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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Bioactive Materials
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  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2452-199X
   Published by Ke Ai Homepage  [15 journals]
  • Facially amphiphilic polyionene biocidal polymers derived from lithocholic

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Mitra S. Ganewatta, Md Anisur Rahman, Louis Mercado, Tinom Shokfai, Alan W. Decho, Theresa M. Reineke, Chuanbing Tang
      Bacterial infections have become a global issue that requires urgent attention, particularly regarding to emergence of multidrug resistant bacteria. We developed quaternary amine-containing antimicrobial poly(bile acid)s that contain a hydrophobic core of lithocholic acid in the main-chain. Interestingly, by choosing appropriate monomers, these cationic polymers can form core-shell micelles. These polymers exhibited biocidal activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species. It is demonstrated that the micelles can deliver hydrophobic antibiotics that functionally have dual antimicrobial activities. Cytotoxicity assays against HeLa cells showed dosage-dependent toxicity for polymers with longer linkers.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-28T23:43:16Z
  • Biofunctional Mg coating on PEEK for improving bioactivity

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Xiaoming Yu, Muhammad Ibrahim, Zongyuan Liu, Huazhe Yang, Lili Tan, Ke Yang
      High purity Mg was successfully coated on polyetheretherketone (PEEK) by vapor deposition method in order to improve the bioactivity including antibacterial property of PEEK implant. The morphology and elemental composition of the coating were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), showing that the coating was mainly composed of Mg at deposition temperature of 175 °C, 185 °C, 200 °C and 230 °C. The higher the substrate temperature was, the larger the Mg particle size was. The coating degraded and gradually peeled off from the surface of PEEK after up to 21 days' immersion. It was found that the degradation of Mg coating could strongly kill Staphylococcus aureus with antibacterial rate reaching to 99%. Mg can be expected to be coated on those bio-inert biomaterials to offer specific bioactivities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • Studies on the cytocompatibility, mechanical and antimicrobial properties
           of 3D printed poly(methyl methacrylate) beads

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): David K. Mills, Uday Jammalamadaka, Karthik Tappa, Jeffery Weisman
      Osteomyelitis is typically a bacterial infection (usually from Staphylococcus) or, more rarely, a fungal infection of the bone. It can occur in any bone in the body, but it most often affects the long bones (leg and arm), vertebral (spine), and bones of the foot. Microbial success in osteomyelitis is due to their ability to form biofilms which inhibit the wound healing process and increases resistance to anti-infective agents. Also, biofilms do not allow easy penetration of antibiotics into their matrix making clinical treatment a challenge. The development of local antibiotic delivery systems that deliver high concentrations of antibiotics to the affected site is an emerging area of research with great potential. Standard treatment includes antibiotic therapy, either locally or systemically and refractory cases of osteomyelitis may lead to surgical intervention and a prolonged course of antibiotic treatment involving placement of antibiotic-doped beads or spacers within the wound site. There are disadvantages with this treatment modality including insufficient mixing of the antibiotic, lack of uniform bead size, resulting in lower antibiotic availability, and limitations on the antibiotics employed. Thus, a method is needed to address biofilm formations in the wound and on the surface of the surgical implants to prevent osteomyelitis. In this study, we show that all antibiotics studied were successfully doped into PMMA and antibiotic-doped 3D printed beads, disks, and filaments were easily printed. The growth inhibition capacity of the antibiotic-loaded PMMA 3D printed constructs was also demonstrated.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • 3D bioprinting for biomedical devices and tissue engineering: A review of
           recent trends and advances

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Soroosh Derakhshanfar, Rene Mbeleck, Kaige Xu, Xingying Zhang, Wen Zhong, Malcolm Xing
      3D printing, an additive manufacturing based technology for precise 3D construction, is currently widely employed to enhance applicability and function of cell laden scaffolds. Research on novel compatible biomaterials for bioprinting exhibiting fast crosslinking properties is an essential prerequisite toward advancing 3D printing applications in tissue engineering. Printability to improve fabrication process and cell encapsulation are two of the main factors to be considered in development of 3D bioprinting. Other important factors include but are not limited to printing fidelity, stability, crosslinking time, biocompatibility, cell encapsulation and proliferation, shear-thinning properties, and mechanical properties such as mechanical strength and elasticity. In this review, we recite recent promising advances in bioink development as well as bioprinting methods. Also, an effort has been made to include studies with diverse types of crosslinking methods such as photo, chemical and ultraviolet (UV). We also propose the challenges and future outlook of 3D bioprinting application in medical sciences and discuss the high performance bioinks.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • Bioactive polydimethylsiloxane surface for optimal human mesenchymal stem
           cell sheet culture

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Zichen Qian, David Ross, Wenkai Jia, Qi Xing, Feng Zhao
      Human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) sheets hold great potential in engineering three-dimensional (3D) completely biological tissues for diverse applications. Conventional cell sheet culturing methods employing thermoresponsive surfaces are cost ineffective, and rely heavily on available facilities. In this study, a cost-effective method of layer-by-layer grafting was utilized for covalently binding a homogenous collagen I layer on a commonly used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrate surface in order to improve its cell adhesion as well as the uniformity of the resulting hMSC cell sheet. Results showed that a homogenous collagen I layer was obtained via this grafting method, which improved hMSC adhesion and attachment through reliable collagen I binding sites. By utilizing this low-cost method, a uniform hMSC sheet was generated. This technology potentially allows for mass production of hMSC sheets to fulfill the demand of thick hMSC constructs for tissue engineering and biomanufacturing applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • Magnesium degradation under physiological conditions – Best practice

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jorge Gonzalez, Rui Qing Hou, Eshwara P.S. Nidadavolu, Regine Willumeit-Römer, Frank Feyerabend
      This review focusses on the application of physiological conditions for the mechanistic understanding of magnesium degradation. Despite the undisputed relevance of simplified laboratory setups for alloy screening purposes, realistic and predictive in vitro setups are needed. Due to the complexity of these systems, the review gives an overview about technical measures, defines some caveats and can be used as a guideline for the establishment of harmonized laboratory approaches.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • Highly photostable nanogels for fluorescence-based theranostics

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dipendra Gyawali, Jimin P. Kim, Jian Yang
      A novel photo-crosslinkable nanogel is prepared from a biodegradable polymer template with intrinsic photoluminescence and high photostability. The fluorescent nanogels display excellent biodegradability and cytocompatibility owed to the facile synthesis scheme involving a solvent- and surfactant-free one-pot reaction, derived entirely from biocompatible monomers citric acid, maleic acid, L-cysteine, and poly(ethylene glycol). The resultant nanogels are less than 200 nm in diameter with a narrow size distribution and monodispersity, and demonstrate long-term structural stability in biological buffer for two weeks. To gauge potential in theranostic applications, the fluorescent nanogels were surface functionalized with biologically active RGD peptides and encapsulated with active anti-cancer drug Doxorubicin, resulting in a pH-responsive controlled drug release in acidic pH resembling tumor environments. The strong fluorescence of the nanogels enabled tracking of targeted drug delivery, showing that drug-loaded nanogels homed into the cytoplasmic regions of prostate cancer cells to significantly induce cell death. These photo-crosslinkable and biodegradable nanogels pose as a strong candidate for theranostic medicine, demonstrating versatile functionalization, high stability in biological buffers, and capacity for real-time fluorescence-based monitoring of targeted drug delivery.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • Inhibition of HeLa cell growth by doxorubicin-loaded and
           tuftsin-conjugated arginate-PEG microparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Tianmu Hu, Anwar Saeed Ahmed Qahtan, Lei Lei, Zhixin Lei, Dapeng Zhao, Hemin Nie
      In order to improve the release pattern of chemotherapy drug and reduce the possibility of drug resistance, poly(ethylene glycol amine) (PEG)-modified alginate microparticles (ALG-PEG MPs) were developed then two different mechanisms were employed to load doxorubicin (Dox): 1) forming Dox/ALG-PEG complex by electrostatic attractions between unsaturated functional groups in Dox and ALG-PEG; 2) forming Dox-ALG-PEG complex through EDC-reaction between the amino and carboxyl groups in Dox and ALG, respectively. Additionally, tuftsin (TFT), a natural immunomodulation peptide, was conjugated to MPs in order to enhance the efficiency of cellular uptake. It was found that the Dox-ALG-PEG-TFT MPs exhibited a significantly slower release of Dox than Dox/ALG-PEG-TFT MPs in neutral medium, suggesting the role of covalent bonding in prolonging Dox retention. Besides, the release of Dox from these MPs was pH-sensitive, and the release rate was observably increased at pH 6.5 compared to the case at pH 7.4. Compared with Dox/ALG-PEG MPs and Dox-ALG-PEG MPs, their counterparts further conjugated with TFT more efficiently inhibited the growth of HeLa cells over a period of 48 h, implying the effectiveness of TFT in enhancing cellular uptake of MPs. Over a period of 48 h, Dox-ALG-PEG-TFT MPs inhibited the growth of HeLa cells less efficiently than Dox/ALG-PEG-TFT MPs but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). In consideration of the prolonged and sustained release of Dox, Dox-ALG-PEG-TFT MPs possess the advantages for long-term treatment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-20T20:49:00Z
  • An overview of graphene-based hydroxyapatite composites for orthopedic

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ming Li, Pan Xiong, Feng Yan, Sijie Li, Changhong Ren, Zhichen Yin, Ang Li, Huafang Li, Xunming Ji, Yufeng Zheng, Yan Cheng
      Hydroxyapatite (HA) is an attractive bioceramic for hard tissue repair and regeneration due to its physicochemical similarities to natural apatite. However, its low fracture toughness, poor tensile strength and weak wear resistance become major obstacles for potential clinical applications. One promising method to tackle with these problems is exploiting graphene and its derivatives (graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide) as nanoscale reinforcement fillers to fabricate graphene-based hydroxyapatite composites in the form of powders, coatings and scaffolds. The last few years witnessed increasing numbers of studies on the preparation, mechanical and biological evaluations of these novel materials. Herein, various preparation techniques, mechanical behaviors and toughen mechanism, the in vitro/in vivo biocompatible analysis, antibacterial properties of the graphene-based HA composites are presented in this review.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-09T17:10:26Z
  • In vitro cytocompatibility evaluation of poly(octamethylene citrate)
           monomers toward their use in orthopedic regenerative engineering

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Chuying Ma, Ethan Gerhard, Qiaoling Lin, Silun Xia, April Dawn Armstrong, Jian Yang
      Citrate based polymer poly(octamethylene citrate) (POC) has shown promise when formulated into composite material containing up to 65 wt% hydroxylapatite (HA) for orthopedic applications. Despite significant research into POC, insufficient information about the biocompatibility of the monomers 1,8-Octanediol and Citrate used in its synthesis is available. Herein, we investigated the acute cytotoxicity, immune response, and long-term functionality of both monomers. Our results showed a cell-type dependent cytotoxicity of the two monomers: 1,8-Octanediol induced less acute toxicity to 3T3 fibroblasts than Citrate while presenting comparable cytotoxicity to MG63 osteoblast-like cells; however, Citrate demonstrated enhanced compatibility with hMSCs compared to 1,8-Octanediol. The critical cytotoxic concentration values EC30 and EC50, standard for comparing cytotoxicity of chemicals, were also provided. Additionally, Citrate showed slower and less inhibitory effects on long-term hMSC cell proliferation compared with 1,8-Octanediol. Furthermore, osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs exposure to Citrate resulted in less inhibitory effect on alkaline phosphatase (ALP) production. Neither monomer triggered undesired pro-inflammatory responses. In combination with diffusion model analysis of monomer release from cylindrical implants, based on which the maximum concentration of monomers in contact with bone tissue was estimated to be 2.2 × 10−4 mmol/L, far lower than the critical cytotoxic concentrations as well as the 1,8-Octanediol concentration (0.4 mg/mL or 2.7 mmol/L) affecting hMSCs differentiation, we provide strong evidence for the cytocompatibility of the two monomers degraded from citrate-based composites in the orthopedic setting.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-09T17:10:26Z
  • Optimization of mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and
           antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy by heat treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 3, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mianmian Bao, Ying Liu, Xiaoyan Wang, Lei Yang, Shengyi Li, Jing Ren, Gaowu Qin, Erlin Zhang
      Previous study has shown that Ti-3Cu alloy shows good antibacterial properties (>90% antibacterial rate), but the mechanical properties still need to be improved. In this paper, a series of heat-treatment processes were selected to adjust the microstructure in order to optimize the properties of Ti-3Cu alloy. Microstructure, mechanical properties, biocorrosion properties and antibacterial properties of wrought Ti-3Cu alloy at different conditions was systematically investigated by X-ray diffraction, optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, electrochemical measurements, tensile test, fatigue test and antibacterial test. Heat treatment could significantly improve the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial rate due to the redistribution of copper elements and precipitation of Ti2Cu phase. Solid solution treatment increased the yield strength from 400 to 740 MPa and improved the antibacterial rate from 33% to 65.2% while aging treatment enhanced the yield strength to 800–850 MPa and antibacterial rate (>91.32%). It was demonstrated that homogeneous distribution and fine Ti2Cu phase plays a very important role in mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and antibacterial properties.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-09T17:10:26Z
  • Recent progress on biodegradable materials and transient electronics

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Rongfeng Li, Liu Wang, Deying Kong, Lan Yin
      Transient electronics (or biodegradable electronics) is an emerging technology whose key characteristic is an ability to dissolve, resorb, or physically disappear in physiological environments in a controlled manner. Potential applications include eco-friendly sensors, temporary biomedical implants, and data-secure hardware. Biodegradable electronics built with water-soluble, biocompatible active and passive materials can provide multifunctional operations for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as monitoring intracranial pressure, identifying neural networks, assisting wound healing process, etc. This review summarizes the up-to-date materials strategies, manufacturing schemes, and device layouts for biodegradable electronics, and the outlook is discussed at the end. It is expected that the translation of these materials and technologies into clinical settings could potentially provide vital tools that are beneficial for human healthcare.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-30T00:53:12Z
  • Update on the 2nd Bioactive Materials Editorial Board Meeting

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Mark P. Staiger

      PubDate: 2017-12-30T00:53:12Z
  • Study of locust bean gum reinforced cyst-chitosan and oxidized dextran
           based semi-IPN cryogel dressing for hemostatic application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Lalit Kumar Meena, Pavani Raval, Dhaval Kedaria, Rajesh Vasita
      Severe blood loss due to traumatic injuries remains one of the leading causes of death in emergency settings. Chitosan continues to be the candidate material for hemostatic applications due to its inherent hemostatic properties. However, available chitosan-based dressings have been reported to have an acidic odor at the wound site due to the incorporation of acid based solvents for their fabrication and deformation under compression owing to low mechanical strength limiting its usability. In the present study semi-IPN cryogel was fabricated via Schiff's base cross-linking between the polyaldehyde groups of oxidized dextran and thiolated chitosan in presence of locust bean gum (LBG) known for its hydrophilicity. Polymerization at −12 °C yielded macroporous semi-IPN cryogels with an average pore size of 124.57 ± 20.31 μm and 85.46% porosity. The hydrophobicity index of LBG reinforced semi-IPN cryogel was reduced 2.42 times whereas the swelling ratio was increased by 156.08% compare to control cryogel. The increased hydrophilicity and swelling ratio inflated the compressive modulus from 28.1 kPa to 33.85 for LBG reinforced semi-IPN cryogel. The structural stability and constant degradation medium pH were also recorded over a period of 12 weeks. The cryogels demonstrated lower adsorption affinity towards BSA. The cytotoxicity assays (direct, indirect) with 3T3-L1 fibroblast cells confirmed the cytocompatibility of the cryogels. The hemolysis assay showed <5% hemolysis confirming blood compatibility of the fabricated cryogel, while whole blood clotting and platelet adhesion assays confirmed the hemostatic potential of semi-IPN cryogel.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-09T11:07:21Z
  • Nanomaterials for treating cardiovascular diseases: A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Wensen Jiang, Dana Rutherford, Tiffany Vuong, Huinan Liu
      Nanomaterials such as nanostructured surfaces, nanoparticles, and nanocomposites represent new viable sources for future therapeutics for cardiovascular diseases. The special properties of nanomaterials such as their intrinsic physiochemical properties, surface energy and surface topographies could actively enhance desirable cellular responses within the cardiovascular system, projecting a growing potential for clinical translation. Recent progress on nanomaterials opened up new opportunities for treating cardiovascular diseases. Successful translation of nanomaterials into cardiovascular applications requires a comprehensive understanding of both nanomaterials and biomedicine, and, thus, it is critical to stress current advancements on both sides. In this review, the authors introduced crucial fabrication techniques for promising nanomaterials for cardiovascular applications. This review highlighted the key elements to consider for their fabrication, properties and applications. The important concerns relevant to cardiovascular nanomaterials, such as cellular responses to nanomaterials and the toxicity of nanomaterials, are also discussed. This review provided an overview of necessary knowledge and key concerns on nanomaterials specific for treating cardiovascular diseases, from the perspectives of both material science and biomedicine.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-09T11:07:21Z
  • 3D bioactive composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Gareth Turnbull, Jon Clarke, Frédéric Picard, Philip Riches, Luanluan Jia, Fengxuan Han, Bin Li, Wenmiao Shu
      Bone is the second most commonly transplanted tissue worldwide, with over four million operations using bone grafts or bone substitute materials annually to treat bone defects. However, significant limitations affect current treatment options and clinical demand for bone grafts continues to rise due to conditions such as trauma, cancer, infection and arthritis. Developing bioactive three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds to support bone regeneration has therefore become a key area of focus within bone tissue engineering (BTE). A variety of materials and manufacturing methods including 3D printing have been used to create novel alternatives to traditional bone grafts. However, individual groups of materials including polymers, ceramics and hydrogels have been unable to fully replicate the properties of bone when used alone. Favourable material properties can be combined and bioactivity improved when groups of materials are used together in composite 3D scaffolds. This review will therefore consider the ideal properties of bioactive composite 3D scaffolds and examine recent use of polymers, hydrogels, metals, ceramics and bio-glasses in BTE. Scaffold fabrication methodology, mechanical performance, biocompatibility, bioactivity, and potential clinical translations will be discussed.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-09T11:07:21Z
  • Preparation and characterization of bioactive glass tablets and evaluation
           of bioactivity and cytotoxicity in vitro

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Jianhui Chen, Lei Zeng, Xiaofeng Chen, Tianshun Liao, Jiafu Zheng
      In this study, the SiO2 CaOP2O5 ternary component of bioactive glass particles were successfully synthesized by sol-gel method, then the bioactive glass particles were pressed into tablets with dry pressing molding technology. The physicochemical structure, in-vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of BG tablets were characterized by various methods, such as XRD、SEM、FTIR, etc. The results showed that the sol-gel bioactive glass particle was distinguished with its amorphous structure and micron-size. After being soaked in Tris-Hcl solution for 15 d, the bioactive glass tablets didn't collapse. Also, the mineralization assay in vitro showed that the bioactive glass tablets had good capability of inducing the formation of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). In addition, the cytotoxicity assay indicated that the osteoblast (MC3T3) grew well on the surface of bioactive glass tablets. According to the above results, the bioactive glass tablets presented good mechanical strength, excellent apatite-forming activity and high biocompatibility, which demonstrated their potential applications in the field of bone defect repairing.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-09T11:07:21Z
  • Unique strengthening mechanisms of ultrahigh pressure Mg alloys

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Bingcheng Ge, Hui Fu, Kunkun Deng, Qingrui Zhang, Qiuming Peng
      Ultrahigh pressure technique remarkably extends solid solubility limitation of Al alloying element (∼25 at.%) in Mg alloys, resulting in unique solid-solution strengthening and age hardening response. Microhardness, yield strength and ultimate compressive strength are improved simultaneously without degrading plasticity by forming homogeneous and globular-shaped Mg17Al12 precipitates of 10–30 nm. In addition, thermal resistance is enhanced by eliminating the dominant growth of (101) plane and anchoring dense stacking faults in phase interface.
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      PubDate: 2017-12-09T11:07:21Z
  • Starch based nanofibrous scaffolds for wound healing applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Vijaya Sadashiv Waghmare, Pallavi Ravindra Wadke, Sathish Dyawanapelly, Aparna Deshpande, Ratnesh Jain, Prajakta Dandekar
      Starch is an attractive polymer for wound healing applications because of its wide availability, low cost, biocompatibility, biodegradability and wound-healing property. Here, we have fabricated starch-based nanofibrous scaffolds by electrospinning for wound healing applications. The diameter of the optimized nanofibers was determined by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and was found to be in the range of 110–300 nm. The mechanical strength (0.5–0.8 MPa) of the nanofibrous scaffolds was attuned using polyvinyl alcohol (plasticizer) and glutaraldehyde (crosslinking agent), to impart them with sufficient durability for skin tissue engineering. Absence of negative interactions between the polymers was confirmed by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), differential scanning microscopy (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Cellular assays with L929 mouse fibroblast cells indicated the ability of the scaffolds to promote cellular proliferation, without exhibiting any toxic effect to the cells. Thus, the nanofibrous scaffolds demonstrated potential for wound healing applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-28T07:17:39Z
  • Chitosan based metallic nanocomposite scaffolds as antimicrobial wound

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Annapoorna Mohandas, S. Deepthi, Raja Biswas, R. Jayakumar
      Chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds have attracted wider applications in medicine, in the area of drug delivery, tissue engineering and wound healing. Chitosan matrix incorporated with nanometallic components has immense potential in the area of wound dressings due to its antimicrobial properties. This review focuses on the different combinations of Chitosan metal nanocomposites such as Chitosan/nAg, Chitosan/nAu, Chitosan/nCu, Chitosan/nZnO and Chitosan/nTiO2 towards enhancement of healing or infection control with special reference to the antimicrobial mechanism of action and toxicity.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-28T07:17:39Z
  • Corrosion resistance of a novel SnO2-doped dicalcium phosphate coating on
           AZ31 magnesium alloy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 November 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Lan-Yue Cui, Guang-Bin Wei, Rong-Chang Zeng, Shuo-Qi Li, Yu-Hong Zou, En-Hou Han
      A SnO2-doped dicalcium phosphate coating was prepared on AZ31 alloy by means of hydrothermal deposition. The results showed that the coating possessed a globular morphology with a long lamellar crystalline structure and a thickness of approximately 40 μm. The surface of the coating became smooth with an increase additive amount of the SnO2 nanoparticles. The corrosion current density and hydrogen evolution rate of the coating prepared in presence of SnO2 were reduced compared to the coating without SnO2 and the bare AZ31 substrate, indicating an improvement in the corrosion resistance of the SnO2-doped coating.
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      PubDate: 2017-11-28T07:17:39Z
  • Exploring challenges ahead of nanotechnology for biomedicine

    • Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials, Volume 2, Issue 3
      Author(s): Julietta V. Rau, Roberto De Santis, Gianni Ciofani

      PubDate: 2017-10-19T07:36:45Z
  • Antioxidative study of Cerium Oxide nanoparticle functionalised
           PCL-Gelatin electrospun fibers for wound healing application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Hilal Ahmad Rather, Ria Thakore, Ragini Singh, Dhwani Jhala, Sanjay Singh, Rajesh Vasita
      Skin wound healing involves a coordinated cellular response to achieve complete reepithelialisation. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the wound environment often pose a hindrance in wound healing resulting in impaired wound healing process. Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNPs) have the ability to protect the cells from oxidative damage by actively scavenging the ROS. Furthermore, matrices like nanofibers have also been explored for enhancing wound healing. In the current study CeNP functionalised polycaprolactone (PCL)-gelatin nanofiber (PGNPNF) mesh was fabricated by electrospinning and evaluated for its antioxidative potential. Wide angle XRD analysis of randomly oriented nanofibers revealed ∼2.6 times reduced crystallinity than pristine PCL which aided in rapid degradation of nanofibers and release of CeNP. However, bioactive composite made between nanoparticles and PCL-gelatin maintained the fibrous morphology of PGNPNF upto 14 days. The PGNPNF mesh exhibited a superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic activity due to the incorporated CeNPs. The PGNPNF mesh enhanced proliferation of 3T3-L1 cells by ∼48% as confirmed by alamar blue assay and SEM micrographs of cells grown on the nanofibrous mesh. Furthermore, the PGNPNF mesh scavenged ROS, which was measured by relative DCF intensity and fluorescence microscopy; and subsequently increased the viability and proliferation of cells by three folds as it alleviated the oxidative stress. Overall, the results of this study suggest the potential of CeNP functionalised PCL-gelatin nanofibrous mesh for wound healing applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-03T21:29:47Z
  • Preparation of Chitin-PLA laminated composite for implantable application

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Romana Nasrin, Shanta Biswas, Taslim Ur Rashid, Sanjida Afrin, Rumana Akhter Jahan, Papia Haque, Mohammed Mizanur Rahman
      The present study explores the possibilities of using locally available inexpensive waste prawn shell derived chitin reinforced and bioabsorbable polylactic acid (PLA) laminated composites to develop new materials with excellent mechanical and thermal properties for implantable application such as in bone or dental implant. Chitin at different concentration (1–20% of PLA) reinforced PLA films (CTP) were fabricated by solvent casting process and laminated chitin-PLA composites (LCTP) were prepared by laminating PLA film (obtained by hot press method) with CTP also by hot press method at 160 °C. The effect of variation of chitin concentration on the resulting laminated composite's behavior was investigated. The detailed physico-mechanical, surface morphology and thermal were assessed with different characterization technique such as FT-IR, XRD, SEM and TGA. The FTIR spectra showed the characteristic peaks for chitin and PLA in the composites. SEM images showed an excellent dispersion of chitin in the films and composites. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the complete degradation of chitin, PLA film, 5% chitin reinforced PLA film (CTP2) and LCTP are 98%, 95%, 87% and 98% respectively at temperature of 500 °C. The tensile strength of the LCTP was found 25.09 MPa which is significantly higher than pure PLA film (18.55 MPa) and CTP2 film (8.83 MPa). After lamination of pure PLA and CTP2 film, the composite (LCTP) yielded 0.265–1.061% water absorption from 30 min to 24 h immerse in water that is much lower than PLA and CTP. The increased mechanical properties of the laminated films with the increase of chitin content indicated good dispersion of chitin into PLA and strong interfacial actions between the polymer and chitin. The improvement of mechanical properties and the results of antimicrobial and cytotoxicity of the composites also evaluated and revealed the composite would be a suitable candidate for implant application in biomedical sector.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-03T21:29:47Z
  • Alginate nanobeads interspersed fibrin network as in situ forming hydrogel
           for soft tissue engineering

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): S. Deepthi, R. Jayakumar
      Hydrogels are a class of materials that has the property of injectability and in situ gel formation. This property of hydrogels is manipulated in this study to develop a biomimetic bioresorbable injectable system of alginate nanobeads interspersed in fibrin network. Alginate nanobeads developed by calcium cross-linking yielded a size of 200–500 nm. The alginate nanobeads fibrin hydrogel was formed using dual syringe apparatus. Characterization of the in situ injectable hydrogel was done by SEM, FTIR and Rheometer. The developed hydrogel showed mechanical strength of 19 kPa which provides the suitable compliance for soft tissue engineering. Cytocompatibility studies using human umbilical cord blood derived mesenchymal stem cells showed good attachment, proliferation and infiltration within the hydrogel similar to fibrin gel. The developed in situ forming hydrogel could be a suitable delivery carrier of stem cells for soft tissue regeneration.
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      PubDate: 2017-10-03T21:29:47Z
  • In situ assembly of fibrinogen/hyaluronic acid hydrogel via knob-hole
           interaction for 3D cellular engineering

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Shengjie Huang, Chunfen Wang, Jingwei Xu, Lie Ma, Changyou Gao
      Hyaluronic acid (HA)-based hydrogels have applied widely for biomedical applications due to its biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the use of initiators or crosslinkers during the hydrogel formation may cause cytotoxicity and thereby impair the biocompatibility. Inspired by the crosslinking mechanism of fibrin gel, a novel HA-based hydrogel was developed via the in situ supramolecular assembly based on knob-hole interactions between fibrinogen and knob-grafted HA (knob-g-HA) in this study. The knob-grafted HA was synthesized by coupling knob peptides (GPRPAAC, a mimic peptide of fibrin knob A) to HA via Michael addition. Then the translucent fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels were prepared by simply mixing the solutions of knob-g-HA and fibrinogen at the knob/hole ratio of 1.2. The rheological behaviors of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels with the fibrinogen concentrations of 50, 100 and 200 mg/mL were evaluated, and it was found that the dynamic storage moduli (G′) were higher than the loss moduli (G″) over the whole frequency range for all the groups. The SEM results showed that fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels presented the heterogeneous mesh-like structures which were different from the honeycomb-like structures of fibrinogen/MA-HA hydrogels. Correspondingly, a higher swelling ratio was obtained in the groups of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogel. Finally, the cytocompatibility of fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels was proved by live/dead stainings and MTT assays in the 293T cells encapsulation test. All these results highlight the biological potential of the fibrinogen/knob-g-HA hydrogels for 3D cellular engineering.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-27T16:30:07Z
  • Fabrication of self-assembling nanofibers with optimal cell uptake and
           therapeutic delivery efficacy

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Dawei Xu, Damien S.K. Samways, He Dong
      Effective strategies to fabricate finite organic nanoparticles and understanding their structure-dependent cell interaction is highly important for the development of long circulating nanocarriers in cancer therapy. In this contribution, we will capitalize on our recent development of finite supramolecular nanofibers based on the self-assembly of modularly designed cationic multidomain peptides (MDPs) and use them as a model system to investigate structure-dependent cell penetrating activity. MDPs self-assembled into nanofibers with high density of cationic charges at the fiber-solvent interface to interact with the cell membrane. However, despite the multivalent charge presentation, not all fibers led to high levels of membrane activity and cellular uptake. The flexibility of the cationic charge domains on self-assembled nanofibers plays a key role in effective membrane perturbation. Nanofibers were found to sacrifice their dimension, thermodynamic and kinetic stability for a more flexible charge domain in order to achieve effective membrane interaction. The increased membrane activity led to improved cell uptake of membrane-impermeable chemotherapeutics through membrane pore formation. In vitro cytotoxicity study showed co-administering of water-soluble doxorubicin with membrane-active peptide nanofibers dramatically reduced the IC50 by eight folds compared to drug alone. Through these detailed structure and activity studies, the acquired knowledge will provide important guidelines for the design of a variety of supramolecular cell penetrating nanomaterials not limited to peptide assembly which can be used to probe various complex biological processes.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-27T16:30:07Z
  • The development of collagen based composite scaffolds for bone

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Dawei Zhang, Xiaowei Wu, Jingdi Chen, Kaili Lin
      Bone is consisted of bone matrix, cells and bioactive factors, and bone matrix is the combination of inorganic minerals and organic polymers. Type I collagen fibril made of five triple-helical collagen chains is the main organic polymer in bone matrix. It plays an important role in the bone formation and remodeling process. Moreover, collagen is one of the most commonly used scaffold materials for bone tissue engineering due to its excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, the low mechanical strength and osteoinductivity of collagen limit its wider applications in bone regeneration field. By incorporating different biomaterials, the properties such as porosity, structural stability, osteoinductivity, osteogenicity of collagen matrixes can be largely improved. This review summarizes and categorizes different kinds of biomaterials including bioceramic, carbon and polymer materials used as components to fabricate collagen based composite scaffolds for bone regeneration. Moreover, the possible directions of future research and development in this field are also proposed.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-20T14:33:25Z
  • DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded thermo-sensitive polypeptide hydrogel for
           efficient melanoma treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Qiang Lv, Chaoliang He, Fenli Quan, Shuangjiang Yu, Xuesi Chen
      Melanoma has been a serious threat to the human health; however, effective therapeutic methods of this cancer are still limited. Combined local therapy is a crucial approach for achieving a superior anti-tumor efficacy. In this paper, a chemo-immunotherapy system of DOX, IL-2 and IFN-γ based on poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(γ-ethyl-L-glutamate) (PELG-PEG-PELG) hydrogel was developed for local treatment of melanoma xenograft. The drug release process of this system exhibited a short term of burst release (the first 3 days), followed by a long-term sustained release (the following 26 days). The hydrogel degraded completely within 3 weeks without obvious inflammatory responses in the subcutaneous layer of rats, showing a good biodegradability and biocompatibility. The DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ co-loaded hydrogel also showed enhanced anti-tumor effect against B16F10 cells in vitro, through increasing the ratio of cell apoptosis and G2/S phage cycle arrest. Moreover, the combined strategy presented improved therapy efficacy against B16F10 melanoma xenograft without obvious systemic side effects in a nude mice model, which was likely related to both the enhanced tumor cell apoptosis and the increased proliferation of the CD3+/CD4+ T-lymphocytes and CD3+/CD8+ T-lymphocytes. Overall, the strategy of localized co-delivery of DOX/IL-2/IFN-γ using the polypeptide hydrogel provided a promising approach for efficient melanoma therapy.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:12:45Z
  • Biodegradation of Mg-14Li alloy in simulated body fluid: A
           proof-of-concept study

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 September 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Xiao-Bo Chen, Chuanqiang Li, Daokui Xu
      High corrosion kinetics and localised corrosion progress are the primary concerns arising from the clinical implementation of magnesium (Mg) based implantable devices. In this study, a binary Mg-lithium (Li) alloy consisting a record high Li content of 14% (in weight) was employed as model material aiming to yield homogenous and slow corrosion behaviour in a simulated body fluid, i.e. minimum essential medium (MEM), in comparison to that of generic Mg alloy AZ31 and biocompatible Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca counterparts. Scanning electron microscopy examination reveals single-phase microstructural characteristics of Mg-14Li (β-Li), whilst the presence of insoluble phases, cathodic to α-Mg matrix, in AZ31 and Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca. Though slight differences exist in the corrosion kinetics of all the specimens over a short-term time scale (no longer than 60 min), as indicated by potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, profound variations are apparent in terms of immersion tests, i.e. mass loss and hydrogen evolution measurements (up to 7 days). Cross-sectional micrographs unveil severe pitting corrosion in AZ31 and Mg-0.5Zn-0.5Ca, but not the case for Mg-14Li. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirm that a compact film (25 μm in thickness) consisting of lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and calcium hydroxide was generated on the surface of Mg-14Li in MEM, which contributes greatly to its low corrosion rate. It is proposed therefore that the single-phase structure and formation of protective and defect-free Li2CO3 film give rise to the controlled and homogenous corrosion behaviour of Mg-14Li in MEM, providing new insights for the exploration of biodegradable Mg materials.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-08T11:12:45Z
  • In vivo evaluation of urokinase-loaded hollow nanogels for
           sonothrombolysis on suture embolization-induced acute ischemic stroke rat

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Yuming Teng, Haiqiang Jin, Ding Nan, Mengnan Li, Chenghe Fan, Yuanyuan Liu, Pu Lv, Wei Cui, Yongan Sun, Hongjun Hao, Xiaozhong Qu, Zhenzhong Yang, Yining Huang
      The urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) loaded hollow nanogels (nUK) were synthesized by a one-step reaction of glycol chitosan and aldehyde capped poly (ethylene oxide). The resultant formulation is sensitive to diagnostic ultrasound (US) of 2 MHz. Herein, we evaluated the in vivo sonothrombolysis performance of the nUK on acute ischemic stroke rat model which was established by suture embolization of middle cerebral artery (MCA). Via intravenous (i.v.) administration, the experimental data prove a controlled release of the therapeutic protein around the clots under ultrasound stimulation, leading to enhanced thrombolysis efficiency of the nUK, evidenced from smaller infarct volume and better clinical scores when compared to the i.v. dose of free uPA no matter with or without US intervention. Meanwhile, the preservation ability of the nanogels not only prolonged the circulation duration of the protein, but also resulted in the better blood-brain barrier protection of the nUK formulation, showing no increased risk on the hemorrhagic transformation than the controls. This work suggests that the nUK is a safe sonothrombolytic formulation for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.
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      PubDate: 2017-09-02T08:44:22Z
  • RF magnetron-sputtered coatings deposited from biphasic calcium phosphate
           targets for biomedical implant applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): K.A. Prosolov, K.S. Popova, O.A. Belyavskaya, J.V. Rau, K.A. Gross, A. Ubelis, Yu.P. Sharkeev
      Bioactive calcium phosphate coatings were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering from biphasic targets of hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, sintered at different mass % ratios. According to Raman scattering and X-ray diffraction data, the deposited hydroxyapatite coatings have a disordered structure. High-temperature treatment of the coatings in air leads to a transformation of the quasi-amorphous structure into a crystalline one. A correlation has been observed between the increase in the Ca content in the coatings and a subsequent decrease in Ca in the biphasic targets after a series of deposition processes. It was proposed that the addition of tricalcium phosphate to the targets would led to a finer coating's surface topography with the average size of 78 nm for the structural elements.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-02T19:02:41Z
  • An in vivo study on the effect of coating stability on osteointegration
           performance of collagen/hyaluronic acid multilayer modified titanium

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Haiyong Ao, Jiajia Zong, Yanjiao Nie, Yizao Wan, Xiebin Zheng
      Aseptic loosening of implant is one of the main causes of Ti-based implant failure. In our previous work, a novel stable collagen/hyaluronic acid (Col/HA) multilayer modified titanium coatings (TCs) was developed by layer-by-layer (LBL) covalent immobilization technique, which showed enhanced biological properties compared with TCs that were physically absorbed with Col/HA multilayer in vitro. In this study, a rabbit model with femur condyle defect was employed to compare the osteointegration performance of them. Results indicated that Col/HA multilayer with favourable stability could better facilitate osteogenesis around implants and bone-implant contact. The Col/HA multilayer covalent-immobilized TC may reduce aseptic loosening of implant.
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      PubDate: 2017-08-02T19:02:41Z
  • Manufacturing of graded titanium scaffolds using a novel space holder

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Yunhui Chen, Damon Kent, Michael Bermingham, Ali Dehghan-Manshadi, Gui Wang, Cuie Wen, Matthew Dargusch
      To optimize both the mechanical and biological properties of titanium for biomedical implants, a highly flexible powder metallurgy approach is proposed to generate porous scaffolds with graded porosities and pore sizes. Sugar pellets acting as space holders were compacted with titanium powder and then removed by dissolution in water before sintering. The morphology, pore structure, porosity and pore interconnectivity were observed by optical microscopy and SEM. The results show that the porous titanium has porosity levels and pore size gradients consistent with their design with gradual and smooth transitions at the interfaces between regions of differing porosities and/or pore sizes. Meanwhile, the porous titanium has high interconnectivity between pores and highly spherical pore shapes. In this article we show that this powder metallurgy processing technique, employing the novel sugar pellets as space-holders, can generate porous titanium foams with well-controlled graded porosities and pore sizes. This method has excellent potential for producing porous titanium structures for hard tissue engineering applications.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-25T14:05:10Z
  • Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles: Development & statistical
           optimization of norfloxacin for topical drug delivery system

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Vivek Dave, Renu Bala Yadav, Kriti Kushwaha, Sachdev Yadav, Swapnil Sharma, Udita Agrawal
      Poly lactic acid is a biodegradable, biocompatible, and non-toxic polymer, widely used in many pharmaceutical preparations such as controlled release formulations, parenteral preparations, surgical treatment applications, and tissue engineering. In this study, we prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles for topical and site targeting delivery of Norfloxacin by emulsification solvent evaporation method (ESE). The design of experiment (DOE) was done by using software to optimize the result, and then a surface plot was generated to compare with the practical results. The surface morphology, particle size, zeta potential and composition of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were characterized by SEM, TEM, AFM, and FTIR. The thermal behavior of the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was characterized by DSC and TGA. The prepared lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin exhibited an average particle size from 178.6 ± 3.7 nm to 220.8 ± 2.3 nm, and showed very narrow distribution with polydispersity index ranging from 0.206 ± 0.36 to 0.383 ± 0.66. The surface charge on the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles were confirmed by zeta potential, showed the value from +23.4 ± 1.5 mV to +41.5 ± 3.4 mV. An Antimicrobial study was done against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles showed potential activity against these two. Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles of Norfloxacin showed the %cumulative drug release of 89.72% in 24 h. A stability study of the optimized formulation showed the suitable condition for the storage of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles was at 4 ± 2 °C/60 ± 5% RH. These results illustrated high potential of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles Norfloxacin for usage as a topical antibiotic drug carriers.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-17T10:35:10Z
  • Construction of versatile multilayered composite nanoparticles from a
           customized nanogel template

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 July 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Jian Zhang, Jinpeng Jia, Jimin P. Kim, Fei Yang, Xing Wang, Hong Shen, Sijia Xu, Jian Yang, Decheng Wu
      We present a highly adaptable design platform for multi-responsive, multilayered composite nanoparticles (MC-NPs) with fine-tunable functional layers. A flexible disulfide-linked nanogel template is obtained by a controlled in-situ gelation method, enabling a high degree of control over each successive layer. From this template, we optimize “smart” biomaterials with biofunctional surfaces, tunable drug release kinetics, and magnetic or pH-responsive functionality, fabricated into MC-NPs for targeted drug release and periosteum-mimetic structures for controlled rhBMP-2 release towards bone tissue formation in-vivo. Such a versatile platform for the design of MC-NPs is a powerful tool that shows considerable therapeutic potential in clinical fields such as oncology and orthopedics.
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      PubDate: 2017-07-08T07:04:22Z
  • Analysis of the in vitro degradation and the in vivo tissue response to
           bi-layered 3D-printed scaffolds combining PLA and biphasic PLA/bioglass
           components – Guidance of the inflammatory response as basis for
           osteochondral regeneration

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Mike Barbeck, Tiziano Serra, Patrick Booms, Sanja Stojanovic, Stevo Najman, Elisabeth Engel, Robert Sader, Charles James Kirkpatrick, Melba Navarro, Shahram Ghanaati
      The aim of the present study was the in vitro and in vivo analysis of a bi-layered 3D-printed scaffold combining a PLA layer and a biphasic PLA/bioglass G5 layer for regeneration of osteochondral defects in vivo Focus of the in vitro analysis was on the (molecular) weight loss and the morphological and mechanical variations after immersion in SBF. The in vivo study focused on analysis of the tissue reactions and differences in the implant bed vascularization using an established subcutaneous implantation model in CD-1 mice and established histological and histomorphometrical methods. Both scaffold parts kept their structural integrity, while changes in morphology were observed, especially for the PLA/G5 scaffold. Mechanical properties decreased with progressive degradation, while the PLA/G5 scaffolds presented higher compressive modulus than PLA scaffolds. The tissue reaction to PLA included low numbers of BMGCs and minimal vascularization of its implant beds, while the addition of G5 lead to higher numbers of BMGCs and a higher implant bed vascularization. Analysis revealed that the use of a bi-layered scaffold shows the ability to observe distinct in vivo response despite the physical proximity of PLA and PLA/G5 layers. Altogether, the results showed that the addition of G5 enables to reduce scaffold weight loss and to increase mechanical strength. Furthermore, the addition of G5 lead to a higher vascularization of the implant bed required as basis for bone tissue regeneration mediated by higher numbers of BMGCs, while within the PLA parts a significantly lower vascularization was found optimally for chondral regeneration. Thus, this data show that the analyzed bi-layered scaffold may serve as an ideal basis for the regeneration of osteochondral tissue defects. Additionally, the results show that it might be able to reduce the number of experimental animals required as it may be possible to analyze the tissue response to more than one implant in one experimental animal.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T02:02:17Z
  • Seeking Convergence to advance Biomaterials Science and Translation by
           Chinese Association for Biomaterials

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Guigen Zhang, Jian Yang, Bingyun Li, Kelvin Yeung, Yi Hong
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-28T02:02:17Z
  • Bone grafts and biomaterials substitutes for bone defect repair:
           A review

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Wenhao Wang, Kelvin W.K. Yeung
      Bone grafts have been predominated used to treat bone defects, delayed union or non-union, and spinal fusion in orthopaedic clinically for a period of time, despite the emergency of synthetic bone graft substitutes. Nevertheless, the integration of allogeneic grafts and synthetic substitutes with host bone was found jeopardized in long-term follow-up studies. Hence, the enhancement of osteointegration of these grafts and substitutes with host bone is considerably important. To address this problem, addition of various growth factors, such as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), parathyroid hormone (PTH) and platelet rich plasma (PRP), into structural allografts and synthetic substitutes have been considered. Although clinical applications of these factors have exhibited good bone formation, their further application was limited due to high cost and potential adverse side effects. Alternatively, bioinorganic ions such as magnesium, strontium and zinc are considered as alternative of osteogenic biological factors. Hence, this paper aims to review the currently available bone grafts and bone substitutes as well as the biological and bio-inorganic factors for the treatments of bone defect.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T11:31:56Z
  • Recyclable magnetite-silver heterodimer nanocomposites with durable
           antibacterial performance

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Chunyan Yong, Xiaoqin Chen, Qian Xiang, Qiang Li, Xiaodong Xing
      There is a significant need for magnetite-silver nanocomposites that exhibit durable and recyclable antimicrobial activity. In this study, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (Fe3O4 NPs) coated with ethylenediamine-modified chitosan/polyacrylic acid copolymeric layer (Fe3O4@ECS/PAA) were fabricated. Subsequently, directly deposited silver (Ag) NPs procedure was carried out to form the antibacterial heterodimers of Fe3O4@ECS/PAA-Ag NPs. The composition and morphology of the resultant nanostructures were confirmed by FT-IR, XRD, TEM and TGA. The overall length of the heterodimers was approximately 45 nm, in which the mean diameter of Fe3O4@ECS/PAA NPs reached up to 35 nm, and that of Ag NPs was around 15 nm. The mass fraction of silver NPs in the nanocomposites was about 63.1%. The obtained Fe3O4@ECS/PAA NPs exhibited good colloidal stability, and excellent response to additional magnetic field, making the NPs easy to recover after antibacterial tests. In particular, the Fe3O4@ECS/PAA-Ag NPs retained nearly 100% biocidal efficiency (106–107 CFU/mg nanoparticles) for both Gram-negative bacteria E. coli and Gram-positive bacteria S. aureus throughout ten cycles without washing with any solvents or water, exhibiting potent and durable antibacterial activity.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-06-10T11:31:56Z
  • Incorporating catechol into electroactive polypyrrole nanowires on
           titanium to promote hydroxyapatite formation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Zhengao Wang, Jinquan Zeng, Guoxin Tan, Jingwen Liao, Lei Zhou, Junqi Chen, Peng Yu, Qiyou Wang, Chengyun Ning
      To improve the osteointegration property of biomedical titanium, nano-architectured electroactive coating was synthesized through the electrochemical polymerization of dopamine and pyrrole. The highly binding affinity of Ca2+ to the catechol moiety of doped dopamine enabled efficient interaction between polypyrrole/polydopamine nanowires and mineral ions. The results indicate that the PPy/PDA nanowires preserved its efficient electro-activity and accelerated the hydroxyapatite deposition in a simulated body fluid. The PPy/PDA nanowires coating could be applied to promote the osteointegration of titanium implant.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-30T07:26:51Z
  • Smart biomaterials: Surfaces functionalized with proteolytically stable
           osteoblast-adhesive peptides

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Annj Zamuner, Paola Brun, Michele Scorzeto, Giuseppe Sica, Ignazio Castagliuolo, Monica Dettin
      Engineered scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration are designed to promote cell adhesion, growth, proliferation and differentiation. Recently, covalent and selective functionalization of glass and titanium surfaces with an adhesive peptide (HVP) mapped on [351–359] sequence of human Vitronectin allowed to selectively increase osteoblast attachment and adhesion strength in in vitro assays, and to promote osseointegration in in vivo studies. For the first time to our knowledge, in this study we investigated the resistance of adhesion sequences to proteolytic digestion: HVP was completely cleaved after 5 h. In order to overcome the enzymatic degradation of the native peptide under physiological conditions we synthetized three analogues of HVP sequence. A retro-inverted peptide D-2HVP, composed of D amino acids, was completely stable in serum-containing medium. In addition, glass surfaces functionalized with D-2HVP increased human osteoblast adhesion as compared to the native peptide and maintained deposition of calcium. Interestingly, D-2HVP increased expression of IBSP, VTN and SPP1 genes as compared to HVP functionalized surfaces. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope analysis showed cells with numerous filopodia spread on D-2HVP-functionalized surfaces. Therefore, the D-2HVP sequence is proposed as new osteoblast adhesive peptide with increased bioactivity and high proteolytic resistance.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:01:14Z
  • Incorporation of bioactive glass nanoparticles in electrospun PCL/chitosan
           fibers by using benign solvents

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Liliana Liverani, Jonas Lacina, Judith A. Roether, Elena Boccardi, Manuela S. Killian, Patrik Schmuki, Dirk W. Schubert, Aldo R. Boccaccini
      The use of bioactive glass (BG) particles as a filler for the development of composite electrospun fibers has already been widely reported and investigated. The novelty of the present research work is represented by the use of benign solvents (like acetic acid and formic acid) for electrospinning of composite fibers containing BG particles, by using a blend of PCL and chitosan. In this work, different BG particle sizes were investigated, namely nanosized and micron-sized. A preliminary investigation about the possible alteration of BG particles in the electrospinning solvents was performed using SEM analysis. The obtained composite fibers were investigated in terms of morphological, chemical and mechanical properties. An in vitro mineralization assay in simulated body fluid (SBF) was performed to investigate the capability of the composite electrospun fibers to induce the formation of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA).
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:01:14Z
  • Preliminary focus on the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a
           PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): T. Russo, A. Gloria, R. De Santis, U. D'Amora, G. Balato, A. Vollaro, O. Oliviero, G. Improta, M. Triassi, L. Ambrosio
      In total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip replacement (THR) the restoration of the normal joint function represents a fundamental feature. A prosthetic joint must be able to provide motions and to transmit functional loads. As reported in the literature, the stress distribution may be altered in bones after the implantation of a total joint prosthesis. Some scientific works have also correlated uncemented TKA to a progressive decrease of bone density below the tibial component. Antibiotic-loaded bone cements are commonly employed in conjunction with systemic antibiotics to treat infections. Furthermore, nanoparticles with antimicrobial activity have been widely analysed. Accordingly, the current research was focused on a preliminary analysis of the mechanical and antibacterial activity of a PMMA-based bone cement loaded with gold nanoparticles. The obtained results demonstrated that nanocomposite cements with a specific concentration of gold nanoparticles improved the punching performance and antibacterial activity. However, critical aspects were found in the optimization of the nanocomposite bone cement.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-20T03:01:14Z
  • Evaluation of photochemistry reaction kinetics to pattern bioactive
           proteins on hydrogels for biological applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Taylor B. Dorsey, Alexander Grath, Annling Wang, Cancan Xu, Yi Hong, Guohao Dai
      Bioactive signals play many important roles on cell function and behavior. In most biological studies, soluble biochemical cues such as growth factors or cytokines are added directly into the media to maintain and/or manipulate cell activities in vitro. However, these methods cannot accurately mimic certain in vivo biological signaling motifs, which are often immobilized to extracellular matrix and also display spatial gradients that are critical for tissue morphology. Besides biochemical cues, biophysical properties such as substrate stiffness can influence cell behavior but is not easy to manipulate under conventional cell culturing practices. Recent development in photocrosslinkable hydrogels provides new tools that allow precise control of spatial biochemical and biophysical cues for biological applications, but doing so requires a comprehensive study on various hydrogel photochemistry kinetics to allow thorough photocrosslink reaction while maintain protein bioactivities at the same time. In this paper, we studied several photochemistry reactions and evaluate key photochemical parameters, such as photoinitiators and ultra-violet (UV) exposure times, to understand their unique contributions to undesired protein damage and cell death. Our data illustrates the retention of protein function and minimize of cell health during photoreactions requires careful selection of photoinitiator type and concentration, and UV exposure times. We also developed a robust method based on thiol-norbornene chemistry for independent control of hydrogel stiffness and spatial bioactive patterns. Overall, we highlight a class of bioactive hydrogels to stiffness control and site specific immobilized bioactive proteins/peptides for the study of cellular behavior such as cellular attraction, repulsion and stem cell fate.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-05-15T04:58:37Z
  • High velocity suspension flame spraying (HVSFS) of metal doped bioceramic

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 May 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): P. Krieg, A. Killinger, R. Gadow, S. Burtscher, A. Bernstein

      PubDate: 2017-05-05T01:16:05Z
  • 3D additive-manufactured nanocomposite magnetic scaffolds: Effect of the
           application mode of a time-dependent magnetic field on hMSCs behavior

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Ugo D'Amora, Teresa Russo, Antonio Gloria, Virginia Rivieccio, Vincenzo D'Antò, Giacomo Negri, Luigi Ambrosio, Roberto De Santis
      Over the past few years, the influence of static or dynamic magnetic fields on biological systems has become a topic of considerable interest. Magnetism has recently been implicated to play significant roles in the regulation of cell responses and, for this reason, it is revolutionizing many aspects of healthcare, also suggesting new opportunities in tissue engineering. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of the application mode of a time-dependent magnetic field on the behavior of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) seeded on 3D additive-manufactured poly(ɛ-caprolactone)/iron-doped hydroxyapatite (PCL/FeHA) nanocomposite scaffolds.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:34:27Z
  • Surface functionalization of acrylic based photocrosslinkable resin for 3D
           printing applications

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): A. Ronca, F. Maiullari, M. Milan, V. Pace, A. Gloria, R. Rizzi, R. De Santis, L. Ambrosio
      The limited number of resins, available for stereolithography applications, is one of the key drivers in research applied to rapid prototyping. In this work an acrylic photocrosslinkable resin based on methyl methacrylate (MMA), butyl methacrylate (BMA) and poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDA) was developed with different composition and characterized in terms of mechanical, thermal and biological behaviour. Two different systems have been developed using different amount of reagent. The influence of every components have been evaluated on the final characteristic of the resin in order to optimize the final composition for applications in bone tissue engineering. The crosslinked materials showed good mechanical properties and thermal stabilities and moreover cytotoxicity test confirms good biocompatibility with no cytotoxic effect on cells metabolism. Moreover two different treatments have been proposed, using fetal bovine serum (FBS) and methanol (MeOH), in order to improve cell recognition of the surfaces. Samples threatened with MeOH allow cell adhesion and survival, promoting spreading, elongation and fusion of C2C12 muscle myoblast cells.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:34:27Z
  • In-situ solvothermal processing of polycaprolactone/hydroxyapatite
           nanocomposites with enhanced mechanical and biological performance for
           bone tissue engineering

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): Saeed Moeini, Mohammad Reza Mohammadi, Abdolreza Simchi
      The interest in biodegradable polymer-matrix nanocomposites with bone regeneration potential has been increasing in recent years. In the present work, a solvothermal process is introduced to prepare hydroxyapatite (HA) nanorod-reinforced polycaprolactone in-situ. A non-aqueous polymer solution containing calcium and phosphorous precursors is prepared and processed in a closed autoclave at different temperatures in the range of 60–150 °C. Hydroxyapatite nanorods with varying aspect ratios are formed depending on the processing temperature. X-ray diffraction analysis and field-emission scanning electron microscopy indicate that the HA nanorods are semi-crystalline. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry determine that the ratio of calcium to phosphorous increases as the processing temperature increases. To evaluate the effect of in-situ processing on the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites, highly porous scaffolds (>90%) containing HA nanorods are prepared by employing freeze drying and salt leaching techniques. It is shown that the elastic modulus and strength of the nanocomposites prepared by the in-situ method is superior (∼15%) to those of the ex-situ samples (blended HA nanorods with the polymer solution). The enhanced bone regeneration potential of the nanocomposites is shown via an in vitro bioactivity assay in a saturated simulated body fluid. An improved cell viability and proliferation is also shown by employing (3-(4,5- dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) (MTT) assay in human osteosarcoma cell lines. The prepared scaffolds with in vitro regeneration capacity could be potentially useful for orthopaedic applications and maxillofacial surgery.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-27T23:34:27Z
  • Comparative investigations of structure and properties of micro-arc
           wollastonite-calcium phosphate coatings on titanium and zirconium-niobium

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2017
      Source:Bioactive Materials
      Author(s): M.B. Sedelnikova, E.G. Komarova, Yu.P. Sharkeev, T.V. Tolkacheva, I.A. Khlusov, L.S. Litvinova, K.A. Yurova, V.V. Shupletsova
      Investigation results of micro-arc wollastonite–calcium phosphate (W–CaP) biocoatings on the pure titanium (Ti) and Zr–1wt.%Nb (Zr–1Nb) alloy were presented. The voltages of 150–300 V generate the micro-arc oxidation (MAO) process with the initial amplitude current of 150–550 A and 100–350 A for Ti and Zr–1Nb substrates, respectively. The identical dependencies of changes of the coating thickness, surface roughness and adhesion strength on the process voltage were revealed for the both substrates. The W–CaP coatings with the thickness of 10–11 μm were formed on Ti and Zr–1Nb under the low process voltage of 130–150 V. Elongated wollastonite particles with the size in the range of 40–100 μm were observed in such coatings. The structure of the coatings on Ti was presented by the X–ray amorphous and crystalline phases. The X–ray reflexes relating to the crystalline phases of Ti and wollastonite were observed only in XRD patterns of the coatings deposited under 130–200 V on Ti. While, the crystalline structure with phases of CaZr4(PO4)6, β–ZrP2O7, ZrO2, and Zr was detected in the coatings on Zr–1Nb. FT–IRS, XRD, SEM, and TEM data confirmed that the increase of the process voltage to 300 V leads to the dissociation of the wollastonite. No toxic effect of specimens on a viability, morphology and motility of human adipose–derived multipotent mesenchymal stem cells was revealed in vitro.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-02-13T10:32:08Z
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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