rapid importance due to its vital role in cellular and molecular metabolism. Polycaprolactone nanofibers were chosen as a matrix to localize the nanoparticles topically facilitating selective apoptosis of the tumor cells over the normal cells with mitigated side effects. The scaffold was designed to tailor the physicochemical, mechanical and biological suitability for skin cancer (melanoma and non melanoma). The designed scaffold was found to reduce more than 50% cell viability of the cancer cells selectively through apoptosis as confirmed using AO/PI staining and the probable mechanism could be attributed to the induction of mitochondria dependent apoptosis as observed by JC1 dye staining. In-vivo trials in zebra fish were found to reduce cancer progression by more than 30% in 14 days. The fabricated molybdenum trioxide nano constructs not only serve as tunable targeted systems but also open venues capable of ferrying chemotherapeutic drugs sparing normal cells alleviating the trauma due to side effects.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Elemental changes of hippocampal formation occurring during postnatal
           brain development
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): J. Chwiej, M. Palczynska, A. Skoczen, K. Janeczko, J. Cieslak, R. Simon, Z. SetkowiczIn this paper the elemental changes of rat hippocampal formation occurring during the postnatal development were examined. Three groups of animals were used in the study. These were naive Wistar rats at the age of 6-, 30- and 60-days and the chosen life periods corresponded to the neonatal period, childhood and early adulthood in humans, respectively.For the topographic and quantitative elemental analysis X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied and the measurements were done at the FLUO beamline of ANKA. The detailed quantitative and statistical analysis was done for four areas of hippocampal formation, namely sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon’s horn (CA1 and CA3, respectively), dentate gyrus (DG) and its internal area (hilus of DG, H).The obtained results showed that among the all examined elements (P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se), only the levels of Fe and Zn changed significantly during postnatal development of the hippocampal formation and both the elements were significantly higher in young adults comparing to the rats in neonatal period. The increased Fe areal density was found in all examined hippocampal areas whilst Zn was elevated in CA3, DG and H.In order to follow the dynamics of age-dependent elemental changes, the statistical significance of differences in their accumulation between subsequent moments of time was examined. The obtained results showed statistically relevant increase of Zn level only in the first observation period (between 6th and 30th day of life). Afterwards the areal density of the element did not change significantly. The increase of Fe areal density took place in both examined periods, however the observed changes were small and usually not statistically relevant.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Evaluation of the uptake, storage and cell effects of nano-iron in
           enterocyte-like cell models
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Daniel Turiel-Fernández, Jörg Bettmer, Maria Montes-BayónThe therapy with nanocompounds is widely used to treat Fe deficiency and an emerging trend to inhibit tumor growth. The present work aims to address the management of different FeONP, comparing sucrose covered FeONP and Fe nanoparticles in the form of the ferritin with non-particulated inorganic Fe (II) by enterocytes-like colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT-29). Iron uptake results revealed significantly higher Fe incorporation in the case of nanoparticulated Fe, first in the form of FeONP and second in the form of ferritin with respect to inorganic Fe (II). Furthermore, the intracellular Fe fractionation, conducted by size exclusion chromatography coupled on line to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS) showed a significant increase of the Fe-ferritin peak upon exposure of cells to the following compounds ferritin > FeONP > FeSO4. Such results point out that the sucrose coated FeONP released Fe into the cell cytosol that was used to replenish the existing cytosolic ferritin without inducing changes in the protein concentration. On the other hand, the increase of the Fe-ferritin peak in cells exposed to ferritin as iron source is due to a significant increase on the intracellular protein concentration, as proved by using an ICP-MS linked ferritin sandwich immune assay. Cell viability experiments conducted with concentrations up to 1000 μmol L−1 (as Fe) of each compound under scrutiny did not reveal significant differences among Fe species regarding global cellular toxicity. However, significant cell DNA damage was detected when treating the cells with FeONP (500 μmol L−1).Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • The effects of various levels of boron supplementation on live weight,
           plasma lipid peroxidation, several biochemical and tissue antioxidant
           parameters of male mice**: Effects of boron on performance, antioxidant
           and some metabolits of mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Varol Kurtoglu, Firuze Kurtoglu, Pınar Peker AkalinAbstractIn this study, live weight, live weight gain, plasma GPx, GR, LDH, ALT activities, triglyceride, total protein, albumin and LPO levels, also liver and brain SOD and GPx activities were investigated after administration of boron (0.10, 0.20 and 0.30 mg/day) into male mice with drinking water for 60 days. Blood albumin and triglyceride levels were not affected with boron (p > 0.05) where triglyceride levels, with increasing amounts of boron, displayed a slight decrease within the normal ranges. From the antioxidant-oxidant balance parameters, LPO and GR levels were not affected from boron, where GPx activity was increased significantly (p 
       
  • Expression of zinc transporters ZIP4, ZIP14 and ZnT9 in hepatic
           carcinogenesis—An immunohistochemical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Laura Gartmann, Thomas Wex, Kurt Grüngreiff, Dirk Reinhold, Thomas Kalinski, Peter Malfertheiner, Kerstin SchütteAbstractIntroductionDysregulation of both, systemic zinc levels and tissue-specific zinc transporters, is reported in chronic inflammatory and malignant liver disease (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC). Aim of this study is to assess the expression level of three zinc transporters in liver tissue and HCC: ZIP4, ZIP14 and ZnT9.MethodsThe study is based on tissue samples obtained from 138 patients with histologically proven HCC. Tissue specimens from tumor (n = 138) and extra-lesional specimens (n = 72) were assessed immunohistochemically for the expression of the three zinc transporters. Expression levels were semi-quantitatively scored and statistically analyzed with respect to the etiology of HCC (alcohol, AFLD; non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, NAFLD; virus-hepatitis, VH) and survival.ResultsOverall, expression levels of ZIP4, ZIP14 and ZnT9 were significantly higher in HCC tissue than in adjacent extra-lesional liver tissue. Expression levels in tumor tissue and survival time revealed a negative correlation for ZIP4 and ZIP14, and in part for ZnT9 (nuclear staining) (p 
       
  • Differential expression of zinc transporters accompanies the
           differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Amanda L. Paskavitz, Julia Quintana, Daniella Cangussu, Cristina Tavera-Montañez, Yao Xiao, Sonia Ortiz-Miranda, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-BenavidesAbstractZinc transporters facilitate metal mobilization and compartmentalization, playing a key role in cellular development. Little is known about the mechanisms and pathways of Zn movement between Zn transporters and metalloproteins during myoblast differentiation. We analyzed the differential expression of ZIP and ZnT transporters during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Zn transporters account for a transient decrease of intracellular Zn upon myogenesis induction followed by a gradual increase of Zn in myotubes. Considering the subcellular localization and function of each of the Zn transporters, our findings indicate that a fine regulation is necessary to maintain correct metal concentrations in the cytosol and subcellular compartments to avoid toxicity, maintain homeostasis, and for loading metalloproteins needed during myogenesis. This study advances our basic understanding of the complex Zn transport network during muscle differentiation.
       
  • Influence of boric acid on energy metabolism and stress tolerance of
           Candida albicans
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Martin Schmidt, Dominic Tran-Nguyen, Patrick ChizekAbstractBoron presents at physiological pH in the form of boric acid (BA), a molecule that has both positive and negative effects on biological processes. In medicine, BA is used as a topical treatment for vaginal yeast infections by Candida species because of its well-documented but poorly understood effect on inhibition of growth in general and of invasive, hyphal growth in particular. The present study examines the influence of BA on carbohydrate energy metabolism of this common human pathogen. Starting from previous findings about an inhibition of key NAD-dependent enzymes by BA in vitro, we confirmed that such an inhibition occurs in permeabilized C. albicans cells. Cultures growing even with moderate concentrations of BA experience mitochondrial failure, increase ethanol production from glucose and decrease the deposition of carbohydrate stores in the form of glycogen. Cells growing on the non-fermentable, FAD-generating carbon source lactate have a higher BA tolerance, which suggests that the toxicity of BA is rooted in an inhibition of NAD-dependent reactions and the increased production of ethanol. Boric acid exposure sensitizes C. albicans selectively to the toxic effects of ethanol. This additive effect suggests that the endogenously produced ethanol increases the load on ethanol resistance mechanisms. Lastly, combination studies showed no interactions of BA with common antifungal drugs, meaning that addition of BA to topical formulations can provide an additive antifungal effect regardless of the chosen active ingredient.
       
  • Iron localization in the guinea pig choroid plexus: A light and
           transmission electron microscopy study
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Marilda da Cruz Fernandes, Antônio Generoso Severino, Adriana Maria Zago, Lucas Tortorelli, Fabiano B. Carvalho, Felipe Luis SchneiderAbstractThe role of the choroid plexus (CP) in iron (Fe) homeostasis has been suggested as the main mechanism of Fe uptake and storage in the mammalian central nervous system. Thus, the CP of the lateral and fourth ventricles was studied in guinea pigs with light and electron microscopy using methods including Perls’ Prussian blue and Gomori acid phosphatase staining, immunoreactivity for ferritin and transferrin, as well as energy dispersive spectrometry microanalysis. The present study reveals the presence of endogenous Fe in CP epithelial cells. Under light microscopy, Prussian blue staining revealed dark blue precipitates (i.e., Fe3+) with a preferentially perinuclear localization. The Fe was also positive for such granules with similar cellular localization. Ultrastructural analysis demonstrated the presence of dense bodies and siderosomes with molecular ferritin. The spectra obtained by the microanalysis demonstrated emissions for Fe, both in dense bodies and siderosomes. This study suggests that guinea pig CP epithelial cells accumulate Fe in the form of ferritin, possibly in cytoplasmic organelles such as lysosomes.
       
  • Biomarkers of selenium status and antioxidant effect in workers
           occupationally exposed to mercury
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Renata Kuras, Edyta Reszka, Edyta Wieczorek, Ewa Jablonska, Jolanta Gromadzinska, Beata Malachowska, Lucyna Kozlowska, Magdalena Stanislawska, Beata Janasik, Wojciech WasowiczAbstractThe present observation based research was designed to evaluate the influence of occupational human exposure to metallic mercury (Hg°) vapor on the biomarkers of selenium status involved in the antioxidant defense system. For this purpose we determined Hg and selenium (Se) concentrations in body fluids, the markers of antioxidant effect measured as an activity of Se-dependent enzymes (red blood cell and plasma glutathione peroxidase: GPx1-RBC and GPx3-P), concentration of selenoprotein P in the plasma (SeP-P) and total antioxidant activity in the plasma (TAA-P) in 131 male workers from a chloralkali plant exposed to Hg° and 67 non-exposed males (control group). The mRNA expression levels of glutathione peroxidases (GPX1, GPX3), selenoprotein P (SEPP1), thioredoxin reductase 1 (TRXR1), thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), peroxiredoxins (PRDX1, PRDX2) were also examined in the leukocytes of peripheral blood. Hg concentration in the blood (Hg-B) and urine (Hg-U) samples was determined using the thermal decomposition amalgamation/atomic absorption spectrometry (TDA-AAS) method and Se concentrations in plasma (Se-P) and urine (Se-U) using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method. Activities of GPx1-RBC, GPx3-P and TAA-P were determined using the kinetic and spectrophotometric method, respectively. Gene expression analysis was performed using the quantitative Real-Time PCR.The results showed significant higher Hg levels among the Hg°–exposed workers in comparison to control group (12-times higher median for Hg-B and almost 74-times higher median for Hg-U concentration in chloralkali workers). Se-P was also significantly higher (Me (median): 82.85 μg/L (IQR (interquartile range) 72.03–90.28 μg/L) for chloralkali workers vs. Me: 72.74 μg/L (IQR 66.25-80.14 μg/L) for control group; p = 0.0001) but interestingly correlated inversely with Hg-U in chloralkali workers suggesting depletion of the Se protection among the workers with the highest Hg-U concentration. The mRNA level for GPX1, PRXD1 were markedly but significantly higher in the workers compared to the control group. Moreover, concentrations of Hg-B and Hg-U among the workers were significantly positively correlated with the levels of selenoprotein P at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels. In the multivariate model, after adjusting to cofounders (dental amalgam fillings, age, BMI, job seniority time, smoking), we confirmed that Hg-U concentration was inversely correlated with genes expression of TRXR1.This is the first comprehensive assessment of the impact of occupational exposure of workers to Hg° at both the mRNA and selenoprotein levels, with investigation of fish intake obtained by means of a questionnaire. These findings suggest that exposure to Hg° alters gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes and the level of Se-containing selenoproteins.
       
  • Effect of anti-rheumatic treatment on selenium levels in inflammatory
           arthritis
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Gia Deyab, Ingrid Hokstad, Jan Aaseth, Milada Cvancarova Småstuen, Jon Elling Whist, Stefan Agewall, Torstein Lyberg, Dag Tveiten, Gunnbjorg Hjeltnes, Kazem Zibara, Ivana HollanAbstractObjectivesThe reason for increased cardiovascular risk in inflammatory arthritis (IA) is unclear. Interestingly, selenium-deficiency is suspected to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Although the reference range of serum selenium (s-selenium) is 50–120 μg/L, there are indications that levels up to 85 μg/L might not be sufficient for optimal cardioprotection. Our aim was to examine s-selenium levels in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS), to evaluate the effect of anti-rheumatic treatment on s-selenium levels, and to assess relationships between s-selenium levels and clinical and laboratory parameters including markers of disease activity and CVD risk.MethodsWe examined 64 patients with RA, 40 with PsA and 26 with AS starting with methotrexate (MTX) monotherapy or anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy (anti-TNF) with or without methotrexate (anti-TNF ± MTX) due to active disease. S-selenium, inflammatory biomarkers, endothelial function (EF) and other variables were examined at baseline and after 6 weeks and 6 months of treatment.ResultsIn the total IA group, s-selenium increased within 6 weeks of anti-rheumatic treatment, and thereafter the levels remained stable until the end of the 6 months follow-up period. There were no significant differences in s-selenium changes between the three diagnostic groups and between the two treatment regimens. Changes in s-selenium were negatively related to changes in C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), but there were no significant relationships to any other of the examined risk parameters for CVD including EF.ConclusionIA patients had s-selenium within the reference range, but below the level that might be necessary for optimal CVD protection.Anti-rheumatic treatment had a relatively rapid and sustained effect on s-selenium levels. The increase in s-selenium was related to reduction in inflammatory activity. In theory, anti-rheumatic drugs might improve s-selenium levels through inhibition of pro-inflammatory processes or through other mechanisms. Although we have not revealed any significant relationships between s-selenium and CVD risk parameters, the role of suboptimal s-selenium levels in pathogenesis of premature CVD in IA cannot be ruled out.
       
  • Compounds containing trace element copper or zinc exhibit as potent
           hyperuricemia inhibitors via xanthine oxidase inactivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Lan-Zhu Li, Guo-Xiu Zhou, Jia Li, Wei Jiang, Bao-Lin Liu, Wen ZhouCompounds containing trace elements copper or zinc are potential gout and hyperuricemia suppressant by virtue of their inhibiting effect on xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase (XOD/XDH) and anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative function. In this study, compounds Cu(hmy-paa)·SO4·H2O (simplified as CuHP) and Zn(hmy-paa)·SO4·H2O (simplified as ZnHP) are synthesized, where hmy-paa stands for 3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-N-(1H-pyrazol-3-yl)acrylamide). The ligand hmy-paa is composed of functional ferulic acid and 3-aminopyrazole. The XOD and XDH activity of the mouse liver homogenate could efficiently be inhibited by CuHP and ZnHP. XOD has been recognized as one of the promising targets for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Fluorescence spectrometry study indicates that the interaction between the compound and XOD could be strengthened by the introduction of metals. In vitro drug efficacy study illustrates that metals copper and zinc distinctly improves the uric acid reducing efficacy by suppressing XOD activation. Hyperuricemia mouse model is induced by co-treatment of hypoxanthine and oteracil potassium. Intraperitoneal injection of CuHP and ZnHP to hyperuricemia mice exhibits a significant effect on reducing serum uric acid. The serum creatinine value detection indicates that the side effect of CuHP and ZnHP on renal function is weak. The computational docking simulation exhibits the tightly binding mode between the compound and XOD. Consequently, compounds CuHP and ZnHP are new type candidates for the treatment of gout and hyperuricemia.Graphical abstractTight coupling of metal compound and xanthine oxidase (XOD) to inhibit XOD activity and reduce uric acid generation.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of administration route and dose on metabolism of nine
           bioselenocompounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Kazuaki Takahashi, Noriyuki Suzuki, Yasumitsu OgraThe nutritional availability of selenium (Se) is highly dependent on its chemical form because chemical form affects absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. We evaluated the effects of administration route and dose on the bioavailability of nine Se compounds found in biota, the so-called bioselenocompounds, such as selenite, selenate, selenocyanate (SeCN), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), selenomethionine (SeMet), selenohomolanthionine (SeHLan), selenocystine (SeCys2), 1β-methylseleno-N-acetyl-d-galactosamine (SeSug1), and trimethylselenonium ion (TMSe). We determined the bioavailability of bioselenocompounds recovered as urinary selenometabolites and serum selenoproteins from urine and serum of Se-deficient rats after the administration of bioselenocompounds by speciation analysis. Urinary Se was more easily recovered than serum selenoproteins, suggesting that the speciation of urinary Se is a better tool to indicate Se status in the body. The intravenous administration of bioselenocompounds showed different Se bioavailability from the oral administration. Intestinal microflora might be involved in the bioavailability of some bioselenocompounds, such as SeCN, MeSeCys, and SeSug1.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Effect of various calcium salts on non-heme iron bioavailability in fasted
           women of childbearing age
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Valeria Candia, Israel Ríos-Castillo, Frank Carrera-Gil, Berta Vizcarra, Manuel Olivares, Sotiris Chaniotakis, Fernando PizarroAbstractIntroductionMicronutrient deficiencies are one of the most important public health issues worldwide and iron (Fe) deficiency anemia is the most prevalent micronutrient deficiency. Iron deficiency often coexists with calcium deficiency and iron and calcium supplementation often overlap. This has led to investigations into the interaction between these two minerals, and whether calcium may inhibit iron absorption in the gut.ObjectiveTo determine the effect of various calcium salts on non-heme iron bioavailability in fasted women of childbearing age.MethodsA randomized and single blinded trial was conducted on 27 women of childbearing age (35–45 years old) divided into 2 groups (n1 = 13 and n2 = 14, respectively). On four different days, after an overnight fast, they received 5 mg of Fe as FeSO4 (labeled with 55Fe or 59Fe) with 800 mg of elemental calcium in the form of either calcium chloride, calcium gluconate, calcium citrate, calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, calcium sulfate or calcium phosphate. Calcium chloride was used as the control salt in both groups. Iron was labeled with the radioisotopes 59Fe or 55Fe, and the absorption of iron was measured by erythrocyte incorporation of radioactive FeResults800 mg of elemental calcium as calcium citrate produced a significant decrease in non-heme iron bioavailability (repeated measures ANOVA, F = 3.79, p = 0.018).ConclusionOf the various calcium salts tested, calcium citrate was the only salt that decreased non-heme iron bioavailability relative to the calcium chloride control when taken on an empty stomach. These results suggest that inhibition of non-heme iron absorption in fasted individuals is dependent upon the calcium salt in question and not solely dependent on the presence of calcium.
       
  • High spatial resolution LA-ICP-MS demonstrates massive liver copper
           depletion in Wilson disease rats upon Methanobactin treatment
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Jennifer-Christin Müller, Josef Lichtmannegger, Hans Zischka, Michael Sperling, Uwe KarstAbstractWilson disease (WD) is a rare genetic disorder of the copper metabolism leading to systemic copper accumulation, predominantly in the liver. The therapeutic approach in WD patients is the generation of a negative copper balance and the maintenance of copper homeostasis, currently by the use of copper chelators such as D-penicillamine (D-PA). However, in circumstances of delayed diagnosis, poor treatment compliance, or treatment failure, mortality is almost certain without hepatic transplantation. Moreover, even after years of D-PA treatment, high liver copper levels are present in WD patients.We have recently suggested the use of the bacterial peptide Methanobactin (MB), which has an outstanding binding affinity for copper, as potentially efficient and patient-friendly remedy against copper damage in WD. Here we substantiate these findings considerably, by demonstrating a significant removal of copper from liver samples of WD rats upon short, one week only, MB treatments. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with a spatial resolution down to 4 μm, we demonstrate that only small copper hotspots remain in MB treated animal livers. We further demonstrate in WD rat liver, seven weeks after the stopped MB treatment, a lower liver copper concentration as compared to untreated control animals. Thus, MB highly efficiently depletes liver copper overload with a sustained therapeutic effect.
       
  • Validation of a dilute and shoot method for quantification of 12 elements
           by inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometry in human milk and
           in cow milk preparations
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Stéphane Dubascoux, Daniel Andrey, Mario Vigo, Peter Kastenmayer, Eric PoitevinAbstractNutritional information about human milk is essential as early human growth and development have been closely linked to the status and requirements of several macro- and micro-elements. However, methods addressing whole mineral profiling in human milk have been scarce due in part to their technical complexities to accurately and simultaneously measure the concentration of micro- and macro-trace elements in low volume of human milk.In the present study, a single laboratory validation has been performed using a “dilute and shoot” approach for the quantification of sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), molybdenum (Mo) and iodine (I), in both human milk and milk preparations.Performances in terms of limits of detection and quantification, of repeatability, reproducibility and trueness have been assessed and verified using various reference or certified materials. For certified human milk sample (NIST 1953), recoveries obtained for reference or spiked values are ranged from 93% to 108% (except for Mn at 151%).This robust method using new technology ICP-MS/MS without high pressure digestion is adapted to both routinely and rapidly analyze human milk micro-sample (i.e. less than 250 μL) in the frame of clinical trials but also to be extended to the mineral profiling of milk preparations like infant formula and adult nutritionals.
       
  • Trace determination of cobalt in biological fluids based on
           preconcentration with a new competitive ligand using dispersive
           liquid-liquid microextraction combined with slotted quartz tube–flame
           atomic absorption spectrophotometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s): Elif Öztürk Er, Emine Gülhan Bakırdere, Tuğçe Unutkan, Sezgin BakırdereA new competitive ligand has been synthesized for the preconcentration to obtain lower detection limits by using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with slotted quartz tube-flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (DLLME-SQT-FAAS). The proposed method is simple, eco-friendly and has high sensitivity. The preconcentration procedure was optimized on the basis of various parameters affecting the complex formation and extraction efficiency such as pH and volume of buffer solution, volume of ligand solution, mixing period, volume and type of extraction solvent, volume and type of dispersive solvent, and salt effect. Instrumental parameters were also optimized to get higher sensitivity. Under the optimum conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the range of 10–250 ng mL−1and the resulted limits of detection and quantification (LOD and LOQ) for combined method were 4.7 and 15.7 ng mL−1, respectively. The detection power was improved 48-fold using DLLME-SQT-FAAS method compared to conventional FAAS. The precision of the method was found to be high with a relative standard deviation of 2.5%. The accuracy of method was evaluated by recovery experiments using matrix matching study on spiked urine and blood samples. The recoveries for urine and blood samples ranged from 99.8 to 108.9% and 102.5 to 110.0%, respectively.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Cancer, éléments inorganiques et vitamines
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, Volume 49Author(s):
       
  • Enhanced intestinal absorption of micronutrients in streptozotocin-induced
           diabetic rats maintained on zinc supplementation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Susmita Barman, Krishnapura SrinivasanABSTRACTIn view of the deficiency of zinc concomitant with other minerals in diabetic condition, it is desirable to increase the absorption capability of the same by improving the intestinal health. In continuation of our previous report on the virtue of zinc supplementation on diabetic complications, and a significant favourable consequence in the restoration of the compromised structural integrity of small intestines in diabetic situation, it would be relevant to examine the permeability characteristics of the intestines. Groups of hyperglycemic rats were treated for six weeks with supplemental zinc (5-times and 10-times of normal level) to examine its possible influence on intestinal absorption of trace elements zinc, iron and calcium. Everted segments of isolated duodenum, jejunum and ileum portions of small intestine excised from these rats were evaluated for ex vivo uptake of iron, zinc and calcium from the incubation medium containing mineral fortified digesta of finger millet as a provider of these trace minerals. The extent of ex vivo uptake of zinc, iron, and calcium was severely compromised in the intestinal segments isolated from diabetic rats suggesting the loss of functional integrity concomitant with diminished ultra-structural integrity. This was more prominent in the case of iron uptake followed by that of calcium and zinc. Treatment with supplemental zinc improved the mineral uptake ex vivo by the isolated intestinal segments, which was maximum for iron followed by zinc and calcium. This favourable influence was seen more in the jejunal segment probably as a result of improving the expression of applicable transporter protein (s) as observed previously. Thus, dietary zinc supplementation was evinced here to have a promoting stimulus on the intestinal absorption of zinc, iron and calcium, which could encourage a dietary approach to counter the dyshomeostatic state of these trace elements prevalent in diabetes.
       
  • Chromium picolinate reduces morphine-dependence in rats, while increasing
           brain serotonin levels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Diana Ciubotariu, Mihai Nechifor, Gabriel DimitriuAbstractChromium is an essential trace element with anti-diabetic and anti-depressant effect; the latter is considered related to chromium properties of increasing brain serotonin. Cr3+ salts were shown to improve some forced swimming-parameters and to induce rewarding effects, which are additive to those of morphine, but Cr effect on addictive processes has not been tested.AimThe present study aimed to assess chromium picolinate (CrPi) influence on morphine-dependence in rats.Matherial and methodsWe used five groups of 10 rats. Groups 1 and 2 (controls) received saline, respectively CrPi, 0.01 mg/kg/day, for 10 days. In groups 3, 4 and 5 dependence was induced with progressively-increased morphine doses (from 5 – day 1–90 mg/kg/day – day 10, s.c.). Group 3 received only morphine, while groups 4 and 5 received CrPi, i.p., 10 and respectively 5 μg/kg/day, during the 10 days of dependence induction. On day 11, groups 3, 4, and 5 were administered 90 mg/kg morphine, and, 2 h later, all rats received naloxone, 2 mg/kg s.c., to precipitate withdrawal. We compared withdrawal intensity in group 3 vs. groups 4 and 5, assessing both individual symptoms and Gellert-Holtzman global withdrawal score.Upon rats sacrifice at the end of the experiments, brain serotonin (5HT) in certain areas and serum Cr were assessed.ResultsSome withdrawal signs were unequally influenced by CrPi: compulsive mastication was reduced by both CrPi doses (p 
       
  • Analysis of lead and cadmium in cereal products and duplicate diets of a
           small group of selected Brisbane children for estimation of daily metal
           exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Ujang Tinggi, Niikee SchoendorferAbstractExposure to toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) from foods is a concern for young children. The aims of the study were to analyse the levels of Pb and Cd in breakfast cereals, rice products and diets of selected children, and to estimate the daily intakes of Pb and Cd in these children. The samples (n = 82) of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and rice products (n = 36) were collected and obtained from various markets in Brisbane, Australia. The samples for a duplicate diet study were collected for 3 consecutive days from normal healthy children (n = 15). The analysis was performed using ICP-MS after microwave digestion. The levels of Pb and Cd found in breakfast cereals and rice products ranged from
       
  • EVALUATION OF THE ACCURACY OF EXCHANGEABLE COPPER AND RELATIVE
           EXCHANGEABLE COPPER (REC) IN A MOUSE MODEL OF WILSON’S DISEASE
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Sophie Heissat, Amélie Harel, Khémary Um, Anne-Sophie Brunet, Valérie Hervieu, Olivier Guillaud, Jerome Dumortier, Alain Lachaux, Elisabeth Mintz, Muriel BostABSTRACTWilson's disease (WD) is caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene responsible for a toxic copper overload mainly in the liver and the central nervous system. Phenotypic heterogeneity may challenge the diagnostic confirmation. Exchangeable copper (CuEXC) has recently been proposed as a new marker of WD, and its ratio to the total serum copper (Cus), Relative Exchangeable Copper (REC = CuEXC/Cus), as a diagnostic marker. This study aimed to investigate whether this could be confirmed in Atp7b-/- mice, an engineered WD animal model. Atp7b-/- (n = 137) and wild type (WT; n = 101) mice were investigated under the same conditions at 6-8, 20, 39, or 50 weeks of age. Twenty-four Atp7b-/- mice received D-penicillamine treatment from 39 to 50 weeks of age. Serum and liver [histology and intrahepatic copper (IHCu)] data were evaluated. In the WT group, all serum and liver data were normal. Atp7b-/- livers developed a chronic injury from isolated moderate inflammation (6-8 weeks: 16/33 = 48%) to inflammatory fibrosis with cirrhosis (50 weeks: 25/25 = 100% and 16/25 = 64% respectively). Cus and CuEXC increased until week 39, whereas IHCu and REC were stable with increasing age and much higher than in WT mice (mean ± SD: 669 ± 269 vs. 13 ± 3 µg/g dry liver and 39 ± 12 vs. 11 ± 3%, respectively). A threshold value of 20% for REC provided a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%, regardless of sex, age, or the use of D-penicillamine. Eleven weeks of 100 mg/kg D-penicillamine reduced liver fibrosis (p = 0.001), IHCu (p = 0.026) and CuEXC (p = 0.175). In conclusion, this study confirms REC as a WD diagnostic marker in a mouse model of chronic liver disease caused by copper overload. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of CuEXC to monitor the evolution of WD, particularly during treatment.
       
  • Analysis of metal content in soils near abandoned mines of Bashkir
           Trans-Urals and in the hair of children living in this territory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): I.N. Semenova, Yu.S. Rafikova, R.F. Khasanova, Ya.T. SuyundukovAbstractThe aim of this study was to investigate the metal content in the hair of children living near abandoned nonferrous metal mines located in the rural settlements Tubinsk, Ishmurzino and Semenovsk the South Urals (Russia), and in the soils obtained from the same area. The hair and soils samples were examined for the presence of the following metals: copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), cobalt (Co), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd). The results of this study showed that soil from this territory contained an increased level of Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cd, exceeding the maximum permissible concentration (MPC) 38.3, 16.8, 4.5, 1.5, 1.4, 1.5 - fold, respectively. These values are indicative of severe soil pollution in the studied locality, thus calling for further detailed investigations. Mineral analysis of the hair samples was performed using a combination of atomic emission spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. In the hair samples, positive correlations between the following pairs of the studied metals were observed (p < 0.05): Pb-Cd (r= 0.73), Mn-Cd (r= 0.79), Fe-Cd (r= 0.56), Fe-Co (r= 0.85), Mn-Co (r= 0.65), Ni-Co (r= 0.67), Mn-Fe (r= 0.78), Ni-Fe- (r= 0.45), Pb-Fe (r= 0.46); Pb-Mn (r= 0.58). The comparison between Zn and Pb showed a negative linear correlation for the hair samples (r= −0.50; p
       
  • Assessment of hair metal levels in aluminium plant workers using scalp
           hair ICP-DRC-MS analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Anatoly V. Skalny, Galina A. Kaminskaya, Tatyana I. Krekesheva, Sholpan K. Abikenova, Margarita G. Skalnaya, Anatoly T. Bykov, Alexey A. TinkovAbstractThe objective of the present study was to assess the level of aluminium and toxic metals in hair of workers occupationally exposed to aluminium. 124 employees of the aluminium plant working in the hydrometallurgical (n = 43) and sintering units (n = 41), as well as 40 occupationally nonexposed controls were examined. Hair aluminium (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and tin (Sn) content was assessed using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data demonstrate that aluminium plant workers had significantly higher levels of hair Al (28.8 (15.4–58.6) vs 7.8 (4.3–14.2) μg/g, p 
       
  • Cadmium-induced ultrastructural changes in primary target organs of
           developing chicken embryos (Gallus domesticus)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Małgorzata Dżugan, Wojciech Trybus, Marcin Lis, Monika Wesołowska, Ewa Trybus, Anna Kopacz-Bednarska, Teodora KrólAbstractThe aim of this study was to evaluate ultrastructural changes in kidney and liver tissue of chicken embryos exposed in ovo to cadmium. Embryonated eggs were injected on the 4th day of incubation with cadmium at the dose of 0, 2, 4 and 8 µg/egg (80 eggs/group). The samples of kidney and liver tissues were collected from embryos at the 14th and 18th day of incubation (E14 and E18) and at hatching day (D1). The tissue structure was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (Tecnai G2 Spirit). The results indicate that hepatocytes responded to damage caused by toxic cadmium activity with a significant disturbance in the structure of mitochondria and a considerable expansion of the lysososmal system, while glomerular cells additionally reacted with an increased proliferation of peroxisomes. The range of changes observed on the subcellular level was dependent on the dose of cadmium, embryogenesis stage and cell type.
       
  • Heavy metals as criteria of health and ecological well-being of the urban
           environment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): N.V. Stepanova, S.F. Fomina, E.R. Valeeva, A.I. ZiyatdinovaAbstractThe study of the content of Pb, Cd, Ni, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Cu in biological media (the hair) of children living in the zones of the city of Kazan with different pollution levels was carried out. The identification of the zones in the city of Kazan was performed on the basis of the snow cover and soils pollution with heavy metals, which are natural accumulators of chemical substances and heavy metals (HM). Statistically significant differences (р 
       
  • Effects of feeding pregnant beef cows selenium-enriched alfalfa hay on
           passive transfer of ovalbumin in their newborn calves
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): K. Denise Apperson, William R. Vorachek, Brian P. Dolan, Gerd Bobe, Gene J. Pirelli, Jean A. HallAbstractIntestinal absorption of immunoglobulins is critical for health and survival of newborn calves because there is no transfer of immunoglobulins in utero. The objective of this study was to determine if feeding beef cows Se-enriched alfalfa hay during the last trimester of gestation improves passive transfer of ovalbumin (OVA), a surrogate protein marker for IgG absorption. Control cows (n = 15) were fed non-Se-fortified alfalfa hay (5.3 mg Se/head daily) plus a mineral supplement containing inorganic Se (3 mg Se/head daily). Med-Se (n = 15) and High-Se cows (n = 15) were fed Se-biofortified alfalfa hay (27.6 and 57.5 mg Se/head daily, respectively); both groups received mineral supplement without added Se. Calves were randomly assigned to receive orally administered OVA at 12, 24, or 36 h of age. Calves that received their oral dose of OVA at 12 h of age had higher serum OVA concentrations across the first 48 h of life if born to High-Se cows compared to calves born to Control cows (P = 0.05), with intermediate values for calves born to Med-Se cows. Our results, using OVA as a model for passive transfer, suggest that if calves do not receive adequate colostrum to reach maximum pinocytosis, then supranutritional Se supplementation in beef cattle may improve passive transfer in their calves, if calves receive colostrum within the first 12 h of age.
       
  • Determination of Vitamin B12 in Equine Urine by Liquid Chromatography –
           Inductively Coupled – Plasma Mass Spectrometry
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 May 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Ross Wenzel, Derek Major, Karly Hesp, Philip DobleAbstractRegulating authorities in the racing industry have restricted the administration of potentially performance enhancing cobalt salts to horses. There are severe penalties for trainers presenting horses with elevated urine cobalt concentrations, and compliance is ensured via analysis of total urinary cobalt at thresholds of 100 µg/L. When cobalt is present as part of the cobalamin molecule it is not considered performance enhancing. This paper demonstrates that a horse can excrete a significant proportion of a commercially available vitamin B12 injection in urine without metabolic modification. A liquid chromatography – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) method is presented for urinary cobalt speciation. Given the serious nature surrounding performance enhancing drug offences, we conclude that presumptive positives identified by urine total cobalt measurements require further analysis to differentiate inorganic cobalt from vitamin B12.
       
  • Trace element levels are associated with neuroinflammatory markers in
           children with autistic spectrum disorder
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Anatoly V. Skalny, Natalia V. Simashkova, Anastasia A. Skalnaya, Tatiana P. Klyushnik, Irina V. Zhegalova, Andrei R. Grabeklis, Margarita G. Skalnaya, Alexey A. TinkovAbstractThe objective of the present study was to estimate the association between brain inflammatory markers and serum trace element levels as assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. Leukocyte elastase (LE), α1-proteinase inhibitor (α1-PI) activity, anti-nerve growth factor-antibodies (anti-NGF-Ab), and anti-myelin basic protein-antibodies (anti-MBP-Ab) levels were assessed as inflammatory markers. The obtained data demonstrate that the increase in LE and α1-PI activity is associated with higher serum Cr and Cu levels, respectively. The increase in Anti-NGF-Ab levels was associated with a nearly significant 16% increase in serum Mn levels. Autistic children with high MBP-Ab levels were characterized by 28% higher serum Mn and lower Mg concentration. The results of correlation analysis were generally in agreement with the outcome of group comparisons. Regression analysis demonstrated that serum Mg was significantly negatively associated with LE activity, whereas both serum Fe and V concentrations were characterized by a positive influence on the parameter. In turn, serum Cu was a significant predictor of α1-PI, as well as Cr levels. At the same time, the serum concentrations of Cd and Fe were found to be inversely associated with α1-PI levels. Serum Cd and Mn levels were significant positive predictors of anti-MBP-Ab levels, whereas Mg levels had a negative impact on anti-MBP-Ab values. Generally, the obtained data demonstrate the interrelationship between trace element homeostasis and neuroinflammation in autism. Hypothetically, modulation of trace element status may be used for reduction of neuroinflammatory response, although further studies are required to reveal the underlying mechanisms of the observed associations.
       
  • Corrigendum to “The importance of boron in biological systems” [J.
           Trace Elem. Med. Biol. 45 (2018) 156–162]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Irem Uluisik, Huseyin Caglar Karakaya, Ahmet Koc
       
  • Feasibility of measuring zinc in human nails using portable x-ray
           fluorescence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): David E.B. Fleming, Stephen R. Bennett, Christopher J. FredericksonAbstractA variety of adverse health effects have been identified as resulting from zinc deficiency. Zinc supplementation may therefore be indicated for certain individuals or populations. A rapid and straightforward means of assessing zinc status in humans would be of considerable medical benefit. In this study, the feasibility of measuring zinc levels in human fingernails or toenails using a portable x-ray fluorescence technique was assessed. Whole nail models (or phantoms) were constructed from resin, and dosed with various concentrations of zinc. These different concentration “nails” were cut into small slices of 4.4 ± 0.2 mm width. The combination of these various slices into different arrangements allowed the modeling of different time-dependent zinc exposure scenarios. A portable x-ray fluorescence device was tested using an “open beam” configuration having a beam diameter of ∼9 mm, and using a “weld mask” configuration with the beam width reduced to 2.9 mm. Minimum detection limits were determined to be 0.15 ± 0.01 ppm for the open beam, and 1.13 ± 0.08 ppm when using the weld mask. By scanning across the length of the model nails, it was demonstrated that differences in zinc levels deposited over time could be detected, and that the weld mask configuration was better suited to resolving spatial changes. The x-ray fluorescence approach was found to be highly sensitive for detecting zinc in nail, and capable of differentiating patterns of zinc uptake over time.
       
  • Plasma zinc in institutionalized elderly individuals: Relation with immune
           and cardiometabolic biomarkers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Márcia Cristina Sales, Larissa Praça de Oliveira, Natalia Louise de Araújo Cabral, Sara Estéfani Soares de Sousa, Maria das Graças Almeida, Telma Maria Araújo Moura Lemos, Clélia de Oliveira Lyra, Kenio Costa de Lima, Karine Cavalcanti Mauricio Sena-Evangelista, Lucia de Fatima Campos PedrosaAbstractChanges in zinc metabolism caused by aging and the institutionalization process may contribute to zinc deficiency in elderly individuals. Hypozincemia results in changes in glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory profiles. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma zinc concentrations and their relationships with sociodemographic, dietary, inflammatory, and cardiometabolic biomarkers in institutionalized elderly individuals. A cross-sectional study was carried out including 255 elderly adults living in nursing homes. The associations between plasma zinc and dietary zinc intake, sociodemographic indicators, and glycemic, lipid, and inflammatory biomarkers were evaluated. Independent variables were analyzed according to quartiles of plasma zinc concentrations (Q1:  Q2, Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; all p  Q3, Q4; p = 0.024 and p = 0.010, respectively); tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (Q1 > Q3, p = 0.003). A significant reduction in plasma zinc concentrations was observed with increasing age-adjusted institutionalization time (Δ = − 0.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.18 to −0.01). The concentrations of total cholesterol (Δ = − 0.19; 95% CI: −0.23 to −0.15), LDL-c (Δ = − 0.19; 95% CI: −0.23 to −0.15), triglycerides (Δ = − 0.11; 95% CI: −0.16 to −0.06), IL-6 (Δ = − 1.41; 95% CI: −2.64 to −0.18), and TNF-α (Δ = − 1.04; 95% CI: −1.71 to −0.36) were also significantly increased. In conclusion, decreased plasma zinc concentrations were associated with longer institutionalization time and worse lipid and inflammatory profiles in elderly institutionalized individuals.
       
  • Bactericidal assessment of nano-silver on emerging and re-emerging human
           pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Samir A. Anuj, Harsukh P. Gajera, Darshna G. Hirpara, Baljibhai A. GolakiyaAbstractWith the threat of the growing number of bacteria resistant to antibiotics, the re-emergence of previously deadly infections and the emergence of new infections, there is an urgent need for novel therapeutic agent. Silver in the nano form, which is being used increasingly as antibacterial agents, may extend its antibacterial application to emerging and re-emerging multidrug-resistant pathogens, the main cause of nosocomial diseases worldwide. In the present study, a completely bottom up method to prepare green nano-silver was used. To explore the action of nano-silver on emerging Bacillus megaterium MTCC 7192 and re-emerging Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 741 pathogenic bacteria, the study includes an analysis of the bacterial membrane damage through Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) as well as alternation of zeta potential and intracellular leakages. In this work, we observed genuine bactericidal property of nano-silver as compare to broad spectrum antibiotics against emerging and re-emerging mode. After being exposed to nano-silver, the membrane becomes scattered from their original ordered arrangement based on SEM observation. Moreover, our results also suggested that alternation of zeta potential enhanced membrane permeability, and beyond a critical point, it leads to cell death. The leakages of intracellular constituents were confirmed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS). In conclusion, the combine results suggested that at a specific dose, nano-silver may destroy the structure of bacterial membrane and depress its activity, which causes bacteria to die eventually.
       
  • Comparative effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid, monensin and
           salinomycin on the concentrations of cadmium and some essential elements
           in skeletal muscles of Cd-exposed mice
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yordanka Gluhcheva, Kalina Kamenova, Petar Dorkov, Yulia Lobanova, Margarita Skalnaya, Juliana IvanovaAbstractCadmium (Cd) is an environmental pollutant shown to induce multi organ dysfunction. In this study we present novel data about the effects of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), monensin and salinomycin on the concentration of Cd in skeletal muscles of mice exposed to Cd (II) acetate treatment for 14 days. The impact of Cd and the chelating agents on the endogenous concentrations of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), phosphorous (P), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn) was also investigated. Subacute exposure of mice to Cd (II) acetate resulted in a significant accumulation of the toxic metal ion in the skeletal muscles compared to the untreated controls. Salinomycin most effectively mobilized Cd from the muscles compared to DMSA and monensin. The Cd exposure and the tested chelating agents did not significantly alter the endogenous concentrations of the selected essential elements in mouse muscles. The presented results confirmed that among the tested chelating agents salinomycin is superior as a potential antidote to Cd poisoning.
       
  • Selenoprotein P as the major transporter for mercury in serum from
           methylmercury-poisoned rats
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yang Liu, Wei Zhang, Jiating Zhao, Xiaoying Lin, Jiamei Liu, Liwei Cui, Yuxi Gao, Tian-Lan Zhang, Bai Li, Yu-Feng LiAbstractSelenium (Se) has been found to promote weight gain, decrease hepatic damage, but redistribute mercury (Hg) in brains and livers in methylmercury (MeHg)-poisoned rats. The aims of the present work were to examine the effects of Se on the levels of Hg in serum and the role of serum selenoproteins in binding with Hg in MeHg-poisoned rats. The concentration of Se, Hg and MeHg were studied using ICP-MS and CVAFS. The Hg- and Se-binding selenoproteins were separated and quantified using affinity chromatography with post-column isotope dilution analysis using both enriched 78Se and 199Hg. It was found that Se treatment reduced Hg levels in serum in MeHg-poisoned rats. Among the three separated selenoproteins, the amounts of SelP-bound Hg and Se increased to 73% and 93.6%, from 64.4% and 89.3% of the total Hg and Se, respectively after Se treatment, suggesting that SelP acts as a major transporter for Hg and pool for Se in serum. Over 90% of the total Hg was MeHg in serum, and the molar ratios of MeHg to Se as 1:4 and 1:9 in the formed MeHg-Se-SelP complex in the control and the Se treatment group, respectively. The elevated Se level binding with SelP facilitated the Hg extraction from tissues and organs, as well as its redistribution in brains and livers through blood circulation in the MeHg-poisoned rats. Together, our findings provide direct evidence that serum SelP is the major Hg transporter in MeHg-poisoned rats.
       
  • Salicylamide derivatives for iron and aluminium sequestration. From
           synthesis to complexation studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Joanna I. Lachowicz, Miriam Crespo-Alonso, Claudia Caltagirone, Giancarla Alberti, Raffaela Biesuz, James O. Orton, Valeria M. NurchiAbstractThis paper presents an easy, fast and economic synthesis of chelating agents for medical, environmental and analytical applications, and the evaluation of the stability of their complexes with Fe3+ and Al3+. Complex formation equilibria with Cu2+ and Zn2+ metal ions were also studied to evaluate if the chelating agents can perturb the homeostatic equilibria of these essential metal ions. Effective chelating agents for metal ions, in addition to their well-known medical uses, find an increasing number of applications in environmental remediation, agricultural applications (supplying essential elements in an easily available form), and in analytical chemistry as colorimetric reagents. Besides the stability of the complexes, the lack of toxicity and the low cost are the basic requisites of metal chelating agents. With these aims in mind, we utilized ethyl salicylate, a cheap molecule without toxic effects, and adopted a simple synthetic strategy to join two salicylate units through linear diamines of variable length. Actually, the mutual position of the metal binding oxygen groups, as well as the linker length, affected protonation and complex formation equilibria. A thorough study of the ligands is presented. In particular, the complex formation equilibria of the three ligands toward Fe3+, Al3+, Zn2+ and Cu2+ ions were investigated by combined potentiometric and spectrophotometric techniques. The results are encouraging: all the three ligands form stable complexes with all the investigated metal ions, involving the oxygen donor atoms from the 2-hydroxybenzamido unit, and nitrogen atoms in copper and zinc coordination.
       
  • Selenium supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced
           oxidative stress in the HEK293 cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Nural Pastacı Özsobacı, Dilek Düzgün Ergün, Sinem Durmuş, Matem Tunçdemir, Hafize Uzun, Remise Gelişgen, Derviş ÖzçelikAbstractThere is a widespread use of 2.4 GHz electromagnetic radiation emitting devices especially in communication and education. Recent studies show the adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) such as oxidative stress, cellular damage and apoptosis on tissues. Selenium (Se) has an antioxidant properties by inhibiting oxidative damage being within the structure of antioxidant enzymes like glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and it has also regulatory function for cell cycle and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Se on 2.4 GHz frequency EMF exposed human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293) by means of alterations in apoptotic and oxidative stress parameters.Our study was planned as control, EMF, 100 nM Se + EMF, 200 nM Se + EMF groups. EMF groups were exposed to 2.4 GHz EMF for 1 h, element groups were incubated with two different doses of Se added cell culture medium for 48 h before EMF exposure.MDA levels were significantly higher whereas SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly lower in EMF compared to control. 100 and 200 nM Se + EMF application decreased MDA levels, increased SOD and GSH-Px activities than EMF. Apoptosis and caspase-3 were statistically significantly higher but bcl-2 was lower in EMF than control. Apoptosis and caspase-3 were lower in 100 and 200 nM Se + EMF, although bcl-2 were higher than EMF.In conclusion, Se has protective effects against 2.4 GHz EMF-induced oxidative stress by reducing lipid peroxidation, regulating SOD and GSH-Px activity. Also, Se has inhibitory effect on 2.4 GHz EMF induced apoptosis by increasing the expression of anti-apoptotic protein bcl-2 and suppressing apoptosis regulatory protein caspase-3.
       
  • Deposition and transport of trace mineral elements were affected by
           stocking density in fattening pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Xin Wu, Lumin Gao, Kai Zhou, Xue Li, Xue Lin, Dan Wan, Xia Xiong, Gang Liu, Yulong YinAbstractsTrace minerals are important for balanced nutrition in pigs and to maintain pig growth under high stocking densities. To study the effects of stocking density on serum and liver trace mineral deposition in fattening pigs, 288 conventional pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large) were selected and assigned to one of three groups: low, medium or high density (8, 16, or 24 pigs, respectively, per 5.2 m × 3.8 m pen). On d 30, one pig per pen was chosen, blood samples were taken, and the pigs were sacrificed; liver and intestinal mucosa samples were obtained from these pigs for trace mineral determination and RT-PCR. The results showed that compared with those of the low-density group, serum Fe, Zn, and Mn concentrations significantly decreased (P 
       
  • In search of decoding the syntax of the bioelements in human hair –
           A critical overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Berislav Momčilović, Juraj Prejac, Anatoly Viktorovich Skalny, Ninoslav MimicaAbstractThe principles and practice of assessing the human body nutritional status or its environmental exposure through hair bioelement analysis are presented; herein the term “bioelements” is used as a common denominator for the major elements, trace elements and ultra-trace elements that are found in the human body. The accumulation of bioelements in the hair followed the statistical Power Law and the resulting sigmoid curve can be zoned into five regions in the ascending order of abundance (Low, Marginal, Adequate, High, and Excessive). The Adequate linear region of the bioassay sigmoid curve may be further subdivided into Low adequate, Recommended, and Ample adequate sub regions in a 60:30:10 ratio. Phosphorus was the most invariant bioelement since its hair concentration varies minimally regardless of the geographical place of living, the twenty years’ time interval between the analyses, sex, race and instrumentation, i.e., atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) atomic emission spectrometry (AES), and inductively plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). The osteotrophic (bone seeking) bioelements: Ca, Mg, and Sr, were 2.5 times more abundant in the hair of women than men. Two principal electrolytes of the body (Na, K) of the multi-bioelement hair profile were markedly increased in the depressed subjects diagnosed according to the American Psychiatric Association MSD-IV classification criteria. This increase in the hair Na and K of the depressed subjects was also associated with the decrease of vasopressin in the peripheral blood. The factor analysis revealed strong association of depression with sex (women> men in a 2.5:1 ratio), and with the metals from the Nieboer-Richardson series which form strong covalent bonds with proteins. We propose that the biological roots of depression are related to the non-specific impairment of the intracellular osmotic balance and ionic gradient due to the Na+K+ATPase failure from whatever cause acting either separately or in combination. We also put forward the idea of how children's autism may be related to a disproportional growth rate of various organs and tissues if children are fed up to their maximal genetic growth capacity. Finally, we have suggested the hypothesis on how the syntax or integration of the internal metabolic wiring of the bioelements in the body may occur. We have suggested the hypothetical existence of two complex distinct five-bioelement “rotors”, the P-rotor and the N-rotor, where the P-rotor integrates the mileau interior (Na, K) ions with the perception/excitability (Mg, Ca) ions. Thus, the complex five element interdependence is cross related to P which provides the energy from the phosphorus of the DNA nucleotide backbone. The hair multi-bioelement profile analysis allows us to envisage the more complex structural metabolic features that bioelements are playing in our bodies.
       
  • Human exposure to trace elements via consumption of mussels Mytilus
           galloprovincialis from Boka Kotorska Bay, Montenegro
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Ana Perošević, Danijela Joksimović, Dijana Đurović, Ivana Milašević, Milena Radomirović, Slavka StankovićAbstractIn order to assess human health risks via consumption of potentially toxic mussels, the concentrations of Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, Zn and Hg were studied in Mytilus galloprovincialis collected from the coastal area of Montenegro. By two approaches for the human health risk assessment (HHRA), considering oral reference doses by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and provisional tolerable intakes by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), it has been revealed that despite the fact that trace element levels do not exceed the defined limits for mussels, they can be limiting factors for the mussel consumption. Specifically, it was noticed that the levels of Co, Pb, Cd and Li could be the limiting factors for the consumption of mussels from this coastal area. Al and Li data obtained in this study are especially important since these two elements have not been previously studied in M. galloprovincialis. Furthermore, taking into account the significant differences in concentrations of elements in different seasons, the study confirmed the starting assumption that in the calculations for the HHRA the average concentrations of elements in samples taken in different seasons during a longer period should be used.
       
  • Association between zinc nutritional status and glycemic control in
           individuals with well-controlled type-2 diabetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Alvaro Perez, Pamela Rojas, Fernando Carrasco, Karen Basfi-fer, Francisco Perez-Bravo, Juana Codoceo, Jorge Inostroza, Jose E. Galgani, L. Anne Gilmore, Manuel RuzAbstractBackground/objectiveInterest in healthy properties of food and nutrients as co-adjuvant in type-2 diabetes therapy has increased in recent years. Zinc supplementation trials have shown improvements in glycemic control in these patients, although it seems dependent on zinc status of the individuals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between zinc nutritional status and glucose homeostasis in patients with type-2 diabetes.Subjects/methodsEighty patients with well controlled type-2 diabetes were recruited and clinical, anthropometric and dietary evaluations were performed. One week after, insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were assessed by a modified Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test. Zinc status was assessed by plasma zinc and the size of rapidly Exchangeable Zinc Pool (EZP); zinc intake was also determined. Glucagon concentration was evaluated in a subsample of 36 patients.ResultsPatients presented a normal zinc status although zinc intake was lower than recommended. Overall, no associations were observed between zinc status and glycemic control markers. Nevertheless, positive correlations were observed between EZP and fasting insulin concentration (ρ = 0.393, p = 0.021) and HOMA-IR (ρ = 0.386, p = 0.024) in women, and between plasma zinc concentration and HbA1c (ρ = 0.342, p = 0.020) in men.ConclusionsNo significant associations were found between zinc status and glycemic control parameters in patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes and normal zinc status, although low-degree gender-dependent associations were observed. Further research is required to assess the role of zinc status in zinc deficient patients.
       
  • Strategies for the development of selenium-based anticancer drugs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Philippe ColleryAbstractMany experimental models demonstrated that inorganic and organic selenium (Se) compounds may have an anticancer activity. However, large clinical studies failed to demonstrate that Se supplementations may prevent the outcome of cancers. Moreover, there are few randomized trials in cancer patients and there is not yet any Se compound recognized as anticancer drug. There is still a need to develop new Se compounds with new strategies. For that, it may be necessary to consider that Se compounds may have a dual role, either as anti-oxidant or as pro-oxidant. Experimental studies demonstrated that it is as pro-oxidant that Se compounds have anticancer effects, even though cancer cells have a pro-oxidant status. The oxidative status differs according to the type of cancer, the stage of the disease and to other parameters. We propose to adapt the doses of the Se compounds to markers of the oxidative stress, but also to markers of angiogenesis, which is strongly related with the oxidative status. A dual role of Se on angiogenesis has also been noted, either as pro-angiogenesis or as anti-angiogenesis. The objective for the development of new Se compounds, having a great selectivity on cancer cells, could be to try to normalize these oxidative and angiogenic markers in cancer patients, with an individual adaptation of doses.
       
  • Investigation on the factors that influence the prevalence of thyroid
           nodules in adults in Tianjin, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Lili Fan, Long Tan, Yanting Chen, Cong Du, Mei Zhu, Kunling Wang, Hongyan Wei, Wei Wang, Min Gao, Yixin Zhang, Tingkai Cui, Wen Chen, Jun Shen, Wanqi ZhangAbstractStudies have shown that prevalence of thyroid nodules (TNs) has been increasing recently. However, the factors that may influence TN prevalence is not fully understood. In this study, we aimed to understand the prevalence of TNs and identify possible factors that are associated with the prevalence of TNs in Tianjin, China. Subjects aged 18 years or older were randomly collected and all subjects received thyroid ultrasonography, physical examination and questionnaires. Subjects (n = 2647) were divided into the case group in which the subjects had TNs and the control group in which the subjects did not have TNs. Potential influencing factors on TNs including sex, age, iodine status, thyroid volume, thyroid hormone (TSH), thyroid autoantibody TPOAb, TGAb and living habits were analyzed. Our results showed that the overall TN prevalence was 26.7%. The prevalence of TNs in women was higher than that in men (P 
       
  • Effects of dietary sodium selenite and organic selenium sources on immune
           and inflammatory responses and selenium deposition in growing pigs
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Michaela Falk, Aksel Bernhoft, Tore Framstad, Brit Salbu, Helene Wisløff, Trond M. Kortner, Anja B. Kristoffersen, Marianne Oropeza-MoeAbstractThe study was conducted to compare effects of different dietary Se sources (sodium selenite [NaSe], Se-enriched yeast [Se yeast] or L-selenomethionine [SeMet]) and one Se-deficient control diet on the expression of selected genes, hematological and clinical biochemical parameters, and muscle morphology in two parallel trials with finisher pigs. Se concentrations in blood plasma and tissues were also monitored. From the pigs in one of the parallel groups, muscle samples obtained from Musculus longissimus dorsi (LD) before and during the trial were examined. The pigs in the other parallel group were challenged once with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intravenously.Transcriptional analyses of LD showed that selenogenes SelenoW and H were higher expressed in pigs fed Se-supplemented diets compared with control. Furthermore, the expression of interferon gamma and cyclooxygenase 2 was lower in the Se-supplemented pigs versus control. In whole blood samples prior to LPS, SelenoN, SelenoS and thioredoxin reductase 1 were higher expressed in pigs fed NaSe supplemented feed compared with the other groups, possibly indicating a higher level of oxidative stress. After LPS exposure glutathione peroxidase 1 and SelenoN were more reduced in pigs fed NaSe compared with pigs fed organic Se. Products of most above-mentioned genes are intertwined with the oxidant-antioxidant system. No significant effects of Se-source were found on hematologic parameters or microscopic anatomy. The Se-concentrations in various skeletal muscles and heart muscle were significantly different between the groups, with highest concentrations in pigs fed SeMet, followed by those fed Se yeast, NaSe, and control diet.Consistent with previous reports our results indicate that dietary Se at adequate levels can support the body’s antioxidant system. Our results indicate that muscle fibers of pigs fed organic Se are less vulnerable to oxidative stress compared with the other groups.
       
  • Dietary intake of cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc
           in a Northern Italy community
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Tommaso Filippini, Silvia Cilloni, Marcella Malavolti, Federica Violi, Carlotta Malagoli, Marina Tesauro, Ilaria Bottecchi, Angela Ferrari, Luciano Vescovi, Marco VincetiAbstractThis study provides the dietary intakes of six trace elements (cadmium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc), generally characterized by both nutritional and toxicological features depending on their exposure. Being diet the most relevant source of exposure to trace elements in non-professionally exposed subjects, we measured content of these trace elements in foods composing the typical Italian diet using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and assessing dietary habits using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire we eventually estimated dietary daily intake of trace elements in a Northern Italian community.In the 890 analyzed food samples, the main contributors to cadmium intake are cereals, vegetables and sweets, while cereals, beverages and vegetable are to primary source of manganese. The primary contributors for copper are cereals, fresh fruits and vegetables, while for chromium are beverages, cereals and meat. The main source of selenium intake are cereals and meat, followed by fish, seafood and milk and dairy products, while of zinc intake are meat, cereals, milk and dairy products. In our Italian population sample, the estimated median (interquartile range) dietary daily intakes are 5.00 (3.17–7.65), 56.70 (36.08–86.70) and 66.53 (40.04–101.32) μg/day for cadmium, chromium and selenium, and corresponding figures are 0.98 (0.61–1.49), 2.34 (1.46–3.52) and 8.50 (5.21–12.48) mg/day for copper, manganese and zinc.The estimated intakes are generally within the average intake reported in other European populations, and in such cases well above the daily dietary intakes recommended by national international agencies, avoiding the risk of excess or deficiency. The present estimated intake data can be used to examine a specific trace element of interest and would afford enhanced health protection from those trace elements characterized by both nutritional and toxicological effects.
       
  • Circadian calcium feeding regime in laying hens related to zinc
           concentration, gene expression of circadian clock, calcium transporters
           and oxidative status
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Xue Lin, Yilin Liu, Tiantian Meng, Chunyan Xie, Xin Wu, Yulong YinAbstractThe study was conducted to investigate the effects of different circadian calcium feeding regimes on parameters of Zn status and gene expression of circadian clock, calcium transporters and oxidative status in laying hens. In total, 180 of 41-weeks Brown Hy-line laying hens were assigned randomly into three groups, 1-CON group (Control Ca, diets contained 3.4% Ca at both 0730 and 1530 h), 2-HL group (High-low Ca, diets contained 3.6%–3.2% Ca respectively) and 3-LH group (Low-high Ca, diets contained 3.2%–3.6% Ca respectively), which were fed a certain amount of control diet at 0730 h and 1530 h. Blood, tibia, jejunum and kidney samples were collected at 4 h intervals with initial starting at 0800 h after 10 weeks of experiment. Compared with the CON group: 1) the serum zinc in HL group increased at 2000 h, but lower at 1600 h in LH group (P 
       
  • Effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on hormones and blood
           biochemicals in peri-partum Sahiwal cows
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Gulab Chandra, Anjali Aggarwal, Muneendra Kumar, Anil Kumar SinghAbstractThirty-two advanced pregnant multiparous Sahiwal cows were used to study the effect of additional zinc (Zn) and vitamin E (VE) supplementation on hormonal and biochemical changes. Cows were randomly assigned to four groups and fed a basal diet of compounded concentrate, berseem fodder, and wheat straw in a ratio of 60:20:20. The groups were: (1) the basal diet with no supplement (control treatment); (2) the basal diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg DM/cow daily of Zn (Zn treatment); (3) the basal diet supplemented with 1000 IU/cow daily of vitamin E (VE treatment); and (4) the basal diet supplemented with a combination of 60 mg Zn/kg DM/cow and 1000 IU vitamin E/cow/d (Zn + VE treatment). Blood samples were collected on −60, −45, −30, −15, −7, −3, 0, 3, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 d in relation to expected date of calving and were analyzed for endocrine variables and biochemical changes. Plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), triidothyronine (T3), and tetraiodothyronine (T4) were decreased toward calving and observed lowest (P 
       
  • The joint 16th symposium on Trace Elements in Man and Animals (TEMA16),
           International Society for Trace Element Research in Humans (ISTERH-2017)
           and Nordic Trace Element Society (NTES), Saint-Petersburg, Russia, 26–29
           June, 2017
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Anatoly V. Skalny, Xin Gen Lei, Alexey A. Tinkov
       
  • Imbalance of dietary nutrients and the associated differentially expressed
           genes and pathways may play important roles in juvenile Kashin-Beck
           disease
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Yujie Ning, Xi Wang, Pan Zhang, Skalny V. Anatoly, N.Tejo Prakash, Cheng Li, Rong Zhou, Mikko Lammi, Feng Zhang, Xiong GuoAbstractBackgroundKashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a childhood-onset endemic osteoarthropathy in China. Nutrients including trace elements may play active roles in the development of KBD.ObjectiveThis study aimed to estimate the nutrient intakes of children in endemic areas and to identify the imbalanced nutrients associated differentially expressed genes in the juvenile patients with KBD.MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, a consecutive 3 day 24 h semi-quantitative dietary retrospect questionnaire was conducted to estimate the daily nutrient intakes of children using CDGSS 3.0 software. Gene profile analysis was employed to identify differentially expressed genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of children with KBD. GOC, CTD, KEGG, and REACTOME databases were used to establish the relationship between nutrients and nutrients-associated differentially expressed genes and pathways. Statistical analyses were accomplished by SPSS 18.0 software.ResultsDaily Se intakes without supplementation of children were significantly lower in Se-supplemented (Se + ) KBD areas (29.3 ∼ 29.6 mg/d) and non-endemic area (27.8 ± 7.9 mg/d) compared to non-Se-supplemented (Se-) KBD area (32.9 ± 7.9 mg/d, c2 = 20.24, P 
       
  • Corrigendum to “Synthesis and characterization of new
           1-hydroxy-2-pyridinethione derivatives: Their lead complexes and efficacy
           in the treatment of acute lead poisoning in rats” [J. Trace Elem. Med.
           Biol. 44 (December 2017) 209–217]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): Manal H. Al Khabbas, Samah A. Ata, Kamal I. Abu-Dari, Maha F. Tutunji, Mohammad S. Mubarak
       
  • A Model for Manganese interaction with Deinococcus radiodurans proteome
           network involved in ROS response and defense
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018Source: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and BiologyAuthor(s): M. Peana, C.T. Chasapis, G. Simula, S. Medici, M.A. ZorodduA complex network of regulatory proteins takes part in the mechanism underlying the radioresistance of Deinoccocus radiodurans bacterium (DR). The interaction of Mn(II) ions with DR-proteins and peptides seems to be responsible for proteins protection from oxidative damage induced by Reactive Oxygen Species during irradiation.In the present work we describe a combined approach of bioinformatic strategies based on structural data and annotation to predict the Mn(II)-binding proteins encoded by the genome of DR and, in parallel, the same predictions for other bacteria were performed; the comparison revealed that, in most of the cases, the content of Mn(II)-binding proteins is significantly higher in radioresistant than in radiosensitive bacteria. Moreover, we report the in silico protein–protein interaction network of the putative Mn(II)-proteins, remodeled in order to enhance the knowledge about the impact of Mn-binding proteins in DR ability to protect also DNA from various damaging agents such as ionizing radiation, UV radiation and oxidative stress.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
 
 
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