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Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
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Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
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Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
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Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
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Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
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Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
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Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
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BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
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Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
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Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
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Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
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GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
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Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
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Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 519)
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New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
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Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

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Journal Cover Journal of Ginseng Research
  [SJR: 1.284]   [H-I: 20]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1226-8453
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Ginseng and obesity

    • Authors: Zhipeng Li; Geun Eog Ji
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
      Although ginseng has been shown to have an antiobesity effect, antiobesity-related mechanisms are complex and have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated ginseng’s effects on food intake, the digestion, and absorption systems, as well as liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in order to identify the mechanisms involved. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase pathway and can reduce energy intake. Moreover, in high fat diet-induced obese and diabetic individuals, ginseng has shown a two-way adjustment effect on adipogenesis. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies into antiobesity effects of ginseng have been animal based, and there is a paucity of evidence supporting the suggestion that ginseng can exert an antiobesity effect in humans.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.005
  • Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola-species
           complex: Causative agent of ginseng root-rot disease and rusty symptoms

    • Authors: Mohamed El-Agamy Farh; Yeon-Ju Kim; Yu-Jin Kim; Deok-Chun Yang
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
      Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I. mors-panacis and 2- the physiological and biochemical differences between the weakly and highly aggressive species as well as those between rusty and rotten ginseng plants. Eventually, we postulated that rusty symptom occurs on ginseng roots due to incompatible interactions with the weakly aggressive species of Ilyonectria, by the established iron-phenolic compound complexes while root-rot is developed by I. mors-panacis infection due to the production of high quantities of hydrolytic and oxidative fungal enzymes which destroy the plant defensive barriers, in parallel with the pathogen growth stimulation by utilizing the available iron. Furthermore, we highlight future areas for study that will help elucidate the complete mechanism of root-rot disease development.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.004
  • High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phytosterols in Panax
           ginseng root grown under different conditions

    • Authors: Dong Gu Lee; Jaemin Lee; Kyung-Tack Kim; Sang-Won Lee; Young-Ock Kim; Ik-Hyun Cho; Hak-Jae Kim; Chun-Gun Park; Sanghyun Lee
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dong Gu Lee, Jaemin Lee, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Young-Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim, Chun-Gun Park, Sanghyun Lee
      Background The Panax ginseng plant is used as an herbal medicine. Phytosterols of P. ginseng have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells. Methods Phytosterols (e.g., stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) in the roots of P. ginseng grown under various conditions were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The P. ginseng roots analyzed in this study were collected from three cultivation areas in Korea (i.e., Geumsan, Yeongju, and Jinan) and differed by cultivation year (i.e., 4 years, 5 years, and 6 years) and production process (i.e., straight ginseng, red ginseng, and white ginseng). Results The concentrations of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in P. ginseng roots were 2.22–23.04 mg/g and 7.35–59.09 mg/g, respectively. The highest concentrations of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were in the roots of 6-year-old P. ginseng cultivated in Jinan (82.14 mg/g and 53.23 mg/g, respectively). Conclusion Six-year-old white ginseng and white ginseng cultivated in Jinan containing stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are potentially a new source of income in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.10.004
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed

    • Authors: Yali Li; Xiaoxu Liu; Lulu Meng; Yingping Wang
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yali Li, Xiaoxu Liu, Lulu Meng, Yingping Wang
      Background Furosine (ɛ-N-2-furoylmethyl-L-lysine, FML) is an amino acid derivative, which is considered to be an important indicator of the extent of damage (deteriorating the quality of amino acid and proteins due to a blockage of lysine and a decrease in the digestibility of proteins) during the early stages of the Maillard reaction. In addition, FML has been proven to be harmful because it is closely related to a variety of diseases such as diabetes. The qualitative analysis of FML in fresh and processed ginsengs was confirmed using HPLC-MS. Methods An ion-pair reversed-phase LC method was used for the quantitative analysis of FML in various ginseng samples. Results The contents of FML in the ginseng samples were 3.35–42.28 g/kg protein. The lowest value was observed in the freshly collected ginseng samples, and the highest value was found in the black ginseng concentrate. Heat treatment and honey addition significantly increased the FML content from 3.35 g/kg protein to 42.28 g/kg protein. Conclusion These results indicate that FML is a promising indicator to estimate the heat treatment degree and honey addition level during the manufacture of ginseng products. The FML content is also an important parameter to identity the quality of ginseng products. In addition, the generation and regulation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products-FML in ginseng processing was also investigated, providing a solid theoretical foundation and valuable reference for safe ginseng processing.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.004
  • Effects of processing method on the pharmacokinetics and tissue
           distribution of orally administered ginseng

    • Authors: Jianbo Chen; Meijia Li; Lixue Chen; Yufang Wang; Shanshan Li; Yuwei Zhang; Lei Zhang; Mingjie Song; Chang Liu; Mei Hua; Yinshi Sun
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jianbo Chen, Meijia Li, Lixue Chen, Yufang Wang, Shanshan Li, Yuwei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Mingjie Song, Chang Liu, Mei Hua, Yinshi Sun
      Background The use of different methods for the processing of ginseng can result in alterations in its medicinal properties and efficacy. White ginseng (WG), frozen ginseng (FG), and red ginseng (RG) are produced using different methods. WG, FG, and RG possess different pharmacological properties. Methods WG, FG, and RG extracts and pure ginsenosides were administered to rats to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution characteristics of the following ginsenosides—Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd. The concentrations of the ginsenosides in the plasma and tissues were determined using UPLC-MS/MS. Results The rate and extent of absorption of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd appeared to be affected by the different methods used in processing the ginseng samples. The areas under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were significantly higher than those of the pure ginsenosides. In addition, the AUCs of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were different for WG, FG, and RG. The amounts of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1 were significantly (p <0.05) higher in the tissues than those of the pure ginsenosides. The amounts of Re, Rb1, and Rd from the RG extract were significantly higher than those from the WG and FG extracts in the heart, lungs, and kidneys of the rats. Conclusion Our results show that the use of different methods to process ginseng might affect the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of ginseng as well as the tissue concentrations of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.008
  • Gintonin absorption in intestinal model systems

    • Authors: Byung-Hwan Lee; Sun-Hye Choi; Hyeon-Joong Kim; Sang-Deuk Park; Hyewhon Rhim; Hyoung-Chun Kim; Sung-Hee Hwang; Seung-Yeol Nah
      Pages: 35 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Sang-Deuk Park, Hyewhon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Sung-Hee Hwang, Seung-Yeol Nah
      Background Recently, we identified a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid receptor ligand, called gintonin. We showed that gintonin induces [Ca2+]i transient-mediated morphological changes, proliferation, and migration in cells expressing lysophosphatidic acid receptors and that oral administration of gintonin exhibits anti-Alzheimer disease effects in model mice. However, little is known about the intestinal absorption of gintonin. The aim of this study was to investigate gintonin absorption using two model systems. Methods Gintonin membrane permeation was examined using a parallel artificial membrane permeation assay, and gintonin absorption was evaluated in a mouse everted intestinal sac model. Results The parallel artificial membrane permeation assay showed that gintonin could permeate an artificial membrane in a dose-dependent manner. In the everted sac model, gintonin absorption increased with incubation time (from 0 min to 60 min), followed by a decrease in absorption. Gintonin absorption into everted sacs was also dose dependent, with a nonlinear correlation between gintonin absorption and concentration at 0.1–3 mg/mL and saturation at 3–5 mg/mL. Gintonin absorption was inhibited by the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 and the sodium–glucose transporter inhibitor phloridzin. Moreover, lipid extraction with methanol also attenuated gintonin absorption, suggesting the importance of the lipid portion of gintonin in absorption. This result shows that gintonin might be absorbed through passive diffusion, paracellular, and active transport pathways. Conclusion The present study shows that gintonin could be absorbed in the intestine through transcellular and paracellular diffusion, and active transport. In addition, the lipid component of gintonin might play a key role in its intestinal absorption.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.007
  • Rare ginsenoside Ia synthesized from F1 by cloning and overexpression of
           the UDP-glycosyltransferase gene from Bacillus subtilis: synthesis,
           characterization, and in vitro melanogenesis inhibition activity in
           BL6B16 cells

    • Authors: Dan-Dan Wang; Yan Jin; Chao Wang; Yeon-Ju Kim; Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez Perez; Nam In Baek; Ramya Mathiyalagan; Josua Markus; Deok-Chun Yang
      Pages: 42 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dan-Dan Wang, Yan Jin, Chao Wang, Yeon-Ju Kim, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez Perez, Nam In Baek, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Josua Markus, Deok-Chun Yang
      Background Ginsenoside F1 has been described to possess skin-whitening effects on humans. We aimed to synthesize a new ginsenoside derivative from F1 and investigate its cytotoxicity and melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells using recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme. Glycosylation has the advantage of synthesizing rare chemical compounds from common compounds with great ease. Methods UDP-glycosyltransferase (BSGT1) gene from Bacillus subtilis was selected for cloning. The recombinant glycosyltransferase enzyme was purified, characterized, and utilized to enzymatically transform F1 into its derivative. The new product was characterized by NMR techniques and evaluated by MTT, melanin count, and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Results The new derivative was identified as (20S)-3β,6α,12β,20-tetrahydroxydammar-24-ene-20-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (ginsenoside Ia), which possesses an additional glucose linked into the C-3 position of substrate F1. Ia had been previously reported; however, no in vitro biological activity was further examined. This study focused on the mass production of arduous ginsenoside Ia from accessible F1 and its inhibitory effect of melanogenesis in B16BL6 cells. Ia showed greater inhibition of melanin and tyrosinase at 100 μmol/L than F1 and arbutin. These results suggested that Ia decreased cellular melanin synthesis in B16BL6 cells through downregulation of tyrosinase activity. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first study to report on the mass production of rare ginsenoside Ia from F1 using recombinant UDP-glycosyltransferase isolated from B. subtillis and its superior melanogenesis inhibitory activity in B16BL6 cells as compared to its precursor. In brief, ginsenoside Ia can be applied for further study in cosmetics.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.009
  • Regulatory effects of saponins from Panax japonicus on colonic epithelial
           tight junctions in aging rats

    • Authors: Yaoyan Dun; Min Liu; Jing Chen; Danli Peng; Haixia Zhao; Zhiyong Zhou; Ting Wang; Chaoqi Liu; Yuhui Guo; Changcheng Zhang; Ding Yuan
      Pages: 50 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yaoyan Dun, Min Liu, Jing Chen, Danli Peng, Haixia Zhao, Zhiyong Zhou, Ting Wang, Chaoqi Liu, Yuhui Guo, Changcheng Zhang, Ding Yuan
      Background Saponins from Panax japonicus (SPJ) are the most abundant and main active components of P. japonicus, which replaces ginseng roots in treatment for many kinds of diseases in the minority ethnic group in China. Our previous studies have demonstrated that SPJ has the effects of anti-inflammation through the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathways. The present study was designed to investigate whether SPJ can modulate intestinal tight junction barrier in aging rats and further to explore the potential mechanism. Methods Aging rats had been treated with different doses (10 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg, and 60 mg/kg) of SPJ for 6 mo since they were 18 mo old. After the rats were euthanized, the colonic samples were harvested. Levels of tight junctions (claudin-1 and occludin) were determined by immunohistochemical staining. Levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α) were examined by Western blot. NF-κB and phosphorylation of MAPK signaling pathways were also determined by Western blot. Results We found that SPJ increased the expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-1 and occludin in the colon of aging rats. Treatment with SPJ decreased the levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, reduced the phosphorylation of three MAPK isoforms, and inhibited the expression of NF-κB in the colon of aging rats. Conclusion The studies demonstrated that SPJ modulates the damage of intestinal epithelial tight junction in aging rats, inhibits inflammation, and downregulates the phosphorylation of the MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.011
  • Metabolite profiling of fermented ginseng extracts by gas chromatography
           mass spectrometry

    • Authors: Seong-Eun Park; Seung-Ho Seo; Kyoung In Lee; Chang-Su Na; Hong-Seok Son
      Pages: 57 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Seong-Eun Park, Seung-Ho Seo, Kyoung In Lee, Chang-Su Na, Hong-Seok Son
      Background Ginseng contains many small metabolites such as amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, and ginsenosides. However, little is known about the relationships between microorganisms and metabolites during the entire ginseng fermentation process. We investigated metabolic changes during ginseng fermentation according to the inoculation of food-compatible microorganisms. Methods Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) datasets coupled with the multivariate statistical method for the purpose of latent-information extraction and sample classification were used for the evaluation of ginseng fermentation. Four different starter cultures (Saccharomyces bayanus, Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Leuconostoc mesenteroide) were used for the ginseng extract fermentation. Results The principal component analysis score plot and heat map showed a clear separation between ginseng extracts fermented with S. bayanus and other strains. The highest levels of fructose, maltose, and galactose in the ginseng extracts were found in ginseng extracts fermented with B. subtilis. The levels of succinic acid and malic acid in the ginseng extract fermented with S. bayanus as well as the levels of lactic acid, malonic acid, and hydroxypruvic acid in the ginseng extract fermented with lactic acid bacteria (L. plantarum and L. mesenteroide) were the highest. In the results of taste features analysis using an electronic tongue, the ginseng extracts fermented with lactic acid bacteria were significantly distinguished from other groups by a high index of sour taste probably due to high lactic acid contents. Conclusion These results suggest that a metabolomics approach based on GC-MS can be a useful tool to understand ginseng fermentation and evaluate the fermentative characteristics of starter cultures.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.010
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 promotes inflammation resolution through M2 macrophage

    • Authors: Saeromi Kang; Soo-Jin Park; Ae-Yeon Lee; Jin Huang; Hae-Young Chung; Dong-Soon Im
      Pages: 68 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Saeromi Kang, Soo-Jin Park, Ae-Yeon Lee, Jin Huang, Hae-Young Chung, Dong-Soon Im
      Background Ginsenosides have been reported to have many health benefits, including anti-inflammatory effects, and the resolution of inflammation is now considered to be an active process driven by M2-type macrophages. In order to determine whether ginsenosides modulate macrophage phenotypes to reduce inflammation, 11 ginsenosides were studied with respect to macrophage polarization and the resolution of inflammation. Methods Mouse peritoneal macrophages were polarized into M1 or M2 phenotypes. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 levels were performed in vitro and in a zymosan-induced peritonitis C57BL/6 mouse model. Results Ginsenoside Rg3 was identified as a proresolving ginseng compound based on the induction of M2 macrophage polarization. Ginsenoside Rg3 not only induced the expression of arginase-1 (a representative M2 marker gene), but also suppressed M1 marker genes, such as inducible NO synthase, and NO levels. The proresolving activity of ginsenoside Rg3 was also observed in vivo in a zymosan-induced peritonitis model. Ginsenoside Rg3 accelerated the resolution process when administered at peak inflammatory response into the peritoneal cavity. Conclusion These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg3 induces the M2 polarization of macrophages and accelerates the resolution of inflammation. This finding opens a new avenue in ginseng pharmacology.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.012
  • Protective effect of ginsenoside Rb1 against tacrolimus-induced apoptosis
           in renal proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells

    • Authors: Dahae Lee; Dong-Soo Lee; Kiwon Jung; Gwi Seo Hwang; Hye Lim Lee; Noriko Yamabe; Hae-Jeong Lee; Dae-Woon Eom; Ki Hyun Kim; Ki Sung Kang
      Pages: 75 - 80
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dahae Lee, Dong-Soo Lee, Kiwon Jung, Gwi Seo Hwang, Hye Lim Lee, Noriko Yamabe, Hae-Jeong Lee, Dae-Woon Eom, Ki Hyun Kim, Ki Sung Kang
      Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential protective effects of six ginsenosides (Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Rg1, and Rg3) isolated from Panax ginseng against tacrolimus (FK506)-induced apoptosis in renal proximal tubular LLC-PK1 cells. Methods LLC-PK1 cells were treated with FK506 and ginsenosides, and cell viability was measured. Protein expressions of mitogen-activated protein kinases, caspase-3, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) were evaluated by Western blotting analyses. The number of apoptotic cells was measured using an image-based cytometric assay. Results Reduction in cell viability by 60μM FK506 was ameliorated significantly by cotreatment with ginsenosides Rg1 and Rb1. The phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases, and KIM-1, and cleavage of caspase-3, increased markedly in LLC-PK1 cells treated with FK506 and significantly decreased after cotreatment with ginsenoside Rb1. The number of apoptotic cells decreased by 6.0% after cotreatment with ginsenoside Rb1 (10μM and 50μM). Conclusion The antiapoptotic effects of ginsenoside Rb1 on FK506-induced apoptosis were mediated by the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinases and caspase activation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.013
  • Photoaging protective effects of BIOGF1K, a compound-K-rich fraction
           prepared from Panax ginseng

    • Authors: Yo Han Hong; Donghyun Kim; Gibaeg Nam; Sulgi Yoo; Sang Yun Han; Seong-Gu Jeong; Eunji Kim; Deok Jeong; Keejung Yoon; Sunggyu Kim; Junseong Park; Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yo Han Hong, Donghyun Kim, Gibaeg Nam, Sulgi Yoo, Sang Yun Han, Seong-Gu Jeong, Eunji Kim, Deok Jeong, Keejung Yoon, Sunggyu Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho
      Background BIOGF1K, a compound-K-rich fraction, has been shown to display anti-inflammatory activity. Although Panax ginseng is widely used for the prevention of photoaging events induced by UVB irradiation, the effect of BIOGF1K on photoaging has not yet been examined. In this study, we investigated the effects of BIOGF1K on UVB-induced photoaging events. Methods We analyzed the ability of BIOGF1K to prevent UVB-induced apoptosis, enhance matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression, upregulate anti-inflammatory activity, reduce sirtuin 1 expression, and melanin production using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, melanin content assay, tyrosinase assay, and flow cytometry. We also evaluated the effects of BIOGF1K on the activator protein-1 signaling pathway, which plays an important role in photoaging, by immunoblot analysis and luciferase reporter gene assays. Results Treatment of UVB-irradiated NIH3T3 fibroblasts with BIOGF1K prevented UVB-induced cell death, inhibited apoptosis, suppressed morphological changes, reduced melanin secretion, restored the levels of type I procollagen and sirtuin 1, and prevented mRNA upregulation of MMP-1, MMP-2, and cyclo-oxygenase-2; these effects all occurred in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, BIOGF1K markedly reduced activator-protein-1-mediated luciferase activity and decreased the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinases (extracellular response kinase, p38, and C-Jun N-terminal kinase). Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that BIOGF1K has anti-photoaging activity and that BIOGF1K could be used in anti-aging cosmeceutical preparations.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.002
  • Efficacy and safety of Panax ginseng berry extract on glycemic control: A
           12-wk randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled clinical trial

    • Authors: Han Seok Choi; Sunmi Kim; Min Jung Kim; Myung-Sunny Kim; Juewon Kim; Chan-Woong Park; Daebang Seo; Song Seok Shin; Sang Woo Oh
      Pages: 90 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Han Seok Choi, Sunmi Kim, Min Jung Kim, Myung-Sunny Kim, Juewon Kim, Chan-Woong Park, Daebang Seo, Song Seok Shin, Sang Woo Oh
      Background Antihyperglycemic effects of Panax ginseng berry have never been explored in humans. The aims of this study were to assess the efficacy and safety of a 12-wk treatment with ginseng berry extract in participants with a fasting glucose level between 100 mg/dL and 140 mg/dL. Methods This study was a 12-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 72 participants were randomly allocated to two groups of either ginseng berry extract or placebo, and 63 participants completed the study. The parameters related to glucose metabolism were assessed. Results Although the present study failed to show significant antihyperglycemic effects of ginseng berry extract on the parameters related to blood glucose and lipid metabolism in the total study population, it demonstrated that ginseng berry extract could significantly decrease serum concentration of fasting glucose by 3.7% (p =0.035), postprandial glucose at 60 min during 75 g oral glucose tolerance test by 10.7% (p =0.006), and the area under the curve for glucose by 7.7% (p =0.024) in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher, while the placebo group did not exhibit a statistically significant decrease. Safety profiles were not different between the two groups. Conclusion The present study suggests that ginseng berry extract has the potential to improve glucose metabolism in human, especially in those with fasting glucose level of 110 mg/dL or higher. For a more meaningful benefit, further research in people with higher blood glucose levels is required.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.003
  • Panax ginseng exerts antidepressant-like effects by suppressing
           neuroinflammatory response and upregulating nuclear factor erythroid 2
           related factor 2 signaling in the amygdala

    • Authors: Jong Hee Choi; Min Jung Lee; Minhee Jang; Hak-Jae Kim; Sanghyun Lee; Sang Won Lee; Young Ock Kim; Ik-Hyun Cho
      Pages: 107 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jong Hee Choi, Min Jung Lee, Minhee Jang, Hak-Jae Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Sang Won Lee, Young Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho
      Background Depression is one of the most commonly diagnosed neuropsychiatric diseases, but the underlying mechanism and medicine are not well-known. Although Panax ginseng has been reported to exert protective effects in various neurological studies, little information is available regarding its antidepressant effects. Methods Here, we examined the antidepressant effect and underlying mechanism of P. ginseng extract (PGE) in a chronic restraint stress (CRS)-induced depression model in mice. Results Oral administration of PGE for 14 d decreased immobility (depression-like behaviors) time in forced swim and tail suspended tests after CRS induction, which corresponded with attenuation of the levels of serum adrenocorticotropic hormone and corticosterone, as well as attenuated c-Fos expression in the amygdala. PGE enhanced messenger RNA expression level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor but ameliorated microglial activation and neuroinflammation (the level of messenger RNA and protein expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase) in the amygdala of mice after CRS induction. Interestingly, 14-d treatment with celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, and N ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, attenuated depression-like behaviors after CRS induction. Additionally, PGE inhibited the upregulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 pathways. Conclusion Taken together, our findings suggest that PGE exerts antidepressant-like effect of CRS-induced depression by antineuroinflammatory and antioxidant (nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2/heme oxygenase-1 activation) activities by inhibiting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis mechanism. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential of components of P. ginseng as an alternative treatment of depression, including clinical trial evaluation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.04.012
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Assessment in Rats with KGC-HJ3,
           Korean Red Ginseng with Angelica gigas and Deer antlers

    • Authors: Jinsoo Lee; Ji-Seong Jeong; Kyung-Jin Cho; Kyeong-Nang Moon; Sang Yun Kim; Byungcheol Han; Yong-Soon Kim; Eun Ju Jeong; Moon-Koo Chung; Wook-Joon Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jinsoo Lee, Ji-Seong Jeong, Kyung-Jin Cho, Kyeong-Nang Moon, Sang Yun Kim, Byungcheol Han, Yong-Soon Kim, Eun Ju Jeong, Moon-Koo Chung, Wook-Joon Yu
      Background Korean red ginseng has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine for a prolonged period and its pharmacological effects have been extensively investigated. In addition, angelica gigas and deer antlers were also used as a tonic medicine with Korean red ginseng as the oriental herbal therapy. Methods This study was conducted to evaluate the potential toxicological effect of KGC-HJ3, Korean red ginseng with angelica gigas and deer antlers, on reproductive and developmental functions including fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development. KGC-HJ3 was administered oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats (22 animals per sex per group) at dose levels of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on fertility and early embryonic development. In addition, KGC-HJ3 was also administered oral gavage to mating-proven Sprague-Dawley rats (22 females per group) during the major organogenesis period at dose levels of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on maternal function and embryo-fetal development. Results and Conclusion No test item-related changes in parameters for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development during the study period. On the basis of these results, KGC-HJ3 did not have toxicological potential on developmental and reproductive functions. Therefore, NOAELs of KGH-HJ3 for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development is considered to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.004
  • The effect of Korean red ginseng on full thickness skin wound healing in

    • Authors: Ki-Soo Park; Dae-Hwan Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Ki-Soo Park, Dae-Hwan Park
      Background Panax ginseng is regarded as one of the best compounds for promoting health, and it has been used traditionally as a medicinal herb. Recently, Korean red ginseng (RG) has been shown to protect skin from aging and wrinkling; it can also relieve atopic dermatitis and allergy symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate RG’s effects on the regeneration of the full-thickness skin wounds in rat. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were generated in rats, and then RG was administered either orally or topically. The wound healing effects of RG were investigated by assessing wound size, mRNA expression patterns of genes related to wound healing, histological staining, and measurements of lipid, moisture, and elasticity in skin tissues. Results The wound size was smaller and tissue regeneration rate faster in the RG-treated group versus the control group on days 15 and 20 after initiating treatment. On postoperative day 20, skin lipid and moisture content had increased significantly in the RG-treated group. Significant increases in the gene expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were found in the RG group during the early stages of wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 showed significant increases in gene expression levels on day 20. Conclusion The results suggested that RG may promote healing of full-thickness skin wounds in rats. They also provided basic insights into the effects of RG on skin regeneration, supporting its use as a dressing material for wound treatment and its development as a functional food.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.006
  • Inhibitory effects of thromboxane A2 generation by ginsenoside Ro due to
           attenuation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 phosphorylation and arachidonic
           acid release

    • Authors: Jung-Hae Shin; Hyuk-Woo Kwon; Man Hee Rhee; Hwa-Jin Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jung-Hae Shin, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Man Hee Rhee, Hwa-Jin Park
      Background Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) induces platelet aggregation and promotes thrombus formation. Although ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) from Panax ginseng is known to exhibit a Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effect, whether it inhibits Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) activity to prevent the release of arachidonic acid (AA), a TXA2 precursor, is unknown. In this study, we attempted to identify the mechanism underlying G-Ro-mediated TXA2 inhibition. Methods We investigated whether G-Ro attenuates TXA2 production and its associated molecules, such as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), TXA2 synthase (TXAS), cPLA2α, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AA. To assay COX-1 and TXAS, we used microsomal fraction of platelets. Results G-Ro reduced TXA2 production by inhibiting AA release. It acted by decreasing the phosphorylation of cPLA2α, p38-MAPK, and JNK1, rather than by inhibiting COX-1 and TXAS in thrombin-activated human platelets. Conclusion G-Ro inhibits AA release to attenuate TXA2 production, which may counteract TXA2-associated thrombosis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.007
  • Micro-/nano-sized Delivery Systems of Ginsenosides for Improved Systemic

    • Authors: Hyeongmin Kim; Jong Hyuk Lee; Jee Eun Kim; Young Su Kim; Choong Ho Ryu; Hong Joo Lee; Hye Min Kim; Hyojin Jeon; Hyo-Joong Won; Ji-Yun Lee; Jaehwi Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Hyeongmin Kim, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jee Eun Kim, Young Su Kim, Choong Ho Ryu, Hong Joo Lee, Hye Min Kim, Hyojin Jeon, Hyo-Joong Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Jaehwi Lee
      Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from Ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated. The delivery systems improved the bioavailability of ginsenosides by enhancing solubility, permeability, and stability of the natural products. This mini-review aims to provide comprehensive information on the micro-/nano-sized delivery systems for increasing the bioavailability of ginsenosides, which may be helpful for designing better delivery systems to maximize the versatile therapeutic potential of ginsenosides.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.003
  • Role of ginsenosides, the main active components of Panax ginseng, in
           inflammatory responses and diseases

    • Authors: Ji Hye Kim; Young-Su Yi; Mi-Yeon Kim; Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 435 - 443
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ji Hye Kim, Young-Su Yi, Mi-Yeon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
      Panax ginseng is one of the most universally used herbal medicines in Asian and Western countries. Most of the biological activities of ginseng are derived from its main constituents, ginsenosides. Interestingly, a number of studies have reported that ginsenosides and their metabolites/derivatives—including ginsenoside (G)-Rb1, compound K, G-Rb2, G-Rd, G-Re, G-Rg1, G-Rg3, G-Rg5, G-Rh1, G-Rh2, and G-Rp1—exert anti-inflammatory activities in inflammatory responses by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines and regulating the activities of inflammatory signaling pathways, such as nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1. This review discusses recent studies regarding molecular mechanisms by which ginsenosides play critical roles in inflammatory responses and diseases, and provides evidence showing their potential to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.004
  • Applications of molecular markers in the discrimination of Panax species
           and Korean ginseng cultivars (Panax ginseng)

    • Authors: Ick Hyun Jo; Young Chang Kim; Dong Hwi Kim; Kee Hong Kim; Tae Kyung Hyun; Hojin Ryu; Kyong Hwan Bang
      Pages: 444 - 449
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ick Hyun Jo, Young Chang Kim, Dong Hwi Kim, Kee Hong Kim, Tae Kyung Hyun, Hojin Ryu, Kyong Hwan Bang
      The development of molecular markers is one of the most useful methods for molecular breeding and marker-based molecular associated selections. Even though there is less information on the reference genome, molecular markers are indispensable tools for determination of genetic variation and identification of species with high levels of accuracy and reproducibility. The demand for molecular approaches for marker-based breeding and genetic discriminations in Panax species has greatly increased in recent times and has been successfully applied for various purposes. However, owing to the existence of diverse molecular techniques and differences in their principles and applications, there should be careful consideration while selecting appropriate marker types. In this review, we outline the recent status of different molecular marker applications in ginseng research and industrial fields. In addition, we discuss the basic principles, requirements, and advantages and disadvantages of the most widely used molecular markers, including restriction fragment length polymorphism, random amplified polymorphic DNA, sequence tag sites, simple sequence repeats, and single nucleotide polymorphisms.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.09.001
  • Effect of Korean Red Ginseng in chronic liver disease

    • Authors: Tae Young Park; Meegun Hong; Hotaik Sung; Sangyeol Kim; Ki Tae Suk
      Pages: 450 - 455
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tae Young Park, Meegun Hong, Hotaik Sung, Sangyeol Kim, Ki Tae Suk
      Chronic liver disease, one of the most common diseases, typically arises from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, there is a pressing need for improved treatment strategies. Korean Red Ginseng has been known to have positive effects on liver disease and liver function. In this paper, we summarize the current knowledge on the beneficial effects of Korean Red Ginseng on chronic liver disease, a condition encompassing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, alcoholic liver disease, chronic viral hepatitis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, as supported by experimental evaluation and clinical investigation.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.11.004
  • Photoprotective effects of topical ginseng leaf extract using Ultraflo L
           against UVB-induced skin damage in hairless mice

    • Authors: Yang Hee Hong; Hyun-Sun Lee; Eun Young Jung; Sung-Hee Han; Yooheon Park; Hyung Joo Suh
      Pages: 456 - 462
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Yang Hee Hong, Hyun-Sun Lee, Eun Young Jung, Sung-Hee Han, Yooheon Park, Hyung Joo Suh
      Background Abnormal activation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) plays an important role in UV-induced wrinkle formation, which is a major dermatological problem. This formation occurs due to the degeneration of the extracellular matrix (ECM). In this study, we investigated the cutaneous photoprotective effects of Ultraflo L treated ginseng leaf (UTGL) in hairless mice. Methods SKH-1 hairless mice (6 weeks of age) were randomly divided into four groups (8 mice/group). UTGL formulation was applied topically to the skin of the mice for 10 weeks. The normal control group received nonvehicle and was not irradiated with UVB. The UV control (UVB) group received nonvehicle and was exposed to gradient-UVB irradiation. The groups (GA) receiving topical application of UTGL formulation were subjected to gradient-UVB irradiation on 0.5 mg/cm2 [GA-low (GA-L)] and 1.0 mg/cm2 [(GA-high (GA-H)] of dorsal skin area, respectively. Results We found that topical treatment with UTGL attenuated UVB-induced epidermal thickness and impairment of skin barrier function. Additionally, UTGL suppressed the expression of MMP-2, -3, and -13 induced by UVB irradiation. Our results show that topical application of UTGL protects the skin against UVB-induced damage in hairless mice and suggest that UTGL can act as a potential agent for preventing and/or treating UVB-induced photoaging. Conclusion UTGL possesses sunscreen properties and may exhibit photochemoprotective activities inside the skin of mice. Therefore, UTGL could be used as a potential therapeutic agent to protect the skin against UVB-induced photoaging.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.07.007
  • Cytohistological study of the leaf structures of Panax ginseng Meyer and
           Panax quinquefolius L.

    • Authors: Ok Ran Lee; Ngoc Quy Nguyen; Kwang Ho Lee; Young Chang Kim; Jiho Seo
      Pages: 463 - 468
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ok Ran Lee, Ngoc Quy Nguyen, Kwang Ho Lee, Young Chang Kim, Jiho Seo
      Background Both Panax ginseng Meyer and Panax quinquefolius are obligate shade-loving plants whose natural habitats are broadleaved forests of Eastern Asia and North America. Panax species are easily damaged by photoinhibition when they are exposed to high temperatures or insufficient shade. In this study, a cytohistological study of the leaf structures of two of the most well-known Panax species was performed to better understand the physiological processes that limit photosynthesis. Methods Leaves of ginseng plants grown in soil and hydroponic culture were sectioned for analysis. Leaf structures of both Panax species were observed using a light microscope, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Results The mesostructure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius frequently had one layer of noncylindrical palisade cells and three or four layers of spongy parenchymal cells. P. quinquefolius contained a similar number of stomata in the abaxial leaf surface but more tightly appressed enlarged grana stacks than P. ginseng contained. The adaxial surface of the epidermis in P. quinquefolius showed cuticle ridges with a pattern similar to that of P. ginseng. Conclusion The anatomical leaf structure of both P. ginseng and P. quinquefolius shows that they are typical shade-loving sciophytes. Slight differences in chloroplast structure suggests that the two different species can be authenticated using transmission electron microscopy images, and light-resistant cultivar breeding can be performed via controlling photosynthesis efficiency.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.001
  • A refined Panax ginseng karyotype based on an ultra-high copy 167-bp
           tandem repeat and ribosomal DNAs

    • Authors: Nomar Espinosa Waminal; Hong-Il Choi; Nam-Hoon Kim; Woojong Jang; Junki Lee; Jee Young Park; Hyun Hee Kim; Tae-Jin Yang
      Pages: 469 - 476
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Hong-Il Choi, Nam-Hoon Kim, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Jee Young Park, Hyun Hee Kim, Tae-Jin Yang
      Background Panax ginseng Meyer (Asian ginseng) has a large nuclear genome size of > 3.5 Gbp in haploid genome equivalent of 24 chromosomes. Tandem repeats (TRs) occupy significant portions of the genome in many plants and are often found in specific genomic loci, making them a valuable molecular cytogenetic tool in discriminating chromosomes. In an effort to understand the P. ginseng genome structure, we characterized an ultrahigh copy 167-bp TR (Pg167TR) and explored its chromosomal distribution as well as its utility for chromosome identification. Methods Polymerase chain reaction amplicons of Pg167TR were labeled, along with 5S and 45S rDNA amplicons, using a direct nick-translation method. Direct fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to analyze the chromosomal distribution of Pg167TR. Results Recently, we reported a method of karyotyping the 24 chromosome pairs of P. ginseng using rDNA and DAPI (4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) bands. Here, a unique distribution of Pg167TR in all 24 P. ginseng chromosomes was observed, allowing easy identification of individual homologous chromosomes. Additionally, direct labeling of 5S and 45S rDNA probes allowed the identification of two additional 5S rDNA loci not previously reported, enabling the refinement of the P. ginseng karyotype. Conclusion Identification of individual P. ginseng chromosomes was achieved using Pg167TR-FISH. Chromosome identification is important in understanding the P. ginseng genome structure, and our method will be useful for future integration of genetic linkage maps and genome scaffold anchoring. Additionally, it is a good tool for comparative studies with related species in efforts to understand the evolution of P. ginseng.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.002
  • Korean Red Ginseng extract induces angiogenesis through activation of
           glucocorticoid receptor

    • Authors: Wai-Nam Sung; Hoi-Hin Kwok; Man-Hee Rhee; Patrick Ying-Kit Yue; Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
      Pages: 477 - 486
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Wai-Nam Sung, Hoi-Hin Kwok, Man-Hee Rhee, Patrick Ying-Kit Yue, Ricky Ngok-Shun Wong
      Background Our previous studies have demonstrated that ginsenoside-Rg1 can promote angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through activation of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR). Furthermore, microRNA (miRNA) expression profiling has shown that Rg1 can modulate the expression of a subset of miRNAs to induce angiogenesis. Moreover, Rb1 was shown to be antiangiogenic through activation of a different pathway. These studies highlight the important functions of miRNAs on ginseng-regulated physiological processes. The aim of this study was to determine the angiogenic properties of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KGE). Methods and Results Combining in vitro and in vivo data, KGE at 500 μg/mL was found to induce angiogenesis. According to the miRNA sequencing, 484 differentially expressed miRNAs were found to be affected by KGE. Among them, angiogenic-related miRNAs; miR-15b, -23a, -214, and -377 were suppressed by KGE. Meanwhile, their corresponding angiogenic proteins were stimulated, including vascular endothelial growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and MET transmembrane tyrosine kinase. The miRNAs-regulated signaling pathways of KGE were then found by Cignal 45-Pathway Reporter Array, proving that KGE could activate GR. Conclusion KGE was found capable of inducing angiogenesis both in vivo and in vitro models through activating GR. This study provides a valuable insight into the angiogenic mechanisms depicted by KGE in relation to specific miRNAs.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.011
  • Chemical and bioactive comparison of flowers of Panax ginseng Meyer, Panax
           quinquefolius L., and Panax notoginseng Burk.

    • Authors: Fang Li; Chongning Lv; Qiao Li; Jing Wang; Dan Song; Pengpeng Liu; Dandan Zhang; Jincai Lu
      Pages: 487 - 495
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Fang Li, Chongning Lv, Qiao Li, Jing Wang, Dan Song, Pengpeng Liu, Dandan Zhang, Jincai Lu
      Background Although flowers of Panax ginseng Meyer (FPG), Panax quinquefolius L. (FPQ), and Panax notoginseng Burk. (FPN) have been historically used as both medicine and food, each is used differently in practice. Methods To investigate the connection between components and enhancing immunity activity of FPG, FPQ, and FPN, a method based on a rapid LC coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight MS and immunomodulatory activity study evaluated by a carbon clearance test were combined. Results According to quantitative results, the ratio of the total content of protopanaxatiol-type ginsenosides to protopanaxadiol-type ginsenosides in FPN was 0, but ranged from 1.10 to 1.32 and from 0.23 to 0.35 in FPG and FPQ, respectively. The ratio of the total content of neutral ginsenosides to the corresponding malonyl-ginsenosides in FPN (5.52±1.33%) was higher than FPG (3.2±0.64%) and FPQ (2.39±0.57%). The colorimetric analysis showed the content of total ginsenosides in FPQ, FPG, and FPN to be 13.75±0.60%, 17.45±0.42%, and 12.45±1.77%, respectively. The carbon clearance assay indicated that the phagocytic activity of FPG and FPQ was higher than that of FPN. A clear discrimination among FPG, FPQ, and FPN was observed in the principal component analysis score plots. Seven compounds were confirmed to contribute strongly by loading plots, which may be the cause of differences in efficacy. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the chemical and bioactive comparison of FPG, FPQ, and FPN, indicating that protopanaxtriol-type ginsenosides and malonyl-ginsenosides may play a key role in their enhancing immunity properties.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.008
  • Antiviral activity of 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 against murine

    • Authors: Soowon Kang; Kyungtaek Im; Geon Kim; Hyeyoung Min
      Pages: 496 - 502
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Soowon Kang, Kyungtaek Im, Geon Kim, Hyeyoung Min
      Background Ginsenosides are the major components of Panax ginseng Meyer, an herbal medicine used for the treatment of various diseases. Different ginsenosides contribute to the biological properties of ginseng, such as antimicrobial, anticancer, and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the antiviral effects of 15 ginsenosides and compound K on gammaherpesvirus. Methods The antiviral activity of ginsenosides was examined using the plaque-forming assay and by analyzing the expression of the lytic gene. Results 20(R)-Ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited the replication and proliferation of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68), and its half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) against MHV-68 was estimated to be 2.77 μM. In addition, 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced lytic replication of human gammaherpesvirus in the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV)-positive cell line BC3. Conclusion Our results indicate that 20(R)-ginsenoside Rh2 can inhibit the replication of mouse and human gammaherpesviruses, and thus, has the potential to treat gammaherpesvirus infection.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.08.010
  • Chronic saponin treatment attenuates damage to the pancreas in chronic
           alcohol-treated diabetic rats

    • Authors: Mi Ran Choi; Su Min Kwak; Sol Hee Bang; Jo-Eun Jeong; Dai-Jin Kim
      Pages: 503 - 512
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Mi Ran Choi, Su Min Kwak, Sol Hee Bang, Jo-Eun Jeong, Dai-Jin Kim
      Background Chronic heavy alcohol consumption may raise the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Saponins inhibit apoptosis of pancreatic islet cells and reduce lipid parameters. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of saponin on chronic ethanol-treated diabetic rats. Methods Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (LETO) and Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats were pair-fed a Lieber–DeCarli diet with and without 5% ethanol for 12 wks. Two weeks after starting the pair-feeding with the Lieber–DeCarli diet, intraperitoneal injection of saponin was performed for 10 wks. To perform the experiments, rats were divided as follows: LETO-Control (LC), LETO-Ethanol (LE), LETO-Ethanol-Saponin (LES), OLETF-Control (OC), OLETF-Ethanol (OE), and OLETF-Ethanol-Saponin (OES). Results The weights of epididymal and mesenteric fat tissue in LES and OES rats were the lightest from among the LETO and OLETF groups, respectively. The secretion of alanine aminotransferase and cholesterol in OES rats decreased significantly compared to their secretion in OC and OE rats, respectively. The islets of the pancreas in LE and OE rats showed clean, unclear, and smaller morphology compared to those of LC, LES, OC, and OES rats. In addition, the expression of insulin in the islets of the pancreas in LC, LES, OC, and OES rats was higher than in LE and OE rats. Conclusion Saponin may not only be helpful in alleviating the rapid progress of diabetes due to chronic alcohol consumption in diabetic patients, but may also show potential as an antidiabetic drug candidate for diabetic patients who chronically consume alcohol.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.09.002
  • Nonsaponin fractions of Korean Red Ginseng extracts prime activation of
           NLRP3 inflammasome

    • Authors: Byung-Cheol Han; Huijeong Ahn; Jiseon Lee; Eunsaem Jeon; Sanghoon Seo; Kyoung Hwa Jang; Seung-Ho Lee; Cheon Ho Kim; Geun-Shik Lee
      Pages: 513 - 523
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Byung-Cheol Han, Huijeong Ahn, Jiseon Lee, Eunsaem Jeon, Sanghoon Seo, Kyoung Hwa Jang, Seung-Ho Lee, Cheon Ho Kim, Geun-Shik Lee
      Background Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) have been suggested as effective immune modulators, and we reported that ginsenosides possess anti-inflammasome properties. However, the properties of nonsaponin components of RGE have not been well studied. Methods To assess the roles of nonsaponin fractions (NS) in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we treated murine macrophages with or without first or second inflammasome activation signals with RGE, NS, or saponin fractions (SF). The first signal was nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated transcription of pro-interleukin (IL)-1β and NLRP3 while the second signal triggered assembly of inflammasome components, leading to IL-1β maturation. In addition, we examined the role of NS in IL-6 production and IL-1β maturation in mice. Results NS induced IL-1β and NLRP3 transcription via toll-like receptor 4 signaling, whereas SF blocked expression. During the second signal, SF attenuated NLRP3 inflammasome activation while NS did not. Further, NS-injected mice presented increased IL-1β maturation and IL-6 production. Conclusion SF and NS of RGE play differential roles in the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Hence, RGE can be suggested as an NLRP3 inflammasome modulator.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.10.001
  • Evaluation of ginsenoside bioconversion of lactic acid bacteria isolated
           from kimchi

    • Authors: Boyeon Park; Hyelyeon Hwang; Jina Lee; Sung-Oh Sohn; Se Hee Lee; Min Young Jung; Hyeong In Lim; Hae Woong Park; Jong-Hee Lee
      Pages: 524 - 530
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Boyeon Park, Hyelyeon Hwang, Jina Lee, Sung-Oh Sohn, Se Hee Lee, Min Young Jung, Hyeong In Lim, Hae Woong Park, Jong-Hee Lee
      Background Panax ginseng is a physiologically active plant widely used in traditional medicine that is characterized by the presence of ginsenosides. Rb1, a major ginsenoside, is used as the starting material for producing ginsenoside derivatives with enhanced pharmaceutical potentials through chemical, enzymatic, or microbial transformation. Methods To investigate the bioconversion of ginsenoside Rb1, we prepared kimchi originated bacterial strains Leuconostoc mensenteroides WiKim19, Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim20, Lactobacillus brevis WiKim47, Leuconostoc lactis WiKim48, and Lactobacillus sakei WiKim49 and analyzed bioconversion products using LC-MS/MS mass spectrometer. Results L. mesenteroides WiKim19 and Pediococcus pentosaceus WiKim20 converted ginsenoside Rb1 into the ginsenoside Rg3 approximately five times more than Lactobacillus brevis WiKim47, Leuconostoc lactis WiKim48, and Lactobacillus sakei WiKim49. L mesenteroides WIKim19 showed positive correlation with β-glucosidase activity and higher transformation ability of ginsenoside Rb1 into Rg3 than the other strains whereas, P. pentosaceus WiKim20 showed an elevated production of Rb3 even with lack of β-glucosidase activity but have the highest acidity among the five lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Conclusion Ginsenoside Rg5 concentration of five LABs have ranged from ∼2.6 μg/mL to 6.5 μg/mL and increased in accordance with the incubation periods. Our results indicate that the enzymatic activity along with acidic condition contribute to the production of minor ginsenoside from lactic acid bacteria.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.10.003
  • Ginsenoside Rg12, a new dammarane-type triterpene saponin from Panax
           ginseng root

    • Authors: Dong Gu Lee; Jaemin Lee; Ik-Hyun Cho; Hak-Jae Kim; Sang-Won Lee; Young-Ock Kim; Chun-Gun Park; Sanghyun Lee
      Pages: 531 - 533
      Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 41, Issue 4
      Author(s): Dong Gu Lee, Jaemin Lee, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Young-Ock Kim, Chun-Gun Park, Sanghyun Lee
      Background Panax ginseng has been used as Korean medicine for various diseases. It has antioxidant, hypotensive, sedative, analgesic, and endocrine activities. Dammarane-type triterpenes from the plant have various beneficial effects. Methods A dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated from P. ginseng root through chromatography such as repeated column chromatography and medium pressure liquid chromatography. Results and conclusion New dammarane-type triterpene saponin was isolated for the first time from nature. The structure was elucidated as ginsenoside Rg12 (1) based on spectral data. There may be good materials from P. ginseng for the development of industrial applications such as nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-10-02T02:11:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.10.002
  • Dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides from the leaves and stems of
           Panax notoginseng and their anti-inflammation activities

    • Authors: Juan Li; Ru-Feng Wang; Yue Zhou; Hai-Jun Hu; Ying-Bo Yang; Li Yang; Zheng-Tao Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Juan Li, Ru-Feng Wang, Yue Zhou, Hai-Jun Hu, Ying-Bo Yang, Li Yang, Zheng-Tao Wang
      Background Inflammation is widespread in the clinical pathology and closely associated to the progress of many diseases. Triterpenoid saponins as a key group of active ingredients in Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F.H. Chen were demonstrated to show anti-inflammatory effects. However, the chemical structures of saponins in the leaves and stems of Panax notoginseng (PNLS) are still not fully clear. Herein, the isolation, purification and further evaluation of the anti-inflammation activity of dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins from PNLS were conducted. Methods Silica gel and reversed-phase C8 column chromatography were used. Furthermore, preparative HPLC was used as a final purification technique to obtain minor saponins with high purities. MS, NMR experiments and chemical methods were used in the structural identifications. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolated saponins were assessed by measuring the nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure the gene expressions of inflammation-related gene. Results and conclusion Eight new minor dammarane-type triterpene oligoglycosides, namely notoginsenosides LK1-LK8 (1-8) were obtained from PNLS, along with 7 known ones. From the structural point of view, the new saponins 1, 4 and 5 featured α, β-unsaturated ketones. Besides, compounds 2 and 3 were characterized by the conjugated double bonds, which were seldom found in Panax genus. Among the isolated saponins, it is reported for the first time that gypenoside IX showed moderate anti-inflammatory activity at concentration of 100 μM on LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.

      PubDate: 2017-12-26T23:00:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.008
  • Simultaneous determination and difference evaluation of 14 ginsenosides in
           Panax ginseng roots cultivated in different areas and ages by HPLC-MRM/MS
           combined with multivariate statistical analysis

    • Authors: Yang Xiu; Xue Li; Xiuli Sun; Dan Xiao; Rui Miao; Huanxi Zhao; Shuying Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yang Xiu, Xue Li, Xiuli Sun, Dan Xiao, Rui Miao, Huanxi Zhao, Shuying Liu
      Background Ginsenosides are not only the principal bioactive components, but also the important indexes to the quality assessment of Panax ginseng Meyer. Their contents in cultivated ginseng vary with the growth environment and age. The present study aimed at evaluating the significant difference between 36 cultivated ginseng of different cultivation areas and ages based on the simultaneously determined contents of 14 ginsenosides. Methods A high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer method was developed and used in the multiple reaction monitoring mode (HPLC-MRM/MS) for the quantitative analysis of ginsenoside. Multivariate statistical analysis, such as principal component analysis and partial least squares-discriminant analysis were applied to discriminate ginseng samples of various cultivation areas and ages and to discover the differentially accumulated ginsenoside markers. Results The developed HPLC-MRM/MS method was validated to be precise, accurate, stable, sensitive and repeatable for the simultaneous determination of 14 ginsenosides. It was found that the ginseng samples of 3 and 5 yr old were differentiated distinctly by all means of multivariate statistical analysis, whereas the 4 yr old samples exhibited similarity to either 3 or 5 yr old samples in the contents of ginsenosides. Among the 14 detected ginsenosides, Rg1, Rb1, Rb2, Rc, 20(S)-Rf, 20(S)-Rh1 and Rb3 were identified as potential markers for the differentiation of cultivation ages. Additionally, the 5 yr old samples were able to be classified in cultivation area based on the contents of ginsenosides, whereas the 3 and 4 yr old samples showed little differences in cultivation area. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the HPLC-MRM/MS method combined with multivariate statistical analysis provide deep insight into the accumulation characteristics of ginsenosides and could be used to differentiate ginseng which are cultivated in different areas and ages.

      PubDate: 2017-12-15T06:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.001
  • Bioactive lipids in gintonin-enriched fraction from ginseng

    • Authors: Hee-Jung Cho; Sun-Hye Choi; Hyeon-Joong Kim; Byung-Hwan Lee; Hyewon Rhim; Hyoung-Chun Kim; Sung-Hee Hwang; Seung-Yeol Nah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Hee-Jung Cho, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Byung-Hwan Lee, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Sung-Hee Hwang, Seung-Yeol Nah
      Background Ginseng is a traditional herbal medicine for human health. Ginseng contains a bioactive ligand named gintonin. The active ingredient of gintonin is lysophosphatidic acid C18:2 (LPA C18:2). We previously developed a method for gintonin-enriched fraction (GEF) preparation to mass-produce gintonin from ginseng. However, previous studies did not show the presence of other bioactive lipids besides LPAs. The aim of this study was to quantify the fatty acids, lysophospholipids (LPLs), and phospholipids (PLs) besides LPAs in GEF. Methods We prepared GEF from white ginseng. We used GC-MS for fatty acid analysis and LC-MS/MS for phospholipid analysis, and quantified the fatty acids, LPLs, and PLs in GEF using respective standards. We examined the effect of GEF on insulin secretion in INS-1 cells. Results GEF contains about 7.5% linoleic acid (C18:2), 2.8% palmitic acid (C16:0), and 1.5% oleic acid (C18:1). GEF contains about 0.2% LPA C18:2, 0.06% LPA C16:0, and 0.02% LPA C18:1. GEF contains 0.08% lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), 0.03% lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE), and 0.13% lysophosphatidylinositols (LPI). GEF also contains about 1% phosphatidic acid (PA) 16:0-18:2, 0.5% PA 18:2-18:2, and 0.2% PA16:0-18:1. GEF-mediated insulin secretion was not blocked by LPA receptor antagonist. Conclusion We determined four characteristics of GEF through lipid analysis and insulin secretion. First, GEF contains a large amount of linoleic acid (C18:2), PA 16:0-18:2, and LPA C18:2 compared to other lipids. Second, the main fatty acid component of LPLs and PLs is linoleic acid (C18:2). Third, GEF stimulates insulin secretion not through LPA receptors. Finally, GEF contains bioactive lipids besides LPAs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-15T06:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.006
  • Roles of ginsenosides in inflammasome activation

    • Authors: Young-Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Young-Su Yi
      Inflammation is an innate immune response that protect the body from pathogens, toxins, and other dangers and initiated by recognizing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) by pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) expressing on or in immune cells. Intracellular PRRs, including nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptors (NLRs), absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2), and cysteine aspartate-specific protease (caspase)-4/5/11 recognize various PAMPs and DAMPs and assemble protein complexes called ‘inflammasomes’. These complexes induce inflammatory responses by activating a downstream effector, caspase-1, leading to gasdermin-D (GSDMD)-mediated pyroptosis and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Ginsenosides are natural steroid glycosides and triterpene saponins found exclusively in the plant genus Panax. Various ginsenosides have been identified and their abilities to regulate inflammatory responses have been evaluated. These studies have suggested a link between ginsenosides and inflammasome activation in inflammatory responses. Some types of ginsenosides, including Rh1, Rg3, Rb1, compound K, chikusetsu saponin IVa (CS IVa), Rg5, and Rg1, have been clearly demonstrated to inhibit inflammatory responses by suppressing the activation of various inflammasomes, including the NLRP3, NLRP1, and AIM2 inflammasomes. Ginsenosides have also been shown to inhibit caspase-1 and to decrease the expression of IL-1β and IL-18. Given this body of evidence, the functional relationship between ginsenosides and inflammasome activation provides new insight into the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of ginsenoside-mediated anti-inflammatory actions. This relationship also has applications regarding the development of anti-inflammatory remedies by ginsenoside-mediated targeting of inflammasomes, which could be used to prevent and treat inflammatory diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-12-15T06:46:47Z
  • Korean red ginseng enhances pneumococcal Δpep27 vaccine efficacy by
           inhibiting reactive oxygen species production

    • Authors: Si-On Lee; Seungyeop Lee; Se-Jin Kim; Dong-Kwon Rhee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Si-On Lee, Seungyeop Lee, Se-Jin Kim, Dong-Kwon Rhee
      BACKGROUND Streptococcus pneumoniae, more than 90 serotypes of which exist, is recognized as an etiologic agent of pneumonia, meningitis, and sepsis associated with significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization with a pneumococcal pep27 mutant (Δpep27) has been shown to confer comprehensive, long-term protection against even non-typeable strains. However, Δpep27 is only effective as a vaccine after at least 3 rounds of immunization. Therefore, treatments capable of enhancing the efficiency of Δpep27 immunization should be identified without delay. Panax ginseng Mayer has already been shown to have pharmacological and antioxidant effects. Here, the ability of Korean red ginseng (KRG) to enhance the efficacy of Δpep27 immunization was investigated. METHODS Mice were treated with KRG and immunized with Δpep27 prior to infection with the pathogenic S. pneumoniae strain D39. Total reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was measured using lung homogenates, and iNOS and anti-apoptotic protein expression was determined by immunoblotting. The phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was also tested following KRG treatment. RESULTS Compared to the other treatments, KRG significantly increased survival rate after lethal challenge and resulted in faster bacterial clearance via increased phagocytosis. Moreover, KRG enhanced Δpep27 vaccine efficacy by inhibiting ROS production, reducing ERK apoptosis signaling and inflammation. CONCLUSION Taken together, our results suggest that KRG reduces the time required for immunization with the Δpep27 vaccine by enhancing its efficacy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-15T06:46:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.007
  • Differentiation and identification of ginsenoside structural isomers by
           two-dimensional mass spectrometry combined with statistical analysis

    • Authors: Yang Xiu; Li Ma; Huanxi Zhao; Xiuli Sun; Xue Li; Shuying Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yang Xiu, Li Ma, Huanxi Zhao, Xiuli Sun, Xue Li, Shuying Liu
      Background In the current phytochemical research on ginseng, the differentiation and structural identification of ginsenosides isomers remain challenging. In this paper, a two-dimensional mass spectrometry (2D-MS) method was developed and combined with statistical analysis for the direct differentiation, identification and relative quantification of protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenoside isomers. Methods Collision-induced dissociation was performed at successive collision energy (CE) values to produce distinct profiles of the intensity fraction (IF) and ratio of intensity (RI) of the fragment ions. To amplify the differences in tandem mass spectra between isomers, IF and RI were plotted against CE. The resulting data distributions were then used to obtain the parameters of the fitted curves, which were used to evaluate the statistical significance of the differences between these distributions via the unpaired t-test. Results A triplet and two pairs of PPD-type ginsenoside isomers were differentiated and identified by their distinct IF and RI distributions. In addition, the fragmentation preference of PPD-type ginsenosides was determined on the basis of the activation energy. The developed 2D-MS method was also extended to quantitatively determine the molar composition of ginsenoside isomers in mixtures of biotransformation products. Conclusion In comparison with conventional MS methods, 2D-MS provides more direct insights into the subtle structural differences between isomers and can be used as an alternative approach for the differentiation of isomeric ginsenosides and natural products.

      PubDate: 2017-12-05T04:11:30Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.002
  • Synergistic effect of maclurin on ginsenoside compound K induced
           inhibition of the transcriptional expression of MMP-1 in HaCaT human
           keratinocyte cells

    • Authors: Sang Yeol Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Sang Yeol Lee
      The synergistic effect of maclurin on CK-induced inhibition of the transcriptional expression of MMP-1 was investigated in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. Maclurin suppresses transcriptional expression of MMP-1 via inhibition of ERK/Ets-1 signaling. The combination of CK and maclurin may be promising way to be used as an anti-skin aging agent.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.003
  • Chemical and bioactive comparison of Panax notoginseng root and rhizome in
           raw and steamed forms

    • Authors: Yin Xiong; Lijuan Chen; Jinhui Man; Yupiao Hu; Xiuming Cui
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yin Xiong, Lijuan Chen, Jinhui Man, Yupiao Hu, Xiuming Cui
      Background The root and rhizome are historically and officially utilized as medicinal parts of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (PN), which in raw and steamed forms are differently used in practice. Methods To investigate the differences in chemical composition and bioactivities of PN root and rhizome between raw and steamed forms, high-performance liquid chromatography analyses and pharmacologic effects evaluated by tests of anticoagulation, antioxidation, hemostatis, anti-inflammation and hematopoiesis were combined. Results With the duration of steaming time, the contents of ginsenosides Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rd, and notoginsenoside R1 in PN were decreased, while those of ginsenosides Rh1, 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3, Rh4, and Rk3 were increased gradually. Raw PN samples steamed for 6 h at 120°C with stable levels of most constituents were used for the subsequent study of bioeffects. Raw PN showed better hemostasis, anticoagulation and anti-inflammation effects, while steamed PN exhibited stronger antioxidation and hematopoiesis activities. For different parts of PN, contents of saponins in PN rhizome were generally higher than those in the root, which could be related to the stronger bioactivities of rhizome compared with the same form of PN root. Conclusion This study provides basic information about the chemical and bioactive comparison of PN root and rhizome in both raw and steamed forms, indicating the change of saponins may have a key role in different properties of raw and steamed PN.

      PubDate: 2017-11-24T06:10:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.004
  • Comparing eight types of ginsenosides in ginseng of different plant ages
           and regions using RRLC-Q-TOF MS/MS

    • Authors: Yu-Lin Dai; Meng-Dan Qiao; Peng Yu; Fei Zheng; Hao Yue; Shu-Ying Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yu-Lin Dai, Meng-Dan Qiao, Peng Yu, Fei Zheng, Hao Yue, Shu-Ying Liu
      Background This article aims to compare and analyze the contents of ginsenosides in ginseng with different plant ages from different localities in China. Methods In this study, 77 samples of 2–4-year-old fresh ginseng were collected from 13 different cultivation regions in China. The content of eight ginsenosides (Rg3, Rc, Rg1, Rf, Rb2, Rb1, Re, and Rd) were determined using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (RRLC-Q-TOF MS/MS) to comparatively evaluate the influences of cultivation region and age. Results Ginsenoside contents differed significantly depending on age and cultivation region. The contents of ginsenosides Re, Rc, Rg1, Rg3, and Rf increased with cultivation age, whereas that of ginsenoside Rb1 peaked in the third year of cultivation. Moreover, the highest ginsenoside content was obtained from Changbai (19.36 mg/g) whereas the lowest one was from Jidong (12.05 mg/g). Ginseng from JiLin Province contained greater total ginsenosides and was richer in ginsenoside Re than plants of the same age group in HeiLongJiang and LiaoNing Provinces, where Rb1 and Rg1 contents were relatively high. Conclusion In this study, RRLC-Q-TOF MS/MS was used to analyze ginsenoside contents in 77 ginseng samples aged 2–4 years from different cultivation regions. These patterns of variation in ginsenoside content, which depend on harvesting location and age, could be useful for interested parties to choose ginseng products according to their needs.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.11.001
  • Fermented ginseng, GBCK25 ameliorates steatosis and inflammation in
           non-alcoholic steatohepatitis model.

    • Authors: Naeun Choi; Jong Won Kim; Hyeneui Jeong; Dong Gue Shin; Jeong Hun Seo; Jong Hoon Kim; Chae Woong Lim; Kang Min Han; Bumseok Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Naeun Choi, Jong Won Kim, Hyeneui Jeong, Dong Gue Shin, Jeong Hun Seo, Jong Hoon Kim, Chae Woong Lim, Kang Min Han, Bumseok Kim
      Background Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is one of the chronic inflammatory liver diseases and a leading cause of advanced liver fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The main purpose of this study was to clarify the effects of GBCK25 fermented by Saccharomyces servazzii GB-07 and pectinase, on NASH severity in mice. Methods 6 week old-aged male mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks to induce NASH. Each group was orally administered with vehicle or GBCK25 once daily at a dose of 10, 20, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg during that time. The effects of GBCK25 on cellular damage and inflammation were determined by in vitro experiments. Results Histopathologic analysis and hepatic/serum biochemical levels revealed that WD-fed mice showed severe steatosis and liver injury compared to ND-fed mice. Such lesions were significantly decreased in the livers of WD-fed mice with GBCK25 administration. Consistently, mRNA expression levels of NASH-related inflammatory-, fibrogenic- and lipid metabolism-related genes were decreased in the livers of WD-fed mice administered GBCK25 compared to WD-fed mice. Western blot analysis revealed decreased protein levels of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) with concomitantly reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in the livers of WD-fed mice administered GBCK25. Also, decreased cellular damage and inflammation were observed in AML12 cells and RAW264.7 cells, respectively. Conclusion Administration of GBCK25 ameliorates NASH severity through the modulation of CYP2E1 and its associated JNK-mediated cellular damage. GBCK25 could be a potentially effective prophylactic strategy to prevent metabolic diseases including NASH.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.10.002
  • Ameliorative Effect of Black Ginseng Extract against Oxidative
           Stress-induced Cellular Damages in Mouse Hepatocytes

    • Authors: Qaisra Naheed Choudhry; Jun Ho Kim; Hyung Taek Cho; Wan Heo; Jeong-Jun Lee; Jin Hyup Lee; Young Jun Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Qaisra Naheed Choudhry, Jun Ho Kim, Hyung Taek Cho, Wan Heo, Jeong-Jun Lee, Jin Hyup Lee, Young Jun Kim
      Background Oxidative stress induces the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play important causative roles in various pathological conditions. Black ginseng, a type of steam-processed ginseng, has drawn significant attention due to its biological activity, is more potent than that of white or red ginseng. Methods We evaluated the protective effects of black ginseng extract (BGE) against oxidative stress–induced cellular damage, in comparison with white ginseng extract (WGE) and red ginseng extract (RGE) in cell culture model. Ethanolic extracts of white, red, and black ginseng were used to evaluate ginsenoside profiles, total polyphenols, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity. Using AML-12 cells treated with H2O2, the protective effects of WGE, RGE, and BGE on cellular redox status, DNA, protein, lipid damage and apoptosis levels were investigated. Results BGE exhibited significantly enhanced antioxidant potential, as well as the total flavonoid and polyphenol contents. ATP levels were significantly higher in BGE-treated cells than in control; ROS generation and GSSG levels were lower but GSH and NADPH levels were higher in BGE-treated cells than in other groups. Pretreatment with BGE inhibited apoptosis and therefore protected from oxidative stress–induced cellular damage, probably through ROS scavenging. Conclusion Collectively, our results demonstrate that BGE protects AML-12 cells from oxidative stress–induced cellular damages more effectively than WGE or RGE, through ROS scavenging, maintenance of redox status, and activation of the antioxidant defense system.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.10.003
  • Dynamic changes of multi-notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides in reaction by
           a ginsenosidase type-I

    • Authors: Yongkun Xiao; Chunying Liu; Wan-Teak Im; Shuang Chen; Kangze Zuo; Hongshan Yu; Jianguo Song; Longquan Xu; Tea-Hoo Yi; Fengxie Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yongkun Xiao, Chunying Liu, Wan-Teak Im, Shuang Chen, Kangze Zuo, Hongshan Yu, Jianguo Song, Longquan Xu, Tea-Hoo Yi, Fengxie Jin
      Background Notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides did not be well used. To improve the utilization, the biotransformation of notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides was studied using ginsenosidase type-I from Aspergillus niger g.848. Methods The notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides were reacted by crude enzyme in the RAT-5D Bioreactor; and the dynamic changes of multi-ginsenosides of notoginseng stem-leaf were recognized by HPLC. The reaction products were separated with silica-gel-column, and recognized by HPLC and NMR. Results All the notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides are protopanaxadiol-type (PPD) ginsenosides; main ginsenoside contents are 27.1% Rb3, 15.7% C-Mx1, 13.8% Rc, 11.1% Fc, 7.10% Fa, 6.44% C-Mc, 5.08% Rb2, 4.31% Rb1. In the reaction of notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides by crude enzyme: the main reaction of Rb3 and C-Mx1 was happened through Rb3→C-Mx1→C-Mx; when reacted for 1 h, the Rb3 was decreased from 27.1% to 9.82 %, the C-Mx1 was increased from 15.5% to 32.3%, C-Mx was produced to 6.46%, finally into C-Mx and small amount of C-K. When reacted for 1.5 h, all the Rb1, Rd and Gyp17 were completely reacted, and reaction intermediate F2 was produced to 8.25%, finally into C-K. The main reaction of Rc (13.8%) was happened through Rc→C-Mc1→C-Mc→C-K. The enzyme hardly hydrolyzed the terminal xyloside on 3-O- or 20-O-sugar-moiety of substrate; so, the 9.43 g C-Mx, 6.85 g C-K, 4.50 g R7, and 4.71 g Fc (hardly separating from substrate) were obtained from 50 g notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides by crude enzyme reaction. Conclusion Four monomer ginsenosides were successfully produced and separated from notoginseng stem-leaf ginsenosides by enzyme reaction.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.10.001
  • Pharmacological and medical applications of Panax ginseng and
           ginsenosides: A review for use in cardiovascular diseases

    • Authors: Jong-Hoon Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jong-Hoon Kim
      Panax ginseng, also called Asian or Korean ginseng, has long been traditionally used in Korea and China to treat various diseases. The major active ingredients of Panax ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of therapeutic effects, including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergic, anti-diabetic, and anti-cancer. To date, approximately 40 ginsenoside components have been reported. Current research is concentrating on using a single ginseng compound, one of the ginsenosides, instead of the total ginseng compounds, to determine the mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides. In recent in vitro and in vivo results show that ginseng has beneficial effects on cardiac and vascular diseases through efficacy including anti-oxidation, control of vasomotor function, modulation of ion channels and signal transduction, improvement of lipid profiles, adjustment of blood pressure, improvement in cardiac function, and reduction in platelet adhesion. This review aims to provide valuable information on the traditional uses of ginseng and ginsenosides, their therapeutic applications in animal models and humans, and the pharmacological action of ginseng and ginsenosides.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.10.004
  • Preparative separation of minor saponins from Panax notoginseng leaves
           using biotransformation, macroporous resins and preparative
           high-performance liquid chromatography

    • Authors: Fang Liu; Ni Ma; Fang-Bo Xia; Peng Li; Chengwei He; Zhenqiang Wu; Jian-Bo Wan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Fang Liu, Ni Ma, Fang-Bo Xia, Peng Li, Chengwei He, Zhenqiang Wu, Jian-Bo Wan
      Background Ginsenosides with fewer sugar moieties may exhibit better adsorptive capacity and more pharmacological activities. Methods An efficient method for the separation of four minor saponins, including gypenoside XVII, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rd2 and notoginsenoside Fd, from Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) was established using biotransformation, macroporous resins and subsequent preparative high-performance liquid chromatography (pre-HPLC). Results The dried PNL powder was immersed in distilled water at 50 °C for 30 min to convert the major saponins, ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2 and Rb3, to minor saponins, gypenoside XVII, notoginsenoside Fe, ginsenoside Rd2 and notoginsenoside Fd, respectively, by the enzymes present in PNL. The adsorption characteristics of these minor saponins on five types of macroporous resins, D-101, DA-201, DM-301, X-5 and S-8, were evaluated and compared. Among these resins, D-101 was selected as it demonstrated the best adsorption and desorption properties. Under the optimized conditions, the fraction containing the four target saponins was separated by D-101 resin. Subsequently, the target minor saponins were individually separated and purified by preparative HPLC with a reversed-phase column. Conclusion Our study provides a simple and efficient method for the preparation of these four minor saponins from PNL, which indicated potential for industrial applications.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.003
  • Ginsenoside compound K protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells
           against oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced injury via inhibition of
           nuclear factor-κB, p38, and JNK MAPK pathways

    • Authors: Shan Lu; Yun Luo; Ping Zhou; Ke Yang; Guibo Sun; Xiaobo Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Shan Lu, Yun Luo, Ping Zhou, Ke Yang, Guibo Sun, Xiaobo Sun
      Background Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) causes vascular endothelial cell inflammatory response and apoptosis and plays an important role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a metabolite produced by the hydrolysis of ginsenoside Rb1, possesses strong anti-inflammatory effects. However, whether or not CK protects ox-LDL-damaged endothelial cells and the potential mechanisms have not been elucidated. Methods In our study, cell viability was tested using a 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Expression levels of interleukin-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) was detected using JC-1. The cell apoptotic percentage was measured by the Annexin V/ propidium iodide (PI) assay, lactate dehydrogenase, and caspase-3 expression. Apoptosis-related proteins, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling pathways protein expression were quantified by Western blotting. Results Our results demonstrated that CK could ameliorate ox-LDL-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) inflammation and apoptosis, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Moreover, anisomycin, an activator of p38 and JNK, significantly abolished the anti-apoptotic effects of CK. Conclusion These results demonstrate that CK prevents ox-LDL-induced HUVECs inflammation and apoptosis through inhibiting the NF-κB, p38, and JNK MAPK signaling pathways. Thus, CK is a candidate drug for atherosclerosis treatment.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.004
  • Protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng against sub-acute immobilization
           stress-induced testicular damage in experimental rats

    • Authors: Sang-Ho Lee; Kyung-Hwa Choi; Kyu-Min Cha; Seock-Yeon Hwang; Un-Kyu Park; Min-Sik Jeong; Jae-Yup Hong; Chang-Kyun Han; Gyo In; Spandana Rajendra Kopalli; Si-Kwan Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Sang-Ho Lee, Kyung-Hwa Choi, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Un-Kyu Park, Min-Sik Jeong, Jae-Yup Hong, Chang-Kyun Han, Gyo In, Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Si-Kwan Kim
      Background Excessive stress causes varied physiological and psychological disorders including male reproductive problems. Here, we attempted to investigate the protective effects of Korean Red Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer; KRG) against sub-acute immobilization stress-induced testicular damage in experimental rats. Methods Male rats (age, 4 wk; weight, 60–70 g) were divided into four groups (n = 8 in each group): normal control group, immobilization control group, immobilization group treated with 100 mg/kg of KRG daily, and immobilization group treated with 200 mg/kg of KRG daily. Normal control and immobilization control groups received vehicle only. KRG (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) was mixed in the standard diet powder and fed daily for 6 mo. Parameters such as organ weight, blood chemistry, sperm kinematic values, and expression levels of testicular-related molecules were measured using commercially available kits, Western blotting, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results Data revealed that KRG restored the altered testis and epididymis weight in immobilization stress-induced rats significantly (p < 0.05). Further, KRG ameliorated the altered blood chemistry and sperm kinematic values when compared with the IC group and attenuated the altered expression levels of spermatogenesis-related proteins (nectin-2, cAMP responsive element binding protein 1, and inhibin-⍺), sex hormone receptors (androgen receptor, luteinizing hormone receptor, and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor), and antioxidant-related enzymes (glutathione S-transferase m5, peroxiredoxin-4, and glutathione peroxidase 4) significantly in the testes of immobilization stress-induced rats. Conclusion KRG protected immobilization stress-induced testicular damage and fertility factors in rats, thereby indicating its potential in the treatment of stress-related male sterility.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.002
  • Biosynthesis of rare 20(R)-protopanaxadiol/protopanaxatriol type
           ginsenosides through Escherichia coli engineered with
           UDP-glycosyltransferase genes

    • Authors: Lu Yu; Yuan Chen; Jie Shi; Rufeng Wang; Yingbo Yang; Li Yang; Shujuan Zhao; Zhengtao Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Lu Yu, Yuan Chen, Jie Shi, Rufeng Wang, Yingbo Yang, Li Yang, Shujuan Zhao, Zhengtao Wang
      Background Ginsenosides are known as the principal pharmacological active constituents in Panax medicinal plants such as Asian ginseng, American ginseng and Notoginseng. Some of the ginsenosides, especially the 20(R) isomers, are trace in natural source and difficult to be chemically synthesized. The present study provides an approach to produce such trace ginsenosides applying biotransformation through E.coli modified with relevent genes. Methods Seven uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferase (UGT) genes originated from Panax notoginseng, Medicago sativa and Bacillus subtilis were synthesized or cloned and constructed into pETM6, an ePathBrick vector, which were then introduced into E. coli BL21star™(DE3), separately. 20(R)-protopanaxadiol (PPD), 20(R)-protopanaxatriol (PPT) and 20(R)-type ginsenosides were used as the substrates for biotransformation with recombinant E. coli modified with those UGT genes. Results E. coli engineered with GT95 syn selectively transfers a glucose moiety to the C20 hydroxyl of 20(R)-PPD and 20(R)-PPT to produce 20(R)-CK and 20(R)-F1, respectively. GTK1- and GTC1-modified E. coli glycosylated the C3-OH of 20(R)-PPD to form 20(R)-Rh2. Moreover, E. coli containing p2GT95synK1, a recreated two-step glycosylation pathway via the ePathBrich, implemented the successive glycosylation at C20-OH and C3-OH of 20(R)-PPD and yield 20(R)-F2 in the biotransformation broth. Conclusion This study demonstrated that rare 20(R)-ginsenosides could be produced through E. coli engineered with UTG genes.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.005
  • Systems-level Mechanisms of Action of Panax Ginseng: A Network
           Pharmacological Approach

    • Authors: Sa-Yoon Park; Ji-Hun Park; Hyo-Su Kim; Choong-Yeol Lee; Hae-Jeung Lee; Ki Sung Kang; Chang-Eop Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Sa-Yoon Park, Ji-Hun Park, Hyo-Su Kim, Choong-Yeol Lee, Hae-Jeung Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Chang-Eop Kim
      Panax ginseng has long been used since ancient times based on Traditional Asian Medicine theory and clinical experiences, and currently, is one of the most popular herbs in the world. To date, most of the studies with P. ginseng have focused on specific mechanism of actions of individual constituents. However, in spite of many studies on the molecular mechanisms of P. ginseng, it still remains unclear how multiple active ingredients of P. ginseng interact with multiple targets simultaneously, giving the multidimensional effects on various conditions and diseases. In order to decipher the systems-level mechanism of multiple ingredients of P. ginseng, a new approach is needed beyond conventional reductive analysis. The aim of this paper is to review the systems-level mechanism of P. ginseng by adopting a novel analytical framework-network pharmacology. Here, we constructed a compound-target network of P. ginseng using experimentally validated and machine leaning-based prediction results. The targets of the network were analyzed in terms of related biological process, pathways, and diseases. It turned out that majority of targets were related with primary metabolic process, signal transduction, nitrogen compound metabolic process, blood circulation, immune system process, cell-cell signaling, biosynthetic process, and neurological system process. In pathway enrichment analysis of targets, mainly the terms related with neural activity showed significant enrichment and formed a cluster. Finally, relative degrees analysis for target-disease association of P. ginseng revealed several categories of related diseases including respiratory, psychiatric, and cardiovascular diseases.

      PubDate: 2017-11-14T06:13:07Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.09.001
  • Black Ginseng Activates Akt signaling, whereby Enhancing Myoblast
           Differentiation and Myotube Growth

    • Authors: Soo-Yeon Lee; Ga-Yeon Go; Tuan Anh Vuong; Jee Won Kim; Sullim Lee; Ayoung Jo; Jun Min An; Su-Nam Kim; Dong-Wan Seo; Jin-Seok Kim; Yong Kee Kim; Jong-Sun Kang; Sang-Jin Lee; Gyu-Un Bae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 September 2017
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Soo-Yeon Lee, Ga-Yeon Go, Tuan Anh Vuong, Jee Won Kim, Sullim Lee, Ayoung Jo, Jun Min An, Su-Nam Kim, Dong-Wan Seo, Jin-Seok Kim, Yong Kee Kim, Jong-Sun Kang, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae
      Background Black ginseng (BG) has greatly enhanced pharmacological activities relative to white or red ginseng. However, the effect and molecular mechanism of BG on muscle growth has not been examined. In this study, we investigated whether BG could regulate myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy. Methods BG-treated C2C12 myoblasts were differentiated, followed immunoblotting for myogenic regulators, immunostaining for a muscle marker, myosin heavy chain (MHC) or immunoprecipitation analysis for myogenic transcription factors. Results BG treatment of C2C12 cells resulted in activation of Akt and enhancing heterodimerization of MyoD and E proteins, which in turn promoted muscle specific gene expression and myoblast differentiation. BG treated myoblasts formed larger multinucleated myotubes with increased diameter and thickness, accompanied by enhanced Akt/mTOR/p70S6K activation. Furthermore, the BG treatment of human rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) cells restored myogenic differentiation. Conclusion BG enhances myoblast differentiation and myotube hypertrophy by activating Akt/mTOR/p70S6k axis. Thus our study demonstrates that BG has promising potential to treat or prevent muscle loss related to aging or other pathological conditions, such as diabetes.

      PubDate: 2017-09-08T16:27:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.08.009
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