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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3193 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (244 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 244 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Amylase     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DNA and RNA Nanotechnology     Open Access  
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Entomologia Generalis
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.395
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 0171-8177
Published by Schweizerbart Science Publishers Homepage  [20 journals]
  • Indirect effects of chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 on clones of the
           wheat aphid Sitobion avenae
    • Abstract: Indirect effects of chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 on clones of the wheat aphid Sitobion avenaeLuo, Chen; Li, Dandan; Qu, Yanyan; Zhao, Huiyan; Hu, Zuqing
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. - Over the past 14 years, the chemical hybridization agent SQ-1 (CHA-SQ-1) has been widely used for inducing male sterility in wheat heterosis in China. However, any indirect effects of CHA-SQ-1 on high trophic level of food chains (e.g., wheat pests) have not been tested. Therefore, we addressed the question, under laboratory conditions, by firstly rearing the first generation of two Sitobion avenae clones on wheats sprayed with either CHA-SQ-1 or distilled water. Then, the population parameters of the corresponding offspring of the two clones, living on wheat leaves without CHA-SQ-1, were examined across two generations. The results showed that CHA-SQ-1 significantly decreased the intrinsic rate of increase (r), net reproductive rate (R0), and finite rate of increase (λ) but not the mean generation time (T) in the aphid Kunming clone. However, in the Tianjin clone, CHA-SQ-1 clearly reduced the mean generation time (T) but not the other population parameters. These results demonstrated that CHA-SQ-1 could decelerate the growth of S. avenae populations. Additionally, the interaction was significant between aphid genotype and treatment (CHA-SQ-1) on these population parameters. The study will increase the understanding of CHA-SQ-1 on the ecological safety evaluation and pest control.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Quercetin and paraoxon induction of hydrolase activity in Helicoverpa
           armigera and malathion-susceptible and resistant Musca domestica
    • Abstract: Quercetin and paraoxon induction of hydrolase activity in Helicoverpa armigera and malathion-susceptible and resistant Musca domesticaFan, Yinjun; Kang, Zhijiao; Wang, Zhichao; Campos, Mateus; Desneux, Nicolas; Shi, Xueyan
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. - Organophosphate (OPs) insecticides are still widely used in pest control. The hydrolysis of OPs or oxons of organophosphorothionates by organophosphate hydrolases (OP-hydrolases) represents a major detoxification pathway of OPs. In this study, the response of insect OP-hydrolase activity to the allelochemical quercetin and the insecticide paraoxon, as well as changes in the activity of OP-hydrolases in malathion-resistance insects were characterized by using O,O-dimethyl-4-methylumbelliferyl phosphate (dMUP) and paraoxon as substrates. Hydrolase activity on dMUP was similar to hydrolase activity on paraoxon in Helicoverpa armigera and Musca domestica. Paraoxon-hydrolase activity was higher than dMUP-hydrolase activity in H. armigera fed on the artificial diet containing 0.2 % quercetin for 48 hours. In addition, similar induction of hydrolase activity on both paraoxon and dMUP was observed in H. armigera fed an artificial diet containing the LC10 or LC50 of paraoxon for 24 hours. In contrast, the hydrolysis activity onto dMUP was higher than the activity onto paraoxon in the malathion-resistant M. domestica. It was also found that the hydrolysis activity onto α-NA in malathion-resistant M. domestica was higher than that in malathion-susceptible M. domestica. These results provide a structural insight into the hydrolytic metabolism of organophosphates in insects.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Bottom-up effect of water stress on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi
    • Abstract: Bottom-up effect of water stress on the aphid parasitoid Aphidius erviNguyen, Le-Thu-Ha; Monticelli, Lucie S.; Desneux, Nicolas; Metay-Merrien, Christiane; Amiens-Desneux, Edwige; Lavoir, Anne-Violette
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. - Parasitoids inhabiting agro-ecosystems may be largely affected by bottom-up forces, notably owing to abiotic stresses, and this may modulate parasitoids preference (host acceptance) and/or their performance (host suitability). The availability of water is a key factor impacting plant quality and in determining changes in plant-insect community structure. In the present study, we have examined the bottom-up effects of water stress on host specificity of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). The cascade impact of water stress on host plants varied with the aphid-plant systems considered. Water stress applied to bean did not impact the performance of A. ervi on Acyrthosiphon pisum whereas it negatively affected the parasitoid on Sitobion avenae on wheat. The wheat leaf mass per area was higher on water-stressed plants than on the well-watered ones, no effect on this trait was observed on bean plants when subjected to water stress. Various mechanisms, notably possible variations in the production of plant toxins as well as varying aphid quality (host) during water stress are discussed to explain the bottom-up effects on parasitoids.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Male courtship behaviour and potential for female mate choice in the black
           soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)
    • Abstract: Male courtship behaviour and potential for female mate choice in the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae)Giunti, Giulia; Campolo, Orlando; Laudani, Francesca; Palmeri, Vincenzo
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. - The black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens L. (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) is a promising species used as protein source for aquaculture and zootechnical diets, which has been also proposed as biological tool for managing organic wastes. Here, we investigated the courtship and mating behaviour of H. illucens, recording the behavioural sequences displayed, the occurrence of same-sex interactions and the role of female-borne signals eliciting male courtship. The sequence of events leading to successful copulation is not dissimilar from other stratiomyid species, although H. illucens females were able to convey their preferences for mates according to male courtship behaviours. Males performed wing fanning during courtship prior to move backwards on the female body. Once the males mounted the females, they tapped the female abdomen with the tarsi of its second and third pairs of legs and attempted to accomplish preliminary genital contacts. Male wing fanning during mounting attempts seemed pivotal for female acceptance. Same-sex courtship behaviours were observed among males, which were not able to distinguish between males and females during the in-flight approach and the mounting attempt. Wing fanning played a key role also in evoking behavioural responses of males. Indeed, the males just approached conspecifics beating their wings during flight, while no courtship was recorded toward females that did not perform wing beating. This study improves the knowledge about sexual behaviour of H. illucens, highlighting the role of wing fanning among the range of sensory modalities used in the sexual communication of stratiomyid flies.
      PubDate: Sat, 01 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Preface to August Wilhelm Steffan
    • Abstract: Preface to August Wilhelm SteffanPaulus, Hannes F.
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 175 - 176
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • August Wilhelm Steffan (1933 – 2016)
    • Abstract: August Wilhelm Steffan (1933 – 2016)Schlüter, Thomas
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 177 - 196
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • The Phenomenon of Metathetely, formerly known as Prothetely, in
           Raphidioptera (Insecta: Holometabola: Neuropterida)**
    • Abstract: The Phenomenon of Metathetely, formerly known as Prothetely, in Raphidioptera (Insecta: Holometabola: Neuropterida)**Aspöck, Horst; Abbt, Viktoria; Aspöck, Ulrike; Gruppe, Axel
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 197 - 230 For completion of their life cycle, most snakefly species require two years, some only one, and others (at least single specimens) three years or more. In most species, the larvae of the final stage hibernate in a state of quiescence, pupate in spring and emerge as adults shortly thereafter. Hibernation starts when the temperature decreases, thus inducing quiescence in the larva. If the temperature decrease is withheld during the last hibernation, the larvae remain active and usually continue to molt, but will not pupate successfully in spring. Moreover, most of them will die prematurely and prior to that will often develop considerable pathomorphological alterations of the eyes, sometimes also the antennae, some develop wing pads and occasionally even pathomorphological modifications of the last abdominal segments. Until now, this phenomenon in Raphidioptera has been inaccurately referred to as “prothetely”; however, in reality, it represents “metathetely”.The degree and duration of lower temperatures in winter that are required for a normal pupation after hibernation have been presumed to be different among the species. So far, no standardized experiments have been carried out to clarify this. Here, we report on results of chilling the final larval stage of three species – Phaeostigma (Ph.) notata (Fabricius), Raphidia (R.) mediterranea (H. Aspöck, U. Aspöck & Rausch), and Mongoloraphidia (M.) sororcula (H. Aspöck & U. Aspöck) – from +20 °C to +4 °C for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks. As expected considerable differences between the species were found: M. sororcula, which occurs in a region with markedly continental climate with a very cold winter, requires the longest period of chill for a normal metamorphosis. R. mediterranea, which occurs in Mediterranean areas with only short cold periods, needs only short periods of chilling for successful development and normal pupation. Ph. notata, which is distributed in large parts of extramediterranean Europe, necessitates a distinctly greater chilling than R. mediterranea, but less than M. sororcula. At any rate, a +4°C chilling for 20 weeks is sufficient to prevent metathetely in all species.Each metathetelously affected individual, even those from the same species, differs in some detail from all others. Presumably, these pathomorphological alterations are the result of an unsuccessful pupation, rather than an early appearance of imaginal characters. Thus, it is appropriate to term the phenomenon “metathetely” rather than “prothetely”. The physiological background of pathomorphological alterations due to withholding the chill is still entirely unknown.Various forms of metathetely in the three species are shown in 28 figures.The decrease of temperature as a precondition of pupation or – generally spoken – of normal and successful metamorphosis of snakeflies is convincingly correlated with the distribution of extant Raphidioptera in the world.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Insect flight patterns in the natural environment – a retrospective
    • Abstract: Insect flight patterns in the natural environment – a retrospectiveNachtigall, Werner
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 243 - 259 The author summarizes and reviews a series of twenty-one papers published between 1992 and 2005 in Entomologia Generalis. To this end, he has compiled video anayses that have pointed out new behavioral patterns.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Pollinators as isolation mechanisms: field observations and field
           experiments regarding specificity of pollinator attraction in the genus
           Ophrys (Orchidaceae und Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apoidea)
    • Abstract: Pollinators as isolation mechanisms: field observations and field experiments regarding specificity of pollinator attraction in the genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae und Insecta, Hymenoptera, Apoidea)Paulus, Hannes F.
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 261 - 316 It is demonstrated that the biological species concept of the genus Ophrys corresponds to the general concepts of Ernst Mayr. On the example of two closely related forms of the fusca group in Andalucia, it is shown how to handle the different criteria of the biospecies concept. One is the high specifity of attraction of a male bee followed by a complex pseudocopulation behaviour which enables the correct pollen transfer within the species. The high specifity is caused by a highly remarkable imitation of the sexual pheromones of the mimicked female of the pollinator. Sexual pheromones of animals act as intraspecific signals which result in attractions of only males of the same species. Exactly this specific behaviour is triggered by the Ophrys flower, too. Thus the pollinator male is attracted only to those flowers which have the correct mixture of the pheromone molecules. To further ensure success the pollinating males also select other characters of the Ophrys flower as labellum size, colour, labellum hair characters, phenology and possibly habitat selections etc. In the sexual reproduction behaviour of the male insect acts as pregamic isolation mechanisms for the given Ophrys like for their own female.We were successful in confirming the high specifity of the pollination mechanisms in numerous field experiments, mainly choice experiments, this in contrast o the statements of Hennecke & Munzinger (2013). They had argued that there were many different pollinator species listed in the literature for a given Ophrys species. However, they did not critically assess the reliability of these citations. For this, they would have had to ctitically read the primary literature and not only the secondary quotations like in Delforge (2005, 2016) or others. Therefore, they rehashed many of the old mistakes concerning wrong identifications of the bees or even the Ophrys taxons which had long been corrected. Especially a mixture of old and actual names of the same species in different combinations is annoying and seems to demonstrate that the authors are not really fit in the nomenclature of Ophrys and their pollinators. This is demonstrated by some examples, which are very confusing without knowledge of the bees. For example, these authors did not realize that a 3–4 mm bee (Andrena hesperia) could not serve as a pollinator of a 20 mm labellum of a large Ophrys omegaifera species.However, there are some cases with more than one pollinator. Besides the main pollinator the others I call them “secondary pollinators” which in those cases we could check their pollination contribution in the population is very weak. In many cases, these secondary visitors are mainly pollinaria thieves because they are only attracted and try to copulate. However, they seem learn very quickly that Ophrys is not a true female and will never visit another flower of this kind. In some quantitative field experiments (with Eucera nigrescens/longicornis on Ophrys holosericea) we could confirm this hypothesis.The conclusion of the two authors that Ophrys species are not species-specific regarding sexual attractivity does not correspond to our field experiments regarding olfactory compound investigations in biotests, and does not agree with the molecular data of population biology and with the genetic analyses.The other proof the authors used in their argumentations are the supposed frequency of hybrids. But this is also a spurious argument. Hybrids are only frequent in literature and not in nature. In places frequently visited by orchid enthusiasts, the number of observed “hybrids” is conspicuously high, which may indicate “hand pollination”.The aim of the two authors has been to reduce the many species within Ophrys because they cannot be discriminated. Consequently, they try to establish a simplified classification system without any biological background. A complete anthropomorphic typological systematic like the “Index of accepted plant names” is issued by Kew Gardens. However, this is in the 21st century, 150 years after Darwin, a kind of middle age taxonomy. They use a quite typological morphospecies concept like in the book of Pederson & Faurhold (2007). This does not fit with nature. If you pay attention to the different criteria of the biospecies concept within the genus Ophrys you will recognise the many species which the genus makes so interesting.A critical list of the known specific pollinators of the genus Ophrys is given as an appendix.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
  • Functional morphology and evolution of the flight apparatus of Libelloides
           (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae)
    • Abstract: Functional morphology and evolution of the flight apparatus of Libelloides (Neuroptera: Ascalaphidae)Pfau, Hans Klaus
      Entomologia Generalis, (2018), p. 317 - 352 The mechanics of the different skeleto-muscular systems of the flight apparatus of Libelloides (Neuroptera, Ascalaphidae) is described. The muscles 1) drive the tergal arching and up and down movements (wing stroke power muscles), 2) alter the stroke plane, 3) rotate and twist the wing on its longitudinal axis (pronation, supination), 4) modify a “symmetrical click mechanism” and 5) adjust the wing stroke velocity and amplitude.Several muscles show combinations of different functions: The strong basalar muscles use a modified mechanics of the basalares to move the wing frontally into the flight position, during flight they alter the stroke plane in antagonistic relation to the subalar muscles (downstroke) and axillary 3 muscles (upstroke). – The muscles of the axillary 3 support (in addition) the upstroke directly and pronate the wing. – The mesothoracic muscle of the laterophragma combines a weak upstroke- with a strong pronation-effect. The latter is initiated by a rotation of the laterophragma on a posterior pleural wing process and transmitted via intermediate sclerites (axillaries 4) into the wing (laterophragma-axillary 4-system). – The subalar muscles are direct downstroke muscles and additionally supinate the wing and steepen the stroke plane.A muscle of the axillary 4 of the mesothorax is considered as a monofunctional, stroke-independent supinator of the downstroke. It is capable of enlarging the aerodynamic angle of attack and enhancing the generated aerodynamic force.Differences between meso- and metathorax are described. The metathoracic system is smaller in size and placed more obliquely, its basic wing stroke plane is less steep and there are fewer options for an adjustment of pronation, supination and stroke plane.The evolution of certain characters is retraced within the Neuropterida. The enlargement of the pronation-supination range of the forewing by evolution of the laterophragma-axillary 4-system, and the subsequent transformation of a tergopleural muscle into an efficient wing-supinator, are evaluated as essential for the outstanding flight abilities of the Ascalaphidae.
      PubDate: Fri, 10 Aug 2018 00:00:00 +000
       
 
 
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