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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
IET Nanobiotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.424
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 2  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1751-8741 - ISSN (Online) 1751-875X
Published by IET Homepage  [39 journals]
  • Penetration, distribution and brain toxicity of titanium nanoparticles in
           rodents' body: a review
    • Authors: Tomáš Zeman;El-Wui Loh;Daniel Čierný;Omar Šerý;
      Pages: 695 - 700
      Abstract: Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been vastly used commercially, especially as white pigment in paints, colorants, plastics, coatings, cosmetics. Certain industrial uses TiO2 in diameter
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Brief overview of the application of silver nanoparticles to improve
           growth of crop plants
    • Authors: Ansar Mehmood;
      Pages: 701 - 705
      Abstract: With the advancement in nanotechnology, nanoparticles are reported to have applications in various fields. Their positive role in the environment, especially in plant ecosystem, is extensively studied nowadays. Among the metal nanoparticles, the silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are receiving special attention because of their ability to increase the growth and yield in many crops. Although many studies are found containing toxic effects of AgNPs the perspective of the present review is to collect the information about their positive role in growth and yield enhancement of crops. During this brief overview, many important crop plants are found to have a positive response towards the application of AgNPs. The appropriate elucidation of physiological, biochemical and molecular mechanism of nanoparticles in plant leads to better plant growth and development. It is concluded from this review that cautious and sensible use of nanotechnology can warrant food security through boosting agricultural production.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Impact of Zinc oxide nanoparticles on eggplant (S. melongena): studies on
           growth and the accumulation of nanoparticles
    • Authors: Tejaswi Thunugunta;Aswath Channa Reddy;Shivashankara Kodthalu Seetharamaiah;Laxman Ramanna Hunashikatti;Satisha Gowdra Chandrappa;Narayana Cherukatu Kalathil;Lakshmana Reddy Dhoranapalli Chinnappa Reddy;
      Pages: 706 - 713
      Abstract: The increasing use of nanoparticles and their occurrence in the environment has made it imperative to elucidate their impact on the environment. Although several studies have advanced the authors' understanding of nanoparticle-plant interactions, their knowledge of the exposure of plants to nanoparticles and their effects on edible crop plants remain meager and is often paradoxical. The aim of this study was to increase their knowledge on the effect of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles on eggplant seed germination and seedling growth. ZnO nanoparticles had a negative effect on the growth of eggplant in plant tissue-culture conditions, as the growth of seedlings decreased with the increase in the concentration of ZnO nanoparticles. In contrast, ZnO nanoparticles enhanced eggplant growth under greenhouse conditions. The accumulation of ZnO nanoparticles in various parts of eggplant was observed through scanning electron microscopy of both plant tissue-culture and greenhouse-raised eggplant seedlings. To the best of their knowledge, this is the first study to report on ZnO nanoparticle accumulation in eggplant and its effect on seed germination and seedling growth.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Electrophoretic deposition of hydroxyapatite-shrimp crusts nanocomposite
           thin films for bone implant studies
    • Authors: Raid A. Ismail;Walid K. Hamoudi;Hadeel F. Abbas;
      Pages: 714 - 721
      Abstract: Hydroxyapatite-shrimp crusts nanocomposite thin films were deposited on titanium substrates by electrophoretic technique, under different preparation conditions, for bone implant applications. Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscope, and scanning electron microscope were employed to characterise the synthesised films. Vickers' micro-hardness measurements revealed a value of 502 HV for the hydroxyapatite films and 314.55 HV for the nanocomposite films. XRD results confirmed the polycrystalline nature of the hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-shrimp nanocomposite films. The in-vitro bioactivity test of the synthesised films in simulated body fluid showed very low dissolution rate. Antibacterial activity of synthesised films was investigated against E. coli bacteria.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Synthesis and characterisation of silver nanoparticles using leaf extract
           of Artemisia afra and their in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant
    • Authors: Elias E. Elemike;Damian C. Onwudiwe;Anthony C. Ekennia;Anine Jordaan;
      Pages: 722 - 726
      Abstract: In this study, the conversion of silver ions into ~30.74 nm sized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was achieved in 30 min at a reaction temperature of 80-90°C in aqueous leaf extract of Artemisia afra. The synthesised AgNPs showed surface plasmon resonance in the range of 423-438 nm. Spherical and face-centred cubic nanoparticles were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) results indicated that the obtained nanoparticles were stabilised and capped through the carbonyl and carboxylate ion groups possibly from flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics and esters content of the extracts. In addition, the AgNPs were assessed for their biological potentials against some microbes and, also, their free radical scavenging ability was established. The AgNPs exhibited interesting antimicrobial and antioxidant properties better than the aqueous extract of A. afra.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Evaluation of potential anti-cancer activity of cationic liposomal
           nanoformulated Lycopodium clavatum in colon cancer cells
    • Authors: Pragyan Paramita;Vimala Devi Subramaniam;Ramachandran Murugesan;Madhumala Gopinath;Ilangovan Ramachandran;Satish Ramalingam;Xiao Feng Sun;Antara Banerjee;Francesco Marotta;Surajit Pathak;
      Pages: 727 - 732
      Abstract: Research dealing with early diagnosis and efficient treatment in colon cancer to improve patient's survival is still under investigation. Chemotherapeutic agent result in high systemic toxicity due to their non-specific actions on DNA repair and/or cell replication. Traditional medicine such as Lycopodium clavatum (LC) has been claimed to have therapeutic potentials against cancer. The present study focuses on targeted drug delivery of cationic liposomal nanoformulated LC (CL-LC) in colon cancer cells (HCT15) and comparing the efficacy with an anti-colon cancer drug, 7-ethyl-10-hydroxy-camptothecin (SN38) along with its nanoformulated form (CL-SN38). The colloidal suspension of LC was made using thin film hydration method. The drugs were characterised using ultraviolet, dynamic light scattering, scanning electron microscopy, energy, dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Invitro drug release showed kinetics of 49 and 89% of SN38 and LC, whereas CL-SN38 and CL-LC showed 73 and 74% of sustained drug release, respectively. Studies on morphological changes, cell viability, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, cancer-associated gene expression analysis of Bcl-2, Bax, p53 by real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis of Bad and p53 protein were performed. Nanoformulated LC significantly inhibited growth and increased the apoptosis of colon cancer cells indicating its potential anti-cancer activity against colon cancer cells.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Differential antibacterial response exhibited by graphene nanosheets
           toward gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus
    • Authors: Kunal Biswas;Debashis De;Jaya Bandyopadhyay;Pintu Sen;
      Pages: 733 - 740
      Abstract: Two different morphological forms of graphene nanosheets: improved reduced graphene oxide (IRGO) and modified reduced GO (rGO) (MRGO) have been synthesised by improved and modified methods, respectively. Physical characterisations of these graphene nanosheets were carried out using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Raman spectroscopy. Colloidal stability of these nanosheets toward a selected bacterium (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) was ascertained by zeta potential. In the present study, the authors for the first time made an attempt to study and compare the potentialities of these two different forms of graphene nanosheets as efficient bactericidal agents. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy and TEM with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX) studies of IRGO and MRGO have been carried out to explore their underlying mechanism of antibacterial responses through physical as well as chemical interactions with the selected bacterial species.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Biosynthesis of Ag, Se, and ZnO nanoparticles with antimicrobial
           activities against resistant pathogens using waste isolate Streptomyces
    • Authors: Mona Shaaban;Areej M. El-Mahdy;
      Pages: 741 - 747
      Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs) are gaining special interest due to their recent applications as antimicrobial agents to defeat the massive threat of resistant pathogens. This study focused on the utilisation of Streptomyces isolate S12 purified from waste discharge soil in the biological synthesis of silver (Ag), selenium (Se), and zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs. The isolate S12 was related to Streptomyces enissocaesilis according to 16S rRNA sequence analysis, morphological characteristics, and biochemical reactions. The cell-free supernatant has been used for the synthesis of Ag, Se, and ZnO NPs. The synthesised NPs were characterised using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biogenic NPs were evaluated for antimicrobial effects against different Gram-positive and Gram-negative resistant isolates using the broth microdilution method. They showed antibacterial effect against standard and resistant isolates; Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. aureus S1.1, methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA 303, 402 and 807), Escherichia coli ATCC 12435, E. coli E7, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATCC 51503, K. pneumoniae K5, K112, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and P. aeruginosa P8. This study showed the green synthesis of various NPs using Streptomyces isolate S12 which demonstrated diverse activities against multi-drug resistant isolates.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • One-pot green synthesis and structural characterisation of silver
           nanoparticles using aqueous leaves extract of Carissa carandas:
           antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial activities
    • Authors: Deepika Singh;Vikas Kumar;Ekta Yadav;Neha Falls;Manvendra Singh;Ujendra Komal;Amita Verma;
      Pages: 748 - 756
      Abstract: Facile green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using an aqueous extract of Carissa carandas (C. carandas) leaves was studied. Fabrication of AgNPs was confirmed by the UV-visible spectroscopy which gives absorption maxima at 420 nm. C. carandas leaves are the rich source of the bioactive molecules, acts as a reducing and stabilising agent in AgNPs, confirmed by Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The field emission scanning electron microscope revealed the spherical shape of biosynthesised AgNPs. A distinctive peak of silver at 3 keV was determined by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction showed the facecentred cubic structure of biosynthesised AgNPs and thermal stability was confirmed by the thermogravimetric analysis. Total flavonoid and total phenolic contents were evaluated in biosynthesised AgNPs. Biosynthesised AgNPs showed free radical scavenging activities against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl test and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. In vitro cytotoxicity against hepatic cell lines (HUH-7) and renal cell lines (HEK-293) were also assessed. Finally, biosynthesised AgNPs were scrutinised for their antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Shigella boydii and Salmonella typhimurium. This study demonstrated the biofabrication of AgNPs by using C. carandas leaves extract and a potential in vitro biological application as antioxidant, anticancer and antibacterial agents.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Preparation and in vitro evaluation of novel cross-linked chondroitin
           sulphate nanoparticles by aluminium ions for encapsulation of green tea
    • Authors: Jaleh Varshosaz;Hajar Asefi;Batool Hashemi-Beni;Solmaz Ghaffari;Ali Davoudi;
      Pages: 757 - 763
      Abstract: Chondroitin sulphate is a sulphated glycosaminoglycan biopolymer composed over 100 individual sugars. Chondroitin sulphate nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with catechin were prepared by an ionic gelation method using AlCl3 and optimised for polymer and cross-linking agent concentration, curing time and stirring speed. Zeta potential, particle size, loading efficiency, and release efficiency over 24 h (RE24%) were evaluated. The surface morphology of NPs was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and their thermal behaviour by differential scanning calorimetric. Antioxidant effect of NPs was determined by chelating activity of iron ions. The cell viability of mesenchymal stem cells was determined by 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay and the calcification of osteoblasts was studied by Alizarin red staining. The optimised NPs showed particle size of 176 nm, zeta potential of -20.8 mV, loading efficiency of 93.3% and RE24% of 80.6%. The chatechin loaded chondroitin sulphate NPs showed 70-fold more antioxidant activity, 3-fold proliferation effect and higher calcium precipitation in osteoblasts than free catechin.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Biosynthesised AgCl NPs using Bacillus sp. 1/11 and evaluation of their
           cytotoxic activity and antibacterial and antibiofilm effects on multi-drug
           resistant bacteria
    • Authors: Leila Rezaei Somee;Parinaz Ghadam;Ahya Abdi-Ali;Soudabeh Fallah;Ghodratollah Panahi;
      Pages: 764 - 772
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have attracted the attention of researchers due to their properties. Biological synthesis of AgNPs is eco-friendly and cost-effective preferred to physical and chemical methods, which utilize environmentally harmful agents and large amounts of energy. Microorganisms have been explored as potential biofactories to synthesize AgNPs. Bacterial NP synthesis is affected by Ag salt concentration, pH, temperature and bacterial species. In this study, Bacillus spp., isolated from soil, were screened for AgNP synthesis at pH 12 with 5 mM Ag nitrate (AgNO3) final concentration at room temperature. The isolate with fastest color change and the best ultraviolet-visible spectrum in width and height were chosen as premier one. AgNO3 and citrate salts were compared in terms of their influence on NP synthesis. Spherical Ag chloride (AgCl) NPs with a size range of 35-40 nm were synthesized in 1.5 mM Ag citrate solution. Fourier transform infrared analysis demonstrated that protein and carbohydrates were capping agents for NPs. In this study, antimicrobial and antitumor properties of the AgNP were investigated. The resulting AgCl NPs had bacteriostatic activity against four standard spp. And multi-drug resistant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These NPs are also cytotoxic to cancer cell lines MCF-7, U87MG and T293.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • CL sensitisation of tris-(bipyridyl) ruthenium (II) – cerium (IV)
           reaction system by AgNPs for determination of GFX
    • Authors: Saikh Mohammad Wabaidur;Seikh M. Alam;
      Pages: 773 - 780
      Abstract: The flow injection combined with tris-(bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-cerium (IV) chemiluminescence (CL) method based on the sensitisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has been established for the quantitative analysis of gatifloxacin (GFX). AgNPs were synthesised using the reaction between ammonia gas and silver nitrate solution and was used to increase the CL intensity of the proposed system. The enhancement of CL intensity was linear with the concentration of GFX added. Effects of different experimental parameters were studied. Under the optimal conditions, the linear relationship was established between the concentration range of 1.4 × 10-10-4.5 × 10-8 M, with the correlation coefficient (r2) 02E9999. The limit of detection was found to be 4.6 × 10-11 M. The relative standard deviation obtained was 3.2% for six replicate measurements of GFX (1.2 × 10-9 M). The proposed CL method was applied to the commercial drug and the result was in agreement with the labelled amount. The technique was further adopted to the analysis of GFX in spiked urine samples. Negligible interference was found (variation in CL intensity
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Preparation of silver iodide nanoparticles using laser ablation in liquid
           for antibacterial applications
    • Authors: Raid A. Ismail;Ghassan M. Sulaiman;Mayyadah H. Mohsin;Ali H. Saadoon;
      Pages: 781 - 786
      Abstract: In this study, the authors reported the first synthesis process of silver iodide (AgI) nanoparticles (NPs) by pulsed laser ablation of the AgI target in deionised distilled water. The optical and structural properties of AgI NPs were investigated by using UV-vis absorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The optical data showed the presence of plasmon peak at 434 nm and the optical bandgap was found to be 2.6 eV at room temperature. SEM results confirm the agglomeration and aggregation of synthesised AgI NPs. TEM investigation showed that AgI NPs have a spherical shape and the average particle size was around 20 nm. The particle size distribution was the Gaussian type. The results showed that the synthesised AgI NPs have antibacterial activities against both bacterial strains and the activities were more potent against gram-negative bacteria.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Synthesis of Co3O4/graphene nanocomposite using paraffin wax for
           adsorption of methyl violet in water
    • Authors: Indiran Muralisankar;Santhanam Agilan;Rajendran Selvakumar;Sundararajan Vairam;
      Pages: 787 - 794
      Abstract: This study discusses the use of Co3O4 impregnated graphene (CoOIG) as an efficient adsorbent for the removal of methyl violet (MV) dye from wastewater. CoOIG nanocomposites have been prepared by pyrolyzing paraffin wax with cobalt acetate. The synthesised nanocomposite was characterised by X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectroscope, Raman spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller isotherm studies. The above studies indicate that the composites have cobalt oxide nanoparticles of size 51-58 nm embedded in the graphene nanoparticles. The adsorption studies were conducted with various parameters, pH, temperature and initial dye concentration, adsorbent dosage and contact time by the batch method. The adsorption of MV dye by the adsorbent CoOIG was about 90% initially at 15 min and 98% dye removal at pH 5. The data were fitted in Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich and Sips isotherm models. Various thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs free energy, enthalpy, and entropy of the on-going adsorption process have also been calculated.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Efavirenz oral delivery via lipid nanocapsules: formulation, optimisation,
           and ex-vivo gut permeation study
    • Authors: Jaleh Varshosaz;Somayeh Taymouri;Ali Jahanian-Najafabadi;Arezoo Alizadeh;
      Pages: 795 - 806
      Abstract: Present investigation aimed to prepare, optimise, and characterise lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) for improving the solubility and bioavailability of efavirenz (EFV). EFV-loaded LNCs were prepared by the phase-inversion temperature method and the influence of various formulation variables was assessed using Box-Behnken design. The prepared formulations were characterised for particle size, polydispersity index (PdI), zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE), and release efficiency (RE). The biocompatibility of optimised formulation on Caco-2 cells was determined using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Then, it was subjected to ex-vivo permeation using rat intestine. EFV-loaded LNCs were found to be spherical shape in the range of 20-100 nm with EE of 82-97%. The best results obtained from LNCs prepared by 17.5% labrafac and 10% solutol HS15 when the volume ratio of the diluting aqueous phase to the initial emulsion was 3.5. The mean particle size, zeta potential, PdI, EE, drug loading%, and RE during 144 h of optimised formulation were confirmed to 60.71 nm, -35.93 mV, 0.09, 92.60, 7.39 and 55.96%, respectively. Optimised LNCs increased the ex vivo intestinal permeation of EFV when compared with drug suspension. Thus, LNCs could be promising for improved oral delivery of EFV.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Fabrication of cellulose nanoparticles through electrospraying
    • Authors: Nastaran Kadivar;Hossein Tavanai;Alireza Allafchian;
      Pages: 807 - 813
      Abstract: This study reports the fabrication of cellulose nanoparticles through electrospraying the solution of cellulose in N,N-dimethylacetamide/lithium chloride solvent as well as investigating the effect of electrospraying conditions and molecular weight on the average size of electrosprayed nanoparticles. Electrospraying of cellulose was carried out with the following range for each factor, namely concentration = 1-3 wt%, voltage = 15-23 kV, nozzle-collector distance = 10-25 cm, and feed rate = 0.03-0.0875 ml/h. The smallest nanoparticles had an average size of around 40 nm. Results showed that lowering the solution concentration and feed rate, as well as increasing the nozzle-collector distance and applied voltage led to a decrease in the average size of the electrosprayed cellulose nanoparticles. Fourier transform infrared analysis proved that no chemical change had occurred in the cellulose structure after the electrospraying process. According to X-ray diffraction (XRD) results, cellulose nanoparticles showed a lower degree of crystallinity in comparison with the raw cellulose powder. XRD results also proved the absence of LiCl salt in the electrosprayed nanoparticles.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Core/shell nanoassembly of amphiphilic naproxen-polyethylene glycol:
           synthesis, characterisation and evaluation as drug delivery system
    • Authors: Srishti Munjal;Smriti R. Deka;Santosh Yadav;Preeti Goyal;Ashwani K. Sharma;Pradeep Kumar;
      Pages: 814 - 821
      Abstract: Small molecule-based amphiphiles self-assemble into nanostructures (micelles) in aqueous medium which are currently being explored as novel drug delivery systems. Here, naproxen-polyethylene glycol (N-PEG), a small molecule-derived amphiphile, has been synthesised, characterised and evaluated as hydrophobic drug carrier. 1H, 13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) confirmed the formation of N-PEG and dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed the formation of nano-sized structures of ~228 nm. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) analysis showed aggregation behaviour of the structures with average size of ~230 nm. Biodegradability aspect of the micellar-structured N-PEG was demonstrated by lipase-mediated degradation studies using DLS and TEM. High encapsulation efficiency followed by release in a sustained manner of a well-known anticancer drug, doxorubicin, demonstrated the feasibility of the new drug delivery system. These results advocate the promising potential of N-PEG micelles as efficient drug delivery system for specific delivery to cancerous cells in vitro and in vivo.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Optimisation of green synthesis of MnO nanoparticles via utilising
           response surface methodology
    • Authors: Mahsa Souri;Vahid Hoseinpour;Alireza Shakeri;Nasser Ghaemi;
      Pages: 822 - 827
      Abstract: This study concerns the optimisation of green synthesis of manganese oxide nanoparticles (MnO NPs) with Dittrichia graveolens (L.) extract via response surface methodology (RSM). Central composite design was used to evaluate the effect of pH, time, and the extract to the metal ratio on the synthesised nanoparticles (NPs). Nine runs were designed to investigate the effect of each parameter while NPs were synthesised under different conditions. Considering the p-values (p-value
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Biological synthesis and characterisation of silver nanoparticles using
           Pseudomonas geniculata H10 for pharmaceutical activity
    • Authors: Eun-Young Jang;Yong-Jun Son;Soo-Yeun Park;Ji-Yeon Yoo;Dae-Youn Hwang;Hyean-Cheal Park;Hong-Joo Son;
      Pages: 828 - 835
      Abstract: In the present study, silver nanoparticles (SNPs) were synthesised for the first time using Pseudomonas geniculata H10 as reducing and stabilising agents. The synthesis of SNPs was the maximum when the culture supernatant was treated with 2.5 mM AgNO3 at pH 7 and 40°C for 10 h. The SNPs were characterised by field emission scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction and UV-vis spectroscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated the presence of proteins, suggesting they may have been responsible for the reduction and acted as capping agents. The SNPs displayed 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (IC50 = 28.301 μg/ml) and 2,2'-azinobis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (IC50 = 27.076 μg/ml) radical scavenging activities. The SNPs exhibited a broad antimicrobial spectrum against several human pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans. The antimicrobial action of SNPs was due to cell deformation resulting in cytoplasmic leakage and subsequent lysis. The authors' results indicate P. geniculata H10 could be used to produce antimicrobial SNPs in a facile, non-toxic, cost-effective manner, and that these SNPs can be used as effective growth inhibitors in various microorganisms, making them applicable to various biomedical and environmental systems. As far as the authors are aware, this study is the first to describe the potential biomedical applications of SNPs synthesised using P. geniculata.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • FSE–Ag complex NS: preparation and evaluation of antibacterial
    • Authors: Rahul S. Kalhapure;Pradeep Bolla;Delfina C. Dominguez;Amit Dahal;Sai H.S. Boddu;Jwala Renukuntla;
      Pages: 836 - 840
      Abstract: Silver (Ag) complexes of drugs and their nanosystems have great potential as antibacterials. Recently, an Ag complex of furosemide (Ag-FSE) has shown to be a promising antimicrobial. However, poor solubility of Ag-FSE could hamper its introduction into clinics. Therefore, the authors developed a nanosuspension of Ag-FSE (Ag-FSE_NS) for its solubility and antibacterial activity enhancement. The aim of this study was to introduce a novel nanoantibiotic with enhanced antibacterial efficacy. Ag-FSE_NS was prepared by precipitation-ultrasonication technique. Size, polydispersity index (PI) and zeta potential (ZP) of prepared Ag-FSE_NS were measured by dynamic light scattering, whereas surface morphology was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using broth microdilution method. Size, PI and ZP of optimised Ag-FSE_NS1 were 191.2 ± 19.34 nm, 0.465 ± 0.059 and -55.7 ± 8.18 mV, respectively. SEM revealed that Ag-FSE_NS1 particles were rod or needle-like with smooth surfaces. Saturation solubility of Ag-FSE in NS increased eight-fold than pure Ag-FSE. Ag-FSE_NS1 exhibited two-fold and eight-fold enhancements in activity against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. The results obtained showed that developed Ag-FSE_NS1 holds a promise as a topical antibacterial.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Laser-induced heating for in situ DNA replication and detection in
    • Authors: Min-Sheng Hung;Chih-Pin Chen;
      Pages: 841 - 845
      Abstract: This study proposes a method for in situ local deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) replication and detection in a long DNA strand through laser-induced heating and strong avidin-biotin binding. To achieve the target DNA replication, dielectrophoresis was generated to stretch and immobilise DNA strands on both ends of the electrode. Subsequently, local DNA sequences were replicated using thermal cycles generated by laser-induced heating. Replicated double-stranded DNA products were captured in situ on a solid surface and detected using the fluorescence intensity of quantum dots (Qdots). The results revealed that after six laser-induced thermal cycles, the replicated local DNA sequence could be detected by analysing the difference between Qdot fluorescent intensity before and after replication. The proposed method is expected to improve the efficiency of biosample gene sequence analysis.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Synthesis and characterisation of liposomal doxorubicin with loaded gold
    • Authors: Ali Akbar Karimi Zarchi;Seyed Mohamad Amini;Ali Salimi;Sharmin Kharazi;
      Pages: 846 - 849
      Abstract: Developing nanostructures for cancer treatment is growing significantly. Liposomal doxorubicin is a drug that is used in the clinic and represents a lot of benefits over doxorubicin. The development of multifunctional liposomes with different cancer treatment capability enables broader applications of doxorubicin chemotherapy. Many efforts were carried to prepare more effective liposomal formulation through loading gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in the formulation. Here, GNPs with an average size of 6 nm were loaded in liposomal formulation alongside doxorubicin. The hydrodynamic diameter of final formulation was 177.3 ± 33.9 nm that in comparison with liposomes without GNPs (112.5 ± 10.3 nm), GNPs-loaded liposomes showed the bigger hydrodynamic diameter. GNPs-loaded liposomes are slightly positively charged (4.4 ± 1.1 mV), while liposomes without loading the GNPs were negatively charged (-18.5 ± 1.6 mV). Doxorubicin was loaded in this formulation through active loading technique. Doxorubicin loading efficiency in gold-loaded liposomes is slightly lesser than liposomes without GNPs, but still considerably high in comparison to passive loading techniques.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Eco-friendly synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles with enhanced
           antimicrobial, antioxidant, and catalytic activities
    • Authors: Remya Vijayan;Siby Joseph;Beena Mathew;
      Pages: 850 - 856
      Abstract: The present work is emphasised on the bio-fabrication of silver and gold nanoparticles in a single step by a microwave-assisted method using the leaf extract of Synedrella nodiflora as both reducing and stabilising agent. The synthesised nanoparticles are highly stable and show surface plasmon resonance peak at 413 and 535 nm, respectively, for silver and gold nanoparticles in UV-Vis spectrum. The functional group responsible for the reduction of metal ions were obtained from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The crystalline nature of nanoparticles with face-centred cubic geometry was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction patterns. The morphology and sizes of the silver and gold nanoparticles were obtained from transmission electron microscopy images. The nanoparticles exhibit effective antimicrobial activities against various pathogenic strains. These antimicrobial properties were analysed by employing agar well diffusion method. The nanoparticles show significant antioxidant properties, and it was determined using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay. The nanoparticles also show potent catalytic activity in the degradation of anthropogenic pollutant dyes Congo red and eosin Y by excess NaBH4. Thus, the current study demonstrates the potential use of S. nodiflora as a reducing and stabilising agent for the synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles and their relevance in the field of biomedicine and catalysis.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Fungal xylanases-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles for catalytic
           and biomedical applications
    • Authors: Joseph Adetunji Elegbede;Agbaje Lateef;Musibau Adewuyi Azeez;Tesleem Babatunde Asafa;Taofeek Akangbe Yekeen;Iyabo Christianah Oladipo;Elijah Adegoke Adebayo;Lorika Selomi Beukes;Evariste Bosco Gueguim-Kana;
      Pages: 857 - 863
      Abstract: Green synthesis of nanoparticles has fuelled the use of biomaterials to synthesise a variety of metallic nanoparticles. The current study investigates the use of xylanases of Aspergillus niger L3 (NEA) and Trichoderma longibrachiatum L2 (TEA) to synthesise silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Characterisation of AgNPs was carried out using UV-Vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy, while their effectiveness as antimicrobial, antioxidant, catalytic, anticoagulant, and thrombolytic agents were determined. The colloidal AgNPs was brownish with surface plasmon resonance at 402.5 and 410 nm for NEA-AgNPs and TEA-AgNPs, respectively; while FTIR indicated that protein molecules were responsible for the capping and stabilisation of the nanoparticles. The spherical nanoparticles had size of 15.21-77.49 nm. The nanoparticles significantly inhibited the growth of tested bacteria (63.20-88.10%) and fungi (82.20-86.10%), and also scavenged DPPH (37.48-79.42%) and hydrogen peroxide (20.50-96.50%). In addition, the AgNPs degraded malachite green (78.97%) and methylene blue (25.30%). Furthermore, the AgNPs displayed excellent anticoagulant and thrombolytic activities using human blood. This study has demonstrated the potential of xylanases to synthesise AgNPs which is to the best of our knowledge the first record of such. The present study underscores the relevance of xylanases in nanobiotechnology.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
  • Nanohexaconazole: synthesis, characterisation and efficacy of a novel
           fungicidal nanodispersion
    • Authors: Indrani Roy;Mala Thapa;Arunava Goswami;
      Pages: 864 - 868
      Abstract: Here, the authors describe a simple method to formulate the nanodispersion of hexaconazole (hexa); henceforth, referred to as nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) that is water soluble and effective against several species of Aspergillus. Size and shape of the prepared nanocomposite was determined with high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Nanohexaconazole structure was further confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antifungal efficacy of nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) was studied in vitro, compared with micronised hexaconazole (M-hexa) at different doses (5 ppm, 10 ppm and control) against two food pathogenic fungi: Aspergillus niger (MTCC 282, MTCC 2196 and BDS 113) and Aspergillus fumigatus through poisoned food technique. A dose-dependent significant growth inhibition was observed in nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) treated fungal sample compared with that of micronised hexaconazole (M-hexa). Micrographic studies for the morphological analysis of control and nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) treated fungal samples were done, exhibited an alternation in fungal morphology. Results showed that nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) is more efficacious than commercially available micronised hexaconazole (M-hexa). In future nanohexaconazole (N-hexa) could be a possible candidate for modern medical science and also reduce damage to the environment from injudicious use of pesticides.
      PubDate: 9 2018
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 6 (2018)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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