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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2468-4511
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Biomechanical forces in tissue engineered tumor models
    • Authors: Letitia K. Chim; Antonios G. Mikos
      Pages: 42 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Letitia K. Chim, Antonios G. Mikos
      Solid tumors are complex three-dimensional (3D) networks of cancer and stromal cells within a dynamic extracellular matrix. Monolayer cultures fail to recapitulate the native microenvironment and therefore are poor candidates for pre-clinical drug studies and studying pathways in cancer. The tissue engineering toolkit allows us to make models that better recapitulate the 3D architecture present in tumors. Moreover, the role of the mechanical microenvironment, including matrix stiffness and shear stress from fluid flow, is known to contribute to cancer progression and drug resistance. We review recent developments in tissue engineered tumor models with a focus on the role of the biomechanical forces and propose future considerations to implement to improve physiological relevance of such models.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.004
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • Immunomodulatory biomaterials
    • Authors: Jenna L. Dziki; Stephen F. Badylak
      Pages: 51 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Jenna L. Dziki, Stephen F. Badylak
      The immune system has long been recognized to play a critical role in the host defense against pathogens, foreign bodies, and the tissue healing response following injury. More recently, necessary and essential participation of immune cells in development, tissue and organ homeostasis, aging, and degenerative diseases has been recognized. By definition, biomaterials are foreign bodies. The design and manufacturing of biomaterials has largely been based upon mechanical and physical properties including strength, porosity, degradability, and surface characteristics. More recently, it has been recognized that the most important determinant of successful clinical outcomes is the host response to the biomaterial, i.e. the immune-mediated tissue reaction to the presence of the foreign body. The term “inert” was once used to describe desirable biomaterial characteristics, however it is now apparent that the encapsulation of biomaterials with fibrous tissue itself represents an immune-mediated tissue response. Herein we review developments in strategies to proactively modulate the immune response. Special attention is given to naturally occurring extracellular matrix-based materials and novel strategies to mimic the ability of ECM to promote pro-regenerative immune cell phenotypes that support constructive tissue remodeling.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • The host response in tissue engineering: Crosstalk between immune cells
           and cell-laden scaffolds
    • Authors: Leila S. Saleh; Stephanie J. Bryant
      Pages: 58 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Leila S. Saleh, Stephanie J. Bryant
      Implantation of cell-laden scaffolds is a promising strategy for regenerating tissue that has been damaged due to injury or disease. However, the act of implantation initiates an acute inflammatory response. If the scaffold is non-biologic (i.e., a modified biologic scaffold or synthetic-based scaffold), inflammation will be prolonged through the foreign body response (FBR), which eventually forms a fibrous capsule and walls off the implant from the surrounding host tissue. This host response, from a cellular perspective, can create a harsh environment leading to long-lasting effects on the tissue engineering outcome. At the same time, cells embedded within the scaffold can respond to this environment and influence the interrogating immune cells (e.g., macrophages). This crosstalk, depending on the type of cell, can dramatically influence the host response. This review provides an overview of the FBR and highlights important and recent advancements in the host response to cell-laden scaffolds with a focus on the impact of the communication between immune cells and cells embedded within a scaffold. Understanding this complex interplay between the immune cells, notably macrophages, and the tissue engineering cells is a critically important component to a successful in vivo tissue engineering therapy.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.006
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • Modeling branching morphogenesis using materials with programmable
           mechanical instabilities
    • Authors: Andreas P. Kourouklis; Celeste M. Nelson
      Pages: 66 - 73
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Andreas P. Kourouklis, Celeste M. Nelson
      The architectural features of branching morphogenesis demonstrate exquisite reproducibility among various organs and species despite the unique functionality and biochemical differences of their microenvironment. The regulatory networks that drive branching morphogenesis employ cell-generated and passive mechanical forces, which integrate extracellular signals from the microenvironment into morphogenetic movements. Cell-generated forces function locally to remodel the extracellular matrix (ECM) and control interactions among neighboring cells. Passive mechanical forces are the product of in situ mechanical instabilities that trigger out-of-plane buckling and clefting deformations of adjacent tissues. Many of the molecular and physical signals that underlie buckling and clefting morphogenesis remain unclear and require new experimental strategies to be uncovered. Here, we highlight soft material systems that have been engineered to display programmable buckles and creases. Using synthetic materials to model physicochemical and spatiotemporal features of buckling and clefting morphogenesis might facilitate our understanding of the physical mechanisms that drive branching morphogenesis across different organs and species.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.007
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • Robot-scientists will lead tomorrow's biomaterials discovery
    • Authors: Aliaksei Vasilevich; Jan de Boer
      Pages: 74 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Aliaksei Vasilevich, Jan de Boer
      Biomaterials engineering is tightly linked with progress in its underlying sciences and technologies, such as biology, chemistry, physics, and engineering. Current establishment of high throughput screening platforms has warranted the need for data analysis as part of biomaterials engineering. We believe that current advancement in artificial intelligence, miniaturization of materials fabrication and application of robotics will eventually lead to the emergence of autonomous, intelligent systems able to perform biomaterials research on their own. In this manuscript, we describe the state of the art in the triangle of material engineering, biology, and data science, and sketch their integration to yield the biomaterials conveyer belt of tomorrow.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.005
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • The future is digital: In silico tissue engineering
    • Authors: Liesbet Geris; Toon Lambrechts; Aurélie Carlier; Ioannis Papantoniou
      Pages: 92 - 98
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 6
      Author(s): Liesbet Geris, Toon Lambrechts, Aurélie Carlier, Ioannis Papantoniou
      The Industry 4.0 concept refers to automation and data exchange in manufacturing technologies, which includes technologies for cell therapy product manufacturing. An important aspect of this concept is the development and use of Digital Twins. A Digital Twin is a digital representation of a product or process that is used to optimize the design and use of said product or process. In this opinion article, we show that such Digital Twins have already been developed for a variety of tissue engineering processes. Using skeletal tissue engineering as a case study, we discuss a number of models at various stages of use between bench and bedside and ranging from pure data-driven models to models built on known mechanisms and first principles. Finally, we emphasize the importance of data collection and model validation to ensure, amongst others, compliance to regulatory guidelines.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.04.001
      Issue No: Vol. 6 (2018)
       
  • The future of biomedical engineering – Vascular bioengineering
    • Authors: Alison L. Marsden; George A. Truskey
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Alison L. Marsden, George A. Truskey


      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2018)
       
  • Let's get physical: Biomechanical influences on human pluripotent stem
           cell differentiation towards vascular engineering
    • Authors: Xin Yi Chan; Joon H. Eoh; Sharon Gerecht
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Xin Yi Chan, Joon H. Eoh, Sharon Gerecht
      Regenerative medicine provides a promising avenue of research in which tissue lost from disease, trauma and congenital defects can be replaced from substitutes created in the laboratory. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are of great interest in the field of cell therapy due to their ability to provide a patient-specific cell source for the supplementation of tissue engineering constructs. In the field of vascular tissue engineering, blood vessels are composite tissues comprised of various cell types, mainly endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Therefore, proper attention must be given to the differentiation process so that the appropriate cell type with the necessary functional properties can be obtained. A larger emphasis needs to be placed on optimizing the functional properties of these cells so that they can withstand physiologically relevant forces in the native environment and integrate into the patients' vasculature. Despite the importance of biomechanical cues in vascular development and engineering, few studies have investigated these critical factors during the differentiation of hPSCs into functional vascular cells and tissue. In this review, we summarize recent findings that elucidate the role of biomechanical influences on the differentiation of hPSCs. Specifically, we focus on their role in the differentiation of hPSCs into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. It is now evident that the use of these factors during differentiation can not only better direct cell fate, but can in fact enhance the specification and functionality of the differentiated cells. Finally, future directions and additional considerations for the use of biomechanical cues in the field of vascular bioengineering will be discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T11:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2018)
       
  • New developments in mechanotransduction: Cross talk of the Wnt, TGF-β and
           Notch signalling pathways in reaction to shear stress
    • Authors: Aliah Abuammah; Nataly Maimari; Leila Towhidi; Jenny Frueh; Kok Yean Chooi; Christina Warboys; Rob Krams
      Pages: 96 - 104
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Aliah Abuammah, Nataly Maimari, Leila Towhidi, Jenny Frueh, Kok Yean Chooi, Christina Warboys, Rob Krams
      Mechanotransduction, the ability of cells to detect and react to mechanical forces, is increasingly playing a critical role in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes. While the focus has previously been on the MAPK, NF-ϰB and ROS generating pathways, ancient embryological pathways have reached little attention. Recently, a surge of new studies have been published on these pathways and their role in mechanotransduction and this review paper aims to provide a concise overview on the latest studies and brings them in to a larger perspective. Special emphasis is on the non-canonical aspects of the Wnt, TGF-β and Notch pathways and their role in flow.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.003
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2018)
       
  • Bioinspired Materials and Systems for Neural Interfacing
    • Authors: Andrew J. Shoffstall; Jeffrey R. Capadona
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Andrew J. Shoffstall, Jeffrey R. Capadona
      Brain-implanted devices have a number of applications with significant potential. Widespread adoption hinges on the ability to produce an interface that can engage with neural tissue over long periods of time. Biomimetic approaches can help camouflage implants by altering their characteristics to better reflect the neural environment, which may promote an attenuated inflammatory response, improving integration into native tissue, and ultimately improve device performance. Additionally, as new neural interfacing technologies are developed, unexpected challenges can arise, requiring novel tools to enable their implementation. Unlikely inspiration from the mechanically-dynamic sea-cucumber-dermis, mechanism of a mosquito bite, squid beak mechanics, and the woodpecker’s dynamic control of intracranial pressure represent some of the exciting bioinspired systems that may lead to unique solutions to recent challenges in neural interfacing.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.05.002
       
  • Toward Advanced Neural interfaces for the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
           and Their Future Applications
    • Authors: Sanghoon Lee; Chengkuo Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sanghoon Lee, Chengkuo Lee
      Modulation of nerve signals from peripheral nerve system (PNS) is a growing field of neurotechnology for therapeutic effects of the human body and interfacing with neural prostheses. For this, neural interfaces, that provide the basis for direct communication with neuron tissues and mapping neural signals, are preferentially developed. Even though various types of peripheral nerve interface have been developed for many years, advanced neural interfaces need to be developed integrating with cutting-edge technologies for the modulation of the human body and advanced neural prostheses. This paper reviews evolution of peripheral neural interfaces (PNI) and their applications. The emerging requirements of the next-generation PNI are explored as well.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.05.004
       
  • Allotropic carbon (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) based
           biomaterials for neural regeneration
    • Authors: Sathish Reddy; Xiaoting Xu; Liumin He; Seeram Ramakrishana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sathish Reddy, Xiaoting Xu, Liumin He, Seeram Ramakrishana
      Acute injuries or neurodegenerative diseases of the nervous system usually caused by thermal, mechanical, chemical or ischemic factors, which always lead to neurite damage & neuron loss. Thus, development of effective scaffold to repair these damaged neurons is necessary. Recently, much importance given for preparation of graphene based biomaterials scaffolds for neural regeneration. Because an electroactive conductive surface is support to direct stems cells to enhance neural proliferation. However, most conductive materials are toxic and amenable to biological degradation. In this review, we discussed and summarized the basic concept of biomaterials scaffold design, graphene as a scaffold, explained how graphene oxide interaction with some biomaterials to form graphene oxide (GO) based biomaterials & reduced graphene oxide (rGO) based biomaterials. Discussed interaction between allotropic carbon based biomaterials (GO based biomaterials & rGO based biomaterials) and neuron cells for enhancement of neuronal cells differentiation. Furthermore, it summarized with challenges, and where future research required.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.05.001
       
  • Biomaterials Selection for Neuroprosthetics
    • Authors: Payam Zarrintaj; Mohammad Reza Saeb; Seeram Ramakrishna; Masoud Mozafari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 May 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Payam Zarrintaj, Mohammad Reza Saeb, Seeram Ramakrishna, Masoud Mozafari
      Born from a combination of neuroscience and biomedical engineering strategies, neuroprosthetics are proposed as substitutes for sensory or cognitive modality damages caused by an injury or a disease. These implantable devices are able to significantly improve the quality of life due to their unique performance. The place in which a prosthesis is implanted determines its material type and fabrication method. The combination of biomedical engineering and neural prosthetics has led to emerging novel hybrid biomaterials that fulfill the needs for ideal neuroprosthetics. For instance, metals alone, because of modulus discrepancy with soft tissues could result in inflammation. Metal-polymer hybrids are able to decline the disparity between soft tissues and electrodes in which the polymeric part can regulate the metal modulus. Moreover, for various types of signals recording, different type of electrodes should be selected. Therefore, biomaterials selection for neuroprosthetics is of vital importance and requires hybridization of the knowledge about the electrode implantation site and material characteristics. This review article summarizes various types of biomaterials that can meet the basic needs for the development of efficient neural prostheses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T23:03:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.05.003
       
  • Biofunctionalized platforms towards long-term neural interface
    • Authors: Nuan Chen; Baiwen Luo; In Hong Yang; Nitish V. Thakor; Seeram Ramakrishna
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Nuan Chen, Baiwen Luo, In Hong Yang, Nitish V. Thakor, Seeram Ramakrishna
      Implantable neural interface enables the direct communication between a neural device and native neural tissue. Neural interface technology is critical in neuroscience research, diagnosis of nervous disorders, and treatment of neural diseases. Neural interface technology has been well developed with advances in functional materials and microfabrication techniques. However, the long-term in vivo performance of the device remains a big challenge due to the complex inevitable foreign body reactions and poor neuronal contact. To address this problem, biomolecules and drugs are chosen to functionalize the electrode for improving the neuron-electrode interactions. This focused review discusses recent efforts to functionalize neural electrode using biomolecules and drugs on different parts of the electrode. The main focus is placed on the in vitro and in vivo performances of the functionalized interface. Challenges and opportunities in biofunctionalized neural interface are also discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T09:04:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.002
       
  • Chemokine Transport Dynamics and Emerging Recognition of Their Role in
           Immune Function
    • Authors: James E. Moore; Bindi S. Brook; Robert J.B. Nibbs
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): James E. Moore, Bindi S. Brook, Robert J.B. Nibbs
      Leukocyte migration is critically important during all protective and pathological immune and inflammatory responses. Chemokines play fundamental roles in this process, and chemokine concentration gradients stimulate the directional migration of leukocytes. The formation and regulation of these gradients is poorly understood. These are complex processes that depend on the specific properties of each chemokine and interactions between physical, biological and biochemical processes, including production, diffusion, advection, scavenging, post-translational modification, and extracellular matrix (ECM) binding. While some of these mechanisms have been investigated in isolation or limited combinations, more integrative research is required to provide a quantitative knowledge base that explains how chemokine gradients are established and maintained, and how cells respond to, and modify, these gradients.

      PubDate: 2018-03-21T12:01:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.03.001
       
  • The Elastin Matrix in Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
    • Authors: Giselle C. Yeo; Suzanne M. Mithieux; Anthony S. Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Giselle C. Yeo, Suzanne M. Mithieux, Anthony S. Weiss
      The elastin matrix crucially confers mechanical strength, elasticity, organization and biological signaling to almost all connective tissues, which are matched to specific tissue biomechanical and functional requirements. However, elastin is often poorly restored during native tissue repair due to low elastin production and assembly by post-neonatal and mature cells. Consequently, interventional strategies towards tissue regeneration often incorporate exogenous elastin or promote the production of endogenous elastin, in order to mimic the composition, architecture, and function of native tissues. Current strategies include the use of decellularized elastin-containing tissue, synthetic tropoelastin or elastin-containing materials and approaches that stimulate de novo elastin deposition. This short review summarizes the functional roles of the elastin matrix, and recent methods that utilize this key extracellular matrix component for tissue repair.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.007
       
  • Engineering Perfused Microvascular Networks into MicroPhysiological
           Systems platforms
    • Authors: Jillian W. Andrejecsk; Christopher.C.W. Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Jillian W. Andrejecsk, Christopher.C.W. Hughes
      The microvasculature is an essential component of nearly all tissues, with most cells residing within 200 μm of a vessel. Endothelial cells form the inner wall of microvessels and control which nutrients, cells and drugs cross into the underlying tissue. Given these critical roles, it makes sense to include functioning microvessels when creating tissue models, and these can be generated by pre-patterning of channels, 3D printing, or by “biology-directed” vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. These methods have been used to create tissue-specific vascularized micro-organs, vascularized microtumors, and vascular beds for studying tumor cell and immune cell extravasation. Recent innovations in 3D printing and high-throughput technologies have enabled more complex geometries and facilitated more comprehensive studies. Future developments hold promise for increasingly relevant models of healthy and diseased tissues, with implications for studying biological mechanisms and screening for new drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.002
       
  • Monocytes and Macrophages in Heart Valves: Uninvited Guests or Critical
           Performers'
    • Authors: Sraeyes Sridhar; Duc H. Pham; Terence W. Gee; Joanna Hua; Jonathan T. Butcher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sraeyes Sridhar, Duc H. Pham, Terence W. Gee, Joanna Hua, Jonathan T. Butcher
      Monocytes and macrophages are critical components of the myeloid niche of the innate immune system. In addition to traditional roles as phagocytes, this subsection of innate immunity has been implicated in its ability to regulate tissue homeostasis and inflammation across diverse physiological systems. Recent emergence of discriminatory features within the monocyte/macrophage niche within the last 5 years has helped to clarify specific function(s) of the subpopulations of these cells. It is becoming increasingly aware that these cells are likely implicated in valve development and disease. This review seeks to use current literature and opinions to show the diverse roles and potential contributions of this niche throughout valvulogenic processes, adult homeostatic function, valve disease mechanisms, and tissue engineering approaches.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.003
       
  • Tissue Engineering meets Immunoengineering: Prospective on Personalized In
           Situ Tissue Engineering Strategies
    • Authors: Anthal I.P.M. Smits; Carlijn V.C. Bouten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Anthal I.P.M. Smits, Carlijn V.C. Bouten
      For many applications, tissue engineering strategies are increasingly moving from an in vitro to an in situ-driven approach. This innovative strategy employs readily-available, resorbable scaffolds, designed to induce endogenous tissue regeneration directly in situ. Therein, one of the main challenges is the regeneration of functional new tissue, rather than fibrotic scar tissue, for which harnessing and directing the host immune system is paramount. In this concise review, we address the most important recent findings with respect to immunomodulatory strategies, considering both the scaffold-dependent factors (e.g. material composition, microstructure) and scaffold-independent, patient-specific factors (e.g. age, comorbidities). Moreover, we reflect on the necessity of adequate models to truly grasp a fundamental understanding of the immunological processes underlying regeneration in a clinically relevant context.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.006
       
  • High-throughput Organ-on-a-chip systems: Current status and remaining
           challenges
    • Authors: Christopher Probst; Stefan Schneider; Peter Loskill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Christopher Probst, Stefan Schneider, Peter Loskill
      Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) systems might be the disruptive technology pharmaceutical companies have been drastically looking for to tackle their ever increasing R&D costs. First endeavors are well underway to transfer this technology, which was until now solely used in academic settings, into industrial applications. The high hopes of the OoC technology stem inter alia from its potential to merge advantages of animal models and cell culture by combining high physiological relevance with high throughput capacities. However, although the predictive value and physiological character of various OoCs has been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the applicability for medium or even high-throughput screenings (HTS) has not been achieved yet. Adapting to the demands of HTS and implementing massive parallelization as well as automation are some of the biggest challenges this emerging technology has to tackle along this way. In this review, we briefly introduce the demands of modern day HTS in drug discovery and development, review the status-quo of parallelized OoCs, and discuss the current limitation and remaining challenges that need to be overcome to increase the throughput of OoC experimentation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.004
       
  • Hemocompatible Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts Using Adult Mesenchymal
           Stem Cells
    • Authors: Anh La; Robert T. Tranquillo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Anh La, Robert T. Tranquillo
      Vascular tissue engineering can now produce compliant and durable vascular grafts to address limited supply of autologous vessel grafts for patients with coronary artery disease. Due to the demand for an anti-thrombogenic luminal surface, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for their potential to differentiate into an endothelial phenotype. This can be done through several types of chemical and biomechanical stimulation. Adipose-derived MSCs are of particular interest because they present an autologous source of sufficient MSCs to seed a monolayer onto the lumen of a typical coronary bypass graft. This review provides an overview of recent developments in endothelial differentiation methods of MSCs and main findings, as well as perspectives on future research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.001
       
  • Imaging mechanotransduction: seeing forces from molecules to cells
    • Authors: Frederik Fleissner; Sapun H. Parekh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Frederik Fleissner, Sapun H. Parekh
      Individual cells are constantly exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli from e.g., arterial pressure, muscle contraction, or changes in mechanics of their supporting tissue. Intense study over the last thirty years has illuminated many intracellular signaling cascades through which mechanical stimuli lead to phenotypic changes in cells and even whole tissues. While much of this work has focused on biochemical and signaling pathway analysis, the recent past has seen quantitative imaging techniques emerge as important tools since they provide the capability to observe local deformations and forces along with changes in cellular physiology. In this review, we briefly discuss recent progress and challenges for two optical imaging platforms: molecular scale and mesoscale force sensing. We conclude by providing an outlook for combining the capabilities of these imaging methods to permit long-term, multiscale mechanotransduction imaging.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.003
       
  • Bio-chemo-mechanics of thoracic aortic aneurysms
    • Authors: Jessica E. Wagenseil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Jessica E. Wagenseil
      Most thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) occur in the ascending aorta. This review focuses on the unique bio-chemo-mechanical environment that makes the ascending aorta susceptible to TAA. The environment includes solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, cell phenotype, and extracellular matrix composition. Advances in solid mechanics include quantification of biaxial deformation and complex failure behavior of the TAA wall. Advances in fluid mechanics include imaging and modeling of hemodynamics that may lead to TAA formation. For cell phenotype, studies demonstrate changes in cell contractility that may serve to sense mechanical changes and transduce chemical signals. Studies on matrix defects highlight the multi-factorial nature of the disease. We conclude that future work should integrate the effects of bio-chemo-mechanical factors for improved TAA treatment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T11:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.002
       
  • Heart valve tissue engineering for valve replacement and disease modeling
    • Authors: Amadeus S. Zhu; K. Jane Grande-Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Amadeus S. Zhu, K. Jane Grande-Allen
      Heart valve tissue engineering is emerging as a promising method for constructing both valve replacements and valvular disease models. Tissue-engineered valve replacements strive to overcome the limitations of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves, because they are living tissues capable of active remodeling and self-repair. Several tissue-engineered valve replacements have displayed promising results in recent large-animal trials. On the other hand, tissue-engineered disease models provide a scalable platform for investigating the pathobiology of valvular diseases like aortic stenosis. Recently, these models have been used to study the role of spatial heterogeneity, temporal matrix stiffening, and inter-cellular signaling in valve disease. This review provides an overview of recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in the field of heart valve tissue engineering.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T22:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.006
       
  • Engineering “endothelialized” microfluidics for investigating vascular
           and hematologic processes using non-traditional fabrication techniques
    • Authors: Robert G. Mannino; Navaneeth K.R. Pandian; Abhishek Jain; Wilbur A. Lam
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Robert G. Mannino, Navaneeth K.R. Pandian, Abhishek Jain, Wilbur A. Lam
      Investigating the complex interplay between blood cells and the endothelium is crucial in understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. Observation of the in vivo vasculature is difficult due to the complexities of vessel geometry, limited visualization capability, as well as variability and complexity inherent to biologic systems. Therefore, in vitro systems serve as ideal tools to study these cellular interactions. Microfluidic technologies are an ideal tool for recapitulating the vasculature in vivo as they can be used to fabricate fluidic channels on the size scale capillaries using gas permeable, biologically inert, and optically transparent substrates. Microfluidic channels can be vascularized by coating the inner surface of the microchannels with a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells, representing a reductionist, tightly controlled, in vitro model of the microvasculature. In this review, we present advances in the field of “endothelialized” microfluidics, focusing specifically on non-traditional fabrication and endothelialization techniques. We then summarize the various applications of endothelialized microfluidics, and speculate on the future directions of the field, including the exciting applications to personalized medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
       
  • The use of microfabrication technology to address the challenges of
           building physiologically relevant vasculature
    • Authors: A.Dawn Bannerman; Rick Xing Ze Lu; Anastasia Korolj; Lucie H. Kim; Milica Radisic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): A.Dawn Bannerman, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Anastasia Korolj, Lucie H. Kim, Milica Radisic
      Vasculature is an essential component of physiologically relevant tissue, yet mimicking the native vasculature is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Microfabrication may provide a solution. This technique allows for control of material design and architecture at the micron scale, which in turn enables the incorporation of microscale cues that are important for cell culture and the encouragement of organized vascularization. This review discusses the use of microfabrication to control the local biochemical environments for cells, the biophysical stimuli to which cells respond, and the assembly of more realistic spatial arrangements of various cell and tissue types. Furthermore, we describe ways in which microfabrication techniques are being used to address some of the challenges in translating these engineered tissue platforms into clinically relevant systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T07:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.003
       
  • Regeneration mechanism for skin and peripheral nerves clarified at the
           organ and molecular scales
    • Authors: Ioannis V. Yannas; Dimitrios S. Tzeranis; Peter TC. So
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Ioannis V. Yannas, Dimitrios S. Tzeranis, Peter TC. So
      This article is a review of current research on the mechanism of regeneration of skin and peripheral nerves based on use of collagen scaffolds, particularly the dermis regeneration template (DRT), which is widely used clinically. DRT modifies the normal wound healing process, converting it from wound closure by contraction and scar formation to closure by regeneration. DRT achieves this modification by blocking wound contraction, which spontaneously leads to cancellation of scar formation, a process secondary to contraction. Contraction blocking by DRT is the result of a dramatic phenotype change in contractile cells (myofibroblasts, MFB) which follows specific binding of integrins α1β1 and α2β1 onto hexapeptide ligands, probably GFOGER and GLOGER, that are naturally present on the surface of collagen fibers in DRT. The methodology of organ regeneration based on use of DRT has been recently extended from traumatized skin to diseased skin. Successful extension of the method to other organs in which wounds heal by contraction is highly likely though not yet attempted. This regenerative paradigm is much more advanced both in basic mechanistic understanding and clinical use than methods based on tissue culture or stem cells. It is also largely free of risk and has shown decisively lower morbidity and lower cost than organ transplantation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.002
       
  • Thrombosis-on-a-chip: Prospective impact of microphysiological models of
           vascular thrombosis
    • Authors: Navaneeth KR. Pandian; Robert G. Mannino; Wilbur A. Lam; Abhishek Jain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Navaneeth KR. Pandian, Robert G. Mannino, Wilbur A. Lam, Abhishek Jain
      The most common pathology of the blood-vessel organ system is thrombosis or undesirable clotting of the blood. Thrombosis is life threatening as more than 25% of such cases lead to sudden death from stroke and myocardial infarction. Even though the process of thrombosis has been extensively investigated with animal models, its exact pathobiology in different blood vessels is not yet fully understood and drug assessment remains unpredictable. This is primarily because the cause for thrombus formation is multifactorial and depends on the interplay of flow patterns within the blood vessel, the vessel wall or endothelium, extracellular matrix, parenchymal tissue, and the cellular and plasma components of the blood. Current in vitro and animal models do not mimic or dissect this organ-level complexity faithfully. However, microfluidic technology has recently been deployed to effectively recapitulate blood-endothelial-epithelial interactions in the onset of thrombosis in blood vessels. This technology is promising because it permits inclusion of primary human cells and blood obtained from patients, which is currently lacking in other in vitro models of thrombosis. In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art and practices in microfluidics and expected improvements in this field that will impact basic understanding of thrombosis, drug discovery and personalized medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.001
       
  • Personalized Imaging and Modeling Strategies for Arrhythmia Prevention and
           Therapy
    • Authors: Natalia A. Trayanova; Patrick M. Boyle; Plamen P. Nikolov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Natalia A. Trayanova, Patrick M. Boyle, Plamen P. Nikolov
      The goal of this article is to review advances in computational modeling of the heart, with a focus on recent non-invasive clinical imaging- and simulation-based strategies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients with arrhythmias and structural heart disease. Following a brief overview of the field of computational cardiology, we present recent applications of the personalized virtual-heart approach in predicting the optimal targets for infarct-related ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, and in determining risk of sudden cardiac death in myocardial infarction patients. The hope is that with such models at the patient bedside, therapies could be improved, invasiveness of diagnostic procedures minimized, and health-care costs reduced.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.007
       
  • Modeling the blood-brain barrier: Beyond the endothelial cells
    • Authors: Benjamin D. Gastfriend; Sean P. Palecek; Eric V. Shusta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek, Eric V. Shusta
      The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transport of ions, nutrients, and metabolites to help maintain proper brain function. This restrictive interface formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells excludes the majority of small and large molecule drugs from entering the brain, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases. Thus, in vitro models of the BBB based on brain endothelial cells have been developed to facilitate screening drugs for BBB permeability. However, while brain endothelial cells form the main interface, they work in concert with other brain-resident cells such as neural progenitor cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons to form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Importantly, non-endothelial cells of the NVU play key roles in eliciting BBB phenotypes and in regulating the dynamic responses of the BBB to brain activity and disease. As a result, emerging in vitro BBB models have incorporated these NVU cell types in addition to endothelial cells. These multicellular BBB or NVU models have found increasing application not only in drug screening, but also in studying complex cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying BBB biology and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.002
       
  • The future of traction force microscopy
    • Authors: Huw Colin-York; Marco Fritzsche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Huw Colin-York, Marco Fritzsche
      Animal cells continuously sense and respond to mechanical force. Quantifying these forces remains a major challenge in bioengineering; yet such measurements are essential for the understanding of cellular function. Traction force microscopy is one of the most successful and broadly-used force probing technologies, chosen for the simplicity of its implementation, flexibility to mimic cellular conditions, and well-established analysis pipe-line. Here, we review the accomplishments, and discuss the applicability and limitations of traction force microscopy. We explain fundamental shortcomings of the method, summarise latest improvements, and outline future pathways towards the impact of the method, especially considering latest developments in state-of-the-art super-resolution fluorescence imaging. In light of the increasing discovery of the importance of mechanobiology in cell physiology, we envisage traction force microscopy to remain a major player for quantifying mechanical forces in living cells.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T06:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.002
       
 
 
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