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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3193 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (244 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 244 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Amylase     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DNA and RNA Nanotechnology     Open Access  
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

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Journal Cover
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.256
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1226-8453
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3155 journals]
  • Antimelanogenesis and skin-protective activities of Panax ginseng
           calyx ethanol extract

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Jeong-Ook Lee, Eunji Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Yo Han Hong, Han Gyung Kim, Deok Jeong, Juewon Kim, Su Hwan Kim, Chanwoong Park, Dae Bang Seo, Young-Jin Son, Sang Yun Han, Jae Youl Cho BackgroundThe antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng have been reported in several articles; however, little is known about the antimelanogenesis effect, skin-protective effect, and cellular mechanism of Panax ginseng, especially of P. ginseng calyx. To understand how an ethanol extract of P. ginseng berry calyx (Pg-C-EE) exerts skin-protective effects, we studied its activities in activated melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS)–induced keratinocytes.MethodsTo confirm the antimelanogenesis effect of Pg-C-EE, we analyzed melanin synthesis and secretion and messenger RNA and protein expression levels of related genes. Ultraviolet B (UVB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were used to induce cell damage by ROS generation. To examine whether this damage is inhibited by Pg-C-EE, we performed cell viability assays and gene expression and transcriptional activation analyses.ResultsPg-C-EE inhibited melanin synthesis and secretion by blocking activator protein 1 regulatory enzymes such as p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein. Pg-C-EE also suppressed ROS generation induced by H2O2 and UVB. Treatment with Pg-C-EE decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and hyaluronidases and increased the cell survival rate.ConclusionThese results suggest that Pg-C-EE may have antimelanogenesis properties and skin-protective properties through regulation of activator protein 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein signaling. Pg-C-EE may be used as a skin-improving agent, with moisture retention and whitening effects.
       
  • Multitarget effects of Korean Red Ginseng in animal model of Parkinson's
           disease: antiapoptosis, antioxidant, antiinflammation, and maintenance of
           blood–brain barrier integrity

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Jong Hee Choi, Minhee Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Seikwan Oh, Ik-Hyun Cho BackgroundGinsenosides are the main ingredients of Korean Red Ginseng. They have extensively been studied for their beneficial value in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the multitarget effects of Korean Red Ginseng extract (KRGE) with various components are unclear.MethodsWe investigated the multitarget activities of KRGE on neurological dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)–induced mouse model of PD. KRGE (37.5 mg/kg/day, 75 mg/kg/day, or 150 mg/kg/day, per os (p.o.)) was given daily before or after MPTP intoxication.ResultsPretreatment with 150 mg/kg/day KRGE produced the greatest positive effect on motor dysfunction as assessed using rotarod, pole, and nesting tests, and on the survival rate. KRGE displayed a wide therapeutic time window. These effects were related to reductions in the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase–immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons, apoptosis, microglial activation, and activation of inflammatory factors in the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or striatum after MPTP intoxication. In addition, pretreatment with KRGE activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 pathways and inhibited phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, as well as blocked the alteration of blood–brain barrier integrity.ConclusionThese results suggest that KRGE may effectively reduce MPTP-induced neurotoxicity with a wide therapeutic time window through multitarget effects including antiapoptosis, antiinflammation, antioxidant, and maintenance of blood–brain barrier integrity. KRGE has potential as a multitarget drug or functional food for safe preventive and therapeutic strategies for PD.
       
  • Micro-/nano-sized delivery systems of ginsenosides for improved systemic
           bioavailability

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Hyeongmin Kim, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jee Eun Kim, Young Su Kim, Choong Ho Ryu, Hong Joo Lee, Hye Min Kim, Hyojin Jeon, Hyo-Joong Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Jaehwi Lee Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated. The delivery systems improved the bioavailability of ginsenosides by enhancing solubility, permeability, and stability of the natural products. This mini-review aims to provide comprehensive information on the micro-/nano-sized delivery systems for increasing the bioavailability of ginsenosides, which may be helpful for designing better delivery systems to maximize the versatile therapeutic potential of ginsenosides.
       
  • GBCK25, fermented ginseng, attenuates cardiac dysfunction in high fat
           diet-induced obese mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Judith Sharmila, Adithan Aravinthan, Dong Gue Shin, Jeong Hun Seo, Bumseok Kim, Nam Soo Kim, Chang-Won Kang, Jong-Hoon Kim The fermentation of medicinal herbs facilitated by microbes is assumed to exert promising therapeutic efficacy on the absorption, bioavailability, and pharmacological effects by speeding up the making or conversion of active constituents into their metabolites. We examined the cardioprotective potential of fermented ginseng, GBCK25, against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced metabolic and functional illnesses as following the essential analysis such as electrocardiographic parameters, alterations of body and organ weights, and echocardiographic studies. The results exhibited that body weights were significantly reduced and the gain of different organ weights were partly eased by GBCK25 treatment. Echocardiography results proposed the amelioration of heart function through normalized levels of left ventricle systolic pressure, ejection fraction, and fractional shortening. These outcomes deliver straight confirmation that GBCK25 could be a potential nutraceutical source for the relief of HFD-induced obesity mediated cardiac dysfunctions.
       
  • Alleviation of diabetic complications by ginsenoside Rg3-enriched red
           ginseng extract in western diet-fed LDL–/– mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Evelyn Saba, Seung-Hyung Kim, Sung-Dae Kim, Sang-Joon Park, Dongmi Kwak, Jun-Hwan Oh, Chae-Kyu Park, Man Hee Rhee In this study, we precisely showed how the Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract (Rg3-RGE) lowers glucose, triglyceride, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels in LDL–/– mice. Aspartate aminotransferase/serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase), alanine aminotransferase /serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase, and steatohepatitis were found to be reduced, and atheroma formation was inhibited by Rg3-enriched red ginseng extract.
       
  • A proteomic approach reveals the differential protein expression in
           Drosophila melanogaster treated with red ginseng extract (Panax ginseng)

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Qing-Xiu Liu, Wei Zhang, Jia Wang, Wei Hou, Ying-Ping Wang BackgroundRed ginseng is a popularly used traditional medicine with antiaging effects in Asian countries. The present study aimed to explore the changes in protein expression underlying the mechanisms of life span extension and antiaging caused by red ginseng extract (RGE) in Drosophila melanogaster.MethodsA proteomic approach of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to identify the differential abundance of possible target proteins of RGE in D. melanogaster. The reliability of the 2-DE results was confirmed via Western blotting to measure the expression levels of selected proteins. Proteins altered at the expression level after RGE treatment (1 mg/mL) were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry and by searching against the National Center for Biotechnology nonredundant and Uniprot protein databases. The differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics methods.ResultsThe average survival life span of D. melanogaster was significantly extended by 12.60% with RGE treatment (1 mg/mL) compared to untreated flies. This followed increased superoxide dismutase level and decreased methane dicarboxylic aldehyde content. Based on the searching strategy, 23 differentially expressed proteins were identified (16 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated) in the RGE-treated D. melanogaster. Transduction pathways were identified using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, and included the hippo and oxidative phosphorylation pathways that play important roles in life span extension and antiaging process of D. melanogaster.ConclusionTreatment with RGE in D. melanogaster demonstrated that mechanisms of life span extension and antiaging are regulated by multiple factors and complicated signal pathways.
       
  • Investigating chemical features of Panax notoginseng based on integrating
           HPLC fingerprinting and determination of multiconstituents by single
           reference standard

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Zhenzhong Yang, Jieqiang Zhu, Han Zhang, Xiaohui Fan BackgroundPanax notoginseng is a highly valued medicine and functional food, whose quality is considered to be influenced by the size, botanical parts, and growth environments.MethodsIn this study, a HPLC method integrating fingerprinting and determination of multiconstituents by single reference standard was established and adopted to investigate the chemical profiles and active constituent contents of 215 notoginseng samples with different sizes, from different botanical parts and geographical regions.ResultsChemical differences among main root, branch root, and rotten root were not distinct, while rhizome and fibrous root could be discriminated from other parts. The notoginseng samples from Wenshan Autonomous Prefecture and cities nearby were similar, whereas samples from cities far away were not. The contents of major active constituents in main root did not correlate with the market price.ConclusionThis study provided comprehensive chemical evidence for the rational usage of different parts, sizes, and growth regions of notoginseng in practice.
       
  • Applications of Panax ginseng leaves-mediated gold nanoparticles in
           cosmetics relation to antioxidant, moisture retention, and whitening
           effect on B16BL6 cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Zuly Elizabeth Jiménez-Pérez, Priyanka Singh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Dong-Hyun Kim, Myoung Hee Lee, Deok Chun Yang BackgroundBioactive compounds in plant extracts are able to reduce metal ions to nanoparticles through the process of green synthesis. Panax ginseng is an oriental medicinal herb and an adaptogen which has been historically used to cure various diseases. In addition, the P. ginseng leaves-mediated gold nanoparticles are the value-added novel materials. Its potential as a cosmetic ingredient is still unexplored. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, moisture retention and whitening properties of gold nanoparticles (PgAuNPs) in cosmetic applications.MethodsCell-free experiments were performed to evaluate PgAuNP's antioxidant and moisture retention properties and inhibition activity on mushroom tyrosinase. Furthermore, in vitro cell cytotoxicity was evaluated using normal human dermal fibroblast and murine B16BL6 melanoma cells (B16) after treatment with increasing concentrations of PgAuNPs for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h. Finally, in vitro cell assays on B16 cells were performed to evaluate the whitening effect of PgAuNPs through reduction of cellular melanin content and tyrosinase activity.ResultsIn vitro DPPH radical scavenging assay results revealed that PgAuNPs exhibited antioxidant activity in a dose-dependent manner. PgAuNPs exhibited moisture retention capacity and effectively inhibited mushroom tyrosinase. In addition, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide results revealed that PgAuNPs were not toxic to human dermal fibroblast and B16 cells; in addition, they significantly reduced melanin content, tyrosinase activity, and mRNA expression of melanogenesis-associated transcription factor and tyrosinase in B16 cells.ConclusionOur study is the first report to provide evidence supporting that P. ginseng leaves-capped gold nanoparticles could be used as multifunctional ingredients in cosmetics.
       
  • Oxidative stability of extracts from red ginseng and puffed red ginseng in
           bulk oil or oil-in-water emulsion matrix

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Sang-Jun Lee, Sumi Oh, Mi-Ja Kim, Gun-Sub Sim, Tae Wha Moon, JaeHwan Lee BackgroundExplosive puffing can induce changes in the chemical, nutritional, and sensory quality of red ginseng. The antioxidant properties of ethanolic extracts of red ginseng and puffed red ginseng were determined in bulk oil and oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions.MethodsBulk oils were heated at 60°C and 100°C and O/W emulsions were treated under riboflavin photosensitization. In vitro antioxidant assays, including 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhudrazyl, 2,2′-azinobis-3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, ferric reducing antioxidant power, total phenolic content, and total flavonoid content, were also performed.ResultsThe total ginsenoside contents of ethanolic extract from red ginseng and puffed red ginseng were 42.33 mg/g and 49.22 mg/g, respectively. All results from above in vitro antioxidant assays revealed that extracts of puffed red ginseng had significantly higher antioxidant capacities than those of red ginseng (p 
       
  • Effects of fermented ginseng root and ginseng berry on obesity and lipid
           metabolism in mice fed a high-fat diet

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Zhipeng Li, Hee Jung Kim, Myeong Soo Park, Geun Eog Ji BackgroundPrevious studies have shown that both ginseng root and ginseng berry exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects. However, a direct comparison of the efficacy and mechanisms between the root and the berry after oral administration remains to be illuminated.MethodsIn this study, we observed the effects of fermented ginseng root (FGR) and fermented ginseng berry (FGB) on obesity and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet induced obese mice.ResultsFGR and FGB significantly inhibited the activity of pancreatic lipase in vitro. Both FGR and FGB significantly suppressed weight gain and excess food intake and improved hypercholesterolemia and fatty liver, while only FGR significantly attenuated hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Both FGR and FGB significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of Ldlr and Acsl1 while FGR also significantly inhibited expression of Cebpa and Dgat2 in liver. FGR significantly decreased the epididymal fat weight of mice while FGB significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of genes Cebpa, Fas, Hsl, Il1b, and Il6 in adipose tissue.ConclusionSaponin from both FGR and FGB had a beneficial effect on high-fat diet-induced obesity. Compared to FGB, FGR exhibited more potent antihyperglycemic and antiobesity effect. However, only FGB significantly inhibited mRNA expression of inflammatory markers such as interleukins 1β and 6 in adipose tissue.
       
  • An investigation of Panax ginseng Meyer growth promotion and the
           biocontrol potential of antagonistic bacteria against ginseng black spot

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Zhuo Sun, Limin Yang, Lianxue Zhang, Mei Han BackgroundGinseng black spot disease resulting from Alternaria panax Whuetz is a common soil-borne disease, with an annual incidence rate higher than 20–30%. In this study, the bacterial strains with good antagonistic effect against A. panax are screened.MethodsA total of 285 bacterial strains isolated from ginseng rhizosphere soils were screened using the Kirby–Bauer disk diffusion method and the Oxford cup plate assay. We analyzed the antifungal spectrum of SZ-22 by confronting incubation. To evaluate the efficacy of biocontrol against ginseng black spot and for growth promotion by SZ-22, we performed pot experiments in a plastic greenhouse. Taxonomic position of SZ-22 was identified using morphology, physiological, and biochemical characteristics, 16S ribosomal DNA, and gyrB sequences.ResultsSZ-22 (which was identified as Brevundimonas terrae) showed the strongest inhibition rate against A. panax, which showed 83.70% inhibition, and it also provided broad-spectrum antifungal effects. The inhibition efficacies of the SZ-22 bacterial suspension against ginseng black spot reached 82.47% inhibition, which is significantly higher than that of the 25% suspension concentrate azoxystrobin fungicide treatment (p 
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 modulates medial prefrontal cortical firing and suppresses
           the hippocampo-medial prefrontal cortical long-term potentiation

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Mehdy Ghaeminia, Ramamoorthy Rajkumar, Hwee-Ling Koh, Gavin S. Dawe, Chay Hoon Tan BackgroundPanax ginseng is one of the most commonly used medicinal herbs worldwide for a variety of therapeutic properties including neurocognitive effects. Ginsenoside Rg1 is one of the most abundant active chemical constituents of this herb with known neuroprotective, anxiolytic, and cognition improving effects.MethodsWe investigated the effects of Rg1 on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a key brain region involved in cognition, information processing, working memory, and decision making. In this study, the effects of systemic administration of Rg1 (1 mg/kg, 3 mg/kg, or 10 mg/kg) on (1) spontaneous firing of the medial prefrontal cortical neurons and (2) long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampal–medial prefrontal cortical (HP–mPFC) pathway were investigated in male Sprague–Dawley rats.ResultsThe spontaneous neuronal activity of approximately 50% the recorded pyramidal cells in the mPFC was suppressed by Rg1. In addition, Rg1 attenuated LTP in the HP–mPFC pathway. These effects were not dose-dependent.ConclusionThis report suggests that acute treatment of Rg1 impairs LTP in the HP–mPFC pathway, perhaps by suppressing the firing of a subset of mPFC neurons that may contribute to the neurocognitive effects of Rg1.
       
  • Korean Red Ginseng extract reduces hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal
           transition by repressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways in colon cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Eui Joo Kim, Kwang An Kwon, Young Eun Lee, Ju Hyun Kim, Se-Hee Kim, Jung Ho Kim BackgroundThe incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing, with metastasis of newly diagnosed CRC reported in a large proportion of patients. However, the effect of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (KRGE) on epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in CRC is unknown. Therefore, we examined the mechanisms by which KRGE regulates EMT of CRC in hypoxic conditions.MethodsHuman CRC cell lines HT29 and HCT116 were incubated under hypoxic (1% oxygen) and normoxic (21% oxygen) conditions. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expression of EMT markers in the presence of KRGE. Furthermore, we performed scratched wound healing, transwell migration, and invasion assays to monitor whether KRGE affects migratory and invasive abilities of CRC cells under hypoxic conditions.ResultsKRGE-treated HT29 and HCT116 cells displayed attenuated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA levels and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression under hypoxic conditions. KRGE repressed Snail, Slug, and Twist mRNA expression and integrin αVβ6 protein levels. Furthermore, hypoxia-repressed E-cadherin was restored in KRGE-treated cells; KRGE blocked the invasion and migration of colon cancer cells by repressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways in hypoxia.ConclusionsKRGE inhibits hypoxia-induced EMT by repressing NF-κB and ERK1/2 pathways in colon cancer cells.
       
  • Remarkable impact of steam temperature on ginsenosides transformation from
           fresh ginseng to red ginseng

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Xin-Fang Xu, Yan Gao, Shu-Ya Xu, Huan Liu, Xue Xue, Ying Zhang, Hui Zhang, Meng-Nan Liu, Hui Xiong, Rui-Chao Lin, Xiang-Ri Li BackgroundTemperature is an essential condition in red ginseng processing. The pharmacological activities of red ginseng under different steam temperatures are significantly different.MethodsIn this study, an ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry was developed to distinguish the red ginseng products that were steamed at high and low temperatures. Multivariate statistical analyses such as principal component analysis and supervised orthogonal partial least squared discrimination analysis were used to determine the influential components of the different samples.ResultsThe results showed that different steamed red ginseng samples can be identified, and the characteristic components were 20-gluco-ginsenoside Rf, ginsenoside Re, ginsenoside Rg1, and malonyl-ginsenoside Rb1 in red ginseng steamed at low temperature. Meanwhile, the characteristic components in red ginseng steamed at high temperature were 20R-ginsenoside Rs3 and ginsenoside Rs4. Polar ginsenosides were abundant in red ginseng steamed at low temperature, whereas higher levels of less polar ginsenosides were detected in red ginseng steamed at high temperature.ConclusionThis study makes the first time that differences between red ginseng steamed under different temperatures and their ginsenosides transformation have been observed systematically at the chemistry level. The results suggested that the identified chemical markers can be used to illustrate the transformation of ginsenosides in red ginseng processing.
       
  • Chemical transformation and target preparation of saponins in stems and
           leaves of Panax notoginseng

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Ru-Feng Wang, Juan Li, Hai-Jun Hu, Jia Li, Ying-Bo Yang, Li Yang, Zheng-Tao Wang BackgroundNotoginsenoside Ft1 is a promising potential candidate for cardiovascular and cancer disease therapy owing to its positive pharmacological activities. However, the yield of Ft1 is ultralow utilizing reported methods. Herein, an acid hydrolyzing strategy was implemented in the acquirement of rare notoginsenoside Ft1.MethodsChemical profiles were identified by ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadruple-time-of-flight and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q/TOF-ESI-MS). The acid hydrolyzing dynamic changes of chemical compositions and the possible transformation pathways of saponins were monitored by ultrahigh-performance LC coupled with tandem MS (UHPLC-MS/MS).Results and conclusionNotoginsenoside Ft1 was epimerized from notoginsenoside ST4, which was generated through cleaving the carbohydrate side chains at C-20 of notoginsenosides Fa and Fc, and vina-ginsenoside R7, and further converted to other compounds via hydroxylation at C-25 or hydrolysis of the carbohydrate side chains at C-3 under the acid conditions. High temperature contributed to the hydroxylation reaction at C-25 and 25% acetic acid concentration was conducive to the preparation of notoginsenoside Ft1. C-20 epimers of notoginsenoside Ft1 and ST4 were successfully separated utilizing solvent method of acetic acid solution. The theoretical preparation yield rate of notoginsenoside Ft1 was about 1.8%, which would be beneficial to further study on its bioactivities and clinical application.
       
  • Pharmacological and medical applications of Panax ginseng and
           ginsenosides: a review for use in cardiovascular diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Jong-Hoon Kim Panax ginseng, also called Asian or Korean ginseng, has long been traditionally used in Korea and China to treat various diseases. The major active ingredients of P. ginseng are ginsenosides, which have been shown to have a variety of therapeutic effects, including antioxidation, anti-inflammatory, vasorelaxation, antiallergic, antidiabetic, and anticancer. To date, approximately 40 ginsenoside components have been reported. Current research is concentrating on using a single ginseng compound, one of the ginsenosides, instead of the total ginseng compounds, to determine the mechanisms of ginseng and ginsenosides. Recent in vitro and in vivo results show that ginseng has beneficial effects on cardiac and vascular diseases through efficacy, including antioxidation, control of vasomotor function, modulation of ion channels and signal transduction, improvement of lipid profiles, adjustment of blood pressure, improvement in cardiac function, and reduction in platelet adhesion. This review aims to provide valuable information on the traditional uses of ginseng and ginsenosides, their therapeutic applications in animal models and humans, and the pharmacological action of ginseng and ginsenosides.
       
  • Gut microbiota-mediated pharmacokinetics of ginseng saponins

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Dong-Hyun Kim Orally administered ginsengs come in contact with the gut microbiota, and their hydrophilic constituents, such as ginsenosides, are metabolized to hydrophobic compounds by gastric juice and gut microbiota: protopanxadiol-type ginsenosides are mainly transformed into compound K and ginsenoside Rh2; protopanaxatriol-type ginsenosides to ginsenoside Rh1 and protopanaxatriol, and ocotillol-type ginsenosides to ocotillol. Although this metabolizing activity varies between individuals, the metabolism of ginsenosides to compound K by gut microbiota in individuals treated with ginseng is proportional to the area under the blood concentration curve for compound K in their blood samples. These metabolites such as compound K exhibit potent pharmacological effects, such as antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiallergic, and neuroprotective effects compared with the parent ginsenosides, such as Rb1, Rb2, and Re. Therefore, to monitor the potent pharmacological effects of ginseng, a novel probiotic fermentation technology has been developed to produce absorbable and bioactive metabolites. Based on these findings, it is concluded that gut microbiota play an important role in the pharmacological action of orally administered ginseng, and probiotics that can replace gut microbiota can be used in the development of beneficial and bioactive ginsengs.
       
  • Functional role of ginseng-derived compounds in cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Akash Ahuja, Ji Hye Kim, Jong-Hoon Kim, Young-Su Yi, Jae Youl Cho Ginseng is a natural product best known for its curative properties in diverse physiological processes such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, hypertension, and maintenance of hemostasis in the immune system. In previous decades, there have been some promising studies into the pharmacology and chemistry of ginseng components and the relationship between their structure and function. The emerging use of modified ginseng and development of new compounds from ginseng for clinical studies have been topics of study for many researchers. The present review deals with the anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and chemopreventive effects, and recent advances in microRNA technology related to red ginseng. The review also summarizes the current knowledge on the effect of ginsenosides in the treatment of cancer.
       
  • Beneficial effects of Panax ginseng for the treatment and prevention of
           neurodegenerative diseases: past findings and future directions

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Ki Hyun Kim, Dahae Lee, Hye Lim Lee, Chang-Eop Kim, Kiwon Jung, Ki Sung Kang In recent years, several therapeutic drugs have been rationally designed and synthesized based on the novel knowledge gained from investigating the actions of biologically active chemicals derived from foods, plants, and medicinal herbs. One of the major advantages of these naturalistic chemicals is their ability to interact with multiple targets in the body resulting in a combined beneficial effect. Ginseng is a perennial herb (Araliaceae family), a species within the genus Panax, and a highly valued and popular medicinal plant. Evidence for the medicinal and health benefits of Panax ginseng and its components in preventing neurodegeneration has increased significantly in the past decade. The beneficial effects of P. ginseng on neurodegenerative diseases have been attributed primarily to the antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of its ginsenoside components. Mechanistic studies on the neuroprotective effects of ginsenosides revealed that they act not only as antioxidants but also as modulators of intracellular neuronal signaling and metabolism, cell survival/death genes, and mitochondrial function. The goal of the present paper is to provide a brief review of recent knowledge and developments concerning the beneficial effects as well as the mechanism of action of P. ginseng and its components in the treatment and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
       
  • Effect of Korean Red Ginseng extracts on drug-drug interactions

    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 3Author(s): Se-Jin Kim, Seungmok Choi, Minsoo Kim, Changmin Park, Gyu-Lee Kim, Si-On Lee, Wonku Kang, Dong-Kwon Rhee BackgroundGinseng has been the subject of many experimental and clinical studies to uncover the diverse biological activities of its constituent compounds. It is a traditional medicine that has been used for its immunostimulatory, antithrombotic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer effects. Ginseng may interact with concomitant medications and alter metabolism and/or drug transport, which may alter the known efficacy and safety of a drug; thus, the role of ginseng may be controversial when taken with other medications.MethodsWe extensively assessed the effects of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) in rats on the expression of enzymes responsible for drug metabolism [cytochrome p450 (CYP)] and transporters [multiple drug resistance (MDR) and organic anion transporter (OAT)] in vitro and on the pharmacokinetics of two probe drugs, midazolam and fexofenadine, after a 2-wk repeated administration of KRG at different doses.ResultsThe results showed that 30 mg/kg KRG significantly increased the expression level of CYP3A11 protein in the liver and 100 mg/kg KRG increased both the mRNA and protein expression of OAT1 in the kidney. Additionally, KRG significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression of OAT1, OAT3, and MDR1 in the liver. Although there were no significant changes in the metabolism of midazolam to its major metabolite, 1′-hydroxymidazolam, KRG significantly decreased the systemic exposure of fexofenadine in a dose-dependent manner.ConclusionBecause KRG is used as a health supplement, there is a risk of KRG overdose; thus, a clinical trial of high doses would be useful. The use of KRG in combination with P-glycoprotein substrate drugs should also be carefully monitored.
       
  • Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) with enriched Rg3 ameliorates
           chronic intermittent heat stress-induced testicular damage in rats via
           multi-functional approach

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Spandana Rajendra Kopalli, Kyu-Min Cha, Seock-Yeon Hwang, Min-Sik Jeong, Si-Kwan Kim BackgroundPanax ginseng Meyer, known as Korean red ginseng (KRG) is one of the important age-old traditional herbs used in boosting libido and improving male fertility. In this study, the effects of Rg3-enriched KRG extract (KGC04P) on heat-stress induced testicular damage in experimental rats was evaluated.MethodsMale rats (Sprague-Dawley) were divided into four groups (n=10): normal control (NC), heat-stressed control (HC), heat-stressed plus KGC04P-100 mg/kg (HK100), and heat-stressed plus KGC04P-200 mg/kg (HK200) groups. Starting 1 week prior to heat stress, animals were administered orally with KGC04P (100 and 200 mg/kg) mixed with a regular pellet diet and continued for 25 weeks. Heat stress was induced to HC, HK100, and HK200 groups by intermittently exposing the animals to high temperatures (32 ± 1°C, 2 h/day). After six months, animals were euthanized under general anesthesia with carbon dioxide and evaluated for various parameters in serum and testicular tissue by using Western blotting, biochemical kits, and RT-PCR.ResultsSignificant (p < 0.05) alterations in several parameters, such as body/organ weight, sperm kinematics, and lipid metabolism marker levels, in the serum and testis of rats was observed. Further, the expression of testicular antioxidant enzymes, inflammatory cytokines, sex hormonal receptors and spermatogenesis-related genes were also affected significantly (p < 0.05) in the heat-stressed group. However, KGC04P prevented the heat-stress induced changes in rats, significantly (p < 0.05) at both concentrations.ConclusionKGC04P attenuated heat stress-induced testicular damage by a multi-functional approach and can be developed as an excellent therapeutic agent for hyperthermia-mediated male infertility.
       
  • Comprehensive comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from seven Panax
           species and development of an authentication system based on
           species-unique SNP markers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Van Binh Nguyen, Vo Ngoc Linh Giang, Nomar Espinosa Waminal, Hyun-Seung Park, Nam-Hoon Kim, Woojong Jang, Junki Lee, Tae-Jin Yang BackgroundPanax species are important herbal medicinal plants in the Araliaceae family. Recently, we reported the complete chloroplast genomes and 45S nuclear ribosomal DNA (nrDNA) sequences from seven Panax species, two (P. quinquifolius and P. trifolius) from North America and five (P. ginseng, P. notoginseng, P. japonicus, P. vietnamensis, and P. stipuleanatus) from Asia.Methods: we conducted phylogenetic analysis of these chloroplast sequences with 12 other Araliaceae species and comprehensive comparative analysis among the seven Panax whole chloroplast genomes.ResultsWe identified 1,128 SNPs in coding sequences (CDSs), distributed among 72 of the 79 protein-coding genes in the genomes of the seven Panax species. The other seven genes (including psaJ, psbN, rpl23, psbF, psbL, rps18, and rps7) were identical among the Panax species. We also discovered that twelve large chloroplast genome fragments were transferred into the mitochondrial genome, based on sharing over than 90% sequence similarity. The total size of transferred fragments was 60,331 bp, corresponding to approximately 38.6% of chloroplast genome. We developed 18 SNP markers from the chloroplast CDS regions that were not similar to regions in the mitochondrial genome. These markers included two or three species-specific markers for each species and can be used to authenticate all the seven Panax species from the others.ConclusionThe comparative analysis of chloroplast genomes from 7 Panax species elucidated their genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships, as well as 18 species-specific markers able to discriminate among these species, thereby furthering efforts to protect the ginseng industry from economically motivated adulteration.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 supplementation clears senescence-associated
           β-galactosidase in exercising human skeletal muscle

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jinfu Wu, Suchada Saovieng, I-Shiung Cheng, Teimin Liu, Shangyu Hong, Chang-Yu Lin, I-Chen Su, Chih-Yang Huang, Chia-Hua Kuo BackgroundGinsenoside Rg1 has been shown to clear senescence associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) in cultured cells. It remains unknown whether Rg1 can influence SA-β-gal in exercising human skeletal muscle.MethodsTo examine SA-β-gal change, 12 young men (age 21 ± 0.2 years) were enrolled in a randomized double blind placebo controlled crossover study, under two occasions: Placebo (PLA) and Rg1 (5 mg) supplementations 1 h prior to a high-intensity cycling (70% VO2max). Muscle samples were collected by multiple biopsies before and after cycling exercise (0 h and 3 h). To avoid potential effect of muscle biopsy on performance assessment, cycling time to exhaustion test (80% VO2max) was conducted on another 12 participants (age 23 ± 0.5 years) with the same experimental design.ResultsNo changes of SA-β-gal were observed after cycling in the PLA trial. On the contrary, 9 of the 12 participants showed complete elimination of SA-β-gal in exercised muscle after cycling in the Rg1 trial (P < 0.05). Increases in apoptotic DNA fragmentation (PLA: +87% vs. Rg1: +133%, P < 0.05) and CD68+ (PLA: +78% vs. Rg1: +121%, P = 0.17) occurred immediately after cycling in both trials. During the 3-h recovery, reverses in apoptotic nuclei content (PLA: +5% vs. Rg1: -32%, P < 0.01) and increases in iNOS and IL-6 mRNA levels of exercised muscle were observed only in the Rg1 trial (P < 0.01).ConclusionRg1 supplementation effectively eliminates senescent cells in exercising human skeletal muscle and improves high intensity endurance performance.
       
  • Nonclinical pharmacokinetic behavior of ginsenosides

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Hyo-Joong Won, Hyun Il Kim, Taejun Park, Hyeongmin Kim, Kanghee Jo, Hyojin Jeon, Seo Jun Ha, Jung Min Hyun, Aeri Jeong, Jung Sik Kim, Ye Jin Park, Yun Ho Eo, Jaehwi Lee Ginsenosides, the major active ingredients of ginseng and other plants of the genus Panax, have been used as natural medicines in the East for a long time; in addition, their popularity in the West has increased owing to their various beneficial pharmacological effects. There is therefore a wealth of literature regarding the pharmacological effects of ginsenosides. In contrast, there are few comprehensive studies that investigate their pharmacokinetic behaviors. This is because ginseng contains the complicated mixture of herbal materials as well as thousands of constituents with complex chemical properties, and ginsenosides undergo multiple biotransformation processes after administration. This is a significant issue as pharmacokinetic studies provide crucial data regarding the efficacy and safety of compounds. Moreover, there have been many difficulties in the development of the optimal dosage regimens of ginsenosides and the evaluation of their interactions with other drugs. Therefore, this review details the pharmacokinetic properties and profiles of ginsenosides determined in various animal models administered through different routes of administration. Such information is valuable for designing specialized delivery systems and determining optimal dosing strategies for ginsenosides.
       
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis of heat stress responsiveness between
           two contrasting ginseng cultivars

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Murukarthick Jayakodi, Sang-Choon Lee, Tae-Jin Yang BackgroundPanax ginseng has been used in traditional medicine to strengthen the body and mental well-being of humans for thousands of years. Many elite ginseng cultivars have been developed, and ginseng cultivation has become well established during the last century. However, heat stress poses an important threat to the growth and sustainable production of ginseng. Efforts have been made to study the effects of high temperature on ginseng physiology, but knowledge of the molecular responses to heat stress is still limited.MethodsWe sequenced the transcriptomes (RNA-Seq) of two ginseng cultivars, Chunpoong (CP) and Yunpoong (YP), which are sensitive and resistant to heat stress, respectively, after 1- and 3-week heat treatments. Differential gene expression and gene ontology enrichment along with profiled chlorophyll contents were performed.ResultsCP is more sensitive to heat stress than YP and exhibited a lower chlorophyll content than YP. Moreover, heat stress reduced the chlorophyll content more rapidly in CP than in YP. A total of 329 heat-responsive genes were identified. Intriguingly, genes encoding chlorophyll a/b–binding proteins, WRKY transcription factors, and fatty acid desaturase were predominantly responsive during heat stress and appeared to regulate photosynthesis. In addition, a genome-wide scan of photosynthetic and sugar metabolic genes revealed reduced transcription levels for ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase under heat stress, especially in CP, possibly attributable to elevated levels of soluble sugars.ConclusionOur comprehensive genomic analysis reveals candidate loci/gene targets for breeding and functional studies related to developing high temperature–tolerant ginseng varieties.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rb1 increases macrophage phagocytosis through p38
           mitogen-activated protein kinase/Akt pathway

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Chun Xin, Hui Quan, Joung-Min Kim, Young-Hoe Hur, Jae-Yun Shin, Hong-Beom Bae, Jeong-Il Choi BackgroundGinsenoside Rb1, a triterpene saponin, is derived from the Panax ginseng root and has potent antiinflammatory activity. In this study, we determined if Rb1 can increase macrophage phagocytosis and elucidated the underlying mechanisms.MethodsTo measure macrophage phagocytosis, mouse peritoneal macrophages or RAW 264.7 cells were cultured with fluorescein isothiocyanate–conjugated Escherichia coli, and the phagocytic index was determined by flow cytometry. Western blot analyses were performed.ResultsGinsenoside Rb1 increased macrophage phagocytosis and phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but inhibition of p38 MAPK activity with SB203580 decreased the phagocytic ability of macrophages. Rb1 also increased Akt phosphorylation, which was suppressed by LY294002, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitor. Rb1-induced Akt phosphorylation was inhibited by SB203580, (5Z)-7-oxozeaenol, and small-interfering RNA (siRNA)–mediated knockdown of p38α MAPK in macrophages. However, Rb1-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation was not blocked by LY294002 or siRNA-mediated knockdown of Akt. The inhibition of Akt activation with siRNA or LY294002 also inhibited the Rb1-induced increase in phagocytosis. Rb1 increased macrophage phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized beads but not unopsonized beads. The phosphorylation of p21 activated kinase 1/2 and actin polymerization induced by IgG-opsonized beads and Rb1 were inhibited by SB203580 and LY294002. Intraperitoneal injection of Rb1 increased phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and Akt and the phagocytosis of bacteria in bronchoalveolar cells.ConclusionThese results suggest that ginsenoside Rb1 enhances the phagocytic capacity of macrophages for bacteria via activation of the p38/Akt pathway. Rb1 may be a useful pharmacological adjuvant for the treatment of bacterial infections in clinically relevant conditions.
       
  • Computational and experimental characterization of estrogenic activities
           of 20(S, R)-protopanaxadiol and 20(S, R)-protopanaxatriol

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Tiehua Zhang, Shuning Zhong, Ligang Hou, Yongjun Wang, XiaoJia Xing, Tianzhu Guan, Jie Zhang, Tiezhu Li BackgroundAs the main metabolites of ginsenosides, 20(S, R)-protopanaxadiol [PPD(S, R)] and 20(S, R)-protopanaxatriol [PPT(S, R)] are the structural basis response to a series of pharmacological effects of their parent components. Although the estrogenicity of several ginsenosides has been confirmed, however, the underlying mechanisms of their estrogenic effects are still largely unclear. In this work, PPD(S, R) and PPT(S, R) were assessed for their ability to bind and activate human estrogen receptor α (hERα) by a combination of in vitro and in silico analysis.MethodsThe recombinant hERα ligand-binding domain (hERα-LBD) was expressed in E. coli strain. The direct binding interactions of ginsenosides with hERα-LBD and their ERα agonistic potency were investigated by fluorescence polarization and reporter gene assays, respectively. Then, molecular dynamics simulations were carried out to simulate the binding modes between ginsenosides and hERα-LBD to reveal the structural basis for their agonist activities toward receptor.ResultsFluorescence polarization assay revealed that PPD(S, R) and PPT(S, R) could bind to hERα-LBD with moderate affinities. In the dual luciferase reporter assay using transiently transfected MCF-7 cells, PPD(S, R) and PPT(S, R) acted as agonists of hERα. Molecular docking results showed that these ginsenosides adopted an agonist conformation in the flexible hydrophobic ligand-binding pocket. The stereostructure of C-20 hydroxyl group and the presence of C-6 hydroxyl group exerted significant influence on the hydrogen bond network and steric hindrance, respectively.ConclusionThis work may provide insight into the chemical and pharmacological screening of novel therapeutic agents from ginsenosides.
       
  • Gintonin-mediated release of astrocytic vascular endothelial growth factor
           protects cortical astrocytes from hypoxia-induced cell damages

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Hee-Jung Cho, Sang-Deuk Park, Na-Eun Lee, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah BackgroundGintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. We previously reported that gintonin stimulates gliotransmitter release in primary cortical astrocytes. Astrocytes play key roles in the functions of neurovascular systems. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence the normal growth and maintenance of cranial blood vessels and the nervous system, there is little information about the effect of gintonin on VEGF regulation in primary astrocytes, under normal and hypoxic conditions.MethodsUsing primary cortical astrocytes of mice, the effects of gintonin on the release, expression, and distribution of VEGF were examined. We further investigated whether the gintonin-mediated VEGF release protects astrocytes from hypoxia.ResultsGintonin administration stimulated the release and expression of VEGF from astrocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The gintonin-mediated increase in the release of VEGF was inhibited by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, Ki16425; phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122; inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, 2-APB; and intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. Hypoxia further stimulated astrocytic VEGF release. Gintonin treatment stimulated additional VEGF release and restored cell viability that had decreased due to hypoxia, via the VEGF receptor pathway. Altogether, the regulation of VEGF release and expression and astrocytic protection mediated by gintonin under hypoxia are achieved via the LPA receptor–VEGF signaling pathways.ConclusionThe present study shows that the gintonin-mediated regulation of VEGF in cortical astrocytes might be neuroprotective against hypoxic insults and could explain the molecular basis of the beneficial effects of ginseng on the central nervous system.
       
  • Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicological study of a novel ginsenoside
           derivative 25-OCH3-PPD in beagle dogs

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Wei Li, Xiangrong Zhang, Meng Ding, Yanfei Xin, Yaoxian Xuan, Yuqing Zhao BackgroundGinsenosides have been widely used clinically for many years and were regarded as very safe. However, a few researches on the toxicities of these kinds of agents showed that some ginsenosides may have side-effect on the rats or dogs. So it is extremely necessary to further clarify the potential toxicity of ginsenosides. This study was carried out to investigate long-term toxicity and genotoxicity of 25-methoxydammarane-3, 12, 20-triol (25-OCH3-PPD), a new derivative of ginsenoside, in beagle dogs.MethodsTwenty-four beagle dogs were divided randomly into four treatment groups and repeatedly orally administered with 25-OCH3-PPD capsule at 60, 120, and 240 mg/kg/day for 91 consecutive days. Ames, micronucleus, and chromosomal aberration tests were established to analyze the possible genotoxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD.ResultsThere was no 25-OCH3-PPD–induced systemic toxicity in beagle dogs at any doses. The level of 25-OCH3-PPD at which no adverse effects were observed was found to be 240 mg/kg/day. The result of Ames test showed that there was no significant increase in the number of revertant colonies of 25-OCH3-PPD administrated groups compared to the vehicle control group. There were also no significant differences between 25-OCH3-PPD administrated groups at all dose levels and negative group in the micronucleus test and chromosomal aberration assay.ConclusionThe highest dose level of 25-OCH3-PPD at which no adverse effects were observed was found to be 240 mg/kg per day, and it is not a genotoxic agent either in somatic cells or germs cells. 25-OCH3-PPD is an extremely safe candidate compound for antitumor treatment.
       
  • Red ginseng monograph

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Seung-Ho So, Jong Won Lee, Young-Sook Kim, Sun Hee Hyun, Chang-Kyun Han Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries, including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, antioxidation, mitigation of menopausal women's symptoms, and anticancer an effect have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases. Red ginseng occupies an important position as a health functional food. But till now, international ginseng monographs including those of the World Health Organization have been based on data on white ginseng and have mentioned red ginseng only partly. Therefore, the red ginseng monograph is needed for component of red ginseng, functionality certified as a health functional food in the Korea Food and Drug Administration, major efficacy, action mechanism, and safety. The present red ginseng monograph will contribute to providing accurate information on red ginseng to agencies, businesses, and consumers both in South Korea and abroad.
       
  • The standardized Korean red ginseng extract and its ingredient ginsenoside
           Rg3 inhibit manifestation of breast cancer stem cell–like properties
           through modulation of self-renewal signaling

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jisun Oh, Hyo-Jin Yoon, Jeong-Hoon Jang, Do-Hee Kim, Young-Joon Surh BackgroundThe ginsenoside Rg3, one of active components of red ginseng, has chemopreventive and anticancer potential. Cancer stem cells retain self-renewal properties which account for cancer recurrence and resistance to anticancer therapy. In our present study, we investigated whether Rg3 and the standardized Korean Red Ginseng extract (RGE) could modulate the manifestation of breast cancer stem cell–like features through regulation of self-renewal activity.MethodsThe effects of RGE and Rg3 on the proportion of CD44high/CD24low cells, as representative characteristics of stem-like breast cancer cells, were determined by flow cytometry. The mammosphere formation assay was performed to assess self-renewal capacities of breast cancer cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity of MCF-7 mammospheres was measured by the ALDEFLUOR assay. The expression levels of Sox-2, Bmi-1, and P-Akt and the nuclear localization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in MCF-7 mammospheres were verified by immunoblot analysis.ResultsBoth RGE and Rg3 decreased the viability of breast cancer cells and significantly reduced the populations of CD44high/CD24low in MDA-MB-231 cells. RGE and Rg3 treatment attenuated the expression of Sox-2 and Bmi-1 by inhibiting the nuclear localization of hypoxia inducible factor-1α in MCF-7 mammospheres. Suppression of the manifestation of breast cancer stem cell–like properties by Rg3 was mediated through the blockade of Akt-mediated self-renewal signaling.ConclusionThis study suggests that Rg3 has a therapeutic potential targeting breast cancer stem cells.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 augments oxidative metabolism and anabolic response of
           skeletal muscle in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Hyun-Kyung So, Ayoung Jo, Hye-Been Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jong-Sun Kang BackgroundThe ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities with health benefits. Previously, we have reported that Rg1 promoted myogenic differentiation and myotube growth in C2C12 myoblasts. In this study, the in vivo effect of Rg1 on fiber-type composition and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle was examined.MethodsTo examine the effect of Rg1 on skeletal muscle, 3-month-old mice were treated with Rg1 for 5 weeks. To assess muscle strength, grip strength tests were performed, and the lower hind limb muscles were harvested, followed by various detailed analysis, such as histological staining, immunoblotting, immunostaining, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, to verify the in vivo data, primary myoblasts isolated from mice were treated with Rg1, and the Rg1 effect on myotube growth was examined by immunoblotting and immunostaining analysis.ResultsRg1 treatment increased the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms characteristic for both oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers; increased myofiber sizes were accompanied by enhanced muscle strength. Rg1 treatment also enhanced oxidative muscle metabolism with elevated oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Furthermore, Rg1-treated muscles exhibited increased levels of anabolic S6 kinase signaling.ConclusionRg1 improves muscle functionality via enhancing muscle gene expression and oxidative muscle metabolism in mice.
       
  • Impact of NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette transporters
           genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside compound K in
           healthy Chinese volunteers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Luping Zhou, Lulu Chen, Yaqin Wang, Jie Huang, Guoping Yang, Zhirong Tan, Yicheng Wang, Jianwei Liao, Gan Zhou, Kai Hu, Zhenyu Li, Dongsheng Ouyang BackgroundGinsenoside compound K (CK) is a promising drug candidate for rheumatoid arthritis. This study examined the impact of polymorphisms in NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes on the pharmacokinetics of CK in healthy Chinese individuals.MethodsForty-two targeted variants in seven genes were genotyped in 54 participants using Sequenom MassARRAY system to investigate their association with major pharmacokinetic parameters of CK and its metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD). Subsequently, molecular docking was simulated using the AutoDock Vina program.ResultsABCC4 rs1751034 TT and rs1189437 TT were associated with increased exposure of CK and decreased exposure of 20(S)-PPD, whereas CFTR rs4148688 heterozygous carriers had the lowest maximum concentration (Cmax) of CK. The area under the curve from zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) of CK was decreased in NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 homozygous carriers, while Cmax was significantly reduced only in rs2472682. ABCC4 rs1151471 and CFTR rs2283054 influenced the pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-PPD. In addition, several variations in ABCC2, ABCC4, CFTR, and NR1I2 had minor effects on the pharmacokinetics of CK. Quality of the best homology model of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) was assessed, and the ligand interaction plot showed the mode of interaction of CK with different MRP4 residues.ConlusionABCC4 rs1751034 and rs1189437 affected the pharmacokinetics of both CK and 20(S)-PPD. NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 were only associated with the pharmacokinetics of CK. Thus, these hereditary variances could partly explain the interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of CK.
       
  • Ameliorative effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on rheumatic diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Young-Su Yi BackgroundInflammation is a host-defensive innate immune response to protect the body from pathogenic agents and danger signals induced by cellular changes. Although inflammation is a host-defense mechanism, chronic inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development of a variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases are systemic inflammatory and degenerative diseases that primarily affect connective tissues and are characterized by severe chronic inflammation and degeneration of connective tissues. Ginseng and its bioactive ingredients, genocides, have been demonstrated to have antiinflammatory activity and pharmacological effects on various rheumatic diseases by inhibiting the expression and production of inflammatory mediators.MethodsLiterature in this review was searched in a PubMed site of National Center for Biotechnology Information.ResultsThe studies reporting the preventive and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases were discussed and summarized.ConclusionGinseng and ginsenosides play an ameliorative role on rheumatic diseases, and this review provides new insights into ginseng and ginsenosides as promising agents to prevent and treat rheumatic diseases.
       
  • Ginsenoside compound K inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B by targeting
           Annexin A2

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Yu-Shi Wang, Hongyan Zhu, He Li, Yang Li, Bing Zhao, Ying-Hua Jin BackgroundGinsenoside compound K(C-K), a major metabolite of ginsenoside, exhibits anticancer activity in various cancer cells and animal models. A cell signaling study has shown that C-K inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in human astroglial cells and liver cancer cells. However, the molecular targets of C-K and the initiating events were not elucidated.MethodsInteraction between C-K and Annexin A2 was determined by molecular docking and thermal shift assay. HepG2 cells were treated with C-K, followed by a luciferase reporter assay for NF-кB, immunofluorescence imaging for the subcellular localization of Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit, coimmunoprecipitation of Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit, and both cell viability assay and plate clone formation assay to determine the cell viability.ResultsBoth molecular docking and thermal shift assay positively confirmed the interaction between Annexin A2 and C-K. This interaction prevented the interaction between Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit and their nuclear colocalization, which attenuated the activation of NF-кB and the expression of its downstream genes, followed by the activation of caspase 9 and 3. In addition, the overexpression of Annexin A2-K320A, a C-K binding-deficient mutant of Annexin A2, rendered cells to resist C-K treatment, indicating that C-K exerts its cytotoxic activity mainly by targeting Annexin A2.ConclusionThis study for the first time revealed a cellular target of C-K and the molecular mechanism for its anticancer activity.
       
  • Evaluation of the gastroprotective effects of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on
           gastric ulcer models in mice

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Kai Zhang, Ying Liu, Cuizhu Wang, Jiannan Li, Lingxin Xiong, Zhenzhou Wang, Jinping Liu, Pingya Li BackgroundGastric ulcer (GU) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can be induced by many factors. Finding an effective treatment method that contains fewer side effects is important. 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a kind of protopanaxadiol and has shown superior antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies, especially cancer studies. In this study, we examined the treatment efficacy of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on GU.MethodsThree kinds of GU models, including an alcohol GU model, a pylorus-ligated GU model, and an acetic acid GU model, were used. Mouse endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in blood and epidermal growth factor (EGF), superoxide dismutase, and NO levels in gastric mucosa were evaluated. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of gastric mucosa and immunohistochemical staining of ET-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and epidermal growth factor receptors were studied. Ulcer index (UI) scores and UI ratios were also analyzed to demonstrate the GU conditions in different groups. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was used for molecular docking to clarify the interactions between 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and EGF and NOS2.Results20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 significantly decreased the UI scores and UI ratios in all the three GU models, and it demonstrated antiulcer effects by decreasing the ET-1 and NOS2 levels and increasing the NO, superoxide dismutase, EGF, and epidermal growth factor receptor levels. In addition, high-dose 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 showed satisfactory gastric mucosa protection effects.Conclusion20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 can inhibit the formation of GU and may be a potential therapeutic agent for GU.
       
  • Tentative identification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol metabolites in human
           plasma and urine using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled
           with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jin Ling, Yingjia Yu, Jiakun Long, Yan Li, Jiebing Jiang, Liping Wang, Changjiang Xu, Gengli Duan Background20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the aglycone part of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, possesses antidepressant activity among many other pharmacological activities. It is currently undergoing clinical trial in China as an antidepressant.MethodsIn this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass tandem mass spectrometry method was established to identify the metabolites of PPD in human plasma and urine following oral administration in phase IIa clinical trial.ResultsA total of 40 metabolites in human plasma and urine were identified using this method. Four metabolites identified were isolated from rat feces, and two of them were analyzed by NMR to elucidate the exact structures. The structures of isolated compounds were confirmed as (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,23,25-triol-3-one and (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3,12,23,25-tetrol. Both compounds were found as metabolites in human for the first time. Upon comparing our findings with the findings of the in vitro study of PPD metabolism in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes, metabolites with m/z 475.3783 and phase II metabolites were not found in our study whereas metabolites with m/z 505.3530, 523.3641, and 525.3788 were exclusively detected in our experiments.ConclusionThe metabolites identified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in our study were mostly hydroxylated metabolites. This indicated that PPD was metabolized in human body mainly through phase I hepatic metabolism. The main metabolites are in 20,24-oxide form with multiple hydroxylation sites. Finally, the metabolic pathways of PPD in vivo (human) were proposed based on structural analysis.
       
  • Nonsaponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng attenuates cytokine production
           via inhibition of TLR4 expression

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Huijeong Ahn, Byung-Cheol Han, Jeongeun Kim, Seung Goo Kang, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Kyoung Hwa Jang, Seung Ho So, Seung-Ho Lee, Geun-Shik Lee BackgroundGinsenosides of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) and its saponin components suppress secretion of inflammasome-mediating cytokines, whereas the nonsaponin fraction (NS) of RGE oppositely stimulates cytokine secretion. Although direct exposure of NS to macrophages in mice induces cytokine production, oral administration of NS has not been studied in inflammasome-related disease in animal models.MethodsMice were fed RGE or NS for 7 days and then developed peritonitis. Peritoneal cytokines were measured, and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were collected to assay expression levels of a set of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in response to NS ingestion. In addition, the role of intestinal bacteria in NS-fed mice was assessed. The effect of preexposure to NS in bone marrow–derived macrophages (BMDMs) on cytokine production was further confirmed.ResultsNS ingestion attenuated secretion of peritoneal cytokines resulting from peritonitis. In addition, the isolated PECs from NS-fed mice presented lower TLR transcription levels than PECs from control diet–fed mice. BMDMs treated with NS showed downregulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, which was mediated by the TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signal pathway. BMDMs pretreated with NS produced less cytokines in response to TLR4 ligands.ConclusionNS administration directly inhibits TLR4 expression in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, thereby reducing secretion of cytokines during peritonitis.
       
  • Endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride isolated from mountain-cultivated
           ginseng (Panax ginseng) has great potential as a biocontrol agent against
           ginseng pathogens

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Young-Hwan Park, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Sunkyung Yoon, Hoki Kim, Changho Park, Sang-Tae Seo, Hanhong Bae BackgroundGinseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an invaluable medicinal plant containing various bioactive metabolites (e.g., ginsenosides). Owing to its long cultivation period, ginseng is vulnerable to various biotic constraints. Biological control using endophytes is an important alternative to chemical control.MethodsIn this study, endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride PG87, isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng, was evaluated for biocontrol activity against six major ginseng pathogens. T. citrinoviride exhibited antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism against all ginseng pathogens, with high endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase activity.ResultsT. citrinoviride inoculation significantly reduced the disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea and Cylindrocarpon destructans and induced ginsenoside biosynthesis in ginseng plants. T. citrinoviride was formulated as dustable powder and granules. The formulated agents also exhibited significant biocontrol activity and induced ginsenosides production in the controlled environment and mountain area.ConclusionOur results revealed that T. citrinoviride has great potential as a biological control agent and elicitor of ginsenoside production.
       
  • Effect of high-dose ginsenoside complex (UG0712) supplementation on
           physical performance of healthy adults during a 12-week supervised
           exercise program: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Eon Sook Lee, Yun Jun Yang, Jun Hyung Lee, Yeong Sook Yoon BackgroundGinseng has been used as an ergogenic agent, although evidence for its effectiveness is weak. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a ginsenoside complex (UG0712) on changes in exercise performance.MethodsSedentary individuals (n = 117) were randomly assigned into one of three groups: low-dose ginsenoside supplementation (100 mg/d, n = 39), high-dose ginsenoside supplementation (500 mg/d, n = 39), or a placebo group (500 mg/d, n = 39). All participants underwent a supervised 12-wk aerobic and resistance exercise training course. To assess the effects of supplementation on physical performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), lactic acid, and muscle strength of the dominant knee were measured at baseline, every visit, and after the training program.ResultsBoth ginsenoside groups showed significant increases in VO2max and muscular strength during exercise training. There were no definite changes in AT and lactic acid levels over time. After exercise training, there were definite differences in the VO2max (28.64.9 to 33.7 ± 4.9 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 30.4 ± 6.7 to 32.8 ± 6.6 ml/kg/min in placebo, p = 0.029) and AT (19.3 ± 4.2 to 20.9 ± 3.5 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 20.0 ± 5.1 to 20.0 ± 4.9 ml/kg/min in placebo, p = 0.038) between the high-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups. However, there was no difference in VO2max between the low-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups (p = 0.254). There were no differences in muscular strength during exercise training among the three groups.ConclusionHigh-dose ginsenoside supplementation (UG0712) augmented the improvement of aerobic capacity by exercise training.
       
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rf in a rat
           model of incisional pain

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Min Kyoung Kim, Hyun Kang, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, Geun Joo Choi, Hwa Yong Shin, Kyung Soo Kim BackgroundGinseng saponin has long been used as a traditional Asian medicine and is known to be effective in treating various kinds of pain. Ginsenoside Rf is one of the biologically active saponins found in ginseng. We evaluated ginsenoside Rf’s antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and its mechanism of action on adrenergic and serotonergic receptors, in an incisional pain model.MethodsMechanical hyperalgesia was induced via plantar incision in rats followed by intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of ginsenoside Rf (vehicle, 0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg). The antinociceptive effect was also compared in a Positive Control Group that received a ketorolac (30 mg/kg) injection, and the Naïve Group, which did not undergo incision. To evaluate the mechanism of action, rats were treated with prazosin (1 mg/kg), yohimbine (2 mg/kg), or ketanserin (1 mg/kg) prior to receiving ginsenoside Rf (1.5 mg/kg). The mechanical withdrawal threshold was measured using von Frey filaments at various time points before and after ginsenoside Rf administration. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect, serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrotizing factor-α levels were measured.ResultsGinsenoside Rf increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold significantly, with a curvilinear dose–response curve peaking at 1.5 mg/kg. IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrotizing factor-α levels significantly decreased after ginsenoside Rf treatment. Ginsenoside Rf’s antinociceptive effect was reduced by yohimbine, but potentiated by prazosin and ketanserin.ConclusionIntraperitoneal ginsenoside Rf has an antinociceptive effect peaking at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effects were also detected.
       
  • Effect of azoxystrobin fungicide on the physiological and biochemical
           indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Shuang Liang, Xuanwei Xu, Zhongbin Lu BackgroundThe impact of fungicide azoxystrobin, applied as foliar spray, on the physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng was studied in ginseng (Panax ginseng Mey. cv. “Ermaya”) under natural environmental conditions. Different concentrations of 25% azoxystrobin SC (150 g a.i./ha and 225 g a.i./ha) on ginseng plants were sprayed three times, and the changes in physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves were tested.MethodsPhysiological and biochemical indices were measured using a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-2450). Every index was determined three times per replication. Extracts of ginsenosides were analyzed by HPLC (Shimadzu LC20-AB) utilizing a GL-Wondasil C18 column.ResultsChlorophyll and soluble protein contents were significantly (p = 0.05) increased compared with the control by the application of azoxystrobin. Additionally, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and ginsenoside contents in azoxystrobin-treated plants were improved, and malondialdehyde content and O2− contents were reduced effectively. Azoxystrobin treatments to ginseng plants at all growth stages suggested that the azoxystrobin-induced delay of senescence was due to an enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity protecting the plants from harmful active oxygen species. When the dose of azoxystrobin was 225 g a.i./ha, the effect was more significant.ConclusionThis work suggested that azoxystrobin played a role in delaying senescence by changing physiological and biochemical indices and improving ginsenoside contents in ginseng leaves.
       
  • BIOGF1K, a compound K-rich fraction of ginseng, plays an antiinflammatory
           role by targeting an activator protein-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7
           macrophage-like cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Eunji Kim, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Sang Yun Han, Dong Hyun Kim, Gibaeg Nam, Mohammad Amjad Hossain, Jong-Hoon Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho An anti-inflammatory function of BIOGF1K was explored. BIOGF1K suppressed nitric oxide (NO) generation and mRNA expression of inflammatory genes. BIOGF1K also suppressed nuclear translocation of activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MAPKKs). The study suggests that BIOGF1K plays an anti-inflammatory role in macrophage.
       
  • Genetic variability, associations, and path analysis of chemical and
           morphological traits in Indian ginseng [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] for
           selection of higher yielding genotypes

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Abhilasha Srivastava, Anil K. Gupta, Karuna Shanker, Madan M. Gupta, Ritu Mishra, Raj K. Lal BackgroundThe study was carried out to assess the genetic variability present in ashwagandha and to examine the nature of associations of various traits to the root yield of the plant.MethodsFifty-three diverse genetic stocks of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) were evaluated for 14 quantitative characteristics. Analysis of variance, correlation, and path coefficient analysis were performed using the mean data of 2 years.ResultsAnalysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed significantly for all characteristics studied. High heritability in conjunction with high genetic advance was observed for fresh root weight, 12 deoxywithastramonolide in roots, and plant height, which indicated that selection could be effective for these traits. Dry root weight has a tight linkage with plant height and fresh root weight. Further, in path coefficient analysis, fresh root weight, total alkaloid (%) in leaves, and 12 deoxywithastramonolide (%) in roots had the highest positive direct effect on dry root weight.ConclusionTherefore, these characteristics can be exploited to improve dry root weight in ashwagandha genotypes and there is also scope for the selection of promising and specific chemotypes (based on the alkaloid content) from the present germplasm.
       
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng
           leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with
           time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid
           chromatography coupled with UV detector

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Fang Liu, Ni Ma, Chengwei He, Yuanjia Hu, Peng Li, Meiwan Chen, Huanxing Su, Jian-Bo Wan BackgroundPanax notoginseng leaves (PNL) exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL.MethodsUltra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively.ResultsExtraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL—ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd—were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity (r2 > 0.999), repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 2.98%), and inter- and intraday variations (RSD < 4.40%) with recovery (98.7–106.1%) of seven saponins concerned. This validated method was also conducted to determine seven components in 10 batches of PNL.ConclusionThese findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products.
       
  • Korean Red Ginseng exhibits no significant adverse effect on disease
           activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized,
           double-blind, crossover study

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Soo-Kyung Cho, Dam Kim, Dasomi Yoo, Eun Jin Jang, Jae-Bum Jun, Yoon-Kyoung Sung BackgroundPanax ginseng is a well-known immune modulator, and there is concern that its immune-enhancing effects may negatively affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by worsening symptoms or increasing the risk of adverse effects from other drugs. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, we evaluated the impact of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on disease activity and safety in RA patients.MethodsA total of 80 female RA patients were randomly assigned to either the KRG (2 g/d, n = 40) treatment or placebo (n = 40) groups for 8 wk, followed by crossover to the other treatment group for an additional 8 wk. The primary outcome was the disease flare rate, defined as worsening disease activity according to the disease activity score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). The secondary outcomes were development of adverse events (AEs) and patient reported outcomes. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 8 wk and 16 wk. The outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test.ResultsOf the 80 patients, 70 completed the full study. Their mean age was 51.9 yr, and most exhibited low disease activity (mean DAS28-ESR 3.5 ± 1.0) at enrollment. After intervention, the flare rate was 3.7% in each group. During KRG treatment, 10 AEs were reported, while five AEs were developed with placebo; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.16). Gastrointestinal- and nervous system-related symptoms were frequent in the KRG group.ConclusionKRG is not significantly associated with either disease flare rate or the rate of AE development in RA patients.
       
  • Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin
           derivative, on prostate cancer cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Xu De Wang, Guang Yue Su, Chen Zhao, Fan Zhi Qu, Peng Wang, Yu Qing Zhao BackgroundAD-2 (20(R)-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD) is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R)-3b-O-(L-alanyl)-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol), a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug.MethodsMTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways.Results1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.Conclusion1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy.
       
  • Molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 and their mode of
           actions

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Padmanaban Mohanan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Deok-Chun Yang Ginseng has gained its popularity as an adaptogen since ancient days because of its triterpenoid saponins, known as ginsenosides. These triterpenoid saponins are unique and classified as protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol saponins based on their glycosylation patterns. They play many protective roles in humans and are under intense research as various groups continue to study their efficacy at the molecular level in various disorders. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 are the most abundant ginsenosides present in ginseng roots, and they confer the pharmacological properties of the plant, whereas ginsenoside Rg3 is abundantly present in Korean Red Ginseng preparation, which is highly known for its anticancer effects. These ginsenosides have a unique mode of action in modulating various signaling cascades and networks in different tissues. Their effect depends on the bioavailability and the physiological status of the cell. Mostly they amplify the response by stimulating phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, caspase-3/caspase-9-mediated apoptotic pathway, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling. Furthermore, they trigger receptors such as estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. This review critically evaluates the signaling pathways attenuated by ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 in various tissues with emphasis on cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders.
       
  • Synergistic effect of maclurin on ginsenoside compound K induced
           inhibition of the transcriptional expression of matrix metalloproteinase-1
           in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Sang Yeol Lee The synergistic effect of maclurin on CK-induced inhibition of the transcriptional expression of MMP-1 was investigated in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. Maclurin suppresses transcriptional expression of MMP-1 via inhibition of ERK/Ets-1 signaling. The combination of CK and maclurin may be promising way to be used as an anti-skin aging agent.
       
  • The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1
           from Panax ginseng

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Eunji Kim, Donghyun Kim, Sulgi Yoo, Yo Han Hong, Sang Yun Han, Seonggu Jeong, Deok Jeong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Junseong Park BackgroundCompound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient.MethodsTo assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed.ResultsCK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed.ConclusionOur data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.
       
  • Study on the grading standard of Panax notoginseng seedlings

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Lijuan Chen, Ye Yang, Jin Ge, Xiuming Cui, Yin Xiong BackgroundThe quality differences in seedlings of medicinal herbs often affect the quality of medicinal parts. The establishment of the grading standard of Panax notoginseng seedlings is significant for the stable quality of medicinal parts of P. notoginseng.MethodsTo establish the grading standard of P. notoginseng seedlings, a total of 36,000 P. notoginseng seedlings were collected from 30 producing areas, of which the fresh weight, root length, root diameter, bud length, bud diameter, and rootlet number were measured. The K-means clustering method was applied to grade seedlings and establish the grading standard.ResultsThe fresh weight and rootlet number of P. notoginseng seedlings were determined as the final indices of grading. P. notoginseng seedlings from different regions of Yunnan could be preliminarily classified into four grades: the special grade, the premium grade, the standard grade, and culled seedlings.ConclusionThe grading standard was proven to be reasonable according to the agronomic characters, emergence rate, and photosynthetic efficiency of seedlings after transplantation, and the yields and contents of active constituents of the medicinal parts from different grades of seedlings.
       
  • New metabolites from the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 by
           Paecilomyces bainier sp.229 and activities in inducing osteogenic
           differentiation by Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Wei Zhou, Hai Huang, Haiyan Zhu, Pei Zhou, Xunlong Shi BackgroundGinseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in a range of therapeutic and healthcare applications in East Asian countries. Microbial transformation is regarded as an effective and useful technology in modification of nature products for finding new chemical derivatives with potent bioactivities. In this study, three minor derivatives of ginsenoside compound K were isolated and the inducing effects in the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway were also investigated.MethodsNew compounds were purified from scale-up fermentation of ginsenoside Rb1 by Paecilomyces bainier sp. 229 through repeated silica gel column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. Their structures were determined based on spectral data and X-ray diffraction. The inductive activities of these compounds on the Wnt signaling pathway were conducted on MC3T3-E1 cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis.ResultsThe structures of a known 3-keto derivative and two new dehydrogenated metabolites were elucidated. The crystal structure of the 3-keto derivative was reported for the first time and its conformation was compared with that of ginsenoside compound K. The inductive effects of these compounds on osteogenic differentiation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were explained for the first time.ConclusionThis study may provide a new insight into the metabolic pathway of ginsenoside by microbial transformation. In addition, the results might provide a reasonable explanation for the activity of ginseng in treating osteoporosis and supply good monomer ginsenoside resources for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical development.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg5 prevents apoptosis by modulating heme-oxygenase-1/nuclear
           factor E2-related factor 2 signaling and alters the expression of
           cognitive impairment-associated genes in thermal stress-exposed HT22 cells
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Seo-Yun Choi, Kui-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Song, Boo-Yong Lee Our results suggested that thermal stress can lead to activation of hippocampal cell damage and reduction of memory-associated molecules in HT22 cells. These findings also provide a part of molecular rationale for the role of ginsenoside Rg5 as a potent cognitive impairment preventive compound in blocking the initiation of hippocampal damage.
       
  • Compound K induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release
           through ryanodine receptor in human lung cancer cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2Author(s): Dong-Hyun Shin, Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Joo-Il Kim, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang Yoon Choi, Myung-Hee Lee, Jung-Hye Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee BackgroundExtended endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may initiate apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, and ER stress has been reported to possibly increase tumor death in cancer therapy. We previously reported that caspase-8 played an important role in compound K-induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation in HL-60 human leukemia cells. The mechanisms leading to apoptosis in A549 and SK-MES-1 human lung cancer cells and the role of ER stress have not yet been understood.MethodsThe apoptotic effects of compound K were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the changes in protein levels were determined using Western blot analysis. The intracellular calcium levels were monitored by staining with Fura-2/AM and Fluo-3/AM.ResultsCompound K-induced ER stress was confirmed through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and protein levels of GRP78/BiP, XBP-1S, and IRE1α in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, compound-K led to the accumulation of intracellular calcium and an increase in m-calpain activities that were both significantly inhibited by pretreatment either with BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) or dantrolene (an RyR channel antagonist). These results were correlated with the outcome that compound K induced ER stress-related apoptosis through caspase-12, as z-ATAD-fmk (a specific inhibitor of caspase-12) partially ameliorated this effect. Interestingly, 4-PBA (ER stress inhibitor) dramatically improved the compound K-induced apoptosis.ConclusionCell survival and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis during ER stress in human lung cancer cells are important factors in the induction of the compound K-induced apoptotic pathway.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 activates ligand-independent estrogenic effects via rapid
           estrogen receptor signaling pathway

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Quan-Gui Gao, Li-Ping Zhou, Vien Hoi-Yi Lee, Hoi-Yi Chan, Cornelia Wing-Yin Man, Man-Sau Wong BackgroundGinsenoside Rg1 was shown to exert ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptor (ER) via mitogen-activated protein kinase–mediated pathway. Our study aimed to delineate the mechanisms by which Rg1 activates the rapid ER signaling pathways.MethodsER-positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and ER-negative human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells were treated with Rg1 (10−12M, 10−8M), 17ß-estradiol (10−8M), or vehicle. Immunoprecipitation was conducted to investigate the interactions between signaling protein and ER in MCF-7 cells. To determine the roles of these signaling proteins in the actions of Rg1, small interfering RNA or their inhibitors were applied.ResultsRg1 rapidly induced ERα translocation to plasma membrane via caveolin-1 and the formation of signaling complex involving linker protein (Shc), insulin-like growth factor-I receptor, modulator of nongenomic activity of ER (MNAR), ERα, and cellular nonreceptor tyrosine kinase (c-Src) in MCF-7 cells. The induction of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells by Rg1 was suppressed by cotreatment with small interfering RNA against these signaling proteins. The stimulatory effects of Rg1 on MEK phosphorylation in these cells were suppressed by both PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor) and AG1478 [epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor]. In addition, Rg1-induced estrogenic activities, EGFR and MEK phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells were abolished by cotreatment with G15 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 antagonist). The increase in intracellular cyclic AMP accumulation, but not Ca mobilization, in MCF-7 cells by Rg1 could be abolished by G15.ConclusionGinsenoside Rg1 exerted estrogenic actions by rapidly inducing the formation of ER containing signalosome in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, Rg1 could activate EGFR and c-Src ER-independently and exert estrogenic effects via rapid activation of membrane-associated ER and G protein-coupled estrogen receptor.
       
  • Effect of Korean red ginseng in individuals exposed to high stress levels:
           a 6-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): J.H. Baek, J.-Y. Heo, M. Fava, D. Mischoulon, K.W. Choi, E.J. Na, H. Cho, H.J. Jeon BackgroundTo investigate the neurobiological evidence supporting the adaptogenic effects of Korean red ginseng in reducing the harmful consequences of stress using a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.MethodSixty-three subjects with high stress levels were randomized to receive an orally administered, double-blind, 6-week treatment with Korean red ginseng (n = 32) or placebo (n = 31). All participants underwent a comprehensive psychological evaluation using Beck Depression Inventory and Stress Response Inventory, cognitive evaluation using the continuous performance test, biological evaluation by measuring blood levels of lipids, catecholamines, inflammation markers, and heart rate variability at baseline and after 6 weeks.ResultsAt baseline, both groups showed no significant differences in age, sex, years of education, Beck Depression Inventory, and Stress Response Inventory. After 6 weeks, triglyceride levels were significantly increased within the normal limit in the Korean red ginseng group (F = 4.11, p = 0.048), and the epinephrine level was decreased in this group (F = 4,35, p = 0.043). The triglyceride increase was significantly associated with epinephrine decrease (B = −0.087, p = 0.041), suggesting that Korean red ginseng may stabilize the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, we detected a significant group by time effect in the visually controlled continuous performance test, suggesting positive effects of Korean red ginseng on cognition.ConclusionKorean red ginseng might help to stabilize the sympathetic nervous system and improve cognition in individuals with high stress.
       
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses mast cell–mediated allergic inflammation via
           mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Ji-Ye Kee, Seung-Heon Hong BackgroundGinsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) is the major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng and has many pharmacological effects, including antiadipogenic, antiviral, and anticancer effects. However, the effect of G-Rg3 on mast cell–mediated allergic inflammation has not been investigated.MethodThe antiallergic effects of G-Rg3 on allergic inflammation were evaluated using the human and rat mast cell lines HMC-1 and RBL-2H3. Antiallergic effects of G-Rg3 were detected by measuring cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), detecting calcium influx, and using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and in vivo experiments.ResultsG-Rg3 decreased histamine release from activated mast cells by enhancing cAMP levels and calcium influx. Proinflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by G-Rg3 treatment via regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/nuclear factor-kappa B and receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2)/caspase-1 signaling pathway in mast cells. Moreover, G-Rg3 protected mice against the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock.ConclusionG-Rg3 may serve as an alternative therapeutic agent for improving allergic inflammatory disorders.
       
  • Bioactivity-guided isolation of ginsenosides from Korean red ginseng with
           cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jae Sik Yu, Hyun-Soo Roh, Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Seul Lee, Sil Kim, Hae Min So, Eunjung Moon, Changhyun Pang, Tae Su Jang, Ki Hyun Kim BackgroundLung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this study, we used a bioactivity-guided isolation technique to identify constituents of Korean red ginseng (KRG) with antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells.MethodsBioactivity-guided fractionation and preparative/semipreparative HPLC purification were used with LC/MS analysis to separate the bioactive constituents. Cell viability and apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6) after treatment with KRG extract fractions and constituents thereof were assessed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Caspase activation was assessed by detecting its surrogate marker, cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribose) polymerase, using an immunoblot assay. The expression and subcellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor were assessed using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively.Results and conclusionBioactivity-guided fractionation of the KRG extract revealed that its ethyl acetate–soluble fraction exerts significant cytotoxic activity against all human lung cancer cell lines tested by inducing apoptosis. Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetatesoluble fraction led to the isolation of six ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rb1 (1), ginsenoside Rb2 (2), ginsenoside Rc (3), ginsenoside Rd (4), ginsenoside Rg1 (5), and ginsenoside Rg3 (6). Among the isolated ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rg3 exhibited the most cytotoxic activity against all human lung cancer cell lines examined, with IC50 values ranging from 161.1 μM to 264.6 μM. The cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 was found to be mediated by induction of apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner. These findings provide experimental evidence for a novel biological activity of ginsenoside Rg3 against human lung cancer cells.
       
  • Panax ginseng (Korea Red Ginseng) repairs diabetic sensorineural damage
           through promotion of the nerve growth factor pathway in diabetic
           zebrafish

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Youn Hee Nam, Hyo Won Moon, Yeong Ro Lee, Eun Young Kim, Isabel Rodriguez, Seo Yule Jeong, Rodrigo Castañeda, Ji-Ho Park, Se-Young Choung, Bin Na Hong, Tong Ho Kang BackgroundDiabetic sensorineural damage is a complication of the sensory neural system, resulting from long-term hyperglycemia. Red ginseng (RG) has shown efficacy for treatment of various diseases, including diabetes mellitus; however, there is little research about its benefit for treating sensorineural damage. Therefore, we aim to evaluate RG efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic neuromast (AIDN) zebrafish.MethodsIn this study, we developed and validated an AIDN zebrafish model. To assess RG effectiveness, we observed morphological changes in live neuromast zebrafish. Also, zebrafish has been observed to have an ultrastructure of hair-cell cilia under scanning electron microscopy. Thus, we recorded these physiological traits to assess hair cell function. Finally, we confirmed that RG promoted neuromast recovery via nerve growth factor signaling pathway markers.ResultsFirst, we established an AIDN zebrafish model. Using this model, we showed via live neuromast imaging that RG fostered recovery of sensorineural damage. Damaged hair cell cilia were recovered in AIDN zebrafish. Furthermore, RG rescued damaged hair cell function through cell membrane ion balance.ConclusionOur data suggest that RG potentially facilitates recovery in AIDN zebrafish, and its mechanism seems to be promotion of the nerve growth factor pathway through increased expression of topomyosin receptor kinase A, transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily type 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.
       
  • Production of ginsenoside aglycone (protopanaxatriol) and male sterility
           of transgenic tobacco co-overexpressing three Panax ginseng genes: PgDDS,
           CYP716A47, and CYP716A53v2

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Yu Shin Gwak, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi BackgroundProtopanaxatriol (PPT) is an aglycone of ginsenosides, which has high medicinal values. Production of PPT from natural ginseng plants requires artificial deglycosylation procedures of ginsenosides via enzymatic or physicochemical treatments. Metabolic engineering could be an efficient technology for production of ginsenoside sapogenin. For PPT biosynthesis in Panaxginseng, damarenediol-II synthase (PgDDS) and two cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are essentially required.MethodsTransgenic tobacco co-overexpressing P. ginseng PgDDS, CYP716A47, and CYP716A53v2 was constructed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.ResultsExpression of the three introduced genes in transgenic tobacco lines was confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of liquid chromatography showed three new peaks, dammarenediol-II (DD), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and PPT, in leaves of transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco (line 6) contained 2.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 7.3 μg/g DW, and 11.6 μg/g DW of PPT, PPD, and DD in leaves, respectively. Production of PPT was achieved via cell suspension culture and was highly affected by auxin treatment. The content of PPT in cell suspension was increased 37.25-fold compared with that of leaves of the transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco was not able to set seeds because of microspore degeneration in anthers. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that cells of phloem tissue situated in the center of the anther showed an abnormally condensed nuclei and degenerated mitochondria.ConclusionWe successfully achieved the production of PPT in transgenic tobacco. The possible factors deriving male sterility in transgenic tobacco are discussed.
       
  • Korean ginseng extract ameliorates abnormal immune response through the
           regulation of inflammatory constituents in Sprague-Dawley rat subjected to
           environmental heat stress

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Ji-Hyeon Song, Kui-Jin Kim, Seo-Yun Choi, Eun-Jeong Koh, JongDae Park, Boo-Yong Lee BackgroundIncreases in the average global temperature cause heat stress-induced disorders by disrupting homeostasis. Excessive heat stress triggers an imbalance in the immune system; thus protection against heat stress is important to maintain immune homeostasis. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a herbal medicine and displays beneficial biological properties.MethodsWe investigated the protective effects of Korean ginseng extracts (KGEs) against heat stress in a rat model. Following acclimatization for 1 week, rats were housed at room temperature for 2 weeks and then exposed to heat stress (40°C/2 h/day) for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with three KGEs from the beginning of the second week to the end of the experiment.ResultsHeat stress dramatically increased secretion of inflammatory factors, and this was significantly reduced in the KGE-treated groups. Levels of inflammatory factors such as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), interleukin 6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in the spleen and muscle upon heat stress. KGEs inhibited these increases by down-regulating HSP70 and the associated nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Consequently, KGEs suppressed activation of T-cells and B-cells.ConclusionsKGEs suppress the immune response upon heat stress and decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in muscle and spleen. We suggest that KGEs protect against heat stress by inhibiting inflammation and maintaining immune homeostasis.
       
  • Panaxadiol saponins treatment caused the subtle variations in the global
           transcriptional state of Asiatic corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Shuangli Liu, Yonghua Xu, Yugang Gao, Yan Zhao, Aihua Zhang, Liansheng Zang, Chunsheng Wu, Lianxue Zhang BackgroundThe lepidopteran Asiatic corn borer (ACB), Ostriniafurnacalis (Guenee), has caused huge economic losses throughout the Asian-Western Pacific region. Usually, chemical pesticides are used for the control, but excessive use of pesticides has caused great harm. Therefore, the inartificial ecotypic pesticides to ACB are extremely essential. In our previous study, we found that panaxadiol saponins (PDS) can effectively reduce the harm of ACB by causing antifeedant activity. Therefore, it is necessary to reveal the biological molecular changes in ACB and the functionary mechanism of PDS.MethodsWe analyzed the global transcription of ACB with different PDS concentration treatment (5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, and 25 mg/mL) by high-throughput sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly method.ResultsPDS treatment could cause the changes of many gene expressions which regulate its signal pathways. The genes in peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway were significantly downregulated, and then, the downstream fatty acid degradation pathway had also been greatly affected.ConclusionThrough this experiment, we hypothesized that the occurrence of antifeedant action of ACB is because the PDS brought about the downregulation of FATP and FABP, the key regulators in the PPAR, and the downregulation of FATP and FABP exerts further effects on the expression of SCD-1, ACBP, LPL, SCP-X, and ACO, which leads to the disorder of PPAR signaling pathway and the fatty acid degradation pathway. Not only that, PDS treatment leads to enzyme activity decrease by inhibiting the expression of genes associated with catalytic activity, such as cytochrome P450 and other similar genes.
       
  • Ginseng extracts modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics of live
           

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Yun Huang, Kenneth Kin Leung Kwan, Ka Wing Leung, Ping Yao, Huaiyou Wang, Tina Tingxia Dong, Karl Wah Keung Tsim BackgroundThe root of Panax ginseng, a member of Araliaceae family, has been used as herbal medicine and functional food in Asia for thousands of years. According to Traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng is the most widely used “Qi-invigorating” herbs, which provides tonic and preventive effects by resisting oxidative stress, influencing energy metabolism, and improving mitochondrial function. Very few reports have systematically measured cell mitochondrial bioenergetics after ginseng treatment.MethodsHere, H9C2 cell line, a rat cardiomyoblast, was treated with ginseng extracts having extracted using solvents of different polarity, i.e., water, 50% ethanol, and 90% ethanol, and subsequently, the oxygen consumption rate in healthy and tert-butyl hydroperoxide–treated live cultures was determined by Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer.ResultsThe 90% ethanol extracts of ginseng possessed the strongest antioxidative and tonic activities to mitochondrial respiration and therefore provided the best protective effects to H9C2 cardiomyocytes. By increasing the spare respiratory capacity of stressed H9C2 cells up to three-folds of that of healthy cells, the 90% ethanol extracts of ginseng greatly improved the tolerance of myocardial cells to oxidative damage.ConclusionThese results demonstrated that the low polarity extracts of ginseng could be the best extract, as compared with others, in regulating the oxygen consumption rate of cultured cardiomyocytes during mitochondrial respiration.
       
  • Whitening efficacy of ginsenoside F1 through inhibition of melanin
           transfer in cocultured human melanocytes–keratinocytes and
           three-dimensional human skin equivalent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Chang-Seok Lee, Gibaeg Nam, Il-Hong Bae, Junseong Park GF1 suppresses dendrite formation of melanocytes, resulting in inhibition of melanosome transfer into keratinocytes in human cell co-cultures and 3D-human skin equivalent. Our results suggested that GF1 is a potent ginsenoside possessing potential as a depigmentary agent for pigmentary disorders and a cosmetic ingredient for lightening of skin color.
       
  • Emerging signals modulating potential of ginseng and its active compounds
           focusing on neurodegenerative diseases

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Md. Jakaria, Joonsoo Kim, Govindarajan Karthivashan, Shin-Young Park, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi Common features of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) include progressive dysfunctions and neuronal injuries leading to deterioration in normal brain functions. At present, ginseng is one of the most frequently used natural products. Its use has a long history as a cure for various diseases because its extracts and active compounds exhibit several pharmacological properties against several disorders. However, the pathophysiology of NDDs is not fully clear, but researchers have found that various ion channels and specific signaling pathways might have contributed to the disease pathogenesis. Apart from the different pharmacological potentials, ginseng and its active compounds modulate various ion channels and specific molecular signaling pathways related to the nervous system. Here, we discuss the signal modulating potential of ginseng and its active compounds mainly focusing on those relevant to NDDs.
       
  • Panax ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for Alzheimer's disease

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Hyeon-Joong Kim, Seok-Won Jung, Seog-Young Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Manho Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah Longevity in medicine can be defined as a long life without mental or physical deficits. This can be prevented by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current conventional AD treatments only alleviate the symptoms without reversing AD progression. Recent studies demonstrated that Panax ginseng extract improves AD symptoms in patients with AD, and the two main components of ginseng might contribute to AD amelioration. Ginsenosides show various AD-related neuroprotective effects. Gintonin is a newly identified ginseng constituent that contains lysophosphatidic acids and attenuates AD-related brain neuropathies. Ginsenosides decrease amyloid β-protein (Aβ) formation by inhibiting β- and γ-secretase activity or by activating the nonamyloidogenic pathway, inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity and Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, and decrease Aβ-induced production of reactive oxygen species and neuroinflammatory reactions. Oral administration of ginsenosides increases the expression levels of enzymes involved in acetylcholine synthesis in the brain and alleviates Aβ-induced cholinergic deficits in AD models. Similarly, gintonin inhibits Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and activates the nonamyloidogenic pathway to reduce Aβ formation and to increase acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase expression in the brain through lysophosphatidic acid receptors. Oral administration of gintonin attenuates brain amyloid plaque deposits, boosting hippocampal cholinergic systems and neurogenesis, thereby ameliorating learning and memory impairments. It also improves cognitive functions in patients with AD. Ginsenosides and gintonin attenuate AD-related neuropathology through multiple routes. This review focuses research demonstrating that ginseng constituents could be a candidate as an adjuvant for AD treatment. However, clinical investigations including efficacy and tolerability analyses may be necessary for the clinical acceptance of ginseng components in combination with conventional AD drugs.
       
  • The effect of Korean red ginseng on full-thickness skin wound healing in
           rats

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Ki-Soo Park, Dae-Hwan Park BackgroundPanax ginseng is regarded as one of the best compounds for promoting health, and it has been used traditionally as a medicinal herb. Recently, Korean red ginseng (RG) has been shown to protect skin from aging and wrinkling; it can also relieve atopic dermatitis and allergy symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate RG's effects on the regeneration of the full-thickness skin wounds in rat.MethodsFull-thickness skin wounds were generated in rats, and then RG was administered either orally or topically. The wound-healing effects of RG were investigated by assessing wound size, mRNA expression patterns of genes related to wound healing, histological staining, and measurements of lipid, moisture, and elasticity in skin tissues.ResultsThe wound size was smaller, and tissue regeneration rate was faster in the RG-treated group than that in the control group on days 15 and 20 after initiating treatment. On postoperative day 20, skin lipid and moisture content had increased significantly in the RG-treated group. Significant increases in the gene expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were found in the RG group during the early stages of wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 showed significant increases in gene expression levels on day 20.ConclusionThe results suggested that RG may promote healing of full-thickness skin wounds in rats. They also provided basic insights into the effects of RG on skin regeneration, supporting its use as a dressing material for wound treatment and its development as a functional food.
       
  • Developmental and reproductive toxicity assessment in rats with KGC-HJ3,
           Korean red ginseng with Angelica gigas and Deer antlers

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jinsoo Lee, Ji-Seong Jeong, Kyung-Jin Cho, Kyeong-Nang Moon, Sang Yun Kim, Byungcheol Han, Yong-Soon Kim, Eun Ju Jeong, Moon-Koo Chung, Wook-Joon Yu BackgroundKorean red ginseng has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine for a prolonged period, and its pharmacological effects have been extensively investigated. In addition, Angelica gigas and deer antlers were also used as a tonic medicine with Korean red ginseng as the oriental herbal therapy.MethodsThis study was conducted to evaluate the potential toxicological effect of KGC-HJ3, Korean red ginseng with angelica gigas and deer antlers, on reproductive and developmental functions including fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development. KGC-HJ3 was administered by oral gavage to Sprague–Dawley rats (22 animals per sex per group) at dose levels of 0 mg/kg (control), 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on fertility and early embryonic development. In addition, KGC-HJ3 was also administered by oral gavage to mating-proven Sprague–Dawley rats (22 females per group) during the major organogenesis period at dose levels of 0 mg/kg (control), 500 mg/kg, 1000 mg/kg, and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on maternal function and embryo-fetal development.Results and conclusionNo test item–related changes in parameters for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development were observed during the study period. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that KGC-HJ3 did not have toxicological potential on developmental and reproductive functions. Therefore, no observed adverse effect levels of KGC-HJ3 for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function, and embryo-fetal development is considered to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day.
       
  • Inhibitory effects of thromboxane A2 generation by ginsenoside Ro due to
           attenuation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 phosphorylation and arachidonic
           acid release

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018Source: Journal of Ginseng ResearchAuthor(s): Jung-Hae Shin, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Man Hee Rhee, Hwa-Jin Park BackgroundThromboxane A2 (TXA2) induces platelet aggregation and promotes thrombus formation. Although ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) from Panax ginseng is known to exhibit a Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effect, whether it inhibits Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) activity to prevent the release of arachidonic acid (AA), a TXA2 precursor, is unknown. In this study, we attempted to identify the mechanism underlying G-Ro-mediated TXA2 inhibition.MethodsWe investigated whether G-Ro attenuates TXA2 production and its associated molecules, such as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), TXA2 synthase (TXAS), cPLA2α, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and AA. To assay COX-1 and TXAS, we used microsomal fraction of platelets.ResultsG-Ro reduced TXA2 production by inhibiting AA release. It acted by decreasing the phosphorylation of cPLA2α, p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase1, rather than by inhibiting COX-1 and TXAS in thrombin-activated human platelets.ConclusionG-Ro inhibits AA release to attenuate TXA2 production, which may counteract TXA2-associated thrombosis.
       
 
 
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