for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3071 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (242 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (113 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1453 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (46 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)
    - BOTANY (220 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (28 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (67 journals)
    - GENETICS (166 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (261 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (11 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (138 journals)

BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 520)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
  [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 2468-4511
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Let's get physical: Biomechanical influences on human pluripotent stem
           cell differentiation towards vascular engineering
    • Authors: Xin Yi Chan; Joon H. Eoh; Sharon Gerecht
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Xin Yi Chan, Joon H. Eoh, Sharon Gerecht
      Regenerative medicine provides a promising avenue of research in which tissue lost from disease, trauma and congenital defects can be replaced from substitutes created in the laboratory. Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are of great interest in the field of cell therapy due to their ability to provide a patient-specific cell source for the supplementation of tissue engineering constructs. In the field of vascular tissue engineering, blood vessels are composite tissues comprised of various cell types, mainly endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Therefore, proper attention must be given to the differentiation process so that the appropriate cell type with the necessary functional properties can be obtained. A larger emphasis needs to be placed on optimizing the functional properties of these cells so that they can withstand physiologically relevant forces in the native environment and integrate into the patients' vasculature. Despite the importance of biomechanical cues in vascular development and engineering, few studies have investigated these critical factors during the differentiation of hPSCs into functional vascular cells and tissue. In this review, we summarize recent findings that elucidate the role of biomechanical influences on the differentiation of hPSCs. Specifically, we focus on their role in the differentiation of hPSCs into endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. It is now evident that the use of these factors during differentiation can not only better direct cell fate, but can in fact enhance the specification and functionality of the differentiated cells. Finally, future directions and additional considerations for the use of biomechanical cues in the field of vascular bioengineering will be discussed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T11:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.001
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2018)
  • Editorial Overview: Neural engineering 2017
    • Authors: Christine E. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4
      Author(s): Christine E. Schmidt

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T11:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
  • Editorial Overview: Synthetic biology and biomedical engineering
    • Authors: Charles A. Gersbach
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4
      Author(s): Charles A. Gersbach

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T11:47:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2018)
  • The Elastin Matrix in Tissue Engineering and Regeneration
    • Authors: Giselle C. Yeo; Suzanne M. Mithieux; Anthony S. Weiss
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Giselle C. Yeo, Suzanne M. Mithieux, Anthony S. Weiss
      The elastin matrix crucially confers mechanical strength, elasticity, organization and biological signaling to almost all connective tissues, which are matched to specific tissue biomechanical and functional requirements. However, elastin is often poorly restored during native tissue repair due to low elastin production and assembly by post-neonatal and mature cells. Consequently, interventional strategies towards tissue regeneration often incorporate exogenous elastin or promote the production of endogenous elastin, in order to mimic the composition, architecture, and function of native tissues. Current strategies include the use of decellularized elastin-containing tissue, synthetic tropoelastin or elastin-containing materials and approaches that stimulate de novo elastin deposition. This short review summarizes the functional roles of the elastin matrix, and recent methods that utilize this key extracellular matrix component for tissue repair.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.007
  • Engineering Perfused Microvascular Networks into MicroPhysiological
           Systems platforms
    • Authors: Jillian W. Andrejecsk; Christopher.C.W. Hughes
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Jillian W. Andrejecsk, Christopher.C.W. Hughes
      The microvasculature is an essential component of nearly all tissues, with most cells residing within 200 μm of a vessel. Endothelial cells form the inner wall of microvessels and control which nutrients, cells and drugs cross into the underlying tissue. Given these critical roles, it makes sense to include functioning microvessels when creating tissue models, and these can be generated by pre-patterning of channels, 3D printing, or by “biology-directed” vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. These methods have been used to create tissue-specific vascularized micro-organs, vascularized microtumors, and vascular beds for studying tumor cell and immune cell extravasation. Recent innovations in 3D printing and high-throughput technologies have enabled more complex geometries and facilitated more comprehensive studies. Future developments hold promise for increasingly relevant models of healthy and diseased tissues, with implications for studying biological mechanisms and screening for new drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.002
  • Monocytes and Macrophages in Heart Valves: Uninvited Guests or Critical
    • Authors: Sraeyes Sridhar; Duc H. Pham; Terence W. Gee; Joanna Hua; Jonathan T. Butcher
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sraeyes Sridhar, Duc H. Pham, Terence W. Gee, Joanna Hua, Jonathan T. Butcher
      Monocytes and macrophages are critical components of the myeloid niche of the innate immune system. In addition to traditional roles as phagocytes, this subsection of innate immunity has been implicated in its ability to regulate tissue homeostasis and inflammation across diverse physiological systems. Recent emergence of discriminatory features within the monocyte/macrophage niche within the last 5 years has helped to clarify specific function(s) of the subpopulations of these cells. It is becoming increasingly aware that these cells are likely implicated in valve development and disease. This review seeks to use current literature and opinions to show the diverse roles and potential contributions of this niche throughout valvulogenic processes, adult homeostatic function, valve disease mechanisms, and tissue engineering approaches.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.003
  • Tissue Engineering meets Immunoengineering: Prospective on Personalized In
           Situ Tissue Engineering Strategies
    • Authors: Anthal I.P.M. Smits; Carlijn V.C. Bouten
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Anthal I.P.M. Smits, Carlijn V.C. Bouten
      For many applications, tissue engineering strategies are increasingly moving from an in vitro to an in situ-driven approach. This innovative strategy employs readily-available, resorbable scaffolds, designed to induce endogenous tissue regeneration directly in situ. Therein, one of the main challenges is the regeneration of functional new tissue, rather than fibrotic scar tissue, for which harnessing and directing the host immune system is paramount. In this concise review, we address the most important recent findings with respect to immunomodulatory strategies, considering both the scaffold-dependent factors (e.g. material composition, microstructure) and scaffold-independent, patient-specific factors (e.g. age, comorbidities). Moreover, we reflect on the necessity of adequate models to truly grasp a fundamental understanding of the immunological processes underlying regeneration in a clinically relevant context.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.006
  • High-throughput Organ-on-a-chip systems: Current status and remaining
    • Authors: Christopher Probst; Stefan Schneider; Peter Loskill
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Christopher Probst, Stefan Schneider, Peter Loskill
      Organ-on-a-chip (OoC) systems might be the disruptive technology pharmaceutical companies have been drastically looking for to tackle their ever increasing R&D costs. First endeavors are well underway to transfer this technology, which was until now solely used in academic settings, into industrial applications. The high hopes of the OoC technology stem inter alia from its potential to merge advantages of animal models and cell culture by combining high physiological relevance with high throughput capacities. However, although the predictive value and physiological character of various OoCs has been demonstrated in a variety of studies, the applicability for medium or even high-throughput screenings (HTS) has not been achieved yet. Adapting to the demands of HTS and implementing massive parallelization as well as automation are some of the biggest challenges this emerging technology has to tackle along this way. In this review, we briefly introduce the demands of modern day HTS in drug discovery and development, review the status-quo of parallelized OoCs, and discuss the current limitation and remaining challenges that need to be overcome to increase the throughput of OoC experimentation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-11T08:58:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.004
  • Hemocompatible Tissue-Engineered Vascular Grafts Using Adult Mesenchymal
           Stem Cells
    • Authors: Anh La; Robert T. Tranquillo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Anh La, Robert T. Tranquillo
      Vascular tissue engineering can now produce compliant and durable vascular grafts to address limited supply of autologous vessel grafts for patients with coronary artery disease. Due to the demand for an anti-thrombogenic luminal surface, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been investigated for their potential to differentiate into an endothelial phenotype. This can be done through several types of chemical and biomechanical stimulation. Adipose-derived MSCs are of particular interest because they present an autologous source of sufficient MSCs to seed a monolayer onto the lumen of a typical coronary bypass graft. This review provides an overview of recent developments in endothelial differentiation methods of MSCs and main findings, as well as perspectives on future research.

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.02.001
  • Imaging mechanotransduction: seeing forces from molecules to cells
    • Authors: Frederik Fleissner; Sapun H. Parekh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Frederik Fleissner, Sapun H. Parekh
      Individual cells are constantly exposed to a variety of mechanical stimuli from e.g., arterial pressure, muscle contraction, or changes in mechanics of their supporting tissue. Intense study over the last thirty years has illuminated many intracellular signaling cascades through which mechanical stimuli lead to phenotypic changes in cells and even whole tissues. While much of this work has focused on biochemical and signaling pathway analysis, the recent past has seen quantitative imaging techniques emerge as important tools since they provide the capability to observe local deformations and forces along with changes in cellular physiology. In this review, we briefly discuss recent progress and challenges for two optical imaging platforms: molecular scale and mesoscale force sensing. We conclude by providing an outlook for combining the capabilities of these imaging methods to permit long-term, multiscale mechanotransduction imaging.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T22:31:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.003
  • Bio-chemo-mechanics of thoracic aortic aneurysms
    • Authors: Jessica E. Wagenseil
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Jessica E. Wagenseil
      Most thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) occur in the ascending aorta. This review focuses on the unique bio-chemo-mechanical environment that makes the ascending aorta susceptible to TAA. The environment includes solid mechanics, fluid mechanics, cell phenotype, and extracellular matrix composition. Advances in solid mechanics include quantification of biaxial deformation and complex failure behavior of the TAA wall. Advances in fluid mechanics include imaging and modeling of hemodynamics that may lead to TAA formation. For cell phenotype, studies demonstrate changes in cell contractility that may serve to sense mechanical changes and transduce chemical signals. Studies on matrix defects highlight the multi-factorial nature of the disease. We conclude that future work should integrate the effects of bio-chemo-mechanical factors for improved TAA treatment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T11:33:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2018.01.002
  • Heart valve tissue engineering for valve replacement and disease modeling
    • Authors: Amadeus S. Zhu; K. Jane Grande-Allen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Amadeus S. Zhu, K. Jane Grande-Allen
      Heart valve tissue engineering is emerging as a promising method for constructing both valve replacements and valvular disease models. Tissue-engineered valve replacements strive to overcome the limitations of mechanical and bioprosthetic valves, because they are living tissues capable of active remodeling and self-repair. Several tissue-engineered valve replacements have displayed promising results in recent large-animal trials. On the other hand, tissue-engineered disease models provide a scalable platform for investigating the pathobiology of valvular diseases like aortic stenosis. Recently, these models have been used to study the role of spatial heterogeneity, temporal matrix stiffening, and inter-cellular signaling in valve disease. This review provides an overview of recent developments, current challenges, and future directions in the field of heart valve tissue engineering.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-15T22:27:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.006
  • Engineering “endothelialized” microfluidics for investigating vascular
           and hematologic processes using non-traditional fabrication techniques
    • Authors: Robert G. Mannino; Navaneeth K.R. Pandian; Abhishek Jain; Wilbur A. Lam
      Pages: 13 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 5
      Author(s): Robert G. Mannino, Navaneeth K.R. Pandian, Abhishek Jain, Wilbur A. Lam
      Investigating the complex interplay between blood cells and the endothelium is crucial in understanding the pathophysiology of many diseases. Observation of the in vivo vasculature is difficult due to the complexities of vessel geometry, limited visualization capability, as well as variability and complexity inherent to biologic systems. Therefore, in vitro systems serve as ideal tools to study these cellular interactions. Microfluidic technologies are an ideal tool for recapitulating the vasculature in vivo as they can be used to fabricate fluidic channels on the size scale capillaries using gas permeable, biologically inert, and optically transparent substrates. Microfluidic channels can be vascularized by coating the inner surface of the microchannels with a confluent monolayer of endothelial cells, representing a reductionist, tightly controlled, in vitro model of the microvasculature. In this review, we present advances in the field of “endothelialized” microfluidics, focusing specifically on non-traditional fabrication and endothelialization techniques. We then summarize the various applications of endothelialized microfluidics, and speculate on the future directions of the field, including the exciting applications to personalized medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 5 (2017)
  • Techniques and strategies employing engineered transcription factors
    • Authors: Seth Lawson; Leonidas Bleris
      Pages: 152 - 162
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4
      Author(s): Seth Lawson, Leonidas Bleris
      Programmable transcription factors have been instrumental in recent elucidations of developmental and regulatory pathways pertaining to biology and medicine. Programmable DNA-binding domains (DBDs) are cheap and relatively easy to use. Moreover, fusing transcriptional and epigenetic modulators to programmable DBDs can be done with ease. Recent improvements of these modulators have increased the efficacy and appeal of their biomedical applications. Screening and spatiotemporal control of genomic regulation using programmable DBDs have drastically improved the breadth and resolution of (epi)genomic knowledge. The widespread adoption of programmable DBDs for (epi)genomic investigations will lead to a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of diseases and other biological phenomena.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.009
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Engineering multicellular systems: Using synthetic biology to control
           tissue self-organization
    • Authors: Marion B. Johnson; Alexander R. March; Leonardo Morsut
      Pages: 163 - 173
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4
      Author(s): Marion B. Johnson, Alexander R. March, Leonardo Morsut
      The control of multicellular systems in general and of tissue formation in particular is a frontier for regenerative medicine and basic biological research. Current manipulations of multicellular systems such as tissue engineering, in vitro organoid development, and stem cell differentiation are revolutionizing the field, yet remain confronted with difficulties controlling precision, complexity, and functional integration. New methodologies and tools are needed to address these issues before the ambitious goal of building complex, customizable organs and tissues can be achieved. One promising approach is starting to make gains in this area: the genetic engineering of cellular signaling to directly or indirectly affect cellular self-organization. This review will focus on genetic manipulations that make use of, and/or are modeled after, the self-organization programs that multicellular systems use during development and regeneration. In particular, current examples and future directions of the following three areas will be explored: (i) Engineering developmental trajectories in non-developmental systems, with an example for epithelial patterning; (ii) Engineering control in developmental systems, with an example of increasing cellular composition complexity in stem cell differentiation; (iii) Engineering regeneration in non-regenerating systems, with an example from limb regeneration with engineered cells. The use of synthetic biology to control the genetic layer of these three areas will undoubtedly uncover important rules dictating cellular self-organization, putting us one step closer to a powerful approach for building multicellular systems, one we will call synthetic tissue development. In the future, we anticipate that convergence of this approach with more established approaches to multicellular system control will lead to improved functional tissue formation in vitro and the possibility of transformative advances in regenerative medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.008
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • EEG-based brain–computer interfaces
    • Authors: D.J. McFarland; J.R. Wolpaw
      Pages: 194 - 200
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 4
      Author(s): D.J. McFarland, J.R. Wolpaw
      Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs) are real-time computer-based systems that translate brain signals into useful commands. To date most applications have been demonstrations of proof-of-principle; widespread use by people who could benefit from this technology requires further development. Improvements in current EEG recording technology are needed. Better sensors would be easier to apply, more confortable for the user, and produce higher quality and more stable signals. Although considerable effort has been devoted to evaluating classifiers using public datasets, more attention to real-time signal processing issues and to optimizing the mutually adaptive interaction between the brain and the BCI are essential for improving BCI performance. Further development of applications is also needed, particularly applications of BCI technology to rehabilitation. The design of rehabilitation applications hinges on the nature of BCI control and how it might be used to induce and guide beneficial plasticity in the brain.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 4 (2017)
  • Editorial overview: New developments in biomedical imaging
    • Authors: Andrew M. Rollins; José del R. Millán
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3
      Author(s): Andrew M. Rollins, José del R. Millán

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 3 (2017)
  • The use of microfabrication technology to address the challenges of
           building physiologically relevant vasculature
    • Authors: A.Dawn Bannerman; Rick Xing Ze Lu; Anastasia Korolj; Lucie H. Kim; Milica Radisic
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): A.Dawn Bannerman, Rick Xing Ze Lu, Anastasia Korolj, Lucie H. Kim, Milica Radisic
      Vasculature is an essential component of physiologically relevant tissue, yet mimicking the native vasculature is an ongoing challenge in tissue engineering. Microfabrication may provide a solution. This technique allows for control of material design and architecture at the micron scale, which in turn enables the incorporation of microscale cues that are important for cell culture and the encouragement of organized vascularization. This review discusses the use of microfabrication to control the local biochemical environments for cells, the biophysical stimuli to which cells respond, and the assembly of more realistic spatial arrangements of various cell and tissue types. Furthermore, we describe ways in which microfabrication techniques are being used to address some of the challenges in translating these engineered tissue platforms into clinically relevant systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T07:40:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.003
  • Regeneration mechanism for skin and peripheral nerves clarified at the
           organ and molecular scales
    • Authors: Ioannis V. Yannas; Dimitrios S. Tzeranis; Peter TC. So
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Ioannis V. Yannas, Dimitrios S. Tzeranis, Peter TC. So
      This article is a review of current research on the mechanism of regeneration of skin and peripheral nerves based on use of collagen scaffolds, particularly the dermis regeneration template (DRT), which is widely used clinically. DRT modifies the normal wound healing process, converting it from wound closure by contraction and scar formation to closure by regeneration. DRT achieves this modification by blocking wound contraction, which spontaneously leads to cancellation of scar formation, a process secondary to contraction. Contraction blocking by DRT is the result of a dramatic phenotype change in contractile cells (myofibroblasts, MFB) which follows specific binding of integrins α1β1 and α2β1 onto hexapeptide ligands, probably GFOGER and GLOGER, that are naturally present on the surface of collagen fibers in DRT. The methodology of organ regeneration based on use of DRT has been recently extended from traumatized skin to diseased skin. Successful extension of the method to other organs in which wounds heal by contraction is highly likely though not yet attempted. This regenerative paradigm is much more advanced both in basic mechanistic understanding and clinical use than methods based on tissue culture or stem cells. It is also largely free of risk and has shown decisively lower morbidity and lower cost than organ transplantation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.002
  • Thrombosis-on-a-chip: Prospective impact of microphysiological models of
           vascular thrombosis
    • Authors: Navaneeth KR. Pandian; Robert G. Mannino; Wilbur A. Lam; Abhishek Jain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Navaneeth KR. Pandian, Robert G. Mannino, Wilbur A. Lam, Abhishek Jain
      The most common pathology of the blood-vessel organ system is thrombosis or undesirable clotting of the blood. Thrombosis is life threatening as more than 25% of such cases lead to sudden death from stroke and myocardial infarction. Even though the process of thrombosis has been extensively investigated with animal models, its exact pathobiology in different blood vessels is not yet fully understood and drug assessment remains unpredictable. This is primarily because the cause for thrombus formation is multifactorial and depends on the interplay of flow patterns within the blood vessel, the vessel wall or endothelium, extracellular matrix, parenchymal tissue, and the cellular and plasma components of the blood. Current in vitro and animal models do not mimic or dissect this organ-level complexity faithfully. However, microfluidic technology has recently been deployed to effectively recapitulate blood-endothelial-epithelial interactions in the onset of thrombosis in blood vessels. This technology is promising because it permits inclusion of primary human cells and blood obtained from patients, which is currently lacking in other in vitro models of thrombosis. In this review, we summarize the current state-of-the-art and practices in microfluidics and expected improvements in this field that will impact basic understanding of thrombosis, drug discovery and personalized medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.12.001
  • Personalized Imaging and Modeling Strategies for Arrhythmia Prevention and
    • Authors: Natalia A. Trayanova; Patrick M. Boyle; Plamen P. Nikolov
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Natalia A. Trayanova, Patrick M. Boyle, Plamen P. Nikolov
      The goal of this article is to review advances in computational modeling of the heart, with a focus on recent non-invasive clinical imaging- and simulation-based strategies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients with arrhythmias and structural heart disease. Following a brief overview of the field of computational cardiology, we present recent applications of the personalized virtual-heart approach in predicting the optimal targets for infarct-related ventricular tachycardia and atrial fibrillation ablation, and in determining risk of sudden cardiac death in myocardial infarction patients. The hope is that with such models at the patient bedside, therapies could be improved, invasiveness of diagnostic procedures minimized, and health-care costs reduced.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.007
  • Editors - Issue sections
    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering, Volume 3

      PubDate: 2017-12-22T07:02:41Z
  • Modeling the blood-brain barrier: Beyond the endothelial cells
    • Authors: Benjamin D. Gastfriend; Sean P. Palecek; Eric V. Shusta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 November 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Benjamin D. Gastfriend, Sean P. Palecek, Eric V. Shusta
      The blood-brain barrier (BBB) regulates the transport of ions, nutrients, and metabolites to help maintain proper brain function. This restrictive interface formed by brain microvascular endothelial cells excludes the majority of small and large molecule drugs from entering the brain, and blood-brain barrier dysfunction is a signature of many neurological diseases. Thus, in vitro models of the BBB based on brain endothelial cells have been developed to facilitate screening drugs for BBB permeability. However, while brain endothelial cells form the main interface, they work in concert with other brain-resident cells such as neural progenitor cells, pericytes, astrocytes, and neurons to form the neurovascular unit (NVU). Importantly, non-endothelial cells of the NVU play key roles in eliciting BBB phenotypes and in regulating the dynamic responses of the BBB to brain activity and disease. As a result, emerging in vitro BBB models have incorporated these NVU cell types in addition to endothelial cells. These multicellular BBB or NVU models have found increasing application not only in drug screening, but also in studying complex cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying BBB biology and disease.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.11.002
  • Advancing towards a global mammalian gene regulation model through
           single-cell analysis and synthetic biology
    • Authors: Josh Tycko; Mike V. Van; Michael B. Elowitz; Lacramioara Bintu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 November 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Josh Tycko, Mike V. Van, Michael B. Elowitz, Lacramioara Bintu
      Engineering complex genetic functions in mammalian cells will require predictive models of gene regulation. Since gene expression is stochastic, leading to cell-to-cell heterogeneity, these models depend on single-cell measurements. Here, we summarize recent microscopy and sequencing-based single-cell measurements of transcription and its chromatin-based regulation. Then, we describe synthetic biology methods for manipulating chromatin, and highlight how they could be coupled to single-cell measurements. We discuss theoretical models that connect some chromatin inputs to transcriptional outputs. Finally, we point out the connections between the models that would allow us to integrate them into one global input-output gene regulatory function.

      PubDate: 2017-11-19T02:05:20Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.011
  • Recent Advances in Strategies for Peripheral Nerve Tissue Engineering
    • Authors: Sahba Mobini; Benjamin S. Spearman; Christopher S. Lacko; Christine E. Schmidt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sahba Mobini, Benjamin S. Spearman, Christopher S. Lacko, Christine E. Schmidt
      Peripheral nerve injuries often result in longstanding disability with loss of motor and/or sensory function. Peripheral nerve tissue engineering researchers have been exploring strategies to replace autologous nerve grafts, the gold standard treatment for peripheral nerve injury. Currently, there is still a large technological gap between laboratory research technologies and the products used in the clinic. There are also concerns about the use of rodent models and the reliability of the treatment outcomes. In this paper, we review the most recent approaches in peripheral nerve tissue engineering and methodologies in clinical trials, preclinical studies, and in vitro experiments and briefly discuss future perspectives of the field. We highlight the need for improved in vitro modeling, including nerve-on-a-chip technology and the use of computational modeling. Progress in this area can help to optimize combinatorial treatments and accelerate clinical translation. Furthermore, we see great potential in personalized tissue-engineered scaffolds, which could incorporate patient- and injury-specific anatomy, for complex lesions that are difficult to repair using currently available options.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T11:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.010
  • Scaling Computation and Memory in Living Cells
    • Authors: Kevin Yehl; Timothy Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Kevin Yehl, Timothy Lu
      The semiconductor revolution that began in the 20th century has transformed society. Key to this revolution has been the integrated circuit, which enabled exponential scaling of computing devices using silicon-based transistors over many decades. Analogously, decreasing costs in DNA sequencing and synthesis, along with the development of robust genetic circuits, are enabling a “biocomputing revolution”. First-generation gene circuits largely relied on assembling various transcriptional regulatory elements to execute digital and analog computing functions in living cells. Basic design rules and computational tools have since been derived so that such circuits can be scaled in order to implement complex computations. In the past five years, great strides have been made in expanding the biological programming toolkit to include recombinase- and CRISPR–based gene circuits that execute complex cellular logic and memory. Recent advances have enabled increasingly dense computing and memory circuits to function in living cells while expanding the application of these circuits from bacteria to eukaryotes, including human cells, for a wide range of uses.

      PubDate: 2017-11-03T11:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.003
  • Correlating 3D light to 3D electron microscopy for systems biology
    • Authors: Lucy M. Collinson; Elizabeth C. Carroll; Jacob P. Hoogenboom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Lucy M. Collinson, Elizabeth C. Carroll, Jacob P. Hoogenboom
      Whilst a ‘resolution revolution’ has taken place at the macromolecular scale in both electron microscopy and light microscopy, a ‘volume revolution’ has taken place at the tissue and organism level in both imaging modalities. At both ends of the scale – resolution and volume – there are concerted efforts to link the information from light and electron microscopes through correlative workflows to link structure to function. Here, we consider the status and potential of correlative imaging in the volume domain (3D CLEM).

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T09:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.006
  • Quantitative and synthetic biology approaches to combat bacterial
    • Authors: Feilun Wu; Jonathan H. Bethke; Meidi Wang; Lingchong You
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Feilun Wu, Jonathan H. Bethke, Meidi Wang, Lingchong You
      Antibiotic resistance is one of the biggest threats to public health. The rapid emergence of resistant bacterial pathogens endangers the efficacy of current antibiotics and has led to increasing mortality and economic burden. This crisis calls for more rapid and accurate diagnosis to detect and identify pathogens, as well as to characterize their response to antibiotics. Building on this foundation, treatment options also need to be improved to use current antibiotics more effectively and develop alternative strategies that complement the use of antibiotics. We here review recent developments in diagnosis and treatment of bacterial pathogens with a focus on quantitative biology and synthetic biology approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-10-27T09:37:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.007
  • Building with intent: technologies and principles for engineering
           mammalian cell-based therapies to sense and respond
    • Authors: Joseph J. Muldoon; Patrick S. Donahue; Taylor B. Dolberg; Joshua N. Leonard
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Joseph J. Muldoon, Patrick S. Donahue, Taylor B. Dolberg, Joshua N. Leonard
      The engineering of cells as programmable devices has enabled therapeutic strategies that could not otherwise be achieved. Such strategies include recapitulating and enhancing native cellular functions and composing novel functions. These novel functions may be composed using both natural and engineered biological components, with the latter exemplified by the development of synthetic receptor and signal transduction systems. Recent advances in implementing these approaches include the treatment of cancer, where the most clinical progress has been made to date, and the treatment of diabetes. Principles for engineering cell-based therapies that are safe and effective are increasingly needed and beginning to emerge, and will be essential in the development of this new class of therapeutics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T06:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.004
  • Biomedical Applications of RNA-Based Devices
    • Authors: Cameron M. Kim; Christina D. Smolke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Cameron M. Kim, Christina D. Smolke
      Emergent RNA technologies employ sequence and structural information to perform a diversity of biological functions. Synthetic RNA molecules have been developed for a wide array of applications, including genetic regulation, environmental sensing, and diagnostics devices. Recent advances in chemical synthesis and computational design of RNA have enhanced our ability to program novel functions and expand upon current biomedical applications for therapeutics and diagnostics. In this review, we highlight recent advances in synthetic RNA devices that have been engineered for biomedical systems, while addressing the current limitations and challenges of translating these engineered functional RNAs to clinical applications.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T06:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.005
  • The future of traction force microscopy
    • Authors: Huw Colin-York; Marco Fritzsche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Huw Colin-York, Marco Fritzsche
      Animal cells continuously sense and respond to mechanical force. Quantifying these forces remains a major challenge in bioengineering; yet such measurements are essential for the understanding of cellular function. Traction force microscopy is one of the most successful and broadly-used force probing technologies, chosen for the simplicity of its implementation, flexibility to mimic cellular conditions, and well-established analysis pipe-line. Here, we review the accomplishments, and discuss the applicability and limitations of traction force microscopy. We explain fundamental shortcomings of the method, summarise latest improvements, and outline future pathways towards the impact of the method, especially considering latest developments in state-of-the-art super-resolution fluorescence imaging. In light of the increasing discovery of the importance of mechanobiology in cell physiology, we envisage traction force microscopy to remain a major player for quantifying mechanical forces in living cells.

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T06:39:53Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.002
  • Central Nervous System Microstimulation: Towards selective
    • Authors: Morgan E. Urdaneta; Andrew S. Koivuniemi; Kevin J. Otto
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Morgan E. Urdaneta, Andrew S. Koivuniemi, Kevin J. Otto
      Electrical stimulation technologies capable of modulating neural activity are well established for neuroscientific research and neurotherapeutics. Recent micro-neuromodulation experimental results continue to explain neural processing complexity and suggest the potential for assistive technologies capable of restoring or repairing of basic function. Nonetheless, performance is dependent upon the specificity of the stimulation. Increasingly specific stimulation is hypothesized to be achieved by progressively smaller interfaces. Miniaturization is a current focus of neural implants due to improvements in mitigation of the body’s foreign body response. It is likely that these exciting technologies will offer the promise to provide large-scale micro-neuromodulation in the future. Here, we highlight recent successes of assistive technologies through bidirectional neuroprostheses currently being used to repair or restore basic brain functionality. Furthermore, we introduce recent neuromodulation technologies that might improve the effectiveness of these neuroprosthetic interfaces by increasing their chronic stability and microstimulation specificity. We suggest a vision where the natural progression of innovative technologies and scientific knowledge enables the ability to selectively micro-neuromodulate every neuron in the brain.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.012
  • Advancing the design and delivery of CRISPR antimicrobials
    • Authors: Jennie R. Fagen; Daphne Collias; Atul K. Singh; Chase L. Beisel
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Jennie R. Fagen, Daphne Collias, Atul K. Singh, Chase L. Beisel
      CRISPR-Cas systems are prokaryotic immune systems whose RNA-guided nucleases have been co-opted for applications ranging from genome editing and gene regulation to in vitro diagnostics and DNA imaging. Here, we review the current efforts toward repurposing CRISPR nucleases as programmable antimicrobials. Antimicrobial activity is achieved by targeted cleavage of multidrug-resistance plasmids or the bacterial chromosome, resulting in antibiotic sensitivity or cell death. As part of the review, we discuss the different types of nucleases available for CRISPR antimicrobials, the use of bacteriophages as delivery vehicles, and opportunities to enhance antimicrobial activity, delivery, and specificity. Through further advances, these programmable DNA-targeting antimicrobials may help quell the spread of antimicrobial resistance and provide a tool for the manipulation of complex microbial communities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.10.001
  • Dynamics of Large-Scale fMRI Networks: Deconstruct Brain Activity to Build
           Better Models of Brain Function
    • Authors: Fikret Işık Karahanoğlu; Dimitri Van De Ville
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Fikret Işık Karahanoğlu, Dimitri Van De Ville
      Ongoing fluctuations of brain activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provide a novel window onto the organizational principles of brain function. Advances in data analysis have focussed on extracting the constituting elements of temporal dynamics in terms of activity or connectivity patterns. Subsequently, brain states can be defined and then be analyzed using temporal features and computational models as to capture subtle interactions between functional networks. These new methodological advances allow to deconstruct the rich spatiotemporal structure of functional components that dynamically assemble into resting-state networks long been observed using conventional measures of functional connectivity. Applications of these emerging methods demonstrate that changes in functional connectivity are indeed driven by complex reorganization of network interactions, and thus provide valuable observations to build better models of brain function and dysfunction. Here, we give an overview of the recent developments in this exciting field, together with main findings and perspectives on future research.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.008
  • Functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy: Enabling Routine Functional Brain
    • Authors: Meryem A. Yücel; Juliette J. Selb; Theodore J. Huppert; Maria Angela Franceschini; David A. Boas
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Meryem A. Yücel, Juliette J. Selb, Theodore J. Huppert, Maria Angela Franceschini, David A. Boas
      Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) maps human brain function by measuring and imaging local changes in hemoglobin concentrations in the brain that arise from the modulation of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism by neural activity. Since its advent over 20 years ago, researchers have exploited and continuously advanced the ability of near infrared light to penetrate through the scalp and skull in order to non-invasively monitor changes in cerebral hemoglobin concentrations that reflect brain activity. We review recent advances in signal processing and hardware that significantly improve the capabilities of fNIRS by reducing the impact of confounding signals to improve statistical robustness of the brain signals and by enhancing the density, spatial coverage, and wearability of measuring devices respectively. We then summarize the application areas that are experiencing rapid growth as fNIRS begins to enable routine functional brain imaging.

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T04:32:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.011
  • Synthetic biology – Engineering cell-based biomedical devices
    • Authors: Viktor Haellman; Martin Fussenegger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Viktor Haellman, Martin Fussenegger
      Synthetic biology applies rational bottom-up engineering principles to create cell-based biological systems with novel and enhanced functionality to address currently unmet clinical needs. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the state-of-the-art in cell-based therapeutic solutions, focusing on how these integrated biological devices can enhance and complement the natural functionality of cells in order to provide novel treatments. We also highlight some blueprints for synthetic biology-inspired approaches to developing cell-based cancer therapies, and briefly discuss their future clinical potential.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T16:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.010
  • Computer-aided diagnosis of prostate cancer with MRI
    • Authors: Baowei Fei
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Baowei Fei
      Multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) has an increasingly important role in the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Due to the large amount of data and variations in mp-MRI, tumor detection can be affected by multiple factors, such as the observer’s clinical experience, image quality, and appearance of the lesions. In order to improve the quantitative assessment of the disease and reduce the reporting time, various computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems have been designed to help radiologists identify lesions. This manuscript presents an overview of the literature regarding prostate CAD using mp-MRI, while focusing on the studies of the most recent five years. Current prostate CAD technologies and their utilization are discussed in this review.

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T16:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.009
  • Advances in intraoperative optical coherence tomography for surgical
    • Authors: Mohamed T. El-Haddad; Yuankai K. Tao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Mohamed T. El-Haddad, Yuankai K. Tao
      Translation of optical coherence tomography (OCT) technologies for intraoperative visualization enables in vivo micron-resolution imaging of subsurface tissue structures and image-guided clinical decision-making. Over the last decade, intraoperative OCT has evolved from two-dimensional imaging using handheld probes to include biopsy-needles for minimally invasive deep-tissue imaging, surgical instrumentation using optical feedback for tremor dampening and stabilization, and stereomicroscope integrated systems that provide real-time three- and four-dimensional visualization of surgical maneuvers. In addition, several preliminary studies have demonstrated the feasibility and utility of combining intraoperative OCT imaging with novel image-processing and display methods to implement augmented/virtual reality and robotic surgical guidance platforms. While research and commercialization of these innovations have been largely driven by needs in ophthalmology, OCT is finding new clinical applications in surgical oncology and neurosurgery. In this paper, we review recent developments in intraoperative OCT and discuss current trends and future directions of the technology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-05T16:34:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.007
  • Deep Tissue Imaging with Multiphoton Fluorescence Microscopy
    • Authors: David R. Miller; Jeremy W. Jarrett; Ahmed M. Hassan; Andrew K. Dunn
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): David R. Miller, Jeremy W. Jarrett, Ahmed M. Hassan, Andrew K. Dunn
      We present a review of imaging deep-tissue structures with multiphoton microscopy. We examine the effects of light scattering and absorption due to the optical properties of biological sample and identify 1,300 nm and 1,700 nm as ideal excitation wavelengths. We summarize the availability of fluorophores for multiphoton microscopy as well as ultrafast laser sources to excite available fluorophores. Lastly, we discuss the applications of multiphoton microscopy for neuroscience.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T09:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.004
  • Recent Advances in Neural Electrode-Tissue Interfaces
    • Authors: Kevin Woeppel; Qianru Yang; Xinyan Tracy Cui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Kevin Woeppel, Qianru Yang, Xinyan Tracy Cui
      Neurotechnology is facing an exponential growth in the recent decades. Neural electrode-tissue interface research has been well recognized as an instrumental component of neurotechnology development. While satisfactory long-term performance was demonstrated in some applications, such as cochlear implants and deep brain stimulators, more advanced neural electrode devices requiring higher resolution for single unit recording or microstimulation still face significant challenges in reliability and longevity. In this article, we review the most recent findings that contribute to our current understanding of the sources of poor reliability and longevity in neural recording or stimulation, including the material failure, biological tissue response and the interplay between the two. The newly developed characterization tools are introduced from electrophysiology models, molecular and biochemical analysis, material characterization to live imaging. The effective strategies that have been applied to improve the interface are also highlighted. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities in improving the interface and achieving seamless integration between the implanted electrodes and neural tissue both anatomically and functionally.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T09:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.003
  • Novel biomaterials to study neural stem cell mechanobiology and improve
           cell-replacement therapies
    • Authors: Phillip Kang; Sanjay Kumar; David Schaffer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Phillip Kang, Sanjay Kumar, David Schaffer
      Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a valuable cell source for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening applications. Analogous to other stem cells, NSCs are tightly regulated by their microenvironmental niche, and prior work utilizing NSCs as a model system with engineered biomaterials has offered valuable insights into how biophysical inputs can regulate stem cell proliferation, differentiation, and maturation. In this review, we highlight recent exciting studies with innovative material platforms that enable narrow stiffness gradients, mechanical stretching, temporal stiffness switching, and three-dimensional culture to study NSCs. These studies have significantly advanced our knowledge of how stem cells respond to an array of different biophysical inputs and the underlying mechanosensitive mechanisms. In addition, we discuss efforts to utilize engineered material scaffolds to improve NSC-based translational efforts and the importance of mechanobiology in tissue engineering applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T09:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.005
  • Progress and Remaining Challenges in the Application of High Frequency
           Oscillations as Biomarkers of Epileptic Brain
    • Authors: Fatemeh Khadjevand; Jan Cimbalnik; Gregory A. Worrell
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Fatemeh Khadjevand, Jan Cimbalnik, Gregory A. Worrell
      High-frequency oscillations (HFOs: 100 – 600 Hz) have been widely proposed as biomarkers of epileptic brain tissue. In addition, HFOs over a broader range of frequencies spanning 30 – 2000 Hz are potential biomarkers of both physiological and pathological brain processes. The majority of the results from humans with focal epilepsy have focused on HFOs recorded directly from the brain with intracranial EEG (iEEG) in the high gamma (65 – 100 Hz), ripple (100 – 250 Hz), and fast ripple (250 – 600 Hz) frequency ranges. These results are supplemented by reports of HFOs recorded with iEEG in the low gamma (30 – 65Hz) and very high frequency (500 – 2000 Hz) ranges. Visual detection of HFOs is laborious and limited by poor inter-rater agreement; and the need for accurate, reproducible automated HFOs detection is well recognized. In particular, the clinical translation of HFOs as a biomarker of the epileptogenic brain has been limited by the ability to reliably detect and accurately classify HFOs as physiological or pathological. Despite these challenges, there has been significant progress in the field, which is the subject of this review. Furthermore, we provide data and corresponding analytic code in an effort to promote reproducible research and accelerate clinical translation.

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T09:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.006
  • Nanomaterials for convection-enhanced delivery of agents to treat brain
    • Authors: Young-Eun Seo; Tom Bu; W.Mark Saltzman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Young-Eun Seo, Tom Bu, W.Mark Saltzman
      Nanomaterials represent a promising and versatile platform for the delivery of therapeutics to the brain. Treatment of brain tumors has been a long-standing challenge in the field of neuro-oncology. The current standard of care – a multimodal approach of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy – yields only a modest therapeutic benefit for patients with malignant gliomas. A major obstacle for treatment is the failure to achieve sufficient delivery of therapeutics at the tumor site. Recent advances in local drug delivery techniques, along with the development of highly effective brain-penetrating nanocarriers, have significantly improved treatment and imaging of brain tumors in preclinical studies. The major advantage of this combined strategy is the ability to optimize local therapy, by maintaining an effective and sustained concentration of therapeutics in the brain with minimal systemic toxicity. This review highlights some of the latest developments, significant advancements and current challenges in local delivery of nanomaterials for the treatment of brain tumors.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-09-28T09:20:16Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.002
  • Recent Advances in Regenerative Medicine Approaches for Spinal Cord
    • Authors: Marian H. Hettiaratchi; Tobias Führmann; Molly S. Shoichet
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Marian H. Hettiaratchi, Tobias Führmann, Molly S. Shoichet
      Traumatic injury to the spinal cord leads to a loss of motor and sensory function below the level of injury. The lack of growth-associated proteins, local expression of inhibitory factors, and scar and cyst formation create an inhibitory environment in the spinal cord, which limits the regenerative capacity of endogenous or transplanted cells. Cell and drug delivery strategies, either alone or in combination, can induce changes in the local microenvironment at and around the lesion site to promote transplanted cell survival, integration, and/or endogenous repair. New biomaterial strategies also provide a platform for a sustained delivery of otherwise unstable drugs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T15:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.08.002
  • Reengineering Deep Brain Stimulation for Movement Disorders: Emerging
    • Authors: Aysegul Gunduz; Kelly D. Foote; Michael S. Okun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 September 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Aysegul Gunduz, Kelly D. Foote, Michael S. Okun
      Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a neurosurgical technique, which consists of continuous delivery of an electrical pulse through chronically implanted electrodes connected to a neurostimulator, programmable in amplitude, pulse width, frequency, and stimulation channel. DBS is a promising treatment option for addressing severe and drug-resistant movement disorders. The success of DBS therapy is a combination of surgical implantation techniques, device technology, and clinical programming strategies. Changes in device settings require highly trained and experienced clinicians to achieve maximal therapeutic benefit for each targeted symptom, and optimization of stimulation parameters can take many visits. Thus, the development of innovative DBS technologies that can optimize the clinical implementation of DBS will lead to wider scale utilization. This review aims to present engineering approaches that have the potential to improve clinical outcomes of DBS, focusing on the development novel temporal patterns, innovative electrode designs, computational models to guide stimulation, closed-loop DBS, and remote programming.

      PubDate: 2017-09-21T15:52:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.09.001
  • Clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells: a Biophysical and Technological
    • Authors: Sam H. Au; Jon Edd; Daniel A. Haber; Shyamala Maheswaran; Shannon L. Stott; Mehmet Toner
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Sam H. Au, Jon Edd, Daniel A. Haber, Shyamala Maheswaran, Shannon L. Stott, Mehmet Toner
      The vast majority of cancer associated deaths result from metastasis, yet the behaviors of its most potent cellular driver, circulating tumor cell clusters, are only beginning to be revealed. This review highlights recent advances to our understanding of tumor cell clusters with emphasis on enabling technologies. The importance of intercellular adhesions among cells in clusters have begun to be unraveled with the aid of promising microfluidic strategies for isolating clusters from patient blood. Due to their metastatic potency, the utility of circulating tumor cell clusters for cancer diagnosis, drug screening, precision oncology and as targets of antimetastatic therapeutics are being explored. The continued development of tools for exploring circulating tumor cell clusters will enhance our fundamental understanding of the metastatic process and may be instrumental in devising new strategies to suppress and eliminate metastasis.

      PubDate: 2017-08-13T05:09:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.08.001
  • Intravascular imaging for characterization of coronary atherosclerosis
    • Authors: Gijs van Soest; Laura Marcu; Brett E. Bouma; Evelyn Regar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering
      Author(s): Gijs van Soest, Laura Marcu, Brett E. Bouma, Evelyn Regar
      This short review surveys recent developments in coronary intravascular imaging technologies. We present an outline of the applications of intravascular imaging for guidance of percutaneous coronary interventions and imaging of atherosclerosis, along with emerging clinical evidence for use. Imaging of tissue composition is important for understanding the relation between the presence of a lesion and clinical sequelae. We describe the recent innovations to enable imaging of unstable atherosclerotic plaques, focusing on the emergence of experimental multimodal imaging technology.

      PubDate: 2017-08-02T19:01:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.cobme.2017.07.001
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Your IP address:
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-