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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
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    - BIOENGINEERING (116 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1495 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (47 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)
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    - ZOOLOGY (137 journals)

BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Bioresource Technology Reports
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2589-014X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Zinc oxide phytase nanocomposites as contributory tools to improved
           thermostability and shelflife
    • Authors: Sharrel Rebello; A.N. Anoopkumar; Sreedev Puthur; Raveendran Sindhu; Parameswaran Binod; Ashok Pandey; Embalil Mathachan Aneesh
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 3
      Author(s): Sharrel Rebello, A.N. Anoopkumar, Sreedev Puthur, Raveendran Sindhu, Parameswaran Binod, Ashok Pandey, Embalil Mathachan Aneesh
      The current study suggests the utility of ZnO nanoparticles to increase the thermotolerance of phytase enzymes; thereby aiding their effective utilization to provide better phosphate uptake when applied in animal feeds. Microbial isolates with predominant phytase activity were isolated from industrial wastewater to obtain a promising thermotolerant isolate of Penicillium decumbens. The purified phytase showed activities at mash preparatory temperature (32.59 ± 0.045 Uml−1 min−1 at 55 °C), animal feed pelletising temperature (37.83 ± 0.127 Uml−1 min−1 at 80 °C) and steam sterilization temperature (18.56 ± 0.027 Uml−1 min−1 at 100 °C) of animal feeds as per standard phytase assays. The supplementation of ZnO nanoparticles found to increase thermostability of phytase from 18.56 Uml−1 min−1 to 30.5 Uml−1 min−1 at 100 °C. The antibacterial role of the nanocomposites was checked against human pathogens to obtain satisfactory results against standard antibiotics. Thus the incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles in combination with phytase provided a dual benefit of increasing its thermostability and antimicrobial property thereby increasing its shelflife.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.007
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2018)
       
  • Sewage sludge and food waste co-digestion to methane: A multi response and
           kinetic modeling study to evaluate the dynamics in compositional
           parameters
    • Authors: Kalp Bhusan Prajapati; Rajesh Singh
      Pages: 491 - 498
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Kalp Bhusan Prajapati, Rajesh Singh
      Iron Scraps was hypothesized to enhance methane production at limited oxygen supply under co-digestion process of waste. The multi response overlay contour plots estimated the feasible region of compositional parameters dynamic for methane production. The confirmatory findings show CH4 production range 59.37 ± 0.84 to 80.07 ± 1.12 (ml/gCOD), at food waste (7.27 to 7.39%), Iron scraps (0.0 to 447.67 mg/L), and head space O2 (0.28 to 0.95%). The response dynamics observed were residual COD (2533.3 ± 126.6–4533.33 ± 22.66 mg/L), VFAs (171.42 ± 0.0–800 ± 98.9 mg/L), ammonia (173.95 ± 5.39–215.4 ± 11.5 mg/L), residual sulfate (185.63 ± 2.34–250.67 ± 19.21 mg/L) and NO3 − (7.1 ± 0.66–16.38 ± 1.81 mg/L) during confirmatory experiments. The simulated values of Logistic and Exponential rise to maximum model were well suited at all level of food waste. Elevated CH4 produced showed ability to effective anaerobic co-digestion.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.05.036
      Issue No: Vol. 263 (2018)
       
  • Utilization of glycerol by Bacillus sp. ISTVK1 for production and
           characterization of Polyhydroxyvalerate
    • Authors: Raj Morya; Manish Kumar; Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Pages: 1 - 6
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Raj Morya, Manish Kumar, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Plastic due to its light weight and low cost is a first choice for daily use product, which now can be replaced by Bioplastics. The current study demonstrates the screening of a previously reported thermotolerant bacterium strain Bacillus sp. ISTVK1 isolated from wastewater treatment plant for production of PHA by utilizing pure glycerol as carbon source. Primary screening of the selected bacterium strain was performed by Nile red staining and afterward visualization under a fluorescence microscope. Nile red fluorescence measurement of bacterial culture was also investigated based on absorbance of spectrofluorometer. GC–MS, 1H NMR, TEM, and FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced material is PHV, which is co-polymer of PHB. Optimization of process parameters was performed to enhance the production of PHA. A substantial increase in PHA production from 1.29g/L to 4.44g/L (85.19% of CDW) was observed after optimization of process parameters, shows the importance of optimization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.002
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Influence of ferrous iron dosing strategy on aerobic granulation of
           activated sludge and bioavailability of phosphorus accumulated in granules
           
    • Authors: Wei Cai; Meishan Jin; Ziwen Zhao; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Yasuhisa Adachi; Duu-Jong Lee
      Pages: 7 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Wei Cai, Meishan Jin, Ziwen Zhao, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang, Yasuhisa Adachi, Duu-Jong Lee
      Two different Fe2+ dosing strategies (with the same daily Fe2+ dosage of 19.5mg/d), i.e. constant (R1 with fixed 5mgFe/L in influent) and pulse dosing (R2 with 30mgFe/L in influent only during the first cycle every day) were tested in two identical reactors and their comparison was conducted on granule formation, stability and performance on pollutants removal and P accumulation. Results showed that granules appeared earlier and relatively smaller in R2 (day 9), while biomass increased faster in R1. Relatively high and stable P removal could be achieved, averagely 92% in R1 and 81% in R2. The granules in R1 accumulated more P (45.6mg/g-SS) with higher bioavailability (95%) after 48days' operation, especially with high non-apatite inorganic P content (36.2mg/g-SS). This work also suggests that Fe2+ dosing strategy can be applied in conventional activated sludge processes when high bioavailable P recovery is targeted.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Optimization of Chlorella sorokiniana cultivation condition for
           simultaneous enhanced biomass and lipid production via CO2 fixation
    • Authors: Meilian Xie; Yiting Qiu; Chunfeng Song; Yun Qi; Yang Li; Yutaka Kitamura
      Pages: 15 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Meilian Xie, Yiting Qiu, Chunfeng Song, Yun Qi, Yang Li, Yutaka Kitamura
      In this work, the cultivation condition of Chlorella sorokiniana was investigated to optimize biomass and lipid production. The influence of initial biomass content, nitrogen sources and concentration, phosphorus concentration, pH and CO2 concentration was tested. The experimental results indicated that 1.0g/L glycine could be a suitable nitrogen source for Chlorella sorokiniana. Meanwhile, KH2PO4 with the concentration of 11.4mg/L at the pH of 9 was preferable phosphorus source for biomass and lipid accumulation. The maximum lipid concentration and content could achieve 173.73mg/L and 44.1%. When CO2 was added as inorganic carbon source with the gas flow rate of 6sccm, the maximum biomass concentration was 1.0g/L on the fourth day.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Hybrid pervaporation and salting-out for effective acetone-butanol-ethanol
           separation from fermentation broth
    • Authors: Hao Wen; Heting Gao; Tao Zhang; Zhichao Wu; Peiwen Gong; Zhuangzhuang Li; Huidong Chen; Di Cai; Peiyong Qin; Tianwei Tan
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Hao Wen, Heting Gao, Tao Zhang, Zhichao Wu, Peiwen Gong, Zhuangzhuang Li, Huidong Chen, Di Cai, Peiyong Qin, Tianwei Tan
      In this study, hybrid pervaporation/salting-out process was coupled with fed-batch acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation for high-titer solvents production. At the first-stage separation, 18.8 g/L of ethanol, 125.9 g/L of acetone and 199.5 g/L of butanol were obtained in the permeate of pervaporation. Model solution with similar solvents content to the permeate condensate was used for the second-stage salting-out process based on K3PO4 and KH2PO4, respectively. The effect of salting-out factor on ABE concentrations and recoveries in the aqueous and organic phase was compared and optimized. Results indicated that K3PO4 showed better salting-out performance. At the salting-out factor of 1.0, 99.01% of ABE was recovered. Correspondingly, 486.74 g/kg of butanol (805.52 g/kg of total ABE) could be tested in the organic phase. This novel hybrid process was a promising method for biobutanol production and separation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T17:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.005
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Characterization of thermoadaptive serine metalloprotease and application
           in waste management
    • Authors: Shritoma Sengupta; Rituparna Saha; Debalina Bhattacharya; Krishanu Chakrabarti; Mainak Mukhopadhyay
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Shritoma Sengupta, Rituparna Saha, Debalina Bhattacharya, Krishanu Chakrabarti, Mainak Mukhopadhyay
      Thermoadaptive enzymes offer new opportunities for bio-catalysis and bio-transformations owing to their ability to function over wide temperature ranges. Microbial alkaline proteases are important constituents of commercial enzyme preparations, accounting for more than 60% of the total industrial enzyme market. Fibrous proteins, such as horn, feathers etc. are abundantly available in nature as recalcitrant solid wastes. Extracellular alkaline proteases derived from microorganisms can be used for degradation of proteinaceous wastes and convert them into value-added products e.g. peptide concentrates or amino acids. The present study relates to the isolation of an extracellular, bacterial thermoadaptive serine metalloprotease from the soil. The purified protease showed a remarkable increase in thermostability (4 °C–100 °C) that was enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. The protease (+Ca2+) was utilized to efficiently degrade fish scales and feather to produce amino acids, as declogging agent and for removing blood stains from cloth with a short reaction time. The ability of the protease could be utilized in bulk for solid waste management providing for an eco-friendly and effective process.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T17:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.006
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Synthesis of sulfonated carbon catalyst from waste orange peel for cost
           effective biodiesel production
    • Authors: Dharmesh R. Lathiya; Dhananjay V. Bhatt; Kalpana C. Maheria
      Pages: 69 - 76
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Dharmesh R. Lathiya, Dhananjay V. Bhatt, Kalpana C. Maheria
      The present research work deals with the bio-waste valorisation approach for the catalyst development and then its use in the low cost biodiesel production. The sulfonated carbon catalyst, a solid acid is prepared from waste orange peels (WOP) through carbonization followed by sulfonation treatment. WOP is one of the bio-wastes of food industries. The developed catalyst was characterized using elemental, spectral and thermal analysis. Surface area and pore volume is measured using Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The synthesized catalyst exhibits 44 m2/g surface area and 1.57 mmol/g acid density. To demonstrate the catalytic performance, the sulfonated carbon catalyst was used to esterify corn acid oil (CAO), a low cost feed stock containing 127.21 mg KOH/g acid value, to generate cost effective biodiesel. 91.68% biodiesel conversion is obtained under optimized conditions using Box-Behnken Design (BBD).

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.007
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Hydrothermal carbonization as an all-inclusive process for
           food-waste conversion
    • Authors: Simon B. Tradler; Siegfried Mayr; Markus Himmelsbach; Reinhold Priewasser; Werner Baumgartner; Anna T. Stadler
      Pages: 77 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Simon B. Tradler, Siegfried Mayr, Markus Himmelsbach, Reinhold Priewasser, Werner Baumgartner, Anna T. Stadler
      Food waste is highly energetic biomass but its recycling and disposal process is costly and time-intensive, and the wet, inhomogeneous waste is unwelcome in biomass plants. Searching for an alternative processing pathway, we studied the feasibility of a decentralized, small-scale hydrothermal carbonization plant. Restaurant food waste was converted at 200 °C for 6 h into high-quality hydrochar that has fuel qualities similar to those of lignite and which could be used for co-combustion. We successfully treated the liquid phase with ultraviolet radiation to minimize the total organic carbon and chemical oxygen demand in order to facilitate conventional disposal. Such a plant would pay for itself and begin to generate profit within eight years. We see hydrothermal carbonization in the catering industry as a sustainable and convenient solution for food-waste conversion.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.009
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Enhanced ethyl levulinate production from citrus peels through an in-situ
           hydrothermal reaction
    • Authors: Jeongwoo Yang; Jeongseok Park; Jeesung Son; Bora Kim; Jae W. Lee
      Pages: 84 - 87
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Jeongwoo Yang, Jeongseok Park, Jeesung Son, Bora Kim, Jae W. Lee
      This study introduced the enhanced production of ethyl levulinate (EL) by using waste citrus peels and verified the positive roles of the moisture of the biomass in producing EL. The effects of various parameters on the EL production were investigated. The optimal conditions for EL production were reaction temperature 150 °C, acid volume 0.2 ml, co-solvent 2 ml, and ethanol 2 ml based on 0.3 g of dry biomass with a moisture content of 50 wt%. Under these conditions, the EL yield was 27.81 wt% based on a dry feedstock. This is significantly high compared to previous studies that produced EL from other cellulosic materials because the co-solvent forms a miscible phase with EL, facilitating mass transfer of the EL to the co-solvent phase to promote the forward reaction and inhibit the side reaction.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.002
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Misuse of pre-exponential factor in the kinetic and thermodynamic studies
           using thermogravimetric analysis and its implications
    • Authors: Imtiaz Ali
      Pages: 88 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Imtiaz Ali
      This paper describes the misuse of Arrhenius pre-exponential factor in the kinetic and thermodynamic studies using thermogravimetry. Standard test method (ASTM E698) has been used recently by many researchers to calculate the pre-exponential factor. ASTM E698 is reserved for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and impose many restrictions which have being overlooked by many recently. The obtained pre-exponential factors have been used to describe the thermodynamic behavior during the course of thermal conversions. The objective of this paper is to inform the readers that the pre-exponential factor obtained from the restricted equation can mislead and generate some false thermodynamic data.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.011
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Use of grape pomace as a biosorbent for the removal of the Brown KROM KGT
           dye
    • Authors: Ana Paula de Oliveira; Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes; Maria Eduarda Bragião; Camila L. Hinterholz; Daniela E.G. Trigueros; Isabella G. de O. Bezerra
      Pages: 92 - 99
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Ana Paula de Oliveira, Aparecido Nivaldo Módenes, Maria Eduarda Bragião, Camila L. Hinterholz, Daniela E.G. Trigueros, Isabella G. de O. Bezerra
      In this paper, the removal capacity of grape pomace was evaluated removing the KROM Brown KGT dye. Initially, batch adsorption tests were conducted to evaluate the operating parameters, which indicated 2.0 as initial pH, particle size between 0.14–1.4 mm and temperature of 25 °C, for initial dye concentration of 100 mg L−1. Based on these operating conditions, kinetic and adsorption equilibrium data were obtained. The resulting equilibrium time was 12 h. The kinetic model of pseudo first order was the one that best represented the experimental data. The adsorption equilibrium data suggest a process of monolayers, according to the Langmuir model, with a maximum biosorption capacity of 180.2 ± 3.2 mg g−1. The thermodynamic data suggest a thermodynamically favorable and exothermic process. Based on the results, it was found that the grape pomace has potential to be used as biosorbent in wastewater treatment systems containing dyes.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.001
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Xylooligosaccharides production by fungi cultivations in rice husk and
           their application as substrate for lactic acid bacteria growth
    • Authors: Bruna da Silva Menezes; Daniele Misturini Rossi; Fabio Squina; Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub
      Pages: 100 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Bruna da Silva Menezes, Daniele Misturini Rossi, Fabio Squina, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub
      We describe a three-steps bioprocess to convert rice husk as source of xylooligosaccharides and then used these prebiotics to grow lactic acid bacteria as a model to produce probiotics from vegetal sources. First, Aspergillus brasiliensis BLf and the recombinant Aspergillus nidulans XynC A773 strains were solid-state cultivated in rice husk to produce xylanases (234.7 ± 0.01 U·g−1 and 192 ± 0.03 U·g−1 substrate, respectively). These enzymatic preparations were directly applied to rice husk to hydrolyze its hemicellulosic structure and obtain xylooligosaccharides (37.25 mg XOS·g−1 substrate and 75.92 mg XOS·g−1 substrate, respectively). Prebiotic effect of XOS was tested by cultivating probiotic strains Lactobacillus plantarum BL011 and Bifidobacterium lactis B-12, which grew in this substrate. The results in this work showed that it is possible to produce xylooligosaccharides and then proceed to use these prebiotic sugars to grow probiotic bacteria using the same agro-residue, being possible their use in food related applications.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.004
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Comparative analysis of banana waste bioengineering into animal feeds and
           fertilizers
    • Authors: Stella Nannyonga; Fani Mantzouridou; Eleni Naziri; Kylee Goode; Peter Fryer; Phillip Robbins
      Pages: 107 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Stella Nannyonga, Fani Mantzouridou, Eleni Naziri, Kylee Goode, Peter Fryer, Phillip Robbins
      The efficiency of a bioprocess in terms of cost of production versus product output determines it pragmatism in the field of Bioengineering. Solid state fermentation (SSF) and anaerobic digestion (AD) were compared for banana waste bioprocessing using Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The wastes were pretreated by alkaline-delignification and thermal pre-treatment prior SSF and AD respectively. Optimization of the operational parameters for yeast growth kinetics was done using Chapman, Bergter and Andrew models. From the results generally, pH 3.5 to 5.8 and temperature 22 to 30 °C were optimum for both bioprocesses. Comparatively, SSF was a more economic and efficient banana waste bioprocess than AD. The protein content increased by approximately 7.9% after SSF and by 6.7% after AD and the lipid contents increased by 5.9 and 5.4%, while the mineral contents increased by 6.3 and 7.5% both after SSF and AD respectively. This suggested the possible of use of the upgraded wastes as animal feed supplements and nutrient rich fertilizers.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.008
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Evaluating the Water Quality Impacts of Hydrothermal Liquefaction
           Assessment of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Energy Recovery
    • Authors: Sarah K. Bauer; Catherine F. Reynolds; Shanshan Peng; Lisa M. Colosi
      Pages: 115 - 120
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 2
      Author(s): Sarah K. Bauer, Catherine F. Reynolds, Shanshan Peng, Lisa M. Colosi
      This research evaluates possible water impacts arising from creation of potent wastewaters during hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of organic wastes. Aqueous co-products (ACPs) arising from HTL of eight feedstocks contained very high concentrations of traditional wastewater pollutants: 100–3300 mg/L total nitrogen (N), 45–3600 mg/L total phosphorus (P), and 16,000–234,000 mg/L chemical oxygen demand (COD). pH was 4.4–8.8. These characteristics render ACP more noxious than relevant benchmark wastewaters. Adjustment of published energy ratio metrics to account for ACP treatment reveals that energy yield is moderately decreased, and energy consumption for COD, TN, and TP removal is of the same order of magnitude as liquefaction. Recovery of valuable nutrients (i.e., N and P) from ACP via precipitation could reduce the energy intensity of ACP management and mitigate its impact on energy recovery. In particular, precipitation-based nutrient recovery could enhance HTL's appeal as means to valorize waste into renewable energy and valuable scarce materials.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.010
      Issue No: Vol. 2 (2018)
       
  • Microbiology community changes during the start-up and operation of a
           photosynthetic bacteria-membrane bioreactor for wastewater treatment
    • Authors: Meng Peng; Anqi Yang; Yang Chen; Guangming Zhang; Fan Meng; Xu Ma; Yuanyuan Li
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Meng Peng, Anqi Yang, Yang Chen, Guangming Zhang, Fan Meng, Xu Ma, Yuanyuan Li
      A pilot-scale photosynthetic bacteria-membrane bioreactor was applied to treat wastewater and culture photosynthetic bacteria (PSB) cells, and microbial communities at different stages were analyzed to reveal the underlying roles of efficient long-time operation of this reactor. After 40days start-up, the reactor was successfully operated for 180days. The results showed that the PSB-membrane bioreactor operated stably, with high COD and NH3-N removal efficiency of 95%. The PSB biomass could maintain a high cell concentration with a 10% harvest each day. Analysis of the microbial community showed that bacterial communities changed dramatically at different stages. The dominant bacteria were Ectothiorhodospira in the beginning to Caenispirillum and Pannonibacter during the stable operation. The Shannon index from 1.876 dropped to 1.477 after 6months. The diversity of PSB community decreased during the process. It revealed that the microbial community on the membrane was more diverse than that inside the bioreactor.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
       
  • Desorption trials and granular stability of chromium loaded aerobic
           granular sludge from synthetic domestic wastewater treatment
    • Authors: Kaifei Chen; Ziwen Zhao; Xiaojing Yang; Zhongfang Lei; Zhenya Zhang; Shicheng Zhang
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Kaifei Chen, Ziwen Zhao, Xiaojing Yang, Zhongfang Lei, Zhenya Zhang, Shicheng Zhang
      This study investigated Cr (VI) adsorption from aqueous solution onto aerobic granular sludge (AGS) and then its desorption to recover Cr and regenerate AGS. AGS adsorption was conducted using batch experiments. Alkaline (CH3COONa, NaHCO3, Na2CO3, and Na2CO3 containing Na2HPO4 or KCl) and HCl solutions were attempted to desorb Cr (VI) and Cr (III), respectively. Their effects on microbial activity and granular stability were also explored. 0.5M NaHCO3 was found to be the best desorption agent with desorption ratios of 62% for Cr (VI) and 10% for Cr (III). 0.1M HCl could further desorb the remaining Cr (III), resulting in totally 81% of desorption ratio. Adsorption under acidic conditions decreased microbial activity, while desorption using alkaline solutions negatively affected granular stability to some extent, most probably attributable to cations release from AGS. These results for the first time suggest the possibility of Cr-loaded AGS regeneration by weak alkaline solutions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
       
  • Brewers' spent grains: Drying kinetics and biodiesel production
    • Authors: Elliot Mallen; Vesna Najdanovic-Visak
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Elliot Mallen, Vesna Najdanovic-Visak
      Enormous amounts of brewers' spent grains (BSGs) per year are generated to produce bear worldwide. BSGs can be used as a carbon source, biofuel to generate energy and as a source of biogas. Typically, BSGs contain >60mass% of water and, therefore, drying kinetics is a paramount for the development of any of these valorisation processes. In this work, we reveal the main parameters and mechanism of drying kinetics of BSGs at isothermal conditions (60°C–90°C), measured by thermogravimetric analysis. Diffusion coefficients ranged from 1.42×10−9 m2 s−1 to 2.67×10−9 m2 s−1 while the activation energy was 26.6kJmol−1. Furthermore, for the first time, biodiesel production from BSGs is reported. We employed acid catalysed in situ transesterification process, at different catalyst concentrations, methanol to BSGs ratios, reaction time and temperature. The outcomes of our study show promise for alternative valorisation of brewers' spent grains, an abundant waste spread around the world.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
       
  • Evaluation of the potentials and feasibility of microalgae production in
           Iran
    • Authors: Alireza Aslani; Mohammad Mohammadi; Maria Jose Ibañez Gonzalez; Tania Mazzuca Sobczuk; Mohsen Nazari; Asieh Bakhtiar
      Pages: 24 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Alireza Aslani, Mohammad Mohammadi, Maria Jose Ibañez Gonzalez, Tania Mazzuca Sobczuk, Mohsen Nazari, Asieh Bakhtiar
      Supplying affordable, acceptable, and adequate sources of energy is one of the most important concerns of the communities. Due to the unbalanced distribution of fossil fuels, as well as their environmental effects, the utilization of renewable energies sources has been one of the main strategies. Due to the importance of transportation for societies, biofuels technologies is important part of researches, in particular algae. Algae are a type of single or multi-cellular organisms that are multiplying rapidly, and have photosynthesis-based growth and evolution. In this paper, after classifying and determining the main factors affecting the production of liquid fuels from microalgae, the feasibility and the best regions for production are discussed in the case study, Iran. The analysis method is multi criteria decision making in order to rank the best locations for microalgae growing. The results show that Iran has a high potential for microalgae utilization and the coastlines of Oman Sea and the Persian Gulf are the best regions for large-scale algae cultivation and processing projects.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
       
  • Bioremoval of nutrients from wastewater by a denitrifier Paracoccus
           denitrificans ISTOD1
    • Authors: Kristina Medhi; Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Pages: 56 - 60
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1
      Author(s): Kristina Medhi, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      The introduction of plant nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus in water bodies cause a natural ageing process called eutrophication. In the present study, 71.9% NO3 −N and 93% ortho-P removal was achieved within 72h by an aerobic denitrifier P.denitrificans ISTOD1, suggesting the strain as a potential denitrifying phosphorus accumulating organism (DPAO). To make wastewater treatment cost-effective, different concentration of molasses were optimized for maximum EPS production. Application of strain ISTOD1 in real wastewater samples with 5% molasses resulted in NH4 +-N, NO2 −N, NO3 −N, TN, COD and TP removal efficiencies of 99.6%, 79.2%, 83.8%, 97.3%, 84.2% and 100%. Moreover, 1.9g/L EPS production was also observed between late exponential- stationary phase. Assessment on wastewater demonstrated the capability of ISTOD1 in overall nutrient removal along with EPS production. Bioflocculation efficiency of the domestic wastewater produced EPS makes the strain an efficient candidate for enhanced wastewater remediation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.006
      Issue No: Vol. 1 (2018)
       
  • Optimisation of organosolv pretreatment for the extraction of polyphenols
           from spent coffee waste and subsequent recovery of fermentable sugars
    • Authors: Rajeev Ravindran; Claire Desmond; Swarna Jaiswal; Amit K. Jaiswal
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Rajeev Ravindran, Claire Desmond, Swarna Jaiswal, Amit K. Jaiswal
      In the present study, organosolv pretreatment strategy was modified for the comprehensive utilisation of spent coffee waste (SCW) for polyphenol extraction and reducing sugar production. A response surface design involving four factors viz. ethanol concentration, temperature, time and H2SO4 concentration was created for optimisation of polyphenol extraction from SCW. 11.2 mg GAE of polyphenol content/g of SCW was obtained using ethanol (68% v/v) at 51 °C for 45 min in the presence of 1.5% H2SO4 as catalyst. Furthermore, 13.78 of QE of Total Flavonoid Content/g of SCW was obtained following this process which was 7.6-fold higher than control (1.81 QE/g of SCW). Lignin removal of 24.4% was achieved following modified organosolv protocol. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated SCW yielded 29.05 mg/g of total reducing sugar, which was 1.27-fold higher than control (22.8 mg/g). XRD, FTIR, and DSC profiles of the pretreated substrates were analysed for various changes incurred in pretreated SCW.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.009
       
  • Direct saponification of wet microalgae by methanolic potassium hydroxide
           using acetone as co-solvent
    • Authors: Senthil Nagappan; R. Rajendra Kumar; J. Rupesh Balaji; Shachi Singh; Sanjay Kumar Verma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Senthil Nagappan, R. Rajendra Kumar, J. Rupesh Balaji, Shachi Singh, Sanjay Kumar Verma
      The fatty acids of microalgae are promising source of biodiesel and omega-3 fatty acids. The objective of this study is extraction of fatty acids from wet Dunaliela salina by direct saponification using methanolic potassium hydroxide and a suitable co-solvent. The study identified acetone as an efficient co-solvent for saponification of wet microalgal biomass by methanolic potassium hydroxide. The presence of acetone in methanolic KOH saponification produced 24% more fatty acid than its absence. Further optimization of concentration of acetone (80% v/v), concentration of potassium hydroxide (0.1% v/v) and solvent-dry biomass ratio (75:1) resulted in a maximum yield of 98% fatty acid. The proposed acetone assisted saponification of wet microalgal biomass could serve as an energy efficient route for fatty acid production since the reaction happens under room temperature and normal atmospheric pressure without any cell lysis or drying the biomass.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.010
       
  • Initial population density plays a vital role to enhance biodiesel
           productivity of Tetraselmis sp. under reciprocal nitrogen concentration
    • Authors: S. Dinesh Kumar; Kwang-Min Ro; P. Santhanam; B. Dhanalakshmi; S. Latha; Mi-Kyung Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): S. Dinesh Kumar, Kwang-Min Ro, P. Santhanam, B. Dhanalakshmi, S. Latha, Mi-Kyung Kim
      This study reveal the combined effect of initial population density (IPD) (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g L−1) and nitrogen (0 N-nil nitrogen; 1 N-optimized concentration of nitrogen; 2 N–doubling of optimized nitrogen concentration) on growth, biomass, lipid and fatty acid content of the oceanic microalga Tetraselmis sp. were tested. The experiment was carried out in multi-room light-emitting diode chamber for two weeks with continuous illumination of light such as 14:10 h L:D of photoperiod (PP) and 150 μmol m−2 s−1 of photosynthetic photon flux intensity (PPFI). The maximum optical density (1.15 abs), cells concentration (253 × 104 cells mL−1), chlorophyll ‘a’ (2.68 mg L−1) and fatty acids content were found in the combination of 0.5 g L−1 initial population density and 1 N, whereas the highest biomass (0.95 g L−1) was noticed in 1 g L−1 initial population density and 2 N, and total lipid (48 ± 1.14%) was high in 0.5 g L−1 initial population density and 2 N combination.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.008
       
  • Effect of ionic liquid/inorganic salt/water pretreatment on the
           composition, structure and enzymatic hydrolysis of rice straw
    • Authors: Jing Gao; Shaoli Xin; Liyuan Wang; Youfeng Lei; Hongwu Ji; Shucheng Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Jing Gao, Shaoli Xin, Liyuan Wang, Youfeng Lei, Hongwu Ji, Shucheng Liu
      Albeit ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment has been demonstrated to effectively enhance the saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass, extremely high costs of ILs still restrict its scale-up. If the ILs at high water content can be used as pretreatment solvents for lignocellulosic biomass, the chemical costs will be significantly reduced. However, the dissolving capacity of the ILs was notably decreased when water contents exceeded within limits. In this work, inorganic salts (K3PO4 and K2CO3) were added as additives of imidazolium-based IL/water systems to improve tolerance of ILs in the presence of water. The pretreatment with 50% 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C2mim]Cl) + 49.5% water + 0.5% K2CO3 at 95 °C for 3 h improved lignin removal to 69.32%, and also increased the surface areas as compared to untreated rice straw. The reducing sugar yield of the regenerated materials was increased to 82.45% after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis.

      PubDate: 2018-06-01T12:31:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.05.006
       
  • Penicillium: The next emerging champion for cellulase production
    • Authors: Neha Vaishnav; Anusuiya Singh; Mukund Adsul; Pooja Dixit; Simranjeet Kaur Sandhu; Anshu Mathur; Suresh Kumar Puri; Reeta Rani Singhania
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Neha Vaishnav, Anusuiya Singh, Mukund Adsul, Pooja Dixit, Simranjeet Kaur Sandhu, Anshu Mathur, Suresh Kumar Puri, Reeta Rani Singhania
      Bio-ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass via enzymatic route has received wide acceptance as liquid fuel for transport sector. It has been regarded as alternative sustainable source of energy, however; economic feasibility still remains a question. Cellulase is still considered to add to the major cost components in the bio-ethanol production process. Trichoderma reesei, which is considered as the most potent cellulase producer is known to be deficient in β-glucosidase, hence, Penicillium cellulases being rich in β-glucosidase have got recognition. Thus Penicillium cellulases give higher efficiencies during saccharification of biomass resulting in lower cellulase requirement; decreasing the cost of cellulases in the process. This review gives an account of cellulases produced from Penicillium and its superiority over existing cellulase champions. It also discusses the possible targets to improve cellulase secretion from Penicillium at genetic level. This article justifies that Penicillium could be the next champions for cellulase production for biofuel applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T17:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.003
       
  • A novel method for preparing high purity Actinobacillus succinogenes stock
           and its long-term acid production in a packed bed reactor
    • Authors: Yu-Sheng Chiang; Yu-Yuan Kuo; Si-Yu Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Yu-Sheng Chiang, Yu-Yuan Kuo, Si-Yu Li
      A. succinogenes is susceptible to contamination by other lactate producing bacteria. This reduces stability and makes long-term A. succinogenes fermentation difficult. In this study, the contaminated A. succinogenes culture, where the contaminant was shown to be ubiquitous Staphylococcus epidermidis, can be easily rescued by using xylose as the sole carbon source. The stability of purified A. succinogenes was verified in continuous fermentation using packed bed reactor while the performance of acid productions was investigated. While MgCO3 was used as a pH buffer and CO2 source during the continuous fermentation, the problem of MgCO3 clogging in a packed bed reactor was solved by oleyl alcohol reflux. This raised operation time from 344 to 1788 h. The provision of 30 g/L glucose and 40 g/L xylose as carbon sources resulted in a main metabolite yield of 91.7 ± 3.2% lactate and 55.3 ± 3.0% succinate with a stable productivity of 16.9 ± 1.7 and 1.5 ± 0.1 g·L−1·h−1.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T17:42:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.004
       
  • Editorial
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports, Volume 1


      PubDate: 2018-04-25T17:42:55Z
       
  • Triggering of fatty acids on Tetraselmis sp. by ethyl methanesulfonate
           mutagenic treatment
    • Authors: S. Dinesh Kumar; Kang Sojin; P. Santhanam; B. Dhanalakshmi; S. Latha; Min S. Park; Mi-Kyung Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): S. Dinesh Kumar, Kang Sojin, P. Santhanam, B. Dhanalakshmi, S. Latha, Min S. Park, Mi-Kyung Kim
      The present study aimed to triggering of growth, lipid and fatty acids production of oceanic microalgae Tetraselmis sp. for biofuel production under mutagenic treatment with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The maximum optical density (0.51 ± 0.02), cells concentration (138 ± 6.9 × 104 cells mL−1), biomass (0.63 ± 0.03 g L−1), chlorophyll ‘a’ (3.91 ± 0.19 mg L−1) were found in DKMK06 in first generation which was treated with EMS at 50 μmol mL−1 for 60 min. DKMK06 was exhibited the highest lipid productivity (48 ± 0.9%) during first generation and DKMK05 during second and third generations and percentages of lipid were 46.5 ± 1.1 and 41 ± 1.1%. The same trend has been observed in FAME contents and highest saturated and mono unsaturated fatty acid combinations were found in DKMK05 in 2nd generation (42.49%) followed by third generation (41.5%) which were higher than the first generation produced by DKMK06 (39.98%).

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.001
       
  • Experimental validation of biochar based green Bronsted acid catalysts for
           simultaneous esterification and transesterification in biodiesel
           production
    • Authors: Suchith Chellappan; Vaishakh Nair; Sajith V; Aparna K
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Suchith Chellappan, Vaishakh Nair, Sajith V, Aparna K
      In this study, a variety of novel biochar based Bronsted acid catalysts were prepared from low cost potential feedstocks viz., cassava peel, irul sawdust, coconut shell and their catalytic activity for biodiesel production were compared. The optimization studies of biochar generation were carried out based on the influence of pyrolysis temperature and heating duration, for the preparation of acid catalyst with superior activity. The elemental analysis, surface functional groups, thermal stability, crystallographic structure, surface morphology and pore size distribution of all biochars and its sulfonated catalysts were characterized thoroughly. The performance of the sulfonated biochar catalysts for the synthesis of biodiesel from Derris indica L. seed oil was evaluated and compared. The cassava peel biochar based catalyst with a total acid density of 2.9 mmol/g and sulfonic acid group density of 1.7 mmol/g showed the best result among the sulfonated biochar catalysts for the enhanced biodiesel production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.04.002
       
  • Systematic investigation of anode materials for microbial fuel cells with
           the model organism G. sulfurreducens
    • Authors: Elena Kipf; Johannes Erben; Roland Zengerle; Johannes Gescher; Sven Kerzenmacher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Elena Kipf, Johannes Erben, Roland Zengerle, Johannes Gescher, Sven Kerzenmacher
      Different carbon and metal-based anode materials for microbial fuel cells were systematically investigated with a pure culture of the model organism G. sulfurreducens. The highest limiting current density of 756 ± 15 μA cm−2 at −0.253 ± 0.037 V vs. SCE was achieved with graphite foil using a step-wise galvanostatic technique. But also the application of completely different anode materials such as activated carbon cloth, stainless steel and graphite felt led to similar high limiting current densities, suggesting that G. sulfurreducens is able to use a large range of substantially different anode materials as external electron acceptor. Additionally, we could show that a step-wise galvanostatic technique to record polarization curves yields similar current densities as potentiostatic control at −0.400 V vs. SCE with the investigated carbon-based materials. In case of stainless steel these techniques yield slightly different results, presumably due to an effect related to the material's surface properties.

      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.005
       
  • Editorial for bioresource technology reports
    • Authors: Duu-Jong Lee; Wehshan Guo; Deepak Pant; Reeta Rani Singhania
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Duu-Jong Lee, Wehshan Guo, Deepak Pant, Reeta Rani Singhania


      PubDate: 2018-04-13T11:19:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.003
       
  • A review on management of Hydrilla verticillata and its utilization as
           potential nitrogen-rich biomass for compost or biogas production
    • Authors: Mayur Shirish Jain; Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Mayur Shirish Jain, Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Hydrilla verticillata, an invasive aquatic weed is found to be a complex worldwide. Chemical and biological treatments can be applied for its growth retardation, but it may affect the quality of water, ultimately affecting aquatic lives. Previously reported studies proposed that the H. verticillata can be managed and utilized using advanced techniques that changed the approach towards it from nuisance to useful resource. It has been proved to be protein-rich and hence can be used as fodder for cattle. Exploring the feasibility of H. verticillata has become prime importance in any of the application of it. However, there is a need to research on large-scale management and utilization of H. verticillata to benefit the agriculture field. This paper provides a summary of growth, harvest and recent development for the management and use of H. verticillata. Based on the present scenario, possible forthcomings are discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.03.001
       
  • A two-stage biological gas to liquid transfer process to convert carbon
           dioxide into bioplastic
    • Authors: Israa Al Rowaihi; Benjamin Kick; Stefan W. Grötzinger; Christian Burger; Ram Karan; Dirk Weuster-Botz; Jörg Eppinger; Stefan T. Arold
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Israa Al Rowaihi, Benjamin Kick, Stefan W. Grötzinger, Christian Burger, Ram Karan, Dirk Weuster-Botz, Jörg Eppinger, Stefan T. Arold
      The fermentation of carbon dioxide (CO2) with hydrogen (H2) uses available low-cost gases to synthesis acetic acid. Here, we present a two-stage bio logical process that allows the g as t o l iquid transfer (Bio-GTL) of CO2 into the biopolymer polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). Using the same medium in both stages, first, acetic acid is produced (3.2 g L−1) by Acetobacterium woodii from 5.2 L gas-mixture of CO2:H2 (15:85 v/v) under elevated pressure (≥2.0 bar) to increase H2-solubility in water. Second, acetic acid is converted to PHB (3 g L−1 acetate into 0.5 g L−1 PHB) by Ralstonia eutropha H16. The efficiencies and space-time yields were evaluated, and our data show the conversion of CO2 into PHB with a 33.3% microbial cell content (percentage of the ratio of PHB concentration to cell concentration) after 217 h. Collectively, our results provide a resourceful platform for future optimization and commercialization of a Bio-GTL for PHB production.

      PubDate: 2018-03-13T07:15:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.007
       
  • NiO and CoO nanoparticles mediated biological hydrogen production: Effect
           of Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio
    • Authors: Puranjan Mishra; Lakhveer Singh; M. Amirul Islam; Mohd Nasrullah; A.M. Mimi Sakinah; Zularisam Ab Wahid
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Puranjan Mishra, Lakhveer Singh, M. Amirul Islam, Mohd Nasrullah, A.M. Mimi Sakinah, Zularisam Ab Wahid
      The impact of nickel and cobalt oxide nanoparticles (NPs) additive to palm oil mill effluent (POME) on hydrogen production was investigated using different Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio. The Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio of 1:0, 3:1, 1:1, 1:3 and 0:1 was added in batch mode operation. Experimental results suggested the H2 production dependency on the Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio. The Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio of 3:1 had better performance with the cumulative H2 and H2 production rate of 2844 ml H2 and 45 ml H2/h, respectively. This increased by ~37% and ~14, respectively in compared with the controlled one. The maximum CODremoval efficiency of 74% was observed at 3:1, which accounted for ~45% increment. These results suggested the improved performance of Bio-H2 can be fulfilled by additive of proper Ni/Co oxide NPs-ratio to the POME.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.004
       
  • Winterization studies of different vegetable oil biodiesel
    • Authors: Sandhya K. Vijayan; Mary NaveenaVictor; Abinandan Sudharsanam; Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj; Nagarajan Vedaraman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Sandhya K. Vijayan, Mary NaveenaVictor, Abinandan Sudharsanam, Velappan Kandukalpatti Chinnaraj, Nagarajan Vedaraman
      At low temperature, the presence of oleaginous compound with fatty acids bound to crystallize and cause operability problems with compression engines. In this present investigation, seven different fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) biodiesel from vegetable oils (such as sunflower, coconut, jatropha, rice bran, palm, neem and mahua) were prepared by transesterification and were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC). Winterization of these synthesized biodiesel were carried out to find their usability at low temperatures (0 °C–20 °C) and the crystals formed were separated. Further, the differential scanning colorimetry (DSC) was employed to identify the onset of melting point of the biodiesel from vegetable oils. The results showed that crystal formation was observed for various biodiesel except sunflower oil that recorded no crystal formation with minimum temperature of 0 °C. These findings suggest that biodiesel synthesized from sunflower can be used as such at low temperatures compared to the other synthesized biodiesel from vegetable oil.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.005
       
  • Benchmark study of photosynthetic bacteria bio-conversion of wastewater:
           Carbon source range, fundamental kinetics of substrate degradation and
           cell proliferation
    • Authors: Fan Meng; Anqi Yang; Guangming Zhang; Panyue Zhang; Jie Ye
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Fan Meng, Anqi Yang, Guangming Zhang, Panyue Zhang, Jie Ye
      Photosynthetic bacteria (PSB)-bioconversion is a novel method for wastewater treatment and resource recovery. But fundamental knowledge on effective substrate range, cell proliferation and substrate degradation kinetics are lacking. This paper studied the efficient range of carbon source (in terms of COD) and the fundamental kinetics of COD degradation and cell proliferation of this technology. Results showed that the efficient concentration range of carbon source was 500–40,000 mg·L−1 COD for PSB, which covers most organic wastewaters. Then the substrate degradation and cell proliferation kinetics were studied using Michaelis-Menten equation and Monod equation. The V max, Km, μmax and Ks was 4.80 d−1, 7382 mg·L−1, 1.23 d−1 and 7714 mg·L−1 under light-anaerobic condition, and they were 4.27 d−1, 4813 mg·L−1, 0.59 d−1 and 21,295 mg·L−1 under dark-aerobic condition; which fell in the range of conventional biological wastewater technologies. This benchmark study lays foundation for further study and scale-up of this novel technology.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.003
       
  • A novel way of assessing C dynamics during urban organic waste composting
           and greenhouse gas emissions in tropical region
    • Authors: R.F. Pereira; E.J.B.N. Cardoso; F.C. Oliveira; G.A. Estrada-Bonilla; C.E.P. Cerri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): R.F. Pereira, E.J.B.N. Cardoso, F.C. Oliveira, G.A. Estrada-Bonilla, C.E.P. Cerri
      Composting process is considered one of the main sustainable methods for treatment of the organic waste from urban centers. Our study aimed to evaluate the decomposing dynamics and the environmental conditions during urban waste composting measuring the temperature, pH and microbial activity. We also decided to follow the carbon and nitrogen dynamics by physical fractionation and determined greenhouse gas emissions. During composting, C accumulation in the heavy fraction indicated that a great and intimate association of C with minerals had occurred in the pile together with microbial or chemical decomposition. This is a novel way to determine how great amounts of OM are maintained in the mature compost and its structure, including the main reason for the great stabilization of the organic matter during the composting process. The emissions analysis showed methane as the most environmentally impacting greenhouse gas during urban waste composting.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.002
       
  • Co-gasification of empty fruit bunch in a downdraft reactor: A pilot scale
           approach
    • Authors: Minhaj Uddin Monir; Azrina Abd Aziz; Risky Ayu Kristanti; Abu Yousuf
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Minhaj Uddin Monir, Azrina Abd Aziz, Risky Ayu Kristanti, Abu Yousuf
      Biomass gasification shows great potential to displace fossil fuels. This paper states the steady state simulation for the gasification of palm oil empty fruit brunch (EFB) in pilot plant downdraft reactor and modelled using Aspen Plus®. The biomass was characterized to evaluate the degree of feedstock's structural order. The effect of reactor temperature and pressure on syngas production of downdraft gasification of EFB at the constant steam flow rate of 186.37 mol/h were investigated. The results revealed the concentration of hydrogen and CO increased from 12 to 17.5 mol% and 55–60.6 mol% respectively, but the CO2 concentration decreased from 30 to 19.4 mol% with increasing temperature (875–975 °C) and pressure (25–35 bar). The results indicated that the product gas from co-gasification with charcoal has higher H2 and CO concentrations in comparison with the EFB gasification. Therefore, co-gasification of the feedstock has a significant potential to overcome the problem of disrupted feedstock supply in gasification.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.02.001
       
  • Extraction of arabinoxylan from corn cob through modified alkaline
           protocol to improve xylooligosaccharides synthesis
    • Authors: Pranati Kundu; Sandeep Kumar; Vivek Ahluwalia; Sushil Kumar Kansal; Sasikumar Elumalai
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 February 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Pranati Kundu, Sandeep Kumar, Vivek Ahluwalia, Sushil Kumar Kansal, Sasikumar Elumalai
      A modified alkaline protocol involving a combination of NaOH and NH4OH was employed for the isolation of hemicellulose from corncob. During the extraction of hemicellulose, alkaline reagents promoted selective cleavage of ester and ether linkages in corncob biomass. It was possible to obtain a hemicellulose fraction consisted of considerable branching constituents (arabinose and uronic acid, and low lignin). Based on modeling analysis, reaction parameters such as alkali concentration and temperature significantly influenced the amount of total hemicellulose extracted. Subsequent hydrolysis of isolated hemicellulose in the presence of H2SO4 resulted in better conversion (69 wt%) with enriched XOs conc. (73.68% with DP up to 4) than other fractions under milder conditions. Advantageously, gas phase NH3 formation was achieved during the reaction, where NaOH and NH4OH mix was used at an equal ratio that could significantly help in reducing the overall processing cost of XOs production (through recycling and reuse) during large-scale manufacture.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.007
       
  • Use of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria enriched from sewage sludge to
           biologically remove H2S from biogas at an industrial-scale biogas plant
    • Authors: Yanfei Cheng; Tian Yuan; Yang Deng; Cong Lin; Jianhua Zhou; Zhongfang Lei; Kazuya Shimizu; Zhenya Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Yanfei Cheng, Tian Yuan, Yang Deng, Cong Lin, Jianhua Zhou, Zhongfang Lei, Kazuya Shimizu, Zhenya Zhang
      Anaerobic digestion has been widely used for organic waste and wastewater treatment to produce renewable energy, especially biogas. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) being harmful to human beings and the environment is one of the highly toxic compounds in the biogas. For the sake of health and safety, removal of H2S from biogas is necessary before further utilization. In this study, sewage sludge was used to enrich sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) quickly under weak alkaline condition (pH = 7.5–8.2) in the laboratory and then applied in an industrial-scale desulfurization system. The SOB was successfully enriched in the system within 10 days by addition of Na2S. The optimal dissolved oxygen (DO) for producing elemental surfer (S0) in the regeneration tank was 0.8–1.2 mg/L. The performance shows that the outlet H2S concentration could be reduced to the safety limit of 200 ppm after 2 months' operation, achieving a stable H2S removal up to 95%.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biteb.2018.01.006
       
  • Review of trends in biogas upgradation technologies and future
           perspectives
    • Authors: Shivali Sahota; Goldy Shah Pooja Ghosh Rimika Kapoor Subhanjan Sengupta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Shivali Sahota, Goldy Shah, Pooja Ghosh, Rimika Kapoor, Subhanjan Sengupta, Priyanka Singh, Vandit Vijay, Arunaditya Sahay, Virendra Kumar Vijay, Indu Shekhar Thakur
      Biogas is a futuristic renewable energy with high market potential due to wide scale availability of organic biomass, and for facilitating countries in meeting sustainable development goals related with creating and providing access to renewable energy. It has potential of being developed as a vehicular fuel or for generating electricity that can be injected into power grids. Despite its prospect, it faces criticism, such as limited contributions in reducing carbon emissions as compared to solar and wind. Consequentially, for higher efficiency and for better commercialization, it is impending not only to upgrade raw biogas but also utilize the energy value of off-gas. Currently available methods have high operating costs and are energy intensive, limiting the commercial applications of biogas. This review is aimed at presenting the state-of-art upgradation technologies currently available and the ones which are promising. It also discusses the future perspectives for overcoming the challenges associated with upgradation.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
       
  • Integrated approach for extraction of xylose, cellulose, lignin and silica
           from rice straw
    • Authors: Meena Krishania; Vinod Kumar Rajendra Singh Sangwan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Bioresource Technology Reports
      Author(s): Meena Krishania, Vinod Kumar, Rajendra Singh Sangwan
      In this paper, a novel process for xylose production was developed and discovered with simultaneous extraction of other product like cellulose, silica, and lignin. The study explored the effect of chemicals on xylose yield, and the xylose production process was optimized as followings: After pre-impregnation with nitric acid at 140 °C for 15 min, rice straw was treated at 1 bar with 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid, followed by second hydrolysis by using 2.5%(w/v) sodium hydroxide with 2%(w/v) sodium hypochlorite at 121 °C for 1 h, decoloration and ionic impurities were removed by ion exchange. Using this process, 13.8 g of crystal xylose was produced from 100 g rice straw, simultaneously 26.01% (w/w) of cellulose, 10.11% (w/w) silica, and 6.21% (w/w) lignin were also extracted from rice straw respectively. All results indicated that this process is a more effective than the traditional method sulphuric acid hydrolysis process for lignocellulose biorefinery.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:44:20Z
       
 
 
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