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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (240 journals)
    - BIOENGINEERING (119 journals)
    - BIOLOGY (1490 journals)
    - BIOPHYSICS (47 journals)
    - BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)
    - BOTANY (228 journals)
    - CYTOLOGY AND HISTOLOGY (30 journals)
    - ENTOMOLOGY (69 journals)
    - GENETICS (163 journals)
    - MICROBIOLOGY (258 journals)
    - MICROSCOPY (10 journals)
    - ORNITHOLOGY (26 journals)
    - PHYSIOLOGY (73 journals)
    - ZOOLOGY (137 journals)

BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Bioprinting
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.651
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 2405-8866
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • 3D printing complex lattice structures for permeable liver phantom
           fabrication
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: BioprintingAuthor(s): Linda Low, Sherif Ramadan, Catherine Coolens, Hani E. Naguib Liver cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the world, affecting over 700,000 people per year. To improve early detection of tumours, perfusion testing is used for imaging of blood flow in the liver. Creating a phantom to accurately mimic the liver in imaging techniques such as Dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) computed tomography (CT) will improve testing and calibration of different imaging protocols and pharmacokinetic perfusion models. In current literature, there lacks a permeable, easily producible and reusable liver phantom for dynamic contrast-enhanced CT perfusion testing. This study details the production of phantoms with controllable permeability for standardization in hepatic perfusion using commercially available 3D printing methods. Phantoms with hexagonal channels were designed in nTopology Element and printed in materials with a density of 0.9–1.5 g/cm3. Polylactic acid was selected for fused deposition modelling (FDM), while proprietary resins were used for an inkjet printing process called MultiJet Printing (MJP). Permeability tests were performed on samples to observe flow rates obeying Darcy's Law. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyze pore size in FDM and MJP samples, while micro-CT scans were performed to analyze pore interconnectivity. The collected permeability data exceeds reported literature values of 0.0167 mL s−1 cm2 and approach the desired range of 0.15–0.3 mL s−1 cm2. Micro-CT scans show obstructions from the MJP printing process. SEM images were analyzed in Fiji and showed varying results for FDM printing. Future work will involve reducing pore size while maintaining high permeability. Using 3D printing in phantom development will help create adaptable, reliable and permeable phantoms for diagnostic imaging.
       
  • 3D printing of methylcellulose-based hydrogels
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: BioprintingAuthor(s): Nicola Contessi Negrini, Lorenzo Bonetti, Luca Contili, Silvia Farè Methylcellulose-based (MC) hydrogels are optimal substrates to obtain cell sheets for regenerative medicine applications. However, current MC-based hydrogel preparation methods only allow for the obtainment of MC substrates with standardized and simple geometries (i.e., geometry of the container where the hydrogel is produced). Here, we propose the 3D printing of a MC-based hydrogel to obtain substrates with desired and controlled geometries. First, we optimize the printing temperature (i.e., T = 21 °C) of the MC-based hydrogel, so to obtain printed strands reproducing the designed geometry without defects. We investigate the influence of the printing parameters (i.e., needle size, deposition speed and extrusion multiplier) on the printed strands diameters and printing accuracy. A decrease in the sol-gel transition temperature was evidenced, together with an increase in water uptake at 37 °C, for printed MC-based hydrogels compared to not printed samples; the stability at 37 °C and achieved rheological properties were suitable for cell sheet engineering applications. In addition, cell viability higher than 90% was detected after embedding cells in the MC-based hydrogel; moreover, the optimized printing parameters allowed to bioprint C2C12 cells embedded in the MC-based hydrogel with a viability higher than 80%. The printing parameters we optimized could be used to produce MC substrates for cell sheet engineering or cell delivery applications with controlled and complex-shaped geometries.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • 3D Bioprinting – Flow Cytometry as Analytical Strategy for 3D Cell
           Structures
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018Source: BioprintingAuthor(s): Sarah Gretzinger, Nicole Beckert, Andrew Gleadall, Cornelia Lee-Thedieck, Jürgen Hubbuch The importance of 3D printing technologies increased significantly over the recent years. They are considered to have a huge impact in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering, since 3D bioprinting enables the production of cell-laden 3D scaffolds. Transition from academic research to pharmaceutical industry or clinical applications, however, is highly dependent on developing a robust and well-known process, while maintaining critical cell characteristics. Hence, a directed and systematic approach to 3D bioprinting process development is required, which also allows for the monitoring of these cell characteristics. This work presents the development of a flow cytometry-based analytical strategy as a tool for 3D bioprinting research.The development was based on a model process using a commercially available alginate-based bioink, the β-cell line INS-1E, and direct dispensing as 3D bioprinting method. We demonstrated that this set-up enabled viability and proliferation analysis. Additionally, use of an automated sampler facilitated high-throughput screenings. Finally, we showed that each process step, e.g. suspension of cells in bioink or 3D printing, cross-linking of the alginate scaffold after printing, has a crucial impact on INS-1E viability. This reflects the importance of process optimisation in 3D bioprinting and the usefulness of the flow cytometry-based analytical strategy described here. The presented strategy has a great potential as a cell characterisation tool for 3D bioprinting and may contribute to a more directed process development.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • 3D Bioprinting of stimuli-responsive polymers synthesised from DE-ATRP
           into soft tissue replicas
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018Source: BioprintingAuthor(s): Ahmed Aied, Wenhui Song, Wenxin Wang, Abdulrahman Baki, A. Sigen Synthetic polymers possess more reproducible physical and chemical properties than their naturally occurring counterparts. They have also emerged as an important alternative for fabricating tissue substitutes because they can be molecularly tailored to have vast array of molecular weights, block structures, active functional groups, and mechanical properties. To this date however, there has been very few successful and fully functional synthetic tissue and organ substitutes and with the rapidly spreading 3D printing technology beginning to reshape the tissue engineering and regenerative field, the need for an effective, safe, and bio printable biomaterial is becoming more and more urgent. Here, we have developed a synthetic polymer from controlled living radical polymerisation that can be printed into well-defined structures. The polymer showed low cytotoxicity before and after printing. Additionally, the incorporation of gelatine-methacrylate coated PLGA microparticles within the hydrogel provided cell adhesion surfaces for cell proliferation. The results point to possible application of the microparticle seeded, synthetic hydrogel as a direct printable tissue or organ substitute.
       
  • Laser-based fabrication of 3D hydrogel constructs using bessel beams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: BioprintingAuthor(s): Wen Loong Andy Liew, Yilei Zhang, (family name underlined) Bioprinting has shown great promise for applications in the field of tissue engineering. However, the printing techniques existing today suffer from several drawbacks including long processing time, poor printing fidelity for high aspect ratio constructs, and poor cytocompatibility. In this report, we describe a laser-based bioprinting technique and demonstrate its ability to address these drawbacks. Unlike commercial Stereolithography systems, the laser used in our proposed technique is in the form of a Bessel Beam (BB) which possesses unique characteristics suitable for bioprinting applications. We demonstrate the successful fabrication of hydrogel fibers with controlled diameter, along with the encapsulation of highly viable cells. We also demonstrate the high throughput fabrication of fluorescent bead-laden tubular constructs with high fidelity and customizable cross-sections. Finally, 3D hydrogel scaffolds made of both synthetic and naturally-derived polymers were fabricated. We believe that our proposed technique could find significant applications in the field of tissue engineering for regenerative medicine and also for in vitro tissue studies.
       
  • A perspective on the physical, mechanical and biological specifications of
           bioinks and the development of functional tissues in 3D bioprinting
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Bioprinting, Volume 9Author(s): David Williams, Patrick Thayer, Hector Martinez, Erik Gatenholm, Ali Khademhosseini Bioinks are the basic building blocks for the fabrication of 3D bioprinted constructs. These bioinks play key roles in structural support, adhesion, and differentiation of incorporated cells. Due to diversity of tissue types found in the body, and the need to recapitulate many of the structural and functional characteristics of a target tissue, there are many potential bioinks, but relatively few at the moment possess optimal properties. Bioinks may be classified on the basis on their ultimate role in a 3D bioprinted construct such as imparting biological functionality, serving as sacrificial material, or supporting and providing rigidity to complex constructs. Physical, mechanical and biological characteristics must all be taken into account in the design and composition of bioinks. The incorporation of guidance cues such as topography, growth factors, and morphogens is necessary to control cell fate. These 3D bioprinted constructs should be integrated into bioreactor systems, to support tissue development. Finally, the methodologies to non-destructively monitor both deposited bioinks and construct maturation are necessary for the successful development of a functional tissue.
       
  • Generating vascular channels within hydrogel constructs using an
           economical open-source 3D bioprinter and thermoreversible gels
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Bioprinting, Volume 9Author(s): Ross EB Fitzsimmons, Mark S. Aquilino, Jasmine Quigley, Oleg Chebotarev, Farhang Tarlan, Craig A. Simmons The advent of 3D bioprinting offers new opportunities to create complex vascular structures within engineered tissues. However, the most suitable sacrificial material for producing branching vascular conduits within hydrogel-based constructs has not yet been resolved. Here, we assess two leading contenders, gelatin and Pluronic F-127, for a number of characteristics relevant to their use as sacrificial materials (printed filament diameter and its variability, toxicity, rheological properties, and compressive moduli). To aid in our assessment and help accelerate the adoption of 3D bioprinting by the biomedical field, we custom-built an inexpensive (
       
  • 3D bioprinting of liver-mimetic construct with alginate/cellulose
           nanocrystal hybrid bioink
    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018Source: Bioprinting, Volume 9Author(s): Yun Wu, Zhi Yuan (William) Lin, Andrew C. Wenger, Kam C. Tam, Xiaowu (Shirley) Tang 3D bioprinting is a novel platform for engineering complex, three-dimensional (3D) tissues that mimic real ones. The development of hybrid bioinks is a viable strategy that integrates the desirable properties of the constituents. In this work, we present a hybrid bioink composed of alginate and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) and explore its suitability for extrusion-based bioprinting. This bioink possesses excellent shear-thinning property, can be easily extruded through the nozzle, and provides good initial shape fidelity. It has been demonstrated that the viscosities during extrusion were at least two orders of magnitude lower than those at small shear rates, enabling the bioinks to be extruded through the nozzle (100 µm inner diameter) readily without clogging. This bioink was then used to print a liver-mimetic honeycomb 3D structure containing fibroblast and hepatoma cells. The structures were crosslinked with CaCl2 and incubated and cultured for 3 days. It was found that the bioprinting process resulted in minimal cell damage making the alginate/CNC hybrid bioink an attractive bioprinting material.Graphical abstractfx1
       
 
 
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