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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Bioethics UPdate
  [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2395-938X - ISSN (Online) 2448-7511
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • The individual and collective dimension in bioethics
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 79 - 81
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.08.001
  • Neurociencia y derecho: problemas y posibilidades para el quehacer
    • Authors: Ronald Cárdenas Krenz
      Pages: 82 - 106
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Ronald Cárdenas Krenz
      El artículo trata sobre la relación entre la neurociencia y el derecho, analizando los alcances de esta nueva disciplina para el quehacer jurídico. Dado que diversos estudios del cerebro cuestionan la existencia del libre albedrío, y que este es base del principio jurídico de la autonomía de la voluntad, se analiza si realmente existe o no, cuestión esencial para el derecho. Se revisan, asimismo, las posibilidades que ofrece la neurociencia para contar con nuevos medios para buscar la verdad, el desarrollo del marketing, la determinación de la capacidad y otros temas, pasando revista tanto a diversos beneficios como a riesgos. Finalmente, se aborda la necesidad de velar por que se garantice el respeto de los derechos humanos frente al desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías neurocientíficas. This article is about the connection between neuroscience and the effects on legal rules. There are several brain studies that question the existence of free will. Free will is the basis of legal docrine. This article attempts to determine whether or not free will exists, and to review the possibilities offered by neuroscience, with new means to seek the truth, marketing development, determination of capacity and other issues, by reviewing the benefits and risks. Finally, it addresses the need to ensure the respect of human rights with these new neuroscientific technologies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.12.001
  • Conscientious objection in Scientific Ethics and its relationship with
           ideology, religion and laws
    • Authors: Carlos Y. Valenzuela
      Pages: 107 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Carlos Y. Valenzuela
      Conscientious objection (CO) is the refusal to obey laws due to moral, religious or belief principles. The ideologies or religions underlying laws or constitutions have been seldom analyzed. Scientific Ethics finds that constitutions and laws have implicit or explicit ideological elements that are imposed on citizens, and denies or forbids others that lead citizens to CO. Ideological analysis is critical for laws that violate other rights, moral or ethical principles that are accepted by everyone and aggressions to humans or animals. CO is critically different in the cases of military service, abortion (killing fetuses), vaccination or tax payments. In the case of abortion the commandment is to kill a fetus in certain conditions; but to kill human beings contradicts the medical foundations and most religions or ideologies. Constitutions and laws should respect the ideologies or religions of that people so citizens can express and live his or her ideology without contradiction or CO. A law on abortion should provide centers of abortion served by professionals that share that ideology; this would avoid CO.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.06.002
  • Limitación del esfuerzo terapéutico y cuidados paliativos
    • Authors: María de la Luz Casas Martínez
      Pages: 137 - 151
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): María de la Luz Casas Martínez
      El proceso de formación del personal de salud ha dedicado gran parte de su ejercicio a la medicina preventiva, curativa y rehabilitadora; siempre se enfatiza «el hacer» y en pocas ocasiones el «dejar de hacer», pero la atención al paciente terminal y agónico así lo requiere, a riesgo de caer en manejo fútil de la medicina. La ética médica obliga moralmente a implementar medidas terapéuticas cuando hay posibilidad de curación, sobrevida o calidad de vida de los pacientes, pero sus acciones no deberían prolongar la agonía ante la muerte inevitable. El presente trabajo hará referencia a la limitación del esfuerzo terapéutico (LET) en adultos. La LET puede clasificarse como una decisión para la no instauración de determinadas maniobras o procedimientos asistenciales o como una maniobra de suspensión de lo ya instaurado, cuando estos ya no posean indicación médica e impidan la evolución natural de la enfermedad al convertirse en una desproporción entre fines y medios terapéuticos. Se proponen 10 puntos para aplicación de la LET. La LET siempre debería estar ligada al manejo de cuidados paliativos. Se presenta un cuadro explicativo entre esfuerzo terapéutico, expectativa de vida, LET y cuidados paliativos. Se presentan también 6 pasos para llevar a cabo el juicio de proporcionalidad terapéutica. Terapia curativa, esfuerzo terapéutico, LET, cuidados paliativos, deberían ser un continuo armónico y no una fuente de dilemas e interpretaciones confusas en su significado. The healthcare staff training process has been mainly focused on the preventive, healing, and rehabilitating medicine, constantly with an emphasis on the ‘to do’ and rarely on the ‘stop doing’, a necessary consideration for terminal or patients in agony, thus putting itself at risk of incurring the futile handling of medical care. Medical Ethics imposes the moral obligation to implement therapeutic measures when a possibility for healing, surviving or quality of life is available for the patients, but actions should not be taken to prolong the agony of a patient who is inevitably facing death. In this paper reference will be made to the limitation of therapeutic effort (LTE) in adults. The LTE may be categorised as a decision not to implement certain manoeuvres or care procedures, or as a technique to discontinue steps that had already been taken, when these are no longer medically prescribed, and prevent the natural evolution of the disease, thereby creating a disproportion between therapeutic goals and means. Ten items are proposed for the practice of LTE. The LTE shall at all times be bound to the management of palliative care. An explanatory chart is presented, comparing therapeutic effort, life expectancy, limitation of therapeutic effort and palliative care. Six steps are also presented to put therapeutic proportionality judgement into practice. Healing therapy, therapeutic effort, limitation of therapeutic effort and palliative care should be a harmonic ensemble, not a source of conflicts and confusing interpretations of their meaning.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.09.002
  • The polyhedron of bioethics
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 1 - 3
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.01.003
  • In defense of the vulnerable in medicine and the life sciences
    • Authors: John M. Haas
      Pages: 4 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): John M. Haas
      International declarations on human dignity and human rights are recalled, such as United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), and UNESCO Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights (2005). Instances of violations of such rights in the areas of medicine and life sciences are denounced, such as trade in living human organs, the “reproductive technology industry”, legalized killing of human embryos and assisted suicide. The fact that such rights are currently granted or suppressed by people who have the political power to do so is shown as the cause for such violations, and the need to acknowledge a transcendent source of human dignity and rights is proposed, by which the acceptance of dogmatic teachings of any particular religion is not implied, but rather the acknowledgment, through natural reason, of a Creator who has bestowed worth, dignity and meaning on human beings.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.01.005
  • Análisis prospectivo sobre la investigación biomédica desde
           un enfoque bioético
    • Authors: Manuel Ruiz de Chávez; Gustavo Olaiz Barragán; Aidée Orozco Pérez
      Pages: 21 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Manuel Ruiz de Chávez, Gustavo Olaiz Barragán, Aidée Orozco Pérez
      Los últimos avances en materia de biomedicina —como las técnicas de edición de la línea germinal humana o la digitalización de la salud— poseen implicaciones que deben ser analizadas a la luz de los derechos humanos y de los principios bioéticos a fin de proteger a los sujetos de estudio y asegurar el beneficio para la población en la realización de protocolos de investigación. Al respecto, el enfoque interdisciplinario de la bioética contribuye no solo a establecer criterios y lineamientos para orientar a los investigadores ante situaciones de incertidumbre, sino a mejorar el entorno y las condiciones en que se lleva a cabo la praxis científica. Bajo este concepto, se ofrece al lector un breve análisis acerca de los principales problemas que enfrenta el desarrollo de la investigación biomédica en los ámbitos nacional e internacional, no solo respecto de los aspectos técnicos y científicos de esta actividad, sino también los sociales y legales. The latest advances in biomedicine — such as the human germ line editing or computerised health information — have implications that need to be analysed in the light of human rights and bioethical principles, in order to protect study subjects and to ensure that the population benefits from carrying out research protocols. In this respect, a multidisciplinary approach to bioethics not only contributes to establishing criteria and guidelines to help researchers in situations of uncertainty, but also to improving the environment and the conditions under which scientific practice is carried out. Under this concept, the following article offers a brief analysis of the main problems facing the development of biomedical research at national and international level, not only as regards the technical and scientific aspects of this activity, but also at a societal and legal.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.02.002
  • Hacia una bioética cultural
    • Authors: Fernando Lolas Stepke
      Pages: 32 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Fernando Lolas Stepke
      Destacando la preeminencia del punto de vista occidental en la configuración del discurso bioético conocido en América Latina, se presenta la tesis de una formulación cultural que permita entender y aceptar diferencias. Cultura se define como el conjunto de creencias, tradiciones y aspiraciones que definen una identidad de grupo y determinan el ideal modélico de comportamiento para sus miembros. Es una pragmática social que precisa ser estudiada, decodificada y entendida en términos tanto descriptivos como interpretativos. Las propuestas en tal dirección deben replantear el alcance y los límites de una bioética global en sus versiones «densa» o «suave». Emphasising the pre-eminence of the Western point of view in the configuration of the bioethical discourse known in Latin America, the thesis of a cultural formulation is presented that helps to understand and accept differences. Culture is defined as the set of beliefs, traditions, and aspirations in a group that determines the model ideal behaviour for its members. It is a social pragmatics that needs to be studied, decoded, and understood in both descriptive and interpretive terms. Proposals in that direction should reformulate the scope and limits of a global bioethics into its “weighty” and “light” versions.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.01.002
  • A proposal for a shared care plan at the end of life: The Natural Death
    • Authors: Vittoradolfo Tambone; Laura Leondina Campanozzi
      Pages: 45 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Vittoradolfo Tambone, Laura Leondina Campanozzi
      Over the last two-decade, major efforts have been underway to improve the standard of care at the end of life. Nevertheless, recent evidence has highlighted that many patients still receive overtreatment or inappropriate support to face dying in all its complexity. These scenarios may increase thoughts of death that often occur during the course of terminal illnesses requiring prompt and adequate interpretations and interventions. This suggests the need for a change in treating dying patients along with a clear understanding of the root causes of requests for euthanasia. In this regards, we propose a protocol for a shared end-of-life care plan aimed at ensuring a quality accompaniment toward natural death. It involves the patient and their family, as well as healthcare providers in a flexible work plan articulated in two phases concerning respectively pre-mortem and post-mortem actions. It offers a clear and systemic template for care in preparation for natural death, which takes into consideration healthcare duties and the patient as a person.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.02.001
  • Bioethical perspective of ontologically-based personalism
    • Authors: Francesca Giglio
      Pages: 59 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Francesca Giglio
      This article presents a bioethical perspective of ontologically-based personalism. The aim of this model applied to bioethics is to provide a suitable framework for moral issues that arise from biomedical applications to human beings. Firstly, an explanation is offered on how the ethical model it proposes has an ontological foundation, with a view to associating human dignity and rights – most notably at the beginning and at the end of life – with the substantial reality of the person, as opposed to associating it with a set of capacities that an individual may or may not exhibit. The reader is then introduced to a case analysis method that links empirical data, anthropological dimensions, and ethical assessment, as well as a set of four practical principles aimed at guiding decisions in a biomedical context. Finally, it outlines the key components of a personalist, ontologically based, model, by comparing its theoretical setting and its main implications with those of some current bioethical trends.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.01.001
  • Reconocimiento a la trayectoria de Evandro Agazzi y al papel del Centro
           Interdisciplinario de Bioética de la Universidad Panamericana
    • Authors: Manuel H. Ruiz de Chávez
      Pages: 74 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Manuel H. Ruiz de Chávez

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.01.004
  • Medicine and the machine
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 73 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 2
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.11.001
  • The issue of anthropocentrism in ethics
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 81 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 2
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi
      Criticism against “anthropocentrism” has become frequent in recent bioethical literature, especially after the increasing favor enjoyed by animal ethics and environmental ethics. In an action there is usually an acting subject and an object that is affected by the action. Moral responsibility only concerns the subject and it is clear that only subjects endowed with the capability of understanding and deciding can be morally responsible. In this world only humans have such capability; therefore, only man is a moral subject and can have duties in a proper sense. These duties regard man's conduct towards the object of an action, and ‘traditional ethics’ distinguished duties towards God, oneself and others (therefore not only man was the object of moral duties). In ethics a reciprocity’ between duties and rights is often recognized: one has a duty towards someone which has the right to receive a certain treatment and is in principle morally obliged to reciprocate this treatment. The concept of responsibility, however does not entail reciprocity: we may be responsible towards beings that do not have the same duties towards us. In such a way it is ethically right to admit that we have duties also towards animals, environment, future generations, that have no rights in a strict sense, and cannot reciprocate our care for them, We can say that, in this sense, man is not the only ‘moral object’ (i.e. the object of moral duties). This position is even better expressed through the moral category of respect. In this perspective it is possible to recognize to man a particularly high position in the ‘ontological hierarchy’ of the existing beings, without making of it the only morally relevant object. This amounts to the imperative not to destroy or damage any form of existence without an adequate reason, and this is why not whatever interest of man can morally justify damaging other forms of existence, but only according to a reasonable judgment of necessity and proportionality. Las críticas al “antropocentrismo” se han vuelto más frecuentes en la literatura bioética especialmente después del favor que encuentra la ética animalista y del medio ambiente. Hay habitualmente en una acción un sujeto que actúa y un objeto afectado por la acción. La responsabilidad moral concierne sólo al sujeto y, claramente, sólo sujetos dotados de la capacidad de entender y decidir pueden ser moralmente responsables. En este mundo sólo los seres humanos gozan de dicha capacidad y por consiguiente sólo el hombre puede ser sujeto moral y tener deberes en un sentido riguroso. Estos deberes conciernen a la conducta del hombre hacia los objetos de sus acciones y en la ética tradicional’ se distinguian deberes hacia Dios, sí mismo y los otros (entonces no el sólo hombre era objeto de deberes morales). Se reconoce a menudo en la ética una ‘reciprocidad’ entre deberes y derechos: uno tiene deberes hacia alguien quien tiene derecho a recibir un determinado tratamiento y está moralmente obligado a reciprocarle el mismo tratamiento. Sin embargo el concepto de responsabilidad no implica reciprocidad: podemos ser responsables hacia seres que no tienen el mismo deber hacia nosotros. Por tanto es éticamente correcto afirmar que tenemos deberes hacia los animales, el medio ambiente y las generaciones futuras, que no tienen derechos en un sentido riguroso y no pueden reciprocar el cuidado que les otorgamos. Esta concepción es hasta mejor expresada en la categoría ética del respeto. En este sentido podemos decir que el hombre no es el único ‘objeto moral’ (es decir, el objeto de obligaciones morales). Dentro de esta perspectiva es posible reconocerle al hombre una posición particularmente elevada en la ‘jerarquía ontológica’ de los seres existentes sin hacer de él el único objeto moralmente relevante. Esto se traduce en el imperativo ético de no destruir o dañar ninguna forma de lo existente sin una razón adecuada, y es por esto que no cualquier interés del hombre puede justificar moralmente dañar a otras formas de lo existente, sino sólo en base a un juicio razonable de necesidad y proporcionalidad.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.006
  • Brief reflections on the current debate about research integrity
    • Authors: Anne Fagot-Largeault
      Pages: 96 - 101
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 2
      Author(s): Anne Fagot-Largeault
      Recent world conferences on research integrity are evidence of a concern for the reliability of current scientific work: the paper summarizes both the charges and the epistemological context of skepticism that have motivated such an international surge.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.11.002
  • La bioética ante las nuevas antropotecnias
    • Authors: Alfredo Marcos
      Pages: 102 - 114
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 2
      Author(s): Alfredo Marcos
      En los últimos años diversas tecnologías han comenzado a aplicarse de modo directo sobre el ser humano. Las tecnologías se convierten así en antropotecnias (sección 1). El desarrollo y aplicación de las antropotecnias suscita problemas bioéticos. Con demasiada frecuencia estos problemas se estructuran como dilemas, en los que se nos da a elegir entre la aceptación acrítica de las nuevas antropotecnias o el rechazo completo de las mismas. Los polos del dilema se suelen poner en conexión con las direcciones del tiempo, de modo que el rechazo de toda antropotecnia sería sinónimo de apego al pasado, mientras que la aceptación de las mismas nos proyectaría hacia un futuro marcado por la mejora humana (sección 2). El presente artículo trata de exponer y criticar esta visión de las cosas, así como de presentar un criterio y una actitud que nos permitan orientar de modo proactivo el desarrollo y aplicación de las antropotecnias (sección 3). Para identificar el criterio nos valdremos de algunas ideas de Hans Jonas sobre lo que es una vida auténticamente humana. Para identificar la actitud buscaremos inspiración en algunos textos de Kierkegaard y de Heidegger. In the recent years, some technologies have begun to be applied directly on the human being. These technologies have thus become anthropotechnics (Section 1). The development and implementation of these anthropotechnics raises several bioethical problems. Too often, these problems have been structured into the form of a dilemma in which we are forced to choose between the uncritical acceptance of the new anthropotechnics and a complete rejection of them. The poles of this dilemma are usually put in connection with the directions of time, so that the rejection of all anthropotechnics would be synonymous with attachment to the past, while the plain acceptance would cast us into a future marked by human enhancement (Section 2). This article tries to explain and criticise this approach, as well as to present a criterion and an attitude that will allow us to guide the development and implementation of new anthropotechnics (Section 3). In oreder to identify the criterion, some ideas by Hans Jonas will be used. To identify the attitude, inspiration will be found in some texts by Kierkegaard and Heidegger.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.07.001
  • Promotion of research integrity in Latin American institutions
    • Authors: Eduardo Rodriguez Yunta; Fernando Lolas
      Pages: 115 - 124
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eduardo Rodriguez Yunta, Fernando Lolas
      Most Latin American Research Institutions do not have an establish system to detect and denounce research misconduct This article reflects on the need to establish high standards in research integrity and monitoring mechanisms in Latin American Research Institutions in order to have an accurate science and for transferring research results to public policies, health promotion and social progress. Based on the experience of developed countries, we propose the following mechanisms to promote research integrity: to promote a culture to enhance good research practices; to establish norms to maintain responsible conduct of research; to establish monitoring proceedings; and to establish mechanisms of support to affront demands of research misconduct.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.11.003
  • Recovering the confidence in science: The social prestige of science
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 1 - 7
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.001
  • Introduction of Bioethics in China
    • Authors: Yali Cong
      Pages: 8 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yali Cong
      Bioethics began in the 1980s in China, being borrowed and introduced from western countries. But the Chinese bioethics has been seeking a different model from western bioethics, grounded on its philosophical basis and cultural environment. Some significant progress has been achieved in the academic field of bioethics, the policy makers and government regulation. Though China shares some common bioethical issues and discussion with other countries, China is facing some special challenges, including Doctor-Patient-Relationship, and health inequality in health care reform.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.002
  • For a bioethics of complexity
    • Authors: Luisella Battaglia
      Pages: 23 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): Luisella Battaglia
      The bioethics of complexity is aimed at overcoming a simple and rough meaning of bioethics and its regulatory ambitions, which risks to flatten humans’ peculiarities at the same level of what is typical of the natural and biological world, and proposes a new complex thinking, able to merge what seems separated and to distinguish interdependences and feedbacks between events, recognizing the interrelations between forms and aspects of life, the relations between phenomenons and their backgrounds and between backgrounds and Earth and eventually to accept uncertainty, that is composed by some elements like unpredictability, innovation and mutation. Thanks to this new approach it is possible to understand new forms of relationships between patients and physicians and to propose a different vision of disease and therapy (medicine of complexity), it it possible to re-think about our relationship with nature, which is impossible to understand in a reducing and separate way (environmental bioethics and ecology), proposing a new humanism open to the ecological dimension, which has not the limits of the strong anthropocentric approach. Finally, the bioethics of complexity could teach us to re-think in a non antagonistic way the couple humanity/animality, leading to a new way of animal bioethics and a new way to think about pity, aware of the dangers of the anthropomorphization of our travel companions in the voyage of Life on Earth.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.003
  • Declaración de Helsinki: reflexiones y propuestas para su
    • Authors: M. de la Luz Casas M.
      Pages: 41 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): M. de la Luz Casas M.
      Este trabajo presenta un marco de reflexiones éticas concernientes a la investigación sobre seres humanos, para formular algunas propuestas argumentadas sobre los artículos 2, 15, 19, 23, 32, 33, 34, de la Declaración de Helsinki. Esta declaración constituye un documento pionero y de amplia aceptación a nivel mundial y por esto requiere una reflexión constante, acorde al acelerado avance de la aplicación de la ciencia a la investigación biomédica. Esta Declaración deberá ser un compromiso obligado, no opcional, de acatamiento en todas las Cartas de Consentimiento para la participación de seres humanos en una investigación. This paper presents a framework of ethical considerations regarding research on human beings, to outline a number of proposals and argumentations on the Declaration of Helsinki Articles 2, 15, 19, 23, 32, 33, 34. Said Declaration is a ground-breaking paper which has been widely accepted world-wide, and as such, deserves constant reflection on its contents, to match the fast-paced progress made in the application of Science to the Biomedical research. The Declaration of Helsinki should be a mandatory, rather than optative, undertaking to comply, included in all the Consent Letters for participation in research trials by any human being.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.004
  • La Red de Apoyo a la Capacitación en bioética: una estrategia para el
           fortalecimiento de los Comités de Ética en Investigación y
           Hospitalarios de Bioética en México
    • Authors: Manuel H. Ruiz de Chávez
      Pages: 56 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): Manuel H. Ruiz de Chávez
      La Comisión Nacional de Bioética de México (CONBIOÉTICA) tiene el compromiso de fortalecer a los Comités Hospitalarios de Bioética y de Ética en Investigación del Sector Salud; por esta razón se estableció la Red Nacional de Apoyo a la Capacitación en Bioética para Comités de Ética en Investigación y Hospitalarios de Bioética. El objetivo de este instrumento consiste en fortalecer la infraestructura institucional en bioética, al satisfacer las necesidades de información y capacitación de los integrantes de estos comités, generando sinergias para el desarrollo y aplicación de la bioética en el país, en favor de los derechos humanos y dignidad de los usuarios de los servicios de salud. The National Commission of Bioethics in Mexico (CONBIOÉTICA) has undertaken the commitment to empower the Hospital Bioethics Committees and the Research Ethics Committees for the Healthcare industry, thus founding the National Support Network for Bioethics Training intended for Hospital and Research Bioethics Committees. The purpose of this tool is to strengthen the institutional infrastructure in Bioethics, by meeting the need for information and training amongst the members of said committees, thus boosting synergies for the development and application of Bioethics throughout the country, thereby supporting human rights and promoting the dignity of the users of healthcare services.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.05.005
  • Bioethics as hybrid epistemic culture: a comment to Agazzi
    • Authors: Fernando Lolas Stepke
      Pages: 66 - 71
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2016
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 2, Issue 1
      Author(s): Fernando Lolas Stepke
      Departing from the notion that the method appropriate for bioethics should be interdisciplinary, an examination of real practices is suggested. It is contended that usual attempts end up either in a one-sided hegemony of technical discourses or in a moralizing attitude by people not conversant with the fields of empirical science they try to regulate. Epistemic cultures are not dependent only on concepts but on complex socialization processes that hinder true interdisciplinarity. It is contended that bioethics should be built upon a “hybrid epistemic culture”, taking into consideration from the outset both philosophical reflection and scientific literacy.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2016.04.001
  • Globalisation in bioethics
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 75 - 78
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 2
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.12.001
  • Epistemology of bioethics in the making: from historical context to
           conceptual plurality and anticipation
    • Authors: Mylène Botbol-Baum
      Pages: 79 - 95
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mylène Botbol-Baum
      This paper addresses the epistemological reasons for bioethics emerging as a utopian pluralism. I evaluate first the possibility and the conditions of a unifying discourse around a shared epistemology, through several methodological approaches that marked the discipline. Reviewing the history of bioethics, I observe that the utopia has been reduced to building governance on strategic biopolitical consensus, minimizing conflicting subjective rights. I conclude that bioethics is still in the making and that its new role is to anticipate the consequences of techno-sciences and the anthropological changes they provoke.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.12.002
  • The barriers to climate awareness
    • Authors: Peter Kemp; Lisbeth WitthØfft Nielsen
      Pages: 96 - 112
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 2
      Author(s): Peter Kemp, Lisbeth WitthØfft Nielsen
      Climate change is a global environmental problem that is directly influenced by human activity. Yet, environmental awareness, is not reflected in our actions, and the environmentally harmful actions we know not to do, we tend to do anyway. In this paper we provide a philosophical analysis of the cognitive barriers that may block the individual citizen's acknowledgement of a personal responsibility to engage in climate responsible behaviour. We distinguish between two types of cognitive barriers; the physical barriers, that are associated with the way we gain knowledge about climate change and the physical world state; and the psychological barriers, that arise from ideas about ourselves and the nature that surrounds us. Finally, we discuss the climate problem in light of the idea of the world citizen and the ethics of sustainability, and we argue that the interconnectedness between the individual and the collective contribution must be emphasized to show how humankind as a whole is conditioned by the many individual, local, and national forms of initiatives.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.12.003
  • Update of European bioethics: basic ethical principles in European
           bioethics and biolaw
    • Authors: Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
      Pages: 113 - 129
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jacob Dahl Rendtorff
      This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.12.004
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 1 - 2
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.05.001
  • Bioethics as a paradigm of an ethics for a technological society
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Pages: 3 - 21
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi
      In its history bioethics has considerably widened its range, initially limited to the biomedical sciences and technologies. Its novelty with regard to traditional medical ethics was the occurrence of unprecedented situations implying unforeseen options and decisions for which no moral norms existed and which, in addition, were characterized by notable complexity. To qualify as a genuine discipline, bioethics had to rely upon a specific method, and this is the interdisciplinary method in which the contributions of different specialized disciplines are integrated in a synthesis capable of orienting an ethically right decision: a mental attitude of dialogue is indispensable for attaining this goal. These features of bioethics are paradigmatic for an ethics of a technological society that entails the moral acceptance of the artificial and the recognition of the global dimension of most human actions. This novelty requires the elaboration of the concept of a “shared moral responsibility” that oversteps the limits of traditional ethics and, in particular, the ethics in which individual intentions are the fundamental moral criteria. System theory can offer useful conceptual tools for the elaboration of such an ethics, in which, in particular, the phenomenon of globalization also imposes the complementation of different ethical conceptions. The recognition of diversities as a wealth rather than a difficulty is the intellectual attitude that must be promoted in view of this maturation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.05.002
  • Bioética y tecnociencias de la vida
    • Authors: Juliana González Valenzuela
      Pages: 22 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Juliana González Valenzuela
      Se destaca aquí la correlación entre la bioética y las revoluciones tecnocientíficas de la genómica y la neurobiología (sucintamente descritas), acentuando el doble poder de las tecnologías, como medio de conocimiento y como instrumento de alteración de las microrrealidades descubiertas. Corresponde a la bioética discernir la ambivalencia de estos nuevos poderes y saberes, y determinar por diversas vías (desde comités hasta declaraciones de la UNESCO) cuáles son los aspectos lesivos e inadmisibles contra la condición humana en su dignidad y su existencia misma. Sostengo que las nuevas verdades científicas de la biología molecular enriquecen el conocimiento de lo humano, pero que este no se agota en tales verdades ni permite reducir a lo biológico la comprensión cabal de la humanidad. Uno es el conocimiento biocientífico de la naturaleza biológica del ser humano, y otro, el de su naturaleza ontológica, histórica, cultural y ética. This paper is intended to outline the correlation between Bioethics and the techno-scientific revolutions initiated by genomics and neurobiology (briefly described herein), emphasising the two-tier power of such technologies: as a means of knowledge and as a tool that may alter the micro-realities found. The challenge for Bioethics is to discern the ambivalence of these new powers and knowledge, as well as to determine, through different paths (from committees to UNESCO resolutions), what the detrimental and inadmissible aspects harmful to human condition, human dignity and human existence itself are. I state that the new scientific truths found by molecular biology serve to enrich our insight of what is human, but that such knowledge is not restricted to those truths, nor does it allow us to confine the whole comprehension of humanity to a merely biological perspective. On the one hand, we have the bio-scientific insight of the biological nature of human beings and, on the other, we have the human ontological, historical, cultural and ethical nature.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.04.001
  • Through the bioethical retrospectoscope
    • Authors: Albert R. Jonsen
      Pages: 33 - 40
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Albert R. Jonsen
      A retrospectoscope is understood here as a fictional instrument through which the past history of certain ideas can help the understanding of their present sense, including the awareness of how our ideas may have drifted off the path. Concretely, this retrospectoscope will seek out the origins of the ethical principles that are so prominent in contemporary bioethics and show how interpretations of these principles have led contemporary bioethics astray, making paradoxes and dilemmas out of what should be resolutions and illuminations. This essay explores, in particular, how the principle of autonomy originated in the protection of subjects of biomedical research and then moved into the relationship between physicians and patients. This shift took place without sufficient recognition of the significant differences between these settings. Respect for autonomy clearly has priority as an ethical principle in the endeavor of medical research. It may not have such priority, at least not in the same sense, in medical practice. The Belmont Report (which concerned medical research) defined Respect for Persons as “the ethical conviction that individuals should be treated as autonomous agents…”, and stated that this autonomy was self-determination. Clinical medicine, however, differs from research radically. It begins with a person bringing an apparently compelling need to a practitioner. Healing is a helping activity, focused on response to a specific request from a specific person in need. The primary moral quality of this activity is the formation of a trusting alliance between physician and patient, in which the focus on the patient's needs is straight and clear, communication is honest and illuminating, and acceptance and collaboration are real. At the same time, the therapeutic relationship must often be formed at a time when the autonomy of the patient is often buried deeply under pain, debility, and physical and moral distress, or extinguished by radically altered mental status. If one wishes to express that alliance in moral terms, one might still invoke the same phrase, Respect for Persons. But that phrase should take on a quite different meaning in the therapeutic alliance than it has in the research enterprise. Unfortunately, in most of the current literature the issue of Respect is focused almost entirely on Informed Consent, the procedure in which autonomy is supposed to be realized.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.10.001
  • A virtue ethics perspective on bioethics
    • Authors: Justin Oakley
      Pages: 41 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Justin Oakley
      The emergence of contemporary forms of virtue ethics in recent decades has challenged familiar Kantian and Utilitarian ethical theories, and its emphasis on moral psychology and human flourishing has led to many innovations in ethical theory. This philosophical work on virtue ethics has led to a corresponding development of virtue ethics approaches to bioethics, in ways which are independent of Kantian and Utilitarian approaches. In this article I outline key distinctive features of virtue ethics, briefly explaining its origins in Aristotle's ethics. I then indicate how virtue ethics has been illuminatingly applied to several issues in bioethics, such as abortion, prebirth testing, euthanasia, and health care practice. I also sketch how virtue ethics might be plausibly extended to the formulation of policy governing the practice of health care.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.10.002
  • Repensando políticas públicas desde la noción de capas de
           vulnerabilidad: el caso de las personas mayores
    • Authors: Florencia Luna
      Pages: 54 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: January–June 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 1
      Author(s): Florencia Luna
      En este artículo se dejan de lado los enfoques habituales de la vulnerabilidad y se hace un análisis descriptivo de la situación de vulnerabilidad en los ancianos. En la primera parte, se presenta muy brevemente la propuesta teórica que argumenta que existen diferentes capas de vulnerabilidad en lugar de grupos de poblaciones vulnerables. Luego, se plantea su utilización en el diseño de políticas públicas. En la segunda parte, se identifican las diferentes capas o estratos de vulnerabilidad que conviven en la situación de vejez y enfermedad. Esto permite exhibir una visión compleja y contextualizada de la vulnerabilidad presente en la vejez. En este análisis se tiene especialmente en cuenta la situación de países en desarrollo. Finalmente, en la tercera parte, se sugieren diferentes políticas públicas y protecciones que, justamente, traten de minimizar la compleja situación de vulnerabilidad que las personas mayores padecen. De este modo, este trabajo muestra que el concepto estratificado de vulnerabilidad es también, operativamente, interesante y puede ser útil en el diseño de políticas públicas. Usual approaches to vulnerability are not considered in this paper, in which a descriptive analysis of the vulnerability status experienced by elderly persons is discussed... In the first part, a brief presentation is provided of the theoretical proposal according to which there are different layers of vulnerability, rather than different vulnerable population groups. The use of this approach in the design of public policies is then discussed. The second part identifies the different layers or strata of vulnerability that coexist in situations of old age and illness. This will allow us to offer a complex and contextualised view of the status of vulnerability prevailing among elderly people. This analysis is particularly focused on the situation of developing countries. Finally, the third part contains suggestions for public policies and forms of protection specifically aimed at minimising the complex situation of vulnerability experienced by elderly people. Thus, this paper provides a stratified concept of vulnerability, which is also interesting from an operational perspective, and which may prove useful in the drafting of public policies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2015.10.003
  • Ethical reflections on proton radiotherapy
    • Authors: Filippo Grillo-Ruggieri; Giuseppe Scielzo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Filippo Grillo-Ruggieri, Giuseppe Scielzo
      Proton therapy is one of the current major advances in radiation cancer radiation treatment. Its comparison, even with most refined radiotherapy techniques with X-rays, shows in many advantages, due to better physical distribution of protons in human tissues, both in terms of higher tumor dose and normal tissue sparing. A full demonstration of proton therapy advantages after formal randomized trials should be considered mandatory in the oncological community, from an ethical point of view, before its widespread use on patients. This could lead to a risk of a substantial delay while waiting for the results of trials results, the exploitation, on a large scale, of the rapidly increasing progress and dissemination of proton therapy delivery technology. This also could be considered unethical in terms of delaying expected benefits to cancer patients. A possible solution to this dilemma is to apply other methods to assure safety and ethics in patient selection for proton therapy instead of X-rays radiation therapy. The adopt and trial method coupled to a Model-Based and Knowledge-Based approach to compare a dose distribution plan using protons or X-rays may satisfy ethical requirements and avoid any delay in the wider application of proton therapy to cancer patients.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2018.02.002
  • El poder terapéutico de la risa
    • Authors: Lourdes
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2015
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 1, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lourdes Velázquez
      La perspectiva holística se aprecia cada vez más en el campo médico y bioético. Consiste en considerar al paciente “como un todo” o globalmente, y desde este punto de vista se ofrece como un complemento a la tendencia hacia la especialización típica de la medicina moderna. Una cuestión interesante es la de saber si en esta perspectiva se puede mostrar una acción “causal” del todo sobre sus partes (causalidad descendiente o top-down), comparable a la acción causal de las partes sobre el todo muy familiar en la medicina especialística (causalidad ascendiente o bottom-up). Esta pregunta es particularmente interesante si se considera la “totalidad” de las dimensiones que constituyen la identidad personal de un paciente y que incluyen sus características psicológicas, afectivas, emocionales, intelectuales y relacionales, además de su corporeidad estrictamente biológica. En el presente ensayo se muestra cómo una característica específicamente humana, como la risa (cuya naturaleza es fundamentalmente psicológica), tiene esta capacidad de acción beneficiosa sobre el estado global del ser humano, incluso en lo que concierne a sus dimensiones fisiológicas y por lo tanto puede dar lugar a una verdadera práctica terapéutica, de la cual se relatan algunas formas y resultados científicamente documentados. The holistic approach is receiving increasing appreciation in medicine and bioethics. It consists of considering the patient “as a whole” or globally, and in this sense it constitutes a complement to the trend towards specialization typical of modern medicine. It is of interest to know whether in this approach it is possible to show a causal action of the whole on its parts (top-down causality) comparable with the action of the parts on the whole (bottom-up causality) very familiar in specialized medicine. This question is particularly interesting if one considers the “totality” of the dimensions constituting the personal identity of a patient, that include his or her psychological, affective, emotional, intellectual and relational characteristics, in addition to his or her biological bodily constitution. This paper presents how a specifically human characteristic such as laughter (whose basic nature is psychological) has such a capacity for beneficial action on the global state of the human being, including his or her physiological dimensions and, as a consequence, can become a genuine therapeutic practice, of which certain forms and scientifically attested results have been reported.

      PubDate: 2018-03-12T22:41:08Z
  • Medical ethics and pandemic emergencies
    • Authors: David E. Schrader
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): David E. Schrader
      2018 is the 100th anniversary of an influenza epidemic that took the lives of between fifty and a hundred million people. Traditional medical ethics places the primary obligation of medical personnel on the care of individual patients. Yet in a time of pandemic emergency, the shear scope of demand for medical treatment may well make it impossible to meet both the public health needs of collective humanity and the collected needs of individual patients. Medical ethics must address this dilemma.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2018.01.002
  • Bioethics as a counterbalance to medicalization
    • Authors: Evandro Agazzi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Evandro Agazzi

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2018.01.001
  • Los bancos de células madre de cordón umbilical y su necesidad de
           regulación en México
    • Authors: Ignacio Mora-Magaña; Arantxa Quiroz; Myriam Marlene Altamirano Bustamante
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Ignacio Mora-Magaña, Arantxa Quiroz, Myriam Marlene Altamirano Bustamante
      La preservación de células vivas o no y sus datos sociodemográficos y clínicos es común. Los bancos de sangre de cordón umbilical son un ejemplo conspicuo de medicina personalizada. Los problemas bioéticos de biobancos apenas empiezan. Se hizo una revisión sistemática de la literatura, buscando en más de 4 bases, con metodología de la Colaboración Cochrane. Trabajamos con 98 artículos. Se dividieron en 4 temas: bioética, consentimiento informado, aspectos legales y regulatorios y políticas de salud. La autonomía, la confidencialidad, el respeto y la dignidad de la persona, forman un clúster relevante. En este análisis ha aparecido un tema emergente, la propiedad que ahora adquiere su verdadero significado. El consentimiento informado implica el respeto del profesional de la salud por la autonomía de la persona enferma, sea niño o adulto, sea capaz o no. En México no hay ley, reglamento ni norma. Es urgente regular los bancos de sangre de cordón umbilical en México. The preservation of cells, whether living or not, along with their sociodemographic and clinical data is common. The umbilical cord blood banks are a clear example of personalised medicine. Bioethics problems in biobanks are just emerging. A systematic review of the literature was carried out, searching in more than 4 databases, using methodology of the Cochrane Collaboration, with a total of 98 papers being found. These were divided into four subjects: bioethics, informed consent, legal and regulatory aspects, and health care policies. freedom, confidentiality, respect and dignity of the person, formed a relevant cluster. In this analysis an emergent theme appeared: the ownership, which now acquires its true significance. Informed Consent involves the respect by the health professional on the freedom of the patient, whether child or adult, capable or not. In Mexico there is no law, regulation or guidelines. The regulation of cord blood banks is urgently required in Mexico.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.12.001
  • Individual Autonomy: Self, Culture, and Bioethics
    • Authors: Ashwani Kumar Peetush; Arjuna Maharaj
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Ashwani Kumar Peetush, Arjuna Maharaj
      This paper problematizes the concept of individual autonomy in the on-going project of attempting to understand and construct global principles of bioethics. We argue that autonomy as it is commonly defined and interpreted, and the emphasis that is placed on it, presupposes an individualistic concept of the self, family, and community that arises out of a Euro- Western liberal tradition and that is often in tension with various non-Western perspectives. We conclude that a more globally dialogical approach to bioethics is required.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.10.001
  • La libertad en la eugenesia liberal: reflexiones sobre el papel del Estado
    • Authors: Beatriz Eugenia Campillo Vélez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Beatriz Eugenia Campillo Vélez
      La investigación intitulada «La libertad en la eugenesia liberal: reflexiones sobre el papel del Estado» tiene su origen en el interés de poner en evidencia una contradicción que se ha vuelto «lugar común» de los discursos políticos, filosóficos y bioéticos, y es aquella tesis que sostiene que hablar de límites éticos a la ciencia y a la tecnología se considera un atentado contra la libertad, por lo cual una postura que pretenda ser eminentemente liberal debería partir de la aprobación absoluta de cualquier práctica, siendo el factor legitimador la mera voluntad de los individuos, y derivándose de este razonamiento aquella posición simplista que afirma que los Estados deben guardar silencio frente a cuestiones éticas y morales. Tal «lugar común», creemos desconoce la tradición liberal defensora de los derechos humanos, la cual otorga un papel preponderante al Estado como garante de los mismos, el cual no es de ninguna manera un papel secundario, ni mucho menos neutral. The study entitled ‘Freedom in liberal eugenics: reflections on the role of the State’ has its origin in the interest of highlighting a contradiction that has become ‘common place’ in political, philosophical, and bioethical discourses; and this argument states the ethical limits of science and technology is considered an attempt against freedom. Therefore, this position, which intends to be eminently liberal, should start from the absolute approval of any practice being the crucial legitimising factor of individual wills. From this reasoning is deduced a simplistic position that claims that the State should remain silent in the face of ethical and moral issues. Such ‘common place’, we believe, does not recognise the liberal tradition that protects the human rights, providing a predominant role of the State as the guardian of these, and this is by no means neutral.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.08.002
  • El poshumanismo: ¿promesa o amenaza de la tecnociencia' Principios de
           una biopolítica mínima
    • Authors: Eugenio Moya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 July 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Eugenio Moya
      En 2004, a Neil Harbisson, que había nacido con discromatopsia, no se le permitió renovar su pasaporte británico; su foto fue rechazada. La Oficina de Pasaportes no permitía que Harbisson apareciera con un equipo electrónico en la cabeza. Harbisson alegó que su eyeborg (ojo electrónico) debía ser considerado parte de su cuerpo; él había devenido un cíborg. Cartas de respaldo de su médico, amigos y compañeros fueron enviadas a la Oficina de Pasaportes. Finalmente, se incluyó el dispositivo de Harbisson y se convirtió en el primer cíborg reconocido por un gobierno. Gracias a la tecnociencia, él pasó a ser un tipo diferente de ser poshumano: «Harbisson 2.0». Este trabajo evalúa los riesgos de nuestro futuro poshumano y plantea cinco principios de una biopolítica mínima. In 2004, Neil Harbisson, who was born with dyschromatopsia, was not allowed to renew his UK passport. His passport photo was rejected. The UK Passport Authority would not allow Harbisson to appear with electronic equipment on his head. Harbisson wrote back to them insisting that the ‘eyeborg’ (electronic eye) should be considered part of his body as he had become a cyborg. Letters from his doctor, friends and partners were sent to the Passport Office to give him support. Finally, Harbisson's device was included and he became the first cyborg recognised by a government. Thanks to the Technoscience, he is a different kind of post-human being: ‘Harbisson 2.0’. This paper evaluates the risks of our future post-human and raises five principles of minimal Biopolitics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.06.001
  • Mejoramiento cognitivo farmacológico: implicaciones bioéticas a la luz
           de la evidencia científica actual
    • Authors: Mijail Alejandro Tapia Moreno
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 July 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update
      Author(s): Mijail Alejandro Tapia Moreno
      El mejoramiento cognitivo farmacológico es un tema que en la actualidad merece una atención especial considerando el aumento en la demanda de los pacientes para su prescripción. Es esencial examinar las implicaciones bioéticas de su uso, particularmente cuando no constituye una intervención inocua. La efectividad de los mejoradores cognitivos arroja evidencia inconsistente respecto a sus beneficios putativos, como aumento de concentración o mejor memoria, debido a que los resultados muestran poca consistencia, abarcando un espectro desde efectos deletéreos hasta efectos benéficos en tareas específicas. Considerando este trasfondo es evidente la necesidad de evaluar qué tan ético es prescribir o recomendar el uso de estos medicamentos; esta evaluación puede ser realizada a la luz de los principios bioéticos de no maleficencia, beneficencia, autonomía y justicia. La no maleficencia es una preocupación cuando se revisan los potenciales efectos adversos. La beneficencia no es clara, particularmente cuando es dudoso que los beneficios demostrados en algunos estudios puedan traducirse en un mejor desempeño en la vida real. Aunque la efectividad actual del mejoramiento cognitivo farmacológico hace que no supongan un problema para el principio de justicia, este no debe ser un aspecto sin consideración, puesto que esto puede cambiar con el desarrollo de mejoradores cognitivos más efectivos. The use of cognition-enhancing drugs is a topic that currently requires special attention, particularly given the growing patient demand for their prescription. It is essential to examine the ethical aspects inherent to the use of these drugs, especially when they are not an innocuous intervention. The effectiveness of these cognition-enhancing drugs lacks the scientific evidence that supports the benefits attributed to them, such as more focus or better memory, as the results in studies show little consistency covering a spectrum from deleterious effects to beneficial effects in certain tasks. Considering this background, it is obvious that an assessment is required on how ethical it is to prescribe or recommend them. This assessment can be made based on bioethical principles of non-maleficence, beneficence, autonomy, and justice. Non-maleficence is a concern when reviewing potential adverse effects. Beneficence is unclear, particularly when it is doubtful that the benefits shown in some studies translate into improved performance in the real world. Although the current effectiveness of cognition-enhancing drugs suggests that they do not pose a problem to the justice principle, this should not be an aspect to be dismissed considering that this may change with the development of more effective cognition-enhancing drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bioet.2017.05.001
  • De los tratamientos paliativos a los cuidados paliativos
    • Authors: Lourdes
      Abstract: Publication date: July–December 2017
      Source:Bioethics Update, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lourdes Velázquez
      La preferencia de utilizar la expresión «cuidados paliativos», en lugar de «tratamientos paliativos», que se constata en el uso y en la literatura, expresa un cambio de perspectiva importante, es decir, la transición de una visión esencialmente médica a una que incluye la dimensión médica en un horizonte más amplio. En este artículo se analizan las razones de este cambio y se muestra que estas radican en un cambio de tipo filosófico que concierne la antropología y la ética. La «ética del cuidado» es la consecuencia de haber reconocido la «vulnerabilidad» como característica esencial de la condición humana y de haberla relacionada con la autonomía, integridad y dignidad de la persona. Esta ética contempla el deber de brindar ayuda, protección y respeto a los «sujetos débiles» para asegurarles la mejor calidad de vida compatible con sus condiciones, y esta calidad abarca, además de los aspectos físicos, también aspectos psicológicos, sociales, espirituales, que tienen todos que relacionarse en un esfuerzo de comprensión y acción global. The preference for the phrase ‘palliative care’ instead of ‘palliative treatment’, as seen in the literature, is the expression of an important change, which is the transition from an essentially medical view to a broader horizon. In this article an analysis is made of the reasons for this change and shows that they are grounded in a change of a philosophical kind, regarding anthropology and ethics. The ‘ethics of care’ is the consequence of having included ‘vulnerability’ among the essential characteristics of the human condition, and having related it with the autonomy, integrity, and dignity of the person. This ethic contains the duty of giving help, protection, and respect to all ‘weak subjects’ in order to offer them the best possible ‘quality of life’ compatible with their conditions. This includes, in addition to physical aspects, the psychological, social and, spiritual aspects, that must be inter-related in an effort of global comprehension and action.

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T13:40:49Z
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