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Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
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Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
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Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
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BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
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Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
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Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
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Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
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Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
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Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
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Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
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Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
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Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
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Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
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Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
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Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
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Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
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Journal Cover
Journal of Ginseng Research
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.256
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1226-8453
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Molecular signaling of ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 and their mode of

    • Authors: Padmanaban Mohanan; Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam; Ramya Mathiyalagan; Deok-Chun Yang
      Pages: 123 - 132
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Padmanaban Mohanan, Sathiyamoorthy Subramaniyam, Ramya Mathiyalagan, Deok-Chun Yang
      Ginseng has gained its popularity as an adaptogen since ancient days because of its triterpenoid saponins, known as ginsenosides. These triterpenoid saponins are unique and classified as protopanaxatriol and protopanaxadiol saponins based on their glycosylation patterns. They play many protective roles in humans and are under intense research as various groups continue to study their efficacy at the molecular level in various disorders. Ginsenosides Rb1 and Rg1 are the most abundant ginsenosides present in ginseng roots, and they confer the pharmacological properties of the plant, whereas ginsenoside Rg3 is abundantly present in Korean Red Ginseng preparation, which is highly known for its anticancer effects. These ginsenosides have a unique mode of action in modulating various signaling cascades and networks in different tissues. Their effect depends on the bioavailability and the physiological status of the cell. Mostly they amplify the response by stimulating phosphotidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/protein kinase B pathway, caspase-3/caspase-9-mediated apoptotic pathway, adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells signaling. Furthermore, they trigger receptors such as estrogen receptor, glucocorticoid receptor, and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor. This review critically evaluates the signaling pathways attenuated by ginsenosides Rb1, Rg1, and Rg3 in various tissues with emphasis on cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.008
  • Anticancer activity and potential mechanisms of 1C, a ginseng saponin
           derivative, on prostate cancer cells

    • Authors: Xu De Wang; Guang Yue Su; Chen Zhao; Fan Zhi Qu; Peng Wang; Yu Qing Zhao
      Pages: 133 - 143
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Xu De Wang, Guang Yue Su, Chen Zhao, Fan Zhi Qu, Peng Wang, Yu Qing Zhao
      Background AD-2 (20(R)-dammarane-3b, 12b, 20, 25-tetrol; 25-OH-PPD) is a ginsenoside and isolated from Panax ginseng, showing anticancer activity against extensive human cancer cell lines. In this study, effects and mechanisms of 1C ((20R)-3b-O-(L-alanyl)-dammarane-12b, 20, 25-triol), a modified version of AD-2, were evaluated for its development as a novel anticancer drug. Methods MTT assay was performed to evaluate cell cytotoxic activity. Cell cycle and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were determined using flow cytometry analysis. Western blotting was employed to analyze signaling pathways. Results 1C concentration-dependently reduces prostate cancer cell viability without affecting normal human gastric epithelial cell line-1 viability. In LNCaP prostate cancer cells, 1C triggered apoptosis via Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway, downregulated expression of mouse double minute 2, upregulated expression of p53 and stimulated ROS production. ROS scavenger, N-acetylcysteine, can attenuate 1C-induced apoptosis. 1C also inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP cells through inhibition on Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Conclusion 1C shows obvious anticancer activity based on inducing cell apoptosis by Bcl-2 family-mediated mitochondria pathway and ROS production, inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. These findings demonstrate that 1C may provide leads as a potential agent for cancer therapy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.014
  • Korean Red Ginseng exhibits no significant adverse effect on disease
           activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized,
           double-blind, crossover study

    • Authors: Soo-Kyung Cho; Dam Kim; Dasomi Yoo; Eun Jin Jang; Jae-Bum Jun; Yoon-Kyoung Sung
      Pages: 144 - 148
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Soo-Kyung Cho, Dam Kim, Dasomi Yoo, Eun Jin Jang, Jae-Bum Jun, Yoon-Kyoung Sung
      Background Panax ginseng is a well-known immune modulator, and there is concern that its immune-enhancing effects may negatively affect patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by worsening symptoms or increasing the risk of adverse effects from other drugs. In this randomized, crossover clinical trial, we evaluated the impact of Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) on disease activity and safety in RA patients. Methods A total of 80 female RA patients were randomly assigned to either the KRG (2 g/d, n =40) treatment or placebo (n =40) groups for 8 wk, followed by crossover to the other treatment group for an additional 8 wk. The primary outcome was the disease flare rate, defined as worsening disease activity according to the disease activity score 28 joints-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (DAS28-ESR). The secondary outcomes were development of adverse events (AEs) and patient reported outcomes. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 8 wk and 16 wk. The outcomes were compared using the Chi-square test. Results Of the 80 patients, 70 completed the full study. Their mean age was 51.9 yr, and most exhibited low disease activity (mean DAS28-ESR 3.5±1.0) at enrollment. After intervention, the flare rate was 3.7% in each group. During KRG treatment, 10 AEs were reported, while five AEs were developed with placebo; however, this difference was not statistically significant (p =0.16). Gastrointestinal- and nervous system-related symptoms were frequent in the KRG group. Conclusion KRG is not significantly associated with either disease flare rate or the rate of AE development in RA patients.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.006
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the saponins in Panax notoginseng
           leaves using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with
           time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry and high performance liquid
           chromatography coupled with UV detector

    • Authors: Fang Liu; Ni Ma; Chengwei He; Yuanjia Hu; Peng Li; Meiwan Chen; Huanxing Su; Jian-Bo Wan
      Pages: 149 - 157
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Fang Liu, Ni Ma, Chengwei He, Yuanjia Hu, Peng Li, Meiwan Chen, Huanxing Su, Jian-Bo Wan
      Background Panax notoginseng leaves (PNL) exhibit extensive activities, but few analytical methods have been established to exclusively determine the dammarane triterpene saponins in PNL. Methods Ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS) and HPLC-UV methods were developed for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of ginsenosides in PNL, respectively. Results Extraction conditions, including solvents and extraction methods, were optimized, which showed that ginsenosides Rc and Rb3, the main components of PNL, are transformed to notoginsenosides Fe and Fd, respectively, in the presence of water, by removing a glucose residue from position C-3 via possible enzymatic hydrolysis. A total of 57 saponins were identified in the methanolic extract of PNL by UPLC/Q-TOF MS. Among them, 19 components were unambiguously characterized by their reference substances. Additionally, seven saponins of PNL—ginsenosides Rb1, Rc, Rb2, and Rb3, and notoginsenosides Fc, Fe, and Fd—were quantified using the HPLC-UV method after extraction with methanol. The separation of analytes, particularly the separation of notoginsenoside Fc and ginsenoside Rc, was achieved on a Zorbax ODS C8 column at a temperature of 35°C. This developed HPLC-UV method provides an adequate linearity (r 2 >0.999), repeatability (relative standard deviation, RSD < 2.98%), and inter- and intraday variations (RSD < 4.40%) with recovery (98.7–106.1%) of seven saponins concerned. This validated method was also conducted to determine seven components in 10 batches of PNL. Conclusion These findings are beneficial to the quality control of PNL and its relevant products.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.007
  • Genetic variability, associations, and path analysis of chemical and
           morphological traits in Indian ginseng [Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal] for
           selection of higher yielding genotypes

    • Authors: Abhilasha Srivastava; Anil K. Gupta; Karuna Shanker; Madan M. Gupta; Ritu Mishra; Raj K. Lal
      Pages: 158 - 164
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Abhilasha Srivastava, Anil K. Gupta, Karuna Shanker, Madan M. Gupta, Ritu Mishra, Raj K. Lal
      Background The study was carried out to assess the genetic variability present in ashwagandha and to examine the nature of associations of various traits to the root yield of the plant. Methods Fifty-three diverse genetic stocks of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) were evaluated for 14 quantitative characteristics. Analysis of variance, correlation, and path coefficient analysis were performed using the mean data of 2 years. Results Analysis of variance revealed that the genotypes differed significantly for all characteristics studied. High heritability in conjunction with high genetic advance was observed for fresh root weight, 12 deoxywithastramonolide in roots, and plant height, which indicated that selection could be effective for these traits. Dry root weight has a tight linkage with plant height and fresh root weight. Further, in path coefficient analysis, fresh root weight, total alkaloid (%) in leaves, and 12 deoxywithastramonolide (%) in roots had the highest positive direct effect on dry root weight. Conclusion Therefore, these characteristics can be exploited to improve dry root weight in ashwagandha genotypes and there is also scope for the selection of promising and specific chemotypes (based on the alkaloid content) from the present germplasm.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.014
  • Compound K induced apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release
           through ryanodine receptor in human lung cancer cells

    • Authors: Dong-Hyun Shin; Dong-Gyu Leem; Ji-Sun Shin; Joo-Il Kim; Kyung-Tack Kim; Sang Yoon Choi; Myung-Hee Lee; Jung-Hye Choi; Kyung-Tae Lee
      Pages: 165 - 174
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Dong-Hyun Shin, Dong-Gyu Leem, Ji-Sun Shin, Joo-Il Kim, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang Yoon Choi, Myung-Hee Lee, Jung-Hye Choi, Kyung-Tae Lee
      Background Extended endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress may initiate apoptotic pathways in cancer cells, and ER stress has been reported to possibly increase tumor death in cancer therapy. We previously reported that caspase-8 played an important role in compound K-induced apoptosis via activation of caspase-3 directly or indirectly through Bid cleavage, cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 activation in HL-60 human leukemia cells. The mechanisms leading to apoptosis in A549 and SK-MES-1 human lung cancer cells and the role of ER stress have not yet been understood. Methods The apoptotic effects of compound K were analyzed using flow cytometry, and the changes in protein levels were determined using Western blot analysis. The intracellular calcium levels were monitored by staining with Fura-2/AM and Fluo-3/AM. Results Compound K-induced ER stress was confirmed through increased phosphorylation of eIF2α and protein levels of GRP78/BiP, XBP-1S, and IRE1α in human lung cancer cells. Moreover, compound-K led to the accumulation of intracellular calcium and an increase in m-calpain activities that were both significantly inhibited by pretreatment either with BAPTA-AM (an intracellular Ca2+ chelator) or dantrolene (an RyR channel antagonist). These results were correlated with the outcome that compound K induced ER stress-related apoptosis through caspase-12, as z-ATAD-fmk (a specific inhibitor of caspase-12) partially ameliorated this effect. Interestingly, 4-PBA (ER stress inhibitor) dramatically improved the compound K-induced apoptosis. Conclusion Cell survival and intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis during ER stress in human lung cancer cells are important factors in the induction of the compound K-induced apoptotic pathway.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.015
  • Effect of azoxystrobin fungicide on the physiological and biochemical
           indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves

    • Authors: Shuang Liang; Xuanwei Xu; Zhongbin Lu
      Pages: 175 - 182
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Shuang Liang, Xuanwei Xu, Zhongbin Lu
      Background The impact of fungicide azoxystrobin, applied as foliar spray, on the physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng was studied in ginseng (Panax ginseng Mey. cv. “Ermaya”) under natural environmental conditions. Different concentrations of 25% azoxystrobin SC (150 g a.i./ha and 225 g a.i./ha) on ginseng plants were sprayed three times, and the changes in physiological and biochemical indices and ginsenoside contents of ginseng leaves were tested. Methods Physiological and biochemical indices were measured using a spectrophotometer (Shimadzu UV-2450). Every index was determined three times per replication. Extracts of ginsenosides were analyzed by HPLC (Shimadzu LC20-AB) utilizing a GL-Wondasil C18 column. Results Chlorophyll and soluble protein contents were significantly (p =0.05) increased compared with the control by the application of azoxystrobin. Additionally, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, peroxidase, and ginsenoside contents in azoxystrobin-treated plants were improved, and malondialdehyde content and O2 − contents were reduced effectively. Azoxystrobin treatments to ginseng plants at all growth stages suggested that the azoxystrobin-induced delay of senescence was due to an enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity protecting the plants from harmful active oxygen species. When the dose of azoxystrobin was 225 g a.i./ha, the effect was more significant. Conclusion This work suggested that azoxystrobin played a role in delaying senescence by changing physiological and biochemical indices and improving ginsenoside contents in ginseng leaves.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.02.004
  • Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of ginsenoside Rf in a rat
           model of incisional pain

    • Authors: Min Kyoung Kim; Hyun Kang; Chong Wha Baek; Yong Hun Jung; Young Cheol Woo; Geun Joo Choi; Hwa Yong Shin; Kyung Soo Kim
      Pages: 183 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Min Kyoung Kim, Hyun Kang, Chong Wha Baek, Yong Hun Jung, Young Cheol Woo, Geun Joo Choi, Hwa Yong Shin, Kyung Soo Kim
      Background Ginseng saponin has long been used as a traditional Asian medicine and is known to be effective in treating various kinds of pain. Ginsenoside Rf is one of the biologically active saponins found in ginseng. We evaluated ginsenoside Rf’s antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, and its mechanism of action on adrenergic and serotonergic receptors, in an incisional pain model. Methods Mechanical hyperalgesia was induced via plantar incision in rats followed by intraperitoneal administration of increasing doses of ginsenoside Rf (vehicle, 0.5 mg/kg, 1 mg/kg, 1.5 mg/kg, and 2 mg/kg). The antinociceptive effect was also compared in a Positive Control Group that received a ketorolac (30 mg/kg) injection, and the Naïve Group, which did not undergo incision. To evaluate the mechanism of action, rats were treated with prazosin (1 mg/kg), yohimbine (2 mg/kg), or ketanserin (1 mg/kg) prior to receiving ginsenoside Rf (1.5 mg/kg). The mechanical withdrawal threshold was measured using von Frey filaments at various time points before and after ginsenoside Rf administration. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect, serum interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrotizing factor-α levels were measured. Results Ginsenoside Rf increased the mechanical withdrawal threshold significantly, with a curvilinear dose–response curve peaking at 1.5 mg/kg. IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrotizing factor-α levels significantly decreased after ginsenoside Rf treatment. Ginsenoside Rf’s antinociceptive effect was reduced by yohimbine, but potentiated by prazosin and ketanserin. Conclusion Intraperitoneal ginsenoside Rf has an antinociceptive effect peaking at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effects were also detected.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.02.005
  • Effect of high-dose ginsenoside complex (UG0712) supplementation on
           physical performance of healthy adults during a 12-week supervised
           exercise program: A randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial

    • Authors: Eon Sook Lee; Yun Jun Yang; Jun Hyung Lee; Yeong Sook Yoon
      Pages: 192 - 198
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eon Sook Lee, Yun Jun Yang, Jun Hyung Lee, Yeong Sook Yoon
      Background Ginseng has been used as an ergogenic agent, although evidence for its effectiveness is weak. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of a ginsenoside complex (UG0712) on changes in exercise performance. Methods Sedentary individuals (n = 117) were randomly assigned into one of three groups: low-dose ginsenoside supplementation (100 mg/d, n = 39), high-dose ginsenoside supplementation (500 mg/d, n = 39), or a placebo group (500 mg/d, n = 39). All participants underwent a supervised 12-wk aerobic and resistance exercise training course. To assess the effects of supplementation on physical performance, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), anaerobic threshold (AT), lactic acid, and muscle strength of the dominant knee were measured at baseline, every visit, and after the training program. Results Both ginsenoside groups showed significant increases in VO2max and muscular strength during exercise training. There were no definite changes in AT and lactic acid levels over time. After exercise training, there were definite differences in the VO2max (28.64.9 to 33.7±4.9 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 30.4±6.7 to 32.8±6.6 ml/kg/min in placebo, p = 0.029) and AT (19.3±4.2 to 20.9±3.5 ml/kg/min in high-dose group vs. 20.0±5.1 to 20.0±4.9 ml/kg/min in placebo, p = 0.038) between the high-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups. However, there was no difference in VO2max between the low-dose ginsenoside and placebo groups (p = 0.254). There were no differences in muscular strength during exercise training among the three groups. Conclusion High-dose ginsenoside supplementation (UG0712) augmented the improvement of aerobic capacity by exercise training.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.03.001
  • New metabolites from the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb1 by
           Paecilomyces bainier sp.229 and activities in inducing osteogenic
           differentiation by Wnt/β-catenin signaling activation

    • Authors: Wei Zhou; Hai Huang; Haiyan Zhu; Pei Zhou; Xunlong Shi
      Pages: 199 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Wei Zhou, Hai Huang, Haiyan Zhu, Pei Zhou, Xunlong Shi
      Background Ginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine that has been widely used in a range of therapeutic and healthcare applications in East Asian countries. Microbial transformation is regarded as an effective and useful technology in modification of nature products for finding new chemical derivatives with potent bioactivities. In this study, three minor derivatives of ginsenoside compound K were isolated and the inducing effects in the Wingless-type MMTV integration site (Wnt) signaling pathway were also investigated. Methods New compounds were purified from scale-up fermentation of ginsenoside Rb1 by Paecilomyces bainier sp. 229 through repeated silica gel column chromatography and high pressure liquid chromatography. Their structures were determined based on spectral data and X-ray diffraction. The inductive activities of these compounds on the Wnt signaling pathway were conducted on MC3T3-E1 cells by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Results The structures of a known 3-keto derivative and two new dehydrogenated metabolites were elucidated. The crystal structure of the 3-keto derivative was reported for the first time and its conformation was compared with that of ginsenoside compound K. The inductive effects of these compounds on osteogenic differentiation by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway were explained for the first time. Conclusion This study may provide a new insight into the metabolic pathway of ginsenoside by microbial transformation. In addition, the results might provide a reasonable explanation for the activity of ginseng in treating osteoporosis and supply good monomer ginsenoside resources for nutraceutical or pharmaceutical development.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.03.004
  • Study on the grading standard of Panax notoginseng seedlings

    • Authors: Lijuan Chen; Ye Yang; Jin Ge; Xiuming Cui; Yin Xiong
      Pages: 208 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lijuan Chen, Ye Yang, Jin Ge, Xiuming Cui, Yin Xiong
      Background The quality differences in seedlings of medicinal herbs often affect the quality of medicinal parts. The establishment of the grading standard of Panax notoginseng seedlings is significant for the stable quality of medicinal parts of P. notoginseng. Methods To establish the grading standard of P. notoginseng seedlings, a total of 36,000 P. notoginseng seedlings were collected from 30 producing areas, of which the fresh weight, root length, root diameter, bud length, bud diameter, and rootlet number were measured. The K-means clustering method was applied to grade seedlings and establish the grading standard. Results The fresh weight and rootlet number of P. notoginseng seedlings were determined as the final indices of grading. P. notoginseng seedlings from different regions of Yunnan could be preliminarily classified into four grades: the special grade, the premium grade, the standard grade, and culled seedlings. Conclusion The grading standard was proven to be reasonable according to the agronomic characters, emergence rate, and photosynthetic efficiency of seedlings after transplantation, and the yields and contents of active constituents of the medicinal parts from different grades of seedlings.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.03.006
  • The skin protective effects of compound K, a metabolite of ginsenoside Rb1
           from Panax ginseng

    • Authors: Eunji Kim; Donghyun Kim; Sulgi Yoo; Yo Han Hong; Sang Yun Han; Seonggu Jeong; Deok Jeong; Jong-Hoon Kim; Jae Youl Cho; Junseong Park
      Pages: 218 - 224
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eunji Kim, Donghyun Kim, Sulgi Yoo, Yo Han Hong, Sang Yun Han, Seonggu Jeong, Deok Jeong, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho, Junseong Park
      Background Compound K (CK) is a ginsenoside, a metabolite of Panax ginseng. There is interest both in increasing skin health and antiaging using natural skin care products. In this study, we explored the possibility of using CK as a cosmetic ingredient. Methods To assess the antiaging effect of CK, RT-PCR was performed, and expression levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1, cyclooxygenase-2, and type I collagen were measured under UVB irradiation conditions. The skin hydrating effect of CK was tested by RT-PCR, and its regulation was explored through immunoblotting. Melanin content, melanin secretion, and tyrosinase activity assays were performed. Results CK treatment reduced the production of matrix metalloproteinase-1 and cyclooxygenase-2 in UVB irradiated NIH3T3 cells and recovered type I collagen expression level. Expression of skin hydrating factors—filaggrin, transglutaminase, and hyaluronic acid synthases-1 and -2—were augmented by CK and were modulated through the inhibitor of κBα, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, or extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. In the melanogenic response, CK did not regulate tyrosinase activity and melanin secretion, but increased melanin content in B16F10 cells was observed. Conclusion Our data showed that CK has antiaging and hydrating effects. We suggest that CK could be used in cosmetic products to protect the skin from UVB rays and increase skin moisture level.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.03.007
  • Ginsenoside Rg5 prevents apoptosis by modulating heme-oxygenase-1/nuclear
           factor E2-related factor 2 signaling and alters the expression of
           cognitive impairment-associated genes in thermal stress-exposed HT22 cells

    • Authors: Seo-Yun Choi; Kui-Jin Kim; Ji-Hyeon Song; Boo-Yong Lee
      Pages: 225 - 228
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Seo-Yun Choi, Kui-Jin Kim, Ji-Hyeon Song, Boo-Yong Lee
      Our results suggested that thermal stress can lead to activation of hippocampal cell damage and reduction of memory-associated molecules in HT22 cells. These findings also provide a part of molecular rationale for the role of ginsenoside Rg5 as a potent cognitive impairment preventive compound in blocking the initiation of hippocampal damage.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.02.002
  • BIOGF1K, a compound K-rich fraction of ginseng, plays an antiinflammatory
           role by targeting an activator protein-1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7
           macrophage-like cells

    • Authors: Eunji Kim; Young-Su Yi; Young-Jin Son; Sang Yun Han; Dong Hyun Kim; Gibaeg Nam; Mohammad Amjad Hossain; Jong-Hoon Kim; Junseong Park; Jae Youl Cho
      Pages: 233 - 237
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 2
      Author(s): Eunji Kim, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Sang Yun Han, Dong Hyun Kim, Gibaeg Nam, Mohammad Amjad Hossain, Jong-Hoon Kim, Junseong Park, Jae Youl Cho

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.001
  • Ginseng and obesity

    • Authors: Zhipeng Li; Geun Eog Ji
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhipeng Li, Geun Eog Ji
      Although ginseng has been shown to have an antiobesity effect, antiobesity-related mechanisms are complex and have not been completely elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated ginseng’s effects on food intake, the digestion, and absorption systems, as well as liver, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle in order to identify the mechanisms involved. A review of previous in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that ginseng and ginsenosides can increase energy expenditure by stimulating the adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase pathway and can reduce energy intake. Moreover, in high fat diet-induced obese and diabetic individuals, ginseng has shown a two-way adjustment effect on adipogenesis. Nevertheless, most of the previous studies into antiobesity effects of ginseng have been animal based, and there is a paucity of evidence supporting the suggestion that ginseng can exert an antiobesity effect in humans.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.005
  • Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola-species
           complex: Causative agent of ginseng root-rot disease and rusty symptoms

    • Authors: Mohamed El-Agamy Farh; Yeon-Ju Kim; Yu-Jin Kim; Deok-Chun Yang
      Pages: 9 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed El-Agamy Farh, Yeon-Ju Kim, Yu-Jin Kim, Deok-Chun Yang
      Cylindrocarpon destructans/Ilyonectria radicicola is thought to cause both rusty symptom and root-rot disease of American and Korean ginseng. Root-rot disease poses a more serious threat to ginseng roots than rusty symptoms, which we argue result from the plant defense response to pathogen attack. Therefore, strains causing rotten root are characterized as more aggressive than strains causing rusty symptoms. In this review, we state 1- the molecular evidence indicating that the root-rot causing strains are genetically distinct considering them as a separate species of Ilyonectria, namely I. mors-panacis and 2- the physiological and biochemical differences between the weakly and highly aggressive species as well as those between rusty and rotten ginseng plants. Eventually, we postulated that rusty symptom occurs on ginseng roots due to incompatible interactions with the weakly aggressive species of Ilyonectria, by the established iron-phenolic compound complexes while root-rot is developed by I. mors-panacis infection due to the production of high quantities of hydrolytic and oxidative fungal enzymes which destroy the plant defensive barriers, in parallel with the pathogen growth stimulation by utilizing the available iron. Furthermore, we highlight future areas for study that will help elucidate the complete mechanism of root-rot disease development.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.01.004
  • High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of phytosterols in Panax
           ginseng root grown under different conditions

    • Authors: Dong Gu Lee; Jaemin Lee; Kyung-Tack Kim; Sang-Won Lee; Young-Ock Kim; Ik-Hyun Cho; Hak-Jae Kim; Chun-Gun Park; Sanghyun Lee
      Pages: 16 - 20
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Dong Gu Lee, Jaemin Lee, Kyung-Tack Kim, Sang-Won Lee, Young-Ock Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hak-Jae Kim, Chun-Gun Park, Sanghyun Lee
      Background The Panax ginseng plant is used as an herbal medicine. Phytosterols of P. ginseng have inhibitory effects on inflammation-related factors in HepG2 cells. Methods Phytosterols (e.g., stigmasterol and β-sitosterol) in the roots of P. ginseng grown under various conditions were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The P. ginseng roots analyzed in this study were collected from three cultivation areas in Korea (i.e., Geumsan, Yeongju, and Jinan) and differed by cultivation year (i.e., 4 years, 5 years, and 6 years) and production process (i.e., straight ginseng, red ginseng, and white ginseng). Results The concentrations of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in P. ginseng roots were 2.22–23.04 mg/g and 7.35–59.09 mg/g, respectively. The highest concentrations of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol were in the roots of 6-year-old P. ginseng cultivated in Jinan (82.14 mg/g and 53.23 mg/g, respectively). Conclusion Six-year-old white ginseng and white ginseng cultivated in Jinan containing stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are potentially a new source of income in agriculture.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.10.004
  • Qualitative and quantitative analysis of furosine in fresh and processed

    • Authors: Yali Li; Xiaoxu Liu; Lulu Meng; Yingping Wang
      Pages: 21 - 26
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yali Li, Xiaoxu Liu, Lulu Meng, Yingping Wang
      Background Furosine (ɛ-N-2-furoylmethyl-L-lysine, FML) is an amino acid derivative, which is considered to be an important indicator of the extent of damage (deteriorating the quality of amino acid and proteins due to a blockage of lysine and a decrease in the digestibility of proteins) during the early stages of the Maillard reaction. In addition, FML has been proven to be harmful because it is closely related to a variety of diseases such as diabetes. The qualitative analysis of FML in fresh and processed ginsengs was confirmed using HPLC-MS. Methods An ion-pair reversed-phase LC method was used for the quantitative analysis of FML in various ginseng samples. Results The contents of FML in the ginseng samples were 3.35–42.28 g/kg protein. The lowest value was observed in the freshly collected ginseng samples, and the highest value was found in the black ginseng concentrate. Heat treatment and honey addition significantly increased the FML content from 3.35 g/kg protein to 42.28 g/kg protein. Conclusion These results indicate that FML is a promising indicator to estimate the heat treatment degree and honey addition level during the manufacture of ginseng products. The FML content is also an important parameter to identity the quality of ginseng products. In addition, the generation and regulation of potentially harmful Maillard reaction products-FML in ginseng processing was also investigated, providing a solid theoretical foundation and valuable reference for safe ginseng processing.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.004
  • Effects of processing method on the pharmacokinetics and tissue
           distribution of orally administered ginseng

    • Authors: Jianbo Chen; Meijia Li; Lixue Chen; Yufang Wang; Shanshan Li; Yuwei Zhang; Lei Zhang; Mingjie Song; Chang Liu; Mei Hua; Yinshi Sun
      Pages: 27 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research, Volume 42, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jianbo Chen, Meijia Li, Lixue Chen, Yufang Wang, Shanshan Li, Yuwei Zhang, Lei Zhang, Mingjie Song, Chang Liu, Mei Hua, Yinshi Sun
      Background The use of different methods for the processing of ginseng can result in alterations in its medicinal properties and efficacy. White ginseng (WG), frozen ginseng (FG), and red ginseng (RG) are produced using different methods. WG, FG, and RG possess different pharmacological properties. Methods WG, FG, and RG extracts and pure ginsenosides were administered to rats to study the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution characteristics of the following ginsenosides—Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd. The concentrations of the ginsenosides in the plasma and tissues were determined using UPLC-MS/MS. Results The rate and extent of absorption of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd appeared to be affected by the different methods used in processing the ginseng samples. The areas under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were significantly higher than those of the pure ginsenosides. In addition, the AUCs of Rg1, Re, Rb1, and Rd were different for WG, FG, and RG. The amounts of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1 were significantly (p <0.05) higher in the tissues than those of the pure ginsenosides. The amounts of Re, Rb1, and Rd from the RG extract were significantly higher than those from the WG and FG extracts in the heart, lungs, and kidneys of the rats. Conclusion Our results show that the use of different methods to process ginseng might affect the pharmacokinetics and oral bioavailability of ginseng as well as the tissue concentrations of Rg1, Re, Rd, and Rb1.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2016.12.008
  • Genotoxicity and subchronic toxicological study of a novel ginsenoside
           derivative 25-OCH3-PPD in beagle dogs

    • Authors: Wei Li; Xiangrong Zhang; Meng Ding; Yanfei Xin; Yaoxian Xuan; Yuqing Zhao
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Wei Li, Xiangrong Zhang, Meng Ding, Yanfei Xin, Yaoxian Xuan, Yuqing Zhao
      Background Ginsenosides have been widely used clinically for many years and were regarded as very safe. However, a few researches on the toxicities of these kinds of agents showed that some ginsenosides may have side effect on the rats or dogs. So it is extremely necessary to further clarify the potential toxicity of ginsenosides. This study was carried out to investigate long-term toxicity and genotoxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD, a new derivative of ginsenoside, in beagle dogs. Methods Twenty-four beagle dogs were divided randomly into four treatment groups and repeatedly orally administered with 25-OCH3- PPD capsule at 60, 120 and 240 mg/kg/day for 91 consecutive days. Ames, micronucleus and chromosomal aberration test were established to analyze the possible genotoxicity of 25-OCH3-PPD. Results There was no 25-OCH3-PPD induced systemic toxicity in beagle dogs at any doses. The level of 25-OCH3-PPD at which no adverse effects was found to be 240 mg/kg/day. The result of Ames test showed that there was no significant increase in the number of revertant colonies of 25-OCH3-PPD administrated groups compared to the vehicle control group. There were also no significant differences between 25-OCH3-PPD administrated groups at all dose levels and negative group in the micronucleus test and chromosomal aberration assay. Conclusion The highest dose level of 25-OCH3-PPD at which no adverse effects was found to be 240 mg/kg per day and it is not a genotoxic agent either in somatic cells or germs cells. 25-OCH3-PPD is an extremely safe candidate compound for antitumor treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.05.005
  • Gintonin-mediated release of astrocytic vascular endothelial growth factor
           protects cortical astrocytes from hypoxia-induced cell damages

    • Authors: Sun-Hye Choi; Hyeon-Joong Kim; Hee-Jung Cho; Sang-Deuk Park; Na-Eun Lee; Sung-Hee Hwang; Hyewon Rhim; Hyoung-Chun Kim; Ik-Hyun Cho; Seung-Yeol Nah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Hee-Jung Cho, Sang-Deuk Park, Na-Eun Lee, Sung-Hee Hwang, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Seung-Yeol Nah
      Background Gintonin is a ginseng-derived exogenous ligand of the G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor. We previously reported that gintonin stimulates gliotransmitter release in primary cortical astrocytes. Astrocytes play key roles in the functions of neurovascular systems. Although vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is known to influence the normal growth and maintenance of cranial blood vessels and the nervous system, there is little information about the effect of gintonin on VEGF regulation in primary astrocytes, under normal and hypoxic conditions. Methods Using primary cortical astrocytes of mice, the effects of gintonin on the release, expression, and distribution of VEGF were examined. We further investigated whether the gintonin-mediated VEGF release protects astrocytes from hypoxia. Results Gintonin administration stimulated the release and expression of VEGF from astrocytes in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The gintonin-mediated increase in the release of VEGF was inhibited by the LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, Ki16425; phospholipase C inhibitor, U73122; inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor antagonist, 2-APB; and intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA. Hypoxia further stimulated astrocytic VEGF release. Gintonin treatment stimulated additional VEGF release and restored cell viability that had decreased due to hypoxia, via the VEGF receptor pathway. Altogether, the regulation of VEGF release and expression, and astrocytic protection mediated by gintonin under hypoxia, are achieved via the LPA receptor-VEGF signaling pathways. Conclusion The present study shows that the gintonin-mediated regulation of VEGF in cortical astrocytes might be neuroprotective against hypoxic insults, and could explain the molecular basis of the beneficial effects of ginseng on the central nervous system.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.05.006
  • Red Ginseng Monograph

    • Authors: Seung-Ho So; Jong Won Lee; Young-Sook Kim; Sun Hee Hyun; Chang-Kyun Han
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Seung-Ho So, Jong Won Lee, Young-Sook Kim, Sun Hee Hyun, Chang-Kyun Han
      Ginseng has been traditionally used for several millennia in Asian countries including Korea, China, and Japan, not only as a nourishing and tonifying agent but also as a therapeutic agent for a variety of diseases. In recent years, the various effects of red ginseng including immunity improvement, fatigue relief, memory improvement, blood circulation improvement, anti-oxidation, mitigation of menopausal women’s symptoms, and anti-cancer have been reported in clinical as well as basic research. Around the world, there is a trend of the rising consumption of health functional foods on the level of disease prevention along with increased interest in maintaining health because of population aging and the awareness of lifestyle diseases and chronic diseases. Red ginseng occupies an important position as a health functional food. But up to now, international ginseng monographs including those of the World Health Organization have been based on data on white ginseng and have mentioned red ginseng only partly. Therefore, the red ginseng monograph is needed for component of red ginseng, functionality certified as a health functional food in Korea Food and Drug Administration, major efficacy, action mechanism and safety. The present red ginseng monograph will contribute to providing accurate information on red ginseng to agencies, businesses, and consumers both in South Korea and abroad.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.05.002
  • The Standardized Korean Red Ginseng Extract and Its Ingredient Ginsenoside
           Rg3 Inhibit Manifestation of Breast Cancer Stem Cell-like Properties
           through Modulation of Self-renewal Signaling

    • Authors: Jisun Oh; Hyo-Jin Yoon; Jeong-Hoon Jang; Do-Hee Kim; Young-Joon Surh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jisun Oh, Hyo-Jin Yoon, Jeong-Hoon Jang, Do-Hee Kim, Young-Joon Surh
      Background The ginsenoside Rg3, one of active components of red ginseng, has chemopreventive and anti-cancer potential. Cancer stem cells (CSCs) retain self-renewal properties which account for cancer recurrence and resistance to anti-cancer therapy. In our present study, we investigated whether Rg3 as well as the standardized Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) could modulate the manifestation of breast cancer stem-like features through regulation of self-renewal activity. Methods The effects of RGE and Rg3 on the proportion of CD44high/CD24low cells, as representative characteristics of stem-like breast cancer cells, were determined by flow cytometry. The mammosphere formation assay was performed to assess self-renewal capacities of breast cancer cells. Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity of MCF-7 mammospheres was measured by the ALDEFLUOR assay. The expression levels of Sox-2, Bmi-1, and P-Akt, as well as the nuclear localization of HIF-1α in MCF-7 mammospheres were verified by immunoblot analysis. Results Both RGE and Rg3 decreased the viability of breast cancer cells and significantly reduced the populations of CD44high/CD24low in MDA-MB-231 cells. RGE and Rg3 treatment attenuated the expression of Sox-2 and Bmi-1 by inhibiting the nuclear localization of HIF-1α in MCF-7 mammospheres. Suppression of the manifestation of breast cancer stem-like properties by Rg3 was mediated through the blockade of Akt-mediated self-renewal signaling. Conclusions This study suggests that Rg3 has a therapeutic potential targeting breast CSCs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.05.004
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 augments oxidative metabolism and anabolic response of
           skeletal muscle in mice

    • Authors: Hyeon-Ju Jeong; Hyun-Kyung So; Ayoung Jo; Hye-Been Kim; Sang-Jin Lee; Gyu-Un Bae; Jong-Sun Kang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Hyun-Kyung So, Ayoung Jo, Hye-Been Kim, Sang-Jin Lee, Gyu-Un Bae, Jong-Sun Kang
      Background The ginsenoside Rg1 has been shown to exert various pharmacological activities with health benefits. Previously, we have reported that Rg1 promoted myogenic differentiation and myotube growth in C2C12 myoblasts. In this study, the in vivo effect of Rg1 on fiber-type composition and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle was examined. Methods To examine the effect of Rg1 on skeletal muscle, 3-month-old mice were treated with Rg1 for 5 weeks. To assess muscle strength, grip strength tests were performed, and the lower hind limb muscles were harvested, followed by various detailed analysis, such as histological staining, immunoblotting, immunostaining, and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In addition, to verify the in vivo data, primary myoblasts isolated from mice were treated with Rg1, and the Rg1 effect on myotube growth was examined by immunoblotting and immunostaining analysis. Results Rg1 treatment increased the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms characteristic for both oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers; increased myofiber sizes were accompanied by enhanced muscle strength. Rg1 treatment also enhanced oxidative muscle metabolism with elevated oxidative phosphorylation proteins. Furthermore, Rg1-treated muscles exhibited increased levels of anabolic S6 kinase signaling. Conclusion Rg1 improves muscle functionality via enhancing muscle gene expression and oxidative muscle metabolism in mice.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.04.005
  • Impact of NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette transporters
           genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside compound K in
           healthy Chinese volunteers

    • Authors: Luping Zhou; Lulu Chen; Yaqin Wang; Jie Huang; Guoping Yang; Zhirong Tan; Yicheng Wang; Jianwei Liao; Gan Zhou; Kai Hu; Zhenyu Li; Dongsheng Ouyang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Luping Zhou, Lulu Chen, Yaqin Wang, Jie Huang, Guoping Yang, Zhirong Tan, Yicheng Wang, Jianwei Liao, Gan Zhou, Kai Hu, Zhenyu Li, Dongsheng Ouyang
      Background Ginsenoside compound K (CK) is a promising drug candidate for rheumatoid arthritis. This study examined the impact of polymorphisms in NR1I2, adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes on the pharmacokinetics of CK in healthy Chinese individuals. Methods Forty-two targeted variants in seven genes were genotyped in 54 participants using Sequenom MassARRAY system to investigate their association with major pharmacokinetic parameters of CK and its metabolite 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD). Subsequently, molecular docking was simulated using the AutoDock Vina program. Results ABCC4 rs1751034 TT and rs1189437 TT were associated with increased exposure of CK and decreased exposure of 20(S)-PPD, whereas CFTR rs4148688 heterozygous carriers had the lowest maximum concentration (Cmax) of CK. The area under the curve from zero to the time of the last quantifiable concentration (AUClast) of CK was decreased in NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 homozygous carriers, while Cmax was significantly reduced only in rs2472682. ABCC4 rs1151471 and CFTR rs2283054 influenced the pharmacokinetics of 20(S)-PPD. In addition, several variations in ABCC2, ABCC4, CFTR, and NR1I2 had minor effects on the pharmacokinetics of CK. Quality of the best homology model of multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) was assessed, and the ligand interaction plot showed the mode of interaction of CK with different MRP4 residues. Conlusion ABCC4 rs1751034 and rs1189437 affected the pharmacokinetics of both CK and 20(S)-PPD. NR1I2 rs1464602 and rs2472682 were only associated with the pharmacokinetics of CK. Thus, these hereditary variances could partly explain the interindividual differences in the pharmacokinetics of CK.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.04.003
  • Ameliorative effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on rheumatic diseases

    • Authors: Young-Su
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Young-Su Yi
      Background Inflammation is a host-defensive innate immune response to protect the body from pathogenic agents and danger signals induced by cellular changes. Although inflammation is a host-defense mechanism, chronic inflammation is considered a major risk factor for the development of a variety of inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatic diseases. Rheumatic diseases are systemic inflammatory and degenerative diseases that primarily affect connective tissues and are characterized by severe chronic inflammation and degeneration of connective tissues. Ginseng and its bioactive ingredients, genocides, have been demonstrated to have antiinflammatory activity and pharmacological effects on various rheumatic diseases by inhibiting the expression and production of inflammatory mediators. Methods Literature in this review was searched in a PubMed site of National Center for Biotechnology Information. Results The studies reporting the preventive and therapeutic effects of ginseng and ginsenosides on the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases were discussed and summarized. Conclusion Ginseng and ginsenosides play an ameliorative role on rheumatic diseases, and this review provides new insights into ginseng and ginsenosides as promising agents to prevent and treat rheumatic diseases.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
  • Ginsenoside compound K inhibits nuclear factor-kappa B by targeting
           Annexin A2

    • Authors: Yu-Shi Wang; Hongyan Zhu; He Li; Yang Li; Bing Zhao; Ying-Hua Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yu-Shi Wang, Hongyan Zhu, He Li, Yang Li, Bing Zhao, Ying-Hua Jin
      Background Ginsenoside compound K(C-K), a major metabolite of ginsenoside, exhibits anticancer activity in various cancer cells and animal models. A cell signaling study has shown that C-K inhibited nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in human astroglial cells and liver cancer cells. However, the molecular targets of C-K and the initiating events were not elucidated. Methods Interaction between C-K and Annexin A2 was determined by molecular docking and thermal shift assay. HepG2 cells were treated with C-K, followed by a luciferase reporter assay for NF-кB, immunofluorescence imaging for the subcellular localization of Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit, coimmunoprecipitation of Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit, and both cell viability assay and plate clone formation assay to determine the cell viability. Results Both molecular docking and thermal shift assay positively confirmed the interaction between Annexin A2 and C-K. This interaction prevented the interaction between Annexin A2 and NF-кB p50 subunit and their nuclear colocalization, which attenuated the activation of NF-кB and the expression of its downstream genes, followed by the activation of caspase 9 and 3. In addition, the overexpression of Annexin A2-K320A, a C-K binding-deficient mutant of Annexin A2, rendered cells to resist C-K treatment, indicating that C-K exerts its cytotoxic activity mainly by targeting Annexin A2. Conclusion This study for the first time revealed a cellular target of C-K and the molecular mechanism for its anticancer activity.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T20:28:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.04.002
  • Evaluation of the gastroprotective effects of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on
           gastric ulcer models in mice

    • Authors: Kai Zhang; Ying Liu; Cuizhu Wang; Jiannan Li; Lingxin Xiong; Zhenzhou Wang; Jinping Liu; Pingya Li
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Kai Zhang, Ying Liu, Cuizhu Wang, Jiannan Li, Lingxin Xiong, Zhenzhou Wang, Jinping Liu, Pingya Li
      Background Gastric ulcer (GU) is a common gastrointestinal disease that can be induced by many factors. Finding an effective treatment method that contains fewer side effects is important. 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 is a kind of protopanaxadiol and has shown superior anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in many studies, especially cancer studies. In this study, we examined the treatment efficacy of 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 on GU. Methods Three kinds of GU models, including an alcohol GU model, a pylorus-ligated GU model, and an acetic acid GU model, were used. Mouse endothelin-1 (ET-1) and nitric oxide (NO) levels in blood and epidermal growth factor (EGF), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and NO levels in gastric mucosa were evaluated. H&E staining of gastric mucosa, immunohistochemical staining of ET-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2), and epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) were studied. Ulcer index (UI) scores and UI ratios were also analyzed to demonstrate the GU conditions in different groups. Furthermore, Glide XP from Schrödinger was employed for molecular docking to clarify the interactions between 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 and EGF, NOS2. Results 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 significantly decreased the UI scores and UI ratios in all three GU models, and it demonstrated anti-ulcer effects by decreasing the ET-1 and NOS2 levels and increasing the NO, SOD, EGF, and EGFR levels. In addition, high dose 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 showed satisfactory gastric mucosa protection effects. Conclusion 20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3 can inhibit the formation of GU and may be a potential therapeutic agent for GU.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.04.001
  • Identification of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol metabolites in human plasma and
           urine using UPLC-Q-TOF

    • Authors: Jin Ling; Yingjia Yu; Jiakun Long; Yan Li; Jiebing Jiang; Liping Wang; Changjiang Xu; Gengli Duan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jin Ling, Yingjia Yu, Jiakun Long, Yan Li, Jiebing Jiang, Liping Wang, Changjiang Xu, Gengli Duan
      Background 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol (PPD), the aglycone part of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol ginsenosides, possesses antidepressant activity among many other pharmacological activities. It is currently undergoing clinical trial in China as an antidepressant. Methods In this study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole time-of-flight mass tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS) method was established to identify the metabolites of PPD in human plasma and urine following oral administration in phase IIa clinical trial. Results A total of 40 metabolites in human plasma and urine were identified using this method. Four metabolites identified were isolated from rat feces, and two of them were analyzed by NMR to elucidate the exact structures. The structures of isolated compounds were confirmed as (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-12,23,25-triol-3-one and (20S,24S)-epoxydammarane-3,12,23,25-tetrol. Both compounds were found as metabolites in human for the first time. By comparing metabolites detected in plasma samples with urine samples, as well as comparing our findings with the findings of in vitro study of PPD metabolism in human liver microsomes and human hepatocytes, metabolite with m/z 475 and phase II metabolites were not found in our study whereas metabolite with m/z 503, 523, and 525 were exclusively detected in our experiments. Conclusion The metabolites identified using UPLC-Q-TOF in our study were mostly hydroxylated metabolites. This indicated that PPD was metabolized in the human body mainly through phase I hepatic metabolism. The main metabolites are in 20,24-oxide form with multiple hydroxylation sites. Moreover, the metabolic pathways of PPD in vivo (human) based on structural analysis were proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.03.005
  • Non-saponin fraction of Korean Red Ginseng attenuates cytokine production
           via inhibition of TLR4 expression

    • Authors: Huijeong Ahn; Byung-Cheol Han; Jeongeun Kim; Seung Goo Kang; Pyeung-Hyeun Kim; Kyoung Hwa Jang; Seung Ho So; Seung-Ho Lee; Geun-Shik Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Huijeong Ahn, Byung-Cheol Han, Jeongeun Kim, Seung Goo Kang, Pyeung-Hyeun Kim, Kyoung Hwa Jang, Seung Ho So, Seung-Ho Lee, Geun-Shik Lee
      Background Ginsenosides of Korean Red Ginseng extracts (RGE) and its saponin components suppress secretion of inflammasome-mediating cytokines while the non-saponin fraction (NS) of RGE oppositely stimulates cytokine secretion. Although direct exposure of NS to macrophages and mice induces cytokine production, oral administration of NS has not been studied in inflammasome-related disease model animals. Methods Mice were fed RGE or NS for 7 days and then developed peritonitis. Peritoneal cytokines were measured and peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) collected in order to assay expression levels of a set of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and cytokines in response to NS ingestion. In addition, the role of intestinal bacteria in NS-fed mice was assessed. The effect of pre-exposure to NS in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) on cytokine production was further confirmed. Results NS ingestion attenuated secretion of peritoneal cytokines resulting from peritonitis. In addition, the isolated PECs from NS-fed mice presented lower TLR transcription levels than PECs from control diet-fed mice. BMDMs treated with NS showed down-regulation of TLR4 mRNA and protein expression, which was mediated by the TLR4-MyD88-NFκB signal pathway. BMDMs pre-treated with NS produced less cytokines in response to TLR4 ligands. Conclusion NS administration directly inhibits TLR4 expression in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, thereby reducing secretion of cytokines during peritonitis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.03.003
  • Endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride isolated from mountain-cultivated
           ginseng (Panax ginseng) has great potential as a biocontrol agent against
           ginseng pathogens

    • Authors: Young-Hwan Park; Ratnesh Chandra Mishra; Sunkyung Yoon; Hoki Kim; Changho Park; Sang-Tae Seo; Hanhong Bae
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Young-Hwan Park, Ratnesh Chandra Mishra, Sunkyung Yoon, Hoki Kim, Changho Park, Sang-Tae Seo, Hanhong Bae
      Background Ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is an invaluable medicinal plant containing various bioactive metabolites (e.g. ginsenosides). Due to its long cultivation period, ginseng is vulnerable to various biotic constraints. Biological control using endophytes is an important alternative to chemical control. Methods In this study, endophytic Trichoderma citrinoviride PG87, isolated from mountain-cultivated ginseng (MCG), was evaluated for biocontrol activity against 6 major ginseng pathogens. T. citrinoviride exhibited antagonistic activity with mycoparasitism against all ginseng pathogens, with high endo-1,4-β-D-glucanase activity. Results T. citrinoviride inoculation significantly reduced the disease symptoms caused by Botrytis cinerea and Cylindrocarpon destructans, and induced ginsenoside biosynthesis in ginseng plants. T. citrinoviride was formulated as dustable powder and as granules. The formulated agents also exhibited significant biocontrol activity, and induced ginsenosides in the controlled environment and mountain area. Conclusion Our results revealed that T. citrinoviride has great potential as a biological control agent, and as an elicitor of ginsenoside production.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.03.002
  • Ginsenoside Rg1 activates ligand-independent estrogenic effects via rapid
           estrogen receptor signaling pathway

    • Authors: Quan-Gui Gao; Li-Ping Zhou; Vien Hoi-Yi Lee; Hoi-Yi Chan; Cornelia Wing-Yin Man; Man-Sau Wong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Quan-Gui Gao, Li-Ping Zhou, Vien Hoi-Yi Lee, Hoi-Yi Chan, Cornelia Wing-Yin Man, Man-Sau Wong
      Background and Aims Ginsenoside Rg1 was shown to exert ligand-independent activation of estrogen receptor (ER) via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-mediated pathway. Our study aimed to delineate the mechanisms by which Rg1 activates the rapid ER signaling pathways. Methods ER positive human breast cancer MCF-7 cells and ER-negative human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells were treated with Rg1 (10-12M, 10-8M), 17ß-estradiol (10-8M) or vehicle. Immunoprecipitation was conducted to investigate the interactions between signaling protein and ER in MCF-7 cells. To determine the roles of these signaling proteins in the actions of Rg1, siRNA or their inhibitors were applied. Results Rg1 rapidly induced ERα translocation to plasma membrane via caveolin-1 and the formation of signaling complex involving Shc, IGF-IR, MNAR, ERα and c-Src in MCF-7 cells. The induction of ERK and MEK phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells by Rg1 was suppressed by co-treatment with siRNA against these signaling proteins. The stimulatory effects of Rg1 on MEK phosphorylation in these cells were suppressed by both PP2 (Src kinase inhibitor) and AG1478 (EGFR inhibitor). In addition, Rg1-induced estrogenic activities, EGFR and MEK phosphorylation in MCF-7 cells were abolished by co-treatment with G15 (G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1 (GPER) antagonist). The increase in intracellular cAMP accumulation, but not Ca mobilization, in MCF-7 cells by Rg1 could be abolished by G15. Conclusions Ginsenoside Rg1 exerted estrogenic actions by rapidly inducing the formation of ER containing signalosome in MCF-7 cells. Additionally, Rg1 could activate EGFR and c-Src ER-independently and exert estrogenic effects via rapid activation of membrane-associated ER and GPER.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.03.004
  • Effect of Korean red ginseng in individuals exposed to high stress levels:
           a 6-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    • Authors: J.H. Baek; J.-Y. Heo; M. Fava; D. Mischoulon; K.W. Choi; E.J. Na; H. Cho; H.J. Jeon
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): J.H. Baek, J.-Y. Heo, M. Fava, D. Mischoulon, K.W. Choi, E.J. Na, H. Cho, H.J. Jeon
      Background To investigate the neurobiological evidence supporting the adaptogenic effects of Korean red ginseng in reducing the harmful consequences of stress using a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Method Sixty-three subjects with high stress levels were randomized to receive an orally administered, double-blind, 6-week treatment with Korean red ginseng (n = 32) or placebo (n = 31). All participants underwent a comprehensive psychological evaluation using Beck Depression Inventory and Stress Response Inventory, cognitive evaluation using the continuous performance test, biological evaluation by measuring blood levels of lipids, catecholamines, inflammation markers, and heart rate variability at baseline and after 6 weeks. Results At baseline, both groups showed no significant differences in age, sex, years of education, Beck Depression Inventory, and Stress Response Inventory. After 6 weeks, triglyceride levels were significantly increased within the normal limit in the Korean red ginseng group (F = 4.11, p = 0.048), and the epinephrine level was decreased in this group (F = 4,35, p = 0.043). The triglyceride increase was significantly associated with epinephrine decrease (B = −0.087, p = 0.041), suggesting that Korean red ginseng may stabilize the sympathetic nervous system. In addition, we detected a significant group by time effect in the visually controlled continuous performance test, suggesting positive effects of Korean red ginseng on cognition. Conclusion Korean red ginseng might help to stabilize the sympathetic nervous system and improve cognition in individuals with high stress.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.03.001
  • Ginsenoside Rg3 suppresses mast cell–mediated allergic inflammation via
           mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway

    • Authors: Ji-Ye Kee; Seung-Heon Hong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Ji-Ye Kee, Seung-Heon Hong
      Background Ginsenoside Rg3 (G-Rg3) is the major bioactive ingredient of Panax ginseng and has many pharmacological effects, including antiadipogenic, antiviral, and anticancer effects. However, the effect of G-Rg3 on mast cell–mediated allergic inflammation has not been investigated. Method The antiallergic effects of G-Rg3 on allergic inflammation were evaluated using the human and rat mast cell lines HMC-1 and RBL-2H3. Antiallergic effects of G-Rg3 were detected by measuring cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), detecting calcium influx, and using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and in vivo experiments. Results G-Rg3 decreased histamine release from activated mast cells by enhancing cAMP levels and calcium influx. Proinflammatory cytokine production was suppressed by G-Rg3 treatment via regulation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases/nuclear factor-kappa B and receptor-interacting protein kinase 2 (RIP2)/caspase-1 signaling pathway in mast cells. Moreover, G-Rg3 protected mice against the IgE-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis reaction and compound 48/80-induced anaphylactic shock. Conclusion G-Rg3 may serve as an alternative therapeutic agent for improving allergic inflammatory disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.008
  • Antimelanogenesis and skin-protective activities of Panax ginseng calyx
           ethanol extract

    • Authors: Jeong-Ook Lee; Eunji Kim; Ji Hye Kim; Yo Han Hong; Han Gyung Kim; Deok Jeong; Juweon Kim; Su Hwan Kim; Chanwoong Park; Dae Bang Seo; Young-Jin Son; Sang Yun Han; Jae Youl Cho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jeong-Ook Lee, Eunji Kim, Ji Hye Kim, Yo Han Hong, Han Gyung Kim, Deok Jeong, Juweon Kim, Su Hwan Kim, Chanwoong Park, Dae Bang Seo, Young-Jin Son, Sang Yun Han, Jae Youl Cho
      Background The antioxidant effects of Panax ginseng have been reported in several articles; however, little is known about the antimelanogenesis effect, skin-protective effect, and cellular mechanism of Panax ginseng, especially of P. ginseng calyx. To understand how an ethanol extract of P. ginseng berry calyx (Pg-C-EE) exerts skin-protective effects, we studied its activities in activated melanocytes and reactive oxygen species (ROS)–induced keratinocytes. Methods To confirm the antimelanogenesis effect of Pg-C-EE, we analyzed melanin synthesis and secretion and messenger RNA and protein expression levels of related genes. Ultraviolet B (UVB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were used to induce cell damage by ROS generation. To examine whether this damage is inhibited by Pg-C-EE, we performed cell viability assays and gene expression and transcriptional activation analyses. Results Pg-C-EE inhibited melanin synthesis and secretion by blocking activator protein 1 regulatory enzymes such as p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein. Pg-C-EE also suppressed ROS generation induced by H2O2 and UVB. Treatment with Pg-C-EE decreased the expression of matrix metalloproteinases, mitogen-activated protein kinases, and hyaluronidases and increased the cell survival rate. Conclusion These results suggest that Pg-C-EE may have antimelanogenesis properties and skin-protective properties through regulation of activator protein 1 and cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element–binding protein signaling. Pg-C-EE may be used as a skin-improving agent, with moisture retention and whitening effects.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.007
  • Panax ginseng (Korea Red Ginseng) repairs diabetic sensorineural damage
           through promotion of the nerve growth factor pathway in diabetic

    • Authors: Youn Hee Nam; Hyo Won Moon; Yeong Ro Lee; Eun Young Kim; Isabel Rodriguez; Seo Yule Jeong; Rodrigo Castañeda; Ji-Ho Park; Se-Young Choung; Bin Na Hong; Tong Ho Kang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Youn Hee Nam, Hyo Won Moon, Yeong Ro Lee, Eun Young Kim, Isabel Rodriguez, Seo Yule Jeong, Rodrigo Castañeda, Ji-Ho Park, Se-Young Choung, Bin Na Hong, Tong Ho Kang
      Background Diabetic sensorineural damage is a complication of the sensory neural system, resulting from long-term hyperglycemia. Red ginseng (RG) has shown efficacy for treatment of various diseases, including diabetes mellitus; however, there is little research about its benefit for treating sensorineural damage. Therefore, we aim to evaluate RG efficacy in alloxan-induced diabetic neuromast (AIDN) zebrafish. Methods In this study, we developed and validated an AIDN zebrafish model. To assess RG effectiveness, we observed morphological changes in live neuromast zebrafish. Also, zebrafish has been observed to have an ultrastructure of hair-cell cilia under scanning electron microscopy. Thus, we recorded these physiological traits to assess hair cell function. Finally, we confirmed that RG promoted neuromast recovery via nerve growth factor signaling pathway markers. Results First, we established an AIDN zebrafish model. Using this model, we showed via live neuromast imaging that RG fostered recovery of sensorineural damage. Damaged hair cell cilia were recovered in AIDN zebrafish. Furthermore, RG rescued damaged hair cell function through cell membrane ion balance. Conclusion Our data suggest that RG potentially facilitates recovery in AIDN zebrafish, and its mechanism seems to be promotion of the nerve growth factor pathway through increased expression of topomyosin receptor kinase A, transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily type 1, and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.006
  • Bioactivity-guided isolation of ginsenosides from Korean red ginseng with
           cytotoxic activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    • Authors: Jae Sik Yu; Hyun-Soo Roh; Kwan-Hyuck Baek; Seul Lee; Sil Kim; Hae Min So; Eunjung Moon; Changhyun Pang; Tae Su Jang; Ki Hyun Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jae Sik Yu, Hyun-Soo Roh, Kwan-Hyuck Baek, Seul Lee, Sil Kim, Hae Min So, Eunjung Moon, Changhyun Pang, Tae Su Jang, Ki Hyun Kim
      Background Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this study, we used a bioactivity-guided isolation technique to identify constituents of Korean red ginseng (KRG) with antiproliferative activity against human lung adenocarcinoma cells. Methods Bioactivity-guided fractionation and preparative/semipreparative HPLC purification were used with LC/MS analysis to separate the bioactive constituents. Cell viability and apoptosis in human lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1264, H1299, and Calu-6) after treatment with KRG extract fractions and constituents thereof were assessed using the water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-1) assay and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining, respectively. Caspase activation was assessed by detecting its surrogate marker, cleaved poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribose) polymerase, using an immunoblot assay. The expression and subcellular localization of apoptosis-inducing factor were assessed using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Results and conclusion Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the KRG extract revealed that its ethyl acetate–soluble fraction exerts significant cytotoxic activity against all human lung cancer cell lines tested by inducing apoptosis. Chemical investigation of the ethyl acetatesoluble fraction led to the isolation of six ginsenosides, including ginsenoside Rb1 (1), ginsenoside Rb2 (2), ginsenoside Rc (3), ginsenoside Rd (4), ginsenoside Rg1 (5), and ginsenoside Rg3 (6). Among the isolated ginsenosides, ginsenoside Rg3 exhibited the most cytotoxic activity against all human lung cancer cell lines examined, with IC50 values ranging from 161.1 μM to 264.6 μM. The cytotoxicity of ginsenoside Rg3 was found to be mediated by induction of apoptosis in a caspase-independent manner. These findings provide experimental evidence for a novel biological activity of ginsenoside Rg3 against human lung cancer cells.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.004
  • Production of ginsenoside aglycone (protopanaxatriol) and male sterility
           of transgenic tobacco co-overexpressing three Panax ginseng genes: PgDDS,
           CYP716A47, and CYP716A53v2

    • Authors: Yu Shin Gwak; Jung Yeon Han; Yong Eui Choi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yu Shin Gwak, Jung Yeon Han, Yong Eui Choi
      Background Protopanaxatriol (PPT) is an aglycone of ginsenosides, which has high medicinal values. Production of PPT from natural ginseng plants requires artificial deglycosylation procedures of ginsenosides via enzymatic or physicochemical treatments. Metabolic engineering could be an efficient technology for production of ginsenoside sapogenin. For PPT biosynthesis in P anax ginseng, damarenediol-II synthase (PgDDS) and two cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP716A47 and CYP716A53v2) are essentially required. Methods Transgenic tobacco co-overexpressing P. ginseng PgDDS, CYP716A47, and CYP716A53v2 was constructed via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Results Expression of the three introduced genes in transgenic tobacco lines was confirmed by Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of liquid chromatography showed three new peaks, dammarenediol-II (DD), protopanaxadiol (PPD), and PPT, in leaves of transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco (line 6) contained 2.8 μg/g dry weight (DW), 7.3 μg/g DW, and 11.6 μg/g DW of PPT, PPD, and DD in leaves, respectively. Production of PPT was achieved via cell suspension culture and was highly affected by auxin treatment. The content of PPT in cell suspension was increased 37.25-fold compared with that of leaves of the transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco was not able to set seeds because of microspore degeneration in anthers. Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed that cells of phloem tissue situated in the center of the anther showed an abnormally condensed nuclei and degenerated mitochondria. Conclusion We successfully achieved the production of PPT in transgenic tobacco. The possible factors deriving male sterility in transgenic tobacco are discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.005
  • Panaxadiol saponins treatment caused the subtle variations in the global
           transcriptional state of Asiatic corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis

    • Authors: Shuangli Liu; Yonghua Xu; Yugang Gao; Yan Zhao; Aihua Zhang; Liansheng Zang; Chunsheng Wu; Lianxue Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Shuangli Liu, Yonghua Xu, Yugang Gao, Yan Zhao, Aihua Zhang, Liansheng Zang, Chunsheng Wu, Lianxue Zhang
      Background The lepidopteran Asiatic corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenee), has caused huge economic losses throughout the Asian-Western Pacific region. Usually, chemical pesticides are used for the control, but excessive use of pesticides has caused great harm. Therefore, the inartificial ecotypic pesticides to ACB are extremely essential. In our previous study, we found that panaxadiol saponins (PDS) can effectively reduce the harm of ACB by causing antifeedant activity. Therefore, it is necessary to reveal the biological molecular changes in ACB and the functionary mechanism of PDS. Methods We analyzed the global transcription of ACB with different PDS concentration treatment (5 mg/mL, 10 mg/mL, and 25 mg/mL) by high-throughput sequencing and de novo transcriptome assembly method. Results PDS treatment could cause the changes of many gene expressions which regulate its signal pathways. The genes in peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) signaling pathway were significantly downregulated, and then, the downstream fatty acid degradation pathway had also been greatly affected. Conclusion Through this experiment, we hypothesized that the occurrence of antifeedant action of ACB is because the PDS brought about the downregulation of FATP and FABP, the key regulators in the PPAR, and the downregulation of FATP and FABP exerts further effects on the expression of SCD-1, ACBP, LPL, SCP-X , and ACO, which leads to the disorder of PPAR signaling pathway and the fatty acid degradation pathway. Not only that, PDS treatment leads to enzyme activity decrease by inhibiting the expression of genes associated with catalytic activity, such as cytochrome P450 and other similar genes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.002
  • Korean ginseng extract ameliorates abnormal immune response through the
           regulation of inflammatory constituents in Sprague-Dawley rat subjected to
           environmental heat stress

    • Authors: Ji-Hyeon Song; Kui-Jin Kim; Seo-Yun Choi; Eun-Jeong Koh; JongDae Park; Boo-Yong Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Ji-Hyeon Song, Kui-Jin Kim, Seo-Yun Choi, Eun-Jeong Koh, JongDae Park, Boo-Yong Lee
      Background Increases in the average global temperature cause heat stress-induced disorders by disrupting homeostasis. Excessive heat stress triggers an imbalance in the immune system; thus protection against heat stress is important to maintain immune homeostasis. Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) has been used as a herbal medicine and displays beneficial biological properties. Methods We investigated the protective effects of Korean ginseng extracts (KGEs) against heat stress in a rat model. Following acclimatization for 1 week, rats were housed at room temperature for 2 weeks and then exposed to heat stress (40°C/2 h/day) for 4 weeks. Rats were treated with three KGEs from the beginning of the second week to the end of the experiment. Results Heat stress dramatically increased secretion of inflammatory factors, and this was significantly reduced in the KGE-treated groups. Levels of inflammatory factors such as heat shock protein 70 (HSP70), interleukin 6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased in the spleen and muscle upon heat stress. KGEs inhibited these increases by down-regulating HSP70 and the associated nuclear factor-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Consequently, KGEs suppressed activation of T-cells and B-cells. Conclusions KGEs suppress the immune response upon heat stress and decrease the production of inflammatory cytokines in muscle and spleen. We suggest that KGEs protect against heat stress by inhibiting inflammation and maintaining immune homeostasis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.003
  • Ginseng extracts modulate mitochondrial bioenergetics of live

    • Authors: Yun Huang; Kenneth Kin Leung Kwan; Ka Wing Leung; Ping Yao; Huaiyou Wang; Tina Tingxia Dong; Karl Wah Keung Tsim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Yun Huang, Kenneth Kin Leung Kwan, Ka Wing Leung, Ping Yao, Huaiyou Wang, Tina Tingxia Dong, Karl Wah Keung Tsim
      Background The root of Panax ginseng, a member of Araliaceae family, has been used as herbal medicine and functional food in Asia for thousands of years. According to Traditional Chinese medicine, ginseng is the most widely used “Qi-invigorating” herbs, which provides tonic and preventive effects by resisting oxidative stress, influencing energy metabolism, and improving mitochondrial function. Very few reports have systematically measured cell mitochondrial bioenergetics after ginseng treatment. Methods Here, H9C2 cell line, a rat cardiomyoblast, was treated with ginseng extracts having extracted using solvents of different polarity, i.e., water, 50% ethanol, and 90% ethanol, and subsequently, the oxygen consumption rate in healthy and tert-butyl hydroperoxide–treated live cultures was determined by Seahorse extracellular flux analyzer. Results The 90% ethanol extracts of ginseng possessed the strongest antioxidative and tonic activities to mitochondrial respiration and therefore provided the best protective effects to H9C2 cardiomyocytes. By increasing the spare respiratory capacity of stressed H9C2 cells up to three-folds of that of healthy cells, the 90% ethanol extracts of ginseng greatly improved the tolerance of myocardial cells to oxidative damage. Conclusion These results demonstrated that the low polarity extracts of ginseng could be the best extract, as compared with others, in regulating the oxygen consumption rate of cultured cardiomyocytes during mitochondrial respiration.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.02.002
  • Whitening efficacy of ginsenoside F1 through inhibition of melanin
           transfer in cocultured human melanocytes–keratinocytes and
           three-dimensional human skin equivalent

    • Authors: Chang-Seok Lee; Gibaeg Nam; Il-Hong Bae; Junseong Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Chang-Seok Lee, Gibaeg Nam, Il-Hong Bae, Junseong Park

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.005
  • Emerging signals modulating potential of ginseng and its active compounds
           focusing on neurodegenerative diseases

    • Authors: Md. Jakaria; Joonsoo Kim; Govindarajan Karthivashan; Shin-Young Park; Palanivel Ganesan; Dong-Kug Choi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Md. Jakaria, Joonsoo Kim, Govindarajan Karthivashan, Shin-Young Park, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
      Common features of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) include progressive dysfunctions and neuronal injuries leading to deterioration in normal brain functions. At present, ginseng is one of the most frequently used natural products. Its use has a long history as a cure for various diseases because its extracts and active compounds exhibit several pharmacological properties against several disorders. However, the pathophysiology of NDDs is not fully clear, but researchers have found that various ion channels and specific signaling pathways might have contributed to the disease pathogenesis. Apart from the different pharmacological potentials, ginseng and its active compounds modulate various ion channels and specific molecular signaling pathways related to the nervous system. Here, we discuss the signal modulating potential of ginseng and its active compounds mainly focusing on those relevant to NDDs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.01.001
  • Multitarget effects of Korean red ginseng in animal model of Parkinson's
           disease: antiapoptosis, antioxidant, antiinflammation, and maintenance of
           blood–brain barrier integrity

    • Authors: Jong Hee Choi; Minhee Jang; Seung-Yeol Nah; Seikwan Oh; Ik-Hyun Cho
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jong Hee Choi, Minhee Jang, Seung-Yeol Nah, Seikwan Oh, Ik-Hyun Cho
      Background Ginsenosides are the main ingredients of Korean red ginseng. They have extensively been studied for their beneficial value in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the multitarget effects of Korean red ginseng extract (KRGE) with various components are unclear. Methods We investigated the multitarget activities of KRGE on neurological dysfunction and neurotoxicity in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)–induced mouse model of PD. KRGE (37.5 mg/kg/day, 75 mg/kg/day, or 150 mg/kg/day, per os (p.o.)) was given daily before or after MPTP intoxication. Results Pretreatment with 150 mg/kg/day KRGE produced the greatest positive effect on motor dysfunction as assessed using rotarod, pole, and nesting tests, and on the survival rate. KRGE displayed a wide therapeutic time window. These effects were related to reductions in the loss of tyrosine hydroxylase–immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons, apoptosis, microglial activation, and activation of inflammatory factors in the substantia nigra pars compacta and/or striatum after MPTP intoxication. In addition, pretreatment with KRGE activated the nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2 pathways and inhibited phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear factor-kappa B signaling pathways, as well as blocked the alteration of blood–brain barrier integrity. Conclusion These results suggest that KRGE may effectively reduce MPTP-induced neurotoxicity with a wide therapeutic time window through multitarget effects including antiapoptosis, antiinflammation, antioxidant, and maintenance of blood–brain barrier integrity. KRGE has potential as a multitarget drug or functional food for safe preventive and therapeutic strategies for PD.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2018.01.002
  • Panax ginseng as an adjuvant treatment for Alzheimer's disease

    • Authors: Hyeon-Joong Kim; Seok-Won Jung; Seog-Young Kim; Ik-Hyun Cho; Hyoung-Chun Kim; Hyewhon Rhim; Manho Kim; Seung-Yeol Nah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Hyeon-Joong Kim, Seok-Won Jung, Seog-Young Kim, Ik-Hyun Cho, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Hyewhon Rhim, Manho Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
      Longevity in medicine can be defined as a long life without mental or physical deficits. This can be prevented by Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current conventional AD treatments only alleviate the symptoms without reversing AD progression. Recent studies demonstrated that Panax ginseng extract improves AD symptoms in patients with AD, and the two main components of ginseng might contribute to AD amelioration. Ginsenosides show various AD-related neuroprotective effects. Gintonin is a newly identified ginseng constituent that contains lysophosphatidic acids and attenuates AD-related brain neuropathies. Ginsenosides decrease amyloid β-protein (Aβ) formation by inhibiting β- and γ-secretase activity or by activating the nonamyloidogenic pathway, inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity and Aβ-induced neurotoxicity, and decrease Aβ-induced production of reactive oxygen species and neuroinflammatory reactions. Oral administration of ginsenosides increases the expression levels of enzymes involved in acetylcholine synthesis in the brain and alleviates Aβ-induced cholinergic deficits in AD models. Similarly, gintonin inhibits Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and activates the nonamyloidogenic pathway to reduce Aβ formation and to increase acetylcholine and choline acetyltransferase expression in the brain through lysophosphatidic acid receptors. Oral administration of gintonin attenuates brain amyloid plaque deposits, boosting hippocampal cholinergic systems and neurogenesis, thereby ameliorating learning and memory impairments. It also improves cognitive functions in patients with AD. Ginsenosides and gintonin attenuate AD-related neuropathology through multiple routes. This review focuses research demonstrating that ginseng constituents could be a candidate as an adjuvant for AD treatment. However, clinical investigations including efficacy and tolerability analyses may be necessary for the clinical acceptance of ginseng components in combination with conventional AD drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:33:02Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.008
  • Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity Assessment in Rats with KGC-HJ3,
           Korean Red Ginseng with Angelica gigas and Deer antlers

    • Authors: Jinsoo Lee; Ji-Seong Jeong; Kyung-Jin Cho; Kyeong-Nang Moon; Sang Yun Kim; Byungcheol Han; Yong-Soon Kim; Eun Ju Jeong; Moon-Koo Chung; Wook-Joon Yu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jinsoo Lee, Ji-Seong Jeong, Kyung-Jin Cho, Kyeong-Nang Moon, Sang Yun Kim, Byungcheol Han, Yong-Soon Kim, Eun Ju Jeong, Moon-Koo Chung, Wook-Joon Yu
      Background Korean red ginseng has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine for a prolonged period and its pharmacological effects have been extensively investigated. In addition, angelica gigas and deer antlers were also used as a tonic medicine with Korean red ginseng as the oriental herbal therapy. Methods This study was conducted to evaluate the potential toxicological effect of KGC-HJ3, Korean red ginseng with angelica gigas and deer antlers, on reproductive and developmental functions including fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development. KGC-HJ3 was administered oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley rats (22 animals per sex per group) at dose levels of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on fertility and early embryonic development. In addition, KGC-HJ3 was also administered oral gavage to mating-proven Sprague-Dawley rats (22 females per group) during the major organogenesis period at dose levels of 0 (control), 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg to evaluate the potential toxicological effect on maternal function and embryo-fetal development. Results and Conclusion No test item-related changes in parameters for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development during the study period. On the basis of these results, KGC-HJ3 did not have toxicological potential on developmental and reproductive functions. Therefore, NOAELs of KGH-HJ3 for fertility, early embryonic development, maternal function and embryo-fetal development is considered to be at least 2000 mg/kg/day.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.004
  • The effect of Korean red ginseng on full thickness skin wound healing in

    • Authors: Ki-Soo Park; Dae-Hwan Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Ki-Soo Park, Dae-Hwan Park
      Background Panax ginseng is regarded as one of the best compounds for promoting health, and it has been used traditionally as a medicinal herb. Recently, Korean red ginseng (RG) has been shown to protect skin from aging and wrinkling; it can also relieve atopic dermatitis and allergy symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate RG’s effects on the regeneration of the full-thickness skin wounds in rat. Methods Full-thickness skin wounds were generated in rats, and then RG was administered either orally or topically. The wound healing effects of RG were investigated by assessing wound size, mRNA expression patterns of genes related to wound healing, histological staining, and measurements of lipid, moisture, and elasticity in skin tissues. Results The wound size was smaller and tissue regeneration rate faster in the RG-treated group versus the control group on days 15 and 20 after initiating treatment. On postoperative day 20, skin lipid and moisture content had increased significantly in the RG-treated group. Significant increases in the gene expression levels of transforming growth factor-β1 and vascular endothelial growth factor were found in the RG group during the early stages of wound healing. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 showed significant increases in gene expression levels on day 20. Conclusion The results suggested that RG may promote healing of full-thickness skin wounds in rats. They also provided basic insights into the effects of RG on skin regeneration, supporting its use as a dressing material for wound treatment and its development as a functional food.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.006
  • Inhibitory effects of thromboxane A2 generation by ginsenoside Ro due to
           attenuation of cytosolic phospholipase A2 phosphorylation and arachidonic
           acid release

    • Authors: Jung-Hae Shin; Hyuk-Woo Kwon; Man Hee Rhee; Hwa-Jin Park
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Jung-Hae Shin, Hyuk-Woo Kwon, Man Hee Rhee, Hwa-Jin Park
      Background Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) induces platelet aggregation and promotes thrombus formation. Although ginsenoside Ro (G-Ro) from Panax ginseng is known to exhibit a Ca2+-antagonistic antiplatelet effect, whether it inhibits Ca2+-dependent cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2α) activity to prevent the release of arachidonic acid (AA), a TXA2 precursor, is unknown. In this study, we attempted to identify the mechanism underlying G-Ro-mediated TXA2 inhibition. Methods We investigated whether G-Ro attenuates TXA2 production and its associated molecules, such as cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), TXA2 synthase (TXAS), cPLA2α, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and AA. To assay COX-1 and TXAS, we used microsomal fraction of platelets. Results G-Ro reduced TXA2 production by inhibiting AA release. It acted by decreasing the phosphorylation of cPLA2α, p38-MAPK, and JNK1, rather than by inhibiting COX-1 and TXAS in thrombin-activated human platelets. Conclusion G-Ro inhibits AA release to attenuate TXA2 production, which may counteract TXA2-associated thrombosis.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.007
  • Micro-/nano-sized Delivery Systems of Ginsenosides for Improved Systemic

    • Authors: Hyeongmin Kim; Jong Hyuk Lee; Jee Eun Kim; Young Su Kim; Choong Ho Ryu; Hong Joo Lee; Hye Min Kim; Hyojin Jeon; Hyo-Joong Won; Ji-Yun Lee; Jaehwi Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Ginseng Research
      Author(s): Hyeongmin Kim, Jong Hyuk Lee, Jee Eun Kim, Young Su Kim, Choong Ho Ryu, Hong Joo Lee, Hye Min Kim, Hyojin Jeon, Hyo-Joong Won, Ji-Yun Lee, Jaehwi Lee
      Ginsenosides, dammarane-type triterpene saponins obtained from Ginseng, have been used as a natural medicine for many years in the Orient due to their various pharmacological activities. However, the therapeutic potential of ginsenosides has been largely limited by the low bioavailability of the natural products caused mainly by low aqueous solubility, poor biomembrane permeability, instability in the gastrointestinal tract, and extensive metabolism in the body. To enhance the bioavailability of ginsenosides, diverse micro-/nano-sized delivery systems such as emulsions, polymeric particles, and vesicular systems have been investigated. The delivery systems improved the bioavailability of ginsenosides by enhancing solubility, permeability, and stability of the natural products. This mini-review aims to provide comprehensive information on the micro-/nano-sized delivery systems for increasing the bioavailability of ginsenosides, which may be helpful for designing better delivery systems to maximize the versatile therapeutic potential of ginsenosides.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T05:31:40Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgr.2017.12.003
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