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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Biotechnology Reports
  [SJR: 0.34]   [H-I: 4]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-017X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • Structural characterization of recombinant streptokinase following
           recovery from inclusion bodies using different chemical solubilization

    • Authors: Khadijeh Babaei Sheli; Masoud Ghorbani; Azadeh Hekmat; Bita Soltanian; Alireza Mohammadian; Reza Jalalirad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Khadijeh Babaei Sheli, Masoud Ghorbani, Azadeh Hekmat, Bita Soltanian, Alireza Mohammadian, Reza Jalalirad
      Circular dichroism (CD) in far-UV region was employed to study the extent of changes occurred in the secondary structures of recombinant streptokinase (rSK), solubilized from inclusion bodies (IBs) by different chemicals and refolded/purified by chromatographic techniques. The secondary structure distribution of rSK, obtained following different chemical solubilization systems, was varied and values in the range of 12.4-14.5% α-helices, 40-51% β-sheets and 35.5-48.3% turns plus residual structures were found. With reducing the concentration of chemicals during IB solubilization, the content of turns plus random coils was diminished and simultaneously the amounts of α- and β-sheets were increased. These changes in the secondary structures would lower the hydrophobicity along with the chance of protein aggregation and expose the hydrophilic regions of the protein. Therefore, these alterations in the secondary structures, occurred following efficient IBs solubilization by low concentration of chemicals, could be related to enhancement in rSK biological potency previously observed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00259
      Issue No: Vol. 19 (2018)
  • Immobilization of catalase onto chitosan and chitosan–bentonite
           complex: A comparative study

    • Authors: Jyoti Kaushal; Seema; Gursharan Singh; Shailendra Kumar Arya
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Jyoti Kaushal, Seema, Gursharan Singh, Shailendra Kumar Arya
      The immobilization of catalase onto chitosan and chitosan–bentonite was investigated and immobilization yield of 95.91 and 95.26 was obtained respectively. The optimum pH and temperature were found as 7.5 and 8.0 at 40 °C for free and immobilized enzyme. The value of Vmax decreased by 33,000–26,300, 24,500 μmol (min mg protein)−1 and Km increased by 12.5–25 and 20 mM for free and immobilized on chitosan and chitosan–bentonite respectively. The thermal stability, half life, FTIR analyses of the beads was also performed in order to characterise the structural differences. The remaining immobilized catalase onto chitosan and chitosan–bentonite activity was 50% and 70% after 20 cycles respectively. The storage stability were found as 22%, 60%, and 70% from its original activity in case of free enzyme and immobilization of chitosan, chitosan–bentonite beads respectively after 60 days.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00258
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • NAP enzyme recruitment in simultaneous bioremediation and nanoparticles

    • Authors: Marwa Eltarahony; Sahar Zaki; Zeinab Kheiralla; Desouky Abd-El-haleem
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Marwa Eltarahony, Sahar Zaki, Zeinab Kheiralla, Desouky Abd-El-haleem
      The periplasmic nitrate reductase enzyme (NAP) has become attractive catalyst, whose exploitation has emerged as one of the indispensable strategies toward environmentally benign applications. To achieve them efficiently and overcome the sensitivity of NAP in harsh environmental circumstances, the immobilization for denitrifying bacteria and NAP enzyme for simultaneous bioremediation and bionanoparticles synthesis was studied. NAP catalyzed NO3 − reduction at Vmax of 0.811 μM/min and Km of 14.02 mM. Concurrently, the immobilized MMT cells completely removed NO3- upon 192 h with AgNPs synthesis ranging from 23.26 to 58.14 nm as indicated by SEM. Wherase, immobilized NAP exhibited lower efficiency with 28.6% of NO3 − elimination within 288 h and large aggregated AgNPs ranging from 94.44 nm to 172.22 nm. To the best of author knowledge, the immobilization for denitrifying bacteria and NAP enzyme for simultaneous bioremediation and bionanoparticles synthesis was not studied before.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00257
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Proteiniphilum saccharofermentans str. M3/6T isolated from a laboratory
           biogas reactor is versatile in polysaccharide and oligopeptide utilization
           as deduced from genome-based metabolic reconstructions

    • Authors: Geizecler Tomazetto; Sarah Hahnke; Daniel Wibberg; Alfred Pühler; Michael Klocke; Andreas Schlüter
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Geizecler Tomazetto, Sarah Hahnke, Daniel Wibberg, Alfred Pühler, Michael Klocke, Andreas Schlüter
      Proteiniphilum saccharofermentans str. M3/6T is a recently described species within the family Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes), which was isolated from a mesophilic laboratory-scale biogas reactor. The genome of the strain was completely sequenced and manually annotated to reconstruct its metabolic potential regarding biomass degradation and fermentation pathways. The P. saccharofermentans str. M3/6T genome consists of a 4,414,963 bp chromosome featuring an average GC-content of 43.63%. Genome analyses revealed that the strain possesses 3396 protein-coding sequences. Among them are 158 genes assigned to the carbohydrate-active-enzyme families as defined by the CAZy database, including 116 genes encoding glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) involved in pectin, arabinogalactan, hemicellulose (arabinan, xylan, mannan, β-glucans), starch, fructan and chitin degradation. The strain also features several transporter genes, some of which are located in polysaccharide utilization loci (PUL). PUL gene products are involved in glycan binding, transport and utilization at the cell surface. In the genome of strain M3/6T, 64 PUL are present and most of them in association with genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes. Accordingly, the strain was predicted to metabolize several sugars yielding carbon dioxide, hydrogen, acetate, formate, propionate and isovalerate as end-products of the fermentation process. Moreover, P. saccharofermentans str. M3/6T encodes extracellular and intracellular proteases and transporters predicted to be involved in protein and oligopeptide degradation. Comparative analyses between P. saccharofermentans str. M3/6T and its closest described relative P. acetatigenes str. DSM 18083T indicate that both strains share a similar metabolism regarding decomposition of complex carbohydrates and fermentation of sugars.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00254
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Biotechnological aspects of plants metabolites in the treatment of ulcer:
           A new prospective

    • Authors: Amit Kishore Singh; Sandeep Kumar Singh; Prem Pratap Singh; Akhileshwar Kumar Srivastava; Kapil D. Pandey; Ajay Kumar; Himanshu Yadav
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Amit Kishore Singh, Sandeep Kumar Singh, Prem Pratap Singh, Akhileshwar Kumar Srivastava, Kapil D. Pandey, Ajay Kumar, Himanshu Yadav
      Ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting throughout the world population. The allopathic treatment of ulcer adversely affects the health by causing harmful side effects. Currently, many herbal plants and secondary metabolites have been used for the ulcer treatment. In the present review, many herbal plants and their parts (root, rhizome, bark, leaves and fruits) have been listed in the table are currently being used for ulcer treatment. These metabolites are responsible for ulcer-neutralization or anti-inflammatory properties. In silico study, plant metabolites showed interaction between protodioscin (secondary metabolites of Asparagus racemosus) and interferon-γ (virulent factor of gastric ulcer) during molecular docking. All the residues of interferon-γ exhibited hydrophobic interactions with plant metabolites. These interactions helps in understanding the plant secondary metabolites vis a vis will open a new door in the research field of new drug discovery and designing for the ulcer treatment.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00256
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • MMISH: Multicolor microRNA in situ hybridization for paraffin embedded

    • Authors: Zhiyong Lei; Alain van Mil; Junjie Xiao; Corina H.G. Metz; Esther C.M. van Eeuwijk; Pieter A. Doevendans; Joost. P.G. Sluijter
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Zhiyong Lei, Alain van Mil, Junjie Xiao, Corina H.G. Metz, Esther C.M. van Eeuwijk, Pieter A. Doevendans, Joost. P.G. Sluijter
      To understand and assess the roles of miRNAs, visualization of the expression patterns of specific miRNAs is needed at the cellular level in a wide variety of different tissue types. Although miRNA in situ hybridization techniques have been greatly improved in recent years, they remain difficult to routinely perform due to the complexity of the procedure. In addition, as it is crucial to define which tissues or cells are expressing a particular miRNA in order to elucidate the biological function of the miRNA, incorporation of additional stainings for different cellular markers is necessary. Here, we describe a robust and flexible multicolor miRNA in situ hybridization (MMISH) technique for paraffin embedded sections. We show that the miRNA in situ protocol is sensitive and highly specific and can successfully be combined with both immunohistochemical and immunofluorescent stainings.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00255
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Proseek single-plex protein assay kit system to detect sAxl and Gas6 in
           serological material of brain tumor patients

    • Authors: Heidi Jaksch-Bogensperger; Anna Hammerschmid; Ludwig Aigner; Eugen Trinka; Renate Gehwolf; Yvonne Ebner; Markus Hutterer; Sebastien Couillard-Despres
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Heidi Jaksch-Bogensperger, Anna Hammerschmid, Ludwig Aigner, Eugen Trinka, Renate Gehwolf, Yvonne Ebner, Markus Hutterer, Sebastien Couillard-Despres
      • The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) Axl and its ligand Gas6 are critically involved in the pathogenesis of high-grade glioma (HGG). Both proteins were found to be overexpressed e.g. in tumor cells, mediating cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor angiogenesis and neuroinflammation. The extracellular domain of Axl (sAxl) and Gas6 were found in the peri-tumoral edema and blood of animals as well as in human glioma tissue. Therefore, we monitored the level of sAxl and Gas6 in human blood samples. To increase the sensitivity of protein detection beyond commonly used standard methods we preliminary tested the innovative Proseek Single-Plex Protein Assay Kit System from Olink Bioscience together with new antibodies against the soluble RTK sAxl and its ligand Gas6. We conclude that the Proseek method is a highly sensitive and fast procedure that can be used as a possible powerful tool compared to routinely used ELISA-methods.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00252
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Expression and characterization of a 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase
           from Serratia sp. ATCC 39006 capable of biotransforming isoeugenol and
           4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin

    • Authors: Jiao Tang; Lei Shi; Lulu Li; Liangkun Long; Shaojun Ding
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Jiao Tang, Lei Shi, Lulu Li, Liangkun Long, Shaojun Ding
      A 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase gene from Serratia sp. ATCC 39,006 (SeNCED) was overexpressed in soluble form in E.coli. SeNCED showed the maximum activity at 30 °C and pH 8.0, and it was stable relatively at range of pH 5–10 and temperature of 20 °C to 30 °C. SeNCED effectively catalyzes the side chain double bond cleavage of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol to vanillin. The kinetic constant Km values toward isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol were 18.92 mM and 6.31 mM and V max values were 50.73 IU/g and 4.77 IU/g, respectively. Moreover, the SeNCED exhibited an excellent organic solvent tolerance and the enzyme activity was substantially improved at presence of 10% of trichloromethane. The produced vanillin was achieved at an around 0.53 g/L (3.47 mM) and 0.33 g/L (2.17 mM) after 8 h reaction at 4 mM of isoeugenol and 4-vinylguaiacol, respectively, using transformed Escherichia coli cells harboring SeNCED in the presence of trichloromethane.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00253
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Investigation of the co-metabolic transformation of 4-chlorostyrene into
           4-chlorophenylacetic acid in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST

    • Authors: Anna Stuhr; Sarah Hofmann; Michael Schlömann; Michel Oelschlägel
      Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 18
      Author(s): Anna Stuhr, Sarah Hofmann, Michael Schlömann, Michel Oelschlägel
      The side-chain oxygenation of styrene is able to yield substituted phenylacetic acids from corresponding styrenes by co-metabolic transformation. This co-metabolization was investigated in Pseudomonas fluorescens ST using 4-chlorostyrene as co-substrate. It was shown that non-substituted styrene is necessary to ensure the co-metabolic process. Furthermore, aspects affecting the co-transformation were studied, e.g. cell density, amount of inducer, pH, effects of co-substrate/co-product. It was demonstrated that 4-chlorophenylacetic acid and 4-chlorostyrene are able to inhibit the reaction. But, these inhibitions are influenced by salt and trace elements. Finally, a protocol was established which considers all findings. Therewith, about 6.7 g L−1 co-product were obtained after 451 h. Compared to previous studies, the co-product concentration was improved by the factor 1.4 while the reaction time was decreased by the factor 18.5. The study offers also aspects for prospective improvements in order to establish an efficient way to gain substituted acids without genetic manipulation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00248
      Issue No: Vol. 18 (2018)
  • Transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly in arecanut, Areca catechu L
           elucidates the secondary metabolite pathway genes

    • Authors: Ramaswamy Manimekalai; Smita Nair; A. Naganeeswaran; Anitha Karun; Suresh Malhotra; V. Hubbali
      Pages: 63 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ramaswamy Manimekalai, Smita Nair, A. Naganeeswaran, Anitha Karun, Suresh Malhotra, V. Hubbali
      Areca catechu L. belongs to the Arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. The palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. The lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. To gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. A total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of 11.343 Gb nucleotides were generated. De novo assembly resulted in 48,783 good quality transcripts, of which 67% of transcripts could be annotated against NCBI non – redundant database. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis with UniProt database identified 9222 biological process, 11268 molecular function and 7574 cellular components GO terms. Large scale expression profiling through Fragments per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (FPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Metabolic pathway analysis of the assembled transcripts identified 124 plant related pathways. The transcripts related to carotenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic pathways had more number of reads and FPKM values suggesting higher expression of these genes. The arecanut transcript sequences generated in the study showed high similarity with coconut, oil palm and date palm sequences retrieved from public domains. We also identified 6853 genic SSR regions in the arecanut. The possible primers were designed for SSR detection and this would simplify the future efforts in genetic characterization of arecanut.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Evaluating the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the anaerobic
           digestibility of pulp and paper biosludge

    • Authors: Sofia Bonilla; Zahra Choolaei; Torsten Meyer; Elizabeth A. Edwards; Alexander F. Yakunin; D. Grant Allen
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Sofia Bonilla, Zahra Choolaei, Torsten Meyer, Elizabeth A. Edwards, Alexander F. Yakunin, D. Grant Allen
      Anaerobic digestion of biosludge has not yet been implemented in pulp mills due to low biogas yields. Enzymatic pretreatment of biosludge has shown improvements in biogas yields but results are varied. A key limitation of previous studies is that they fail to consider the COD contribution from the enzyme solutions. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the potential for enzymatic pretreatment on the anaerobic digestibility of pulp mill biosludge. Out of the six enzymes tested, four enhanced the anaerobic digestibility of biosludge. At the end of the BMP, a maximum improvement of 26% in biogas yield was observed with protease from B. licheniformis. There was no correlation between enzymatic activities on standard substrates and/or on biosludge and the effect of enzymes on biogas yields. Enzymes have potential for improving biosludge anaerobic digestibility but more research on optimal conditions and potential synergies with other pretreatment is needed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Inulin hydrolysis by inulinase immobilized covalently on magnetic
           nanoparticles prepared with wheat gluten hydrolysates

    • Authors: Homa Torabizadeh; Asieh Mahmoudi
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Homa Torabizadeh, Asieh Mahmoudi
      Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry and field emmision scanning electron microscopy were carried out to observe functional and structural variations in free inulinase during immobilization. Optimum temperature of immobilized inulinase was increased, while, pH and Km values were decreased compared to free enzyme. Overall, a 12.3 folds rise was detected in enzyme half-life value after Immobilization at 75 °C and enzyme preserved 70% of its initial activity after 12 cycles of hydrolysis with 75% of enzyme loading.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T23:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Single-use membrane adsorbers for endotoxin removal and purification of
           endogenous polysialic acid from Escherichia coli K1

    • Authors: Ingo de Vries; Sarah Schreiber; Daniel Boßmann; Zawadi Hellmann; Jens Kopatz; Harald Neumann; Sascha Beutel
      Pages: 110 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ingo de Vries, Sarah Schreiber, Daniel Boßmann, Zawadi Hellmann, Jens Kopatz, Harald Neumann, Sascha Beutel
      Polysialic acid (polySia) is a promising molecule for various medical applications (e.g., treatment of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases). In this study a complete production process for human-identical α-(2,8)-linked polySia was developed using a disposable bioreactor for cultivation of Escherichia coli K1 and single-use membrane adsorbers for downstream processing (DSP). The cultivation process was optimized to minimize complex media components and a maturation process after cultivation was established. The maturation led to further product release from the cell surface into the supernatant. Afterwards DSP was established using sodium hydroxide treatment combined with anion exchange membrane adsorbers for endotoxin and DNA depletion. After downstream processing the final product had neither detectable protein nor DNA contamination. Endotoxin content was below 3 EU mg−1. Investigation of the maximal chain length showed no effect of the harsh sodium hydroxide treatment during DSP on the stability of the polySia. Maximal chain length was ∼98 degree of polymerization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Possible bioremediation of arsenic toxicity by isolating indigenous
           bacteria from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India

    • Authors: Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal; Santosh Kumar Mishra; Amrita Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar Ranjan; Krishna Prakash; Rizwanul Haque; Nitish Kumar
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Amrita Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan, Krishna Prakash, Rizwanul Haque, Nitish Kumar
      In middle Gangetic plain, high arsenic concentration is present in water, which causes a significant health risk. Total 48 morphologically distinct arsenite resistant bacteria were isolated from middle Gangetic plain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of arsenite varied widely in the range 1–15 mM of the isolates. On the basis of their MIC, two isolates, AK1 (KY569423) and AK9 (KY569424) were selected. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of selected isolates revealed that they are belong to the genus Pseudomonas. The AgNO3 test based microplate method revealed that isolates, AK1 and AK9, have potential in transformation of arsenic species. Further, the presence of aoxR, aoxB and aoxC genes in the both isolated strain AK1 and AK9 was confirmed, which play an important role in arsenic bioremediation by arsenite oxidation. Isolated strains also showed heavy metal resistance against Cr(IV), Ni(II), Co(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Ag(I) and Cd(II).

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of
           aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

    • Authors: Romana Parveen; Tooba Naz Shamsi; Gurjeet Singh; Teeba Athar; Sadaf Fatima
      Pages: 126 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Gurjeet Singh, Teeba Athar, Sadaf Fatima
      Triphala, an Indian ayurvedic triherbal formulation, is an equiproportional mixture of fruits of three herbs, amalaki (Emblica officinalis), haritaki (Terminalia chebula) and bibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica). The present study focused on phytocompounds detection and comparative analysis of various biochemical activities in the aqueous and methanolic extracts of triphala and its constituting herbs. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase assay. Antibacterial potential was determined by broth dilution and agar well diffusion assays. Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the ethanol tolerance for wild and mutant Synechocystis
           strains by flow cytometry

    • Authors: Teresa Lopes da Silva; Paula C. Passarinho; Ricardo Galriça; Afonso Zenóglio; Patricia Armshaw; J. Tony Pembroke; Con Sheahan; Alberto Reis; Francisco Gírio
      Pages: 137 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Teresa Lopes da Silva, Paula C. Passarinho, Ricardo Galriça, Afonso Zenóglio, Patricia Armshaw, J. Tony Pembroke, Con Sheahan, Alberto Reis, Francisco Gírio
      Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effect of initial ethanol concentrations on cyanobacterial strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 [wild-type (WT), and ethanol producing recombinants (UL 004 and UL 030)] in batch cultures. Ethanol recombinants, containing one or two metabolically engineered cassettes, were designed towards the development of an economically competitive process for the direct production of bioethanol from microalgae through an exclusive autotrophic route. It can be concluded that the recombinant Synechocystis UL 030 containing two copies of the genes per genome was the most tolerant to ethanol. Nevertheless, to implement a production process using recombinant strains, the bioethanol produced will be required to be continuously extracted from the culture media via a membrane-based technological process for example to prevent detrimental effects on the biomass. The results presented here are of significance in defining the maximum threshold for bulk ethanol concentration in production media.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Expression of soluble native protein in Escherichia coli using a
           cold-shock SUMO tag-fused expression vector

    • Authors: Jianghui Li; Qinxia Han; Tao Zhang; Jing Du; Qianqian Sun; Yilin Pang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Jianghui Li, Qinxia Han, Tao Zhang, Jing Du, Qianqian Sun, Yilin Pang
      At present, approximately 30 % of eukaryotic proteins can be expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli. In this study, a pCold-SUMOa plasmid was constructed in order to express heterologous proteins fused with SUMO by a cold-shock expression vector. The human cysteine desulfurase NFS1 and a chimeric cysteine desulfurase namely, EH-IscS were successfully expressed in E. coli. The proteins were particularly difficult to be produced functionally, due to their readily sequestered nature. The recombinant cysteine desulfurases that were generated by pCold-SUMOa exhibited higher activity, solubility and stability compared with the well-known plasmid pCold I. In contrast to the pCold TF plasmid, the SUMO tag conferred no biological activity with regard to the conformation of the cysteine desulfurases. Furthermore, the SUMO protease 1 can efficiently recognize the tertiary structure of SUMO and cleave it. The data indicate that the pCold-SUMOa vector is a promising tool for native eukaryotic protein production.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00261
  • Immobilization and stabilization of alcohol dehydrogenase on polyvinyl
           alcohol fibre

    • Authors: Priydarshani Shinde; Mustafa Musameh; Yuan Gao; Andrea Robinson; Ilias (Louis) Kyratzis
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Priydarshani Shinde, Mustafa Musameh, Yuan Gao, Andrea Robinson, Ilias (Louis) Kyratzis
      A polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) fibrous carrier has been chemically modified for the immobilization of yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) with an aim to increase its stability over a wide pH range, prolong its activity upon storage, and enhance its reusability. The strategy for immobilization involved functionalization of the fibrous carrier with chloropropinoyl chloride followed by amination with ethylenediamine. Tethering of the ADH enzyme to the PVA scaffold was achieved with glutaraldehyde. The activity profile of the immobilized enzyme was compared to soluble enzyme as a function of pH, temperature and reusability. The immobilization of ADH on PVA fibrous carrier shifted the optimal reaction pH from 7 to 9, and improved the thermostability at 60 °C. Furthermore, the immobilized enzyme retained 60 % of its original activity after eight cycles of reuse. These results demonstrate that PVA textile can serve as a flexible, reusable carrier for enzyme immobilization.

      PubDate: 2018-05-31T12:12:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00260
  • Isolation, characterization and antibacterial effect of biosurfactant from
           Candida parapsilosis

    • Authors: Mayank Garg; Priyanka; Mary Chatterjee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Mayank Garg, Priyanka, Mary Chatterjee
      In the present study, a biosurfactant producing Candida parapsilosis strain was isolated and identified by our laboratory. Different biosurfactant screening tests such as drop collapse, oil spreading, emulsification index and hemolytic activity confirmed the production of biosurfactant by the isolated Candida parapsilosis strain. The biosurfactant showed significant emulsifying index, drop collapse and oil-spread activity. The partially purified biosurfactant was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS). The FT-IR results indicated phenol (OH), amide (NH) and carbon functional group peaks like CO and CC at their identified places. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of 13-docosenamide type of compound with a molecular weight of 337.5 g mol-1. The isolated biosurfactant showed significant antibacterial activity against pathogenic Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus strains at the concentrations of 10 and 5 mg ml-1 respectively. Growth inhibition of both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic strains designated the future prospect of exploring the isolated biosurfactant as broad spectrum antibacterial agent.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00251
  • In vitro synthesis of phospholipids with yeast phospholipase B, a
           phospholipid deacylating enzyme

    • Authors: Yasuo Watanabe; Itsuki Kobayashi; Takanori Ohnaka; Seiya Watanabe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Yasuo Watanabe, Itsuki Kobayashi, Takanori Ohnaka, Seiya Watanabe
      The gene encoding the Saccharomyces cerevisiae phospholipid deacylation enzyme, phospholipase B (ScPLB1), was successfully expressed in E. coli. The enzyme (Scplb1p) was engineered to have a histidine-tag at the C-terminal end and was purified by metal (Ni) affinity chromatography. Enzymatic properties, optimal pH, and substrate specificity were similar to those reported previously. For example, deacylation activity was observed in acidic pH in the absence of Ca2+ and was additive in neutral pH in the presence of Ca2+, and the enzyme had the same substrate priority as reported previously, with the exception of PE, suggesting that yeast phospholipase B could be produced in its native structure in bacterial cells. Scplb1p retained transacylation activity in aqueous medium, and esterified lysophosphatidylcholine with free fatty acid to form phosphatidylcholine in a non-aqueous, glycerin medium. We propose that phospholipase B could serve as an additional tool for in vitro enzyme-mediated phospholipid synthesis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00250
  • Solubilization and renaturation of biologically active human bone
           morphogenetic protein-4 from inclusion bodies

    • Authors: Gesa-Maria Gieseler; Kimia Ekramzadeh; Volker Nölle; Svitlana Malysheva; Henning Kempf; Sascha Beutel; Robert Zweigerdt; Ulrich Martin; Ursula Rinas; Thomas Scheper; Iliyana Pepelanova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Gesa-Maria Gieseler, Kimia Ekramzadeh, Volker Nölle, Svitlana Malysheva, Henning Kempf, Sascha Beutel, Robert Zweigerdt, Ulrich Martin, Ursula Rinas, Thomas Scheper, Iliyana Pepelanova
      Biologically active human bone morphogenetic protein-4 (hBMP-4) was successfully produced in a prokaryotic host. For this aim, hBMP-4 cDNA was cloned in Escherichia coli (E. coli) and the protein was produced in a non-active aggregated form. After washing and solubilization, in vitro refolding of the rhBMP-4 monomer was performed using rapid dilution. In this study, different refolding conditions were tested for the dimerization of rhBMP-4 by one-factor-at-a-time variation. The dimerization process was found to be sensitive to pH, protein concentration and the presence of aggregation suppressors. In contrast, redox conditions and ionic strength did not impact refolding as expected. The dimer was separated from the remaining monomer, aggregates and host cell contaminants in a single step using cation-exchange membrane chromatography. The rhBMP-4 dimer produced in E. coli was biologically active as demonstrated by its capability to induce trophoblast differentiation and primitive streak induction of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs).

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T14:42:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00249
  • Synthesis and investigations on tellurium myconanoparticles

    • Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud; Ola E.A. Al-Hagar; Eman S. Abdelkhalek; N.M. Sidkey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Ola E.A. Al-Hagar, Eman S. Abdelkhalek, N.M. Sidkey
      Tellurium has attracted the attention of many researchers and manufacturers due to its unique properties. Through the current work, six fungal isolates have been screened for their ability to reduce potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) into elemental tellurium nanoparticles (TeNPs). The most promising fungal isolate was identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae and given the accession number (KY766958) based on molecular basis and has been used for biogenic (enzymatic) production of TeNPs. The produced TeNPs have been characterized using DLS, TEM and FTIR. Data showed that, the particle size is 60.80 d.nm with oval to spherical shape. The produced TeNPs have been evaluated for antimicrobial activity at 25 mg/ml. Data revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Evaluation of the effect of γ-irradiation on TeNPs production showed that, the productivity was improved at 1 kGy and suppressed gradually at higher doses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T11:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00247
  • Synthesis of Designer Triglycerides by Enzymatic Acidolysis

    • Authors: Monali R. Kavadia; Manish G. Yadav; Annamma A. Odaneth; Arvind M. Lali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Monali R. Kavadia, Manish G. Yadav, Annamma A. Odaneth, Arvind M. Lali
      Enzymatic acidolysis process was developed for modification of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) by incorporation of caprylic acid, a medium chain fatty acid. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase PyLip was used to modify FHSO to produce a new fat with improved physico-chemical and functional properties. PyLip mediated acidolysis resulted in 88% reduction of substrate triglycerides and 45.16% incorporation of caprylic acid in FHSO at molar ratio of 1:3 of FHSO and caprylic acid in 60 min reaction time. HPLC analysis revealed formation of mono-substituted and di-substituted TAGs post enzymatic acidolysis. Physical properties of synthesized lipid were studied using DSC and XRD and considerable change was observed in the final product compared to the starting material. The present study reports a faster acidolysis process in the presence of solvent enhancing the modification of FHSO with caprylic acid and having no side products formation (monoglycerides and diglycerides) making the entire process highly efficient and commercially attaractive.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T11:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00246
  • Co-fermentation of the main sugar types from a beechwood organosolv
           hydrolysate by several strains of Bacillus coagulans results in effective
           lactic acid production

    • Authors: Robert Glaser; Joachim Venus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Robert Glaser, Joachim Venus
      Bacillus coagulans is an interesting facultative anaerobic microorganism for biotechnological production of lactic acid that arouses interest. To determine the efficiency of biotechnological production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysates, five Bacillus coagulans strains were grown in lignocellulose organosolv hydrolysate from ethanol/water-pulped beechwood. Parameter estimation based on a Monod-type model was used to derive the basic key parameters for a performance evaluation of the batch process. Three of the Bacillus coagulans strains, including DSM No. 2314, were able to produce lactate, primarily via uptake of glucose and xylose. Two other strains were identified as having the ability of utilizing cellobiose to a high degree, but they also had a lower affinity to xylose. The lactate yield concentration varied from 79.4 ± 2.1 g/L to 93.7 ± 1.4 g/L (85.4 ± 4.7 % of consumed carbohydrates) from the diluted organosolv hydrolysate.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T05:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00245
  • Effect of polysaccharide admixtures on expression of multiple
           polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Microbulbifer strain CMC-5

    • Authors: RaviChand Jonnadula; Md Imran; Preethi B. Poduval; Sanjeev C. Ghadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): RaviChand Jonnadula, Md Imran, Preethi B. Poduval, Sanjeev C. Ghadi
      Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 produces agarase, alginate lyase, xylanase, carboxymethyl cellulase and carrageenase. The extracellular production of the above carbohydrases was investigated by growing Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 in a sea water based medium containing homologous/heterologous polysaccharides as a single substrate or as a combination of mixed assorted substrate. Presence of singular homologous polysaccharides in the growth medium induces respective carbohydrase at high levels. Any two polysaccharides in various combinations produced high level of homologous carbohydrase and low level of other heterologous carbohydrase. All five carbohydrases were consistently produced by strain CMC-5, when carboxymethyl cellulose was included as one of the substrate in dual substrate combination, or in presence of mix blends of all five polysaccharides. Interestingly, thalli of Gracilaria sp. that contain agar and cellulose predominantly in their cell wall induces only agarase expression in strain CMC-5.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.008
  • Improvement of Aspergillus flavus saponin hydrolase thermal stability and
           productivity via immobilization on a novel carrier based on sugarcane

    • Authors: Hala A. Amin; Francesco Secundo; Hassan Amer; Faten M. Ahmed; Wafaa A. Helmy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Hala A. Amin, Francesco Secundo, Hassan Amer, Faten M. Ahmed, Wafaa A. Helmy
      Soyasapogenol B (SB) is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH) extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46.5 and 37.1% of the loaded enzyme activity, respectively). Under optimized immobilization conditions, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SBC recovered 87.7 and 83.3% of its original activity, respectively. Compared to free SH, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SCB showed higher optimum pH, activation energy, half-lives and lower deactivation constant rate. Also, their SB productivities were improved by 2.3- and 2.2-folds compared to free SH (87.7 and 83.3 vs. 37.5%, respectively). Hence, being SCB more sustainable and an inexpensive material, it can be considered a good alternative to Eupergit C as a support for SH immobilization. SH immobilization on industrially applicable and inexpensive carrier is necessary to improve SB yield and reduce its production cost. The chemical structure of SCB and the resulting cellulose derivatives were studied by ATR-IR spectroscopy. The thermal analysis technique was used to study the chemical treatment of SCB and coupling with the enzyme. This technique confirmed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose by chemical treatment of SCB.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T10:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.007
  • Synthesis and biomedical applications of Cerium oxide nanoparticles
           – A Review

    • Authors: S. Rajeshkumar; Poonam Naik
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): S. Rajeshkumar, Poonam Naik
      A cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) has a wide range of applications in different fields, especially biomedical division. As a matter of concern, it has a major impact on the human health and environment. The aim of this review is to address the different ways of synthesis of nanoceria using chemical and green synthesis methods and characterization and the applications of nanoceria for antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities and toxicological studies including the most recent studies carried out in vivo and in vitro to study the problems. We have exclusively discussed on the toxicology of nanoceria exposed to the general public along with recent advances in the studies of antimicrobial, toxicity and anti-oxidant activity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Complete genome sequence of N2-fixing model strain Klebsiella sp. nov.
           M5al, which produces plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and siderophores

    • Authors: Zhili Yu; Shuying Li; Yuanyuan Li; Zhuang Jiang; Jinru Zhou; Qianli An
      Pages: 6 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Zhili Yu, Shuying Li, Yuanyuan Li, Zhuang Jiang, Jinru Zhou, Qianli An
      The bacterial strain M5al is a model strain for studying the molecular genetics of N2-fixation and molecular engineering of microbial production of platform chemicals 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain M5al, which belongs to a novel species closely related to Klebsiella michiganensis. M5al secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and colonizes rice roots but does not cause soft rot disease. M5al also produces siderophores and contains the gene clusters for synthesis and transport of yersiniabactin which is a critical virulence factor for Klebsiella pathogens in causing human disease. We propose that the model strain M5al can be genetically modified to study bacterial N2-fixation in association with non-legume plants and production of 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol through degradation of plant cell wall biomass.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Transient expression of CCL21as recombinant protein in tomato

    • Authors: Maria Beihaghi; Hasan Marashi; Abdolreza Bagheri; Mojtaba Sankian
      Pages: 10 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Maria Beihaghi, Hasan Marashi, Abdolreza Bagheri, Mojtaba Sankian
      The main goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of expressing recombinant protein of C-C chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) in Solanum lycopersicum via agroinfiltration. CCL21 is a chemokine can be used for anti-metastatic of cancer cell lines. To examine the expression of CCL21 protein in S. lycopersicum, the construct of ccl21 was synthesized. This construct was cloned into pBI121 and the resulting CCL21 plasmid was agro-infiltrated into S. lycopersicum leaves. Within three days after infiltration, Expression of the foreign gene was confirmed by quantitative Real-time PCR. A recombinant CCL21 protein was immunogenically detected by western blot, dot blot and ELISA assay. And results showed that the foreign gene was expressed in the transformed leaves in high level. Also scratch assay was used to investigate the role of this protein in anti-metastatic function. The results demonstrated anti-metastatic of cancer cells in the presence of this protein.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Characterization of Scenedesmus obtusiusculus AT-UAM for high-energy
           molecules accumulation: deeper insight into biotechnological potential of
           strains of the same species

    • Authors: Alma Toledo-Cervantes; Gloria Garduño Solórzano; Jorge E. Campos; Martha Martínez-García; Marcia Morales
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Gloria Garduño Solórzano, Jorge E. Campos, Martha Martínez-García, Marcia Morales
      Scenedesmus obtusiusculus AT-UAM, isolated from Cuatro Ciénegas wetlands in Mexico was taxonomically, molecularly and biochemically compared to S. obtusiusculus CCAP 276/25 (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scotland, UK). Analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures confirmed that the mexican strain belongs to S. obtusiusculus with one change in the ITS2 nucleotide sequence. However, both strains exhibited different biochemical and fatty acid profiles and therefore biotechnological potential, emphasizing the need for deeper studies among strains of the same species. Furthermore, the biochemical variations of S. obtusiusculus AT-UAM under nitrogen starvation and different levels of irradiance were evaluated. The maximum lipid production (1730 mg L−1) was obtained at 613 μmol m−2 s−1 while the highest carbohydrate content (49%) was achieved at 896 μmol m−2 s−1. Additionally, this strain was capable of storing lipids (∼52%) and carbohydrates (∼40%) under outdoor condition depending on the light availability in the cultivation broth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Effect of the Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its main
           constituents, citral and limonene, on the tracheal smooth muscle of rats

    • Authors: Poliana M.M. Carvalho; Cícero A.F. Macêdo; Tiago F. Ribeiro; Andressa A. Silva; Renata E.R. Da Silva; Luís P. de Morais; Marta R. Kerntopf; Irwin R.A. Menezes; Roseli Barbosa
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Poliana M.M. Carvalho, Cícero A.F. Macêdo, Tiago F. Ribeiro, Andressa A. Silva, Renata E.R. Da Silva, Luís P. de Morais, Marta R. Kerntopf, Irwin R.A. Menezes, Roseli Barbosa
      The Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) species, has effects sedative, analgesic and spasmolytic properties. This study had as its main objective to evaluate the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) effect and that of its main constituents, citral and limonene, over tracheal smooth muscle from Wistar rats. EOLa, citral and limonene promoted relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle in contractions induced by potassium (60 mM K+), presenting an EC50 of 148 ± 7 μg/mL for the EOLa, 136 ± 7 μg/mL for citral and 581 ± 7 μg/mL for limonene. In contractions induced by Acetylcholine (Ach; 10 μM) the EC50 for the EOLa and citral were of 731 ± 5 μg/mL and 795 ± 9 μg/mL, respectively. In preparations pre-incubated with 1000 μg/mL of the EOLa and citral, both agents were found to block the influx of BaCl2 by VOCCs. This study demonstrated that the EOLa and its main component citral present antispasmodic effect over tracheal smooth muscle of rats.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Smoke produced from plants waste material elicits growth of wheat
           (Triticum aestivum L.) by improving morphological, physiological and
           biochemical activity

    • Authors: Muhammad Iqbal; Saira Asif; Noshin Ilyas; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan; Naveed Iqbal Raja; Mubashir Hussain; Muhammad Ejaz; Hafiza Saira
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Muhammad Iqbal, Saira Asif, Noshin Ilyas, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Mubashir Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz, Hafiza Saira
      The experimental work presented in this study was carried out with the hypothesis that plant derived smoke enhanced the morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes of a cereal crop, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis that plant derived smoke acts as vegetative growth promoter, inexpensive, rapid and most appropriate eco-friendly bio-fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Plant derived smoke was generated by burning of plant material (leaf, straws etc) in a specially designed furnace, and seeds were treated with this smoke for different time duration. Four level of plant derived smoke (1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h) along with control were tested on four wheat cultivars in CRD repeated pot experiment. The smoke-related treatments modified number of morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat. Compared with the control, aerosol smoke treatment of the seeds significantly improved root length (2.6%), shoot length (7.7%), RFW (0.04%), SFW (0.7%), SDW (0.1%) and leaf area (63.9%). All the smoke-related treatments significantly promoted RWC (17.3%), water potential (1.5%), osmotic potential (1.4%) and MSI (14.6%) whereas a pronounced increase in chlorophyll a (24.9%), chlorophyll b (21.7%) and total chlorophyll contents (15.5%) were recorded in response to aerosol-smoke treatments. Plant derived smoke exposure applied for short time i.e. 1 h & 2 h induced significant results as compared to prolonged PDS exposure (3 h and 4 h). The best results were observed in Pak-13 and Glaxy-13 wheat cultivars. These findings indicated that the plant-derived smoke treatment has a great potential to improve morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat crop.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Isolation and characterization of two crude oil-degrading fungi strains
           from Rumaila oil field, Iraq

    • Authors: Adnan B. Al-Hawash; Jawadayn T. Alkooranee; Hayder A. Abbood; Jialong Zhang; Jin Sun; Xiaoyu Zhang; Fuying Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Adnan B. Al-Hawash, Jawadayn T. Alkooranee, Hayder A. Abbood, Jialong Zhang, Jin Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
      Among four crude oil-degrading fungi strains that were isolated from a petroleum-polluted area in the Rumaila oil field, two fungi strains showed high activity in aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation. ITS sequencing and analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics identified these strains as Penicillium sp. RMA1 and RMA2. Gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C showed that RMA1 and RMA2 degraded the crude oil by 57% and 55%, respectively. These strains reduced surface tension when cultured on crude oil (1% v/v) and exhibited a cell surface hydrophobicity of more than 70%. These results suggested that RMA1 and RMA2 performed effective crude oil-degrading activity and crude oil emulsification. In conclusion, these fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:02:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.006
  • Characterization of a Lactococcus lactis promoter for heterologous protein

    • Authors: Christian E. Ogaugwu; Qiuying Cheng; Annabeth Fieck; Ivy Hurwitz; Ravi Durvasula
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Christian E. Ogaugwu, Qiuying Cheng, Annabeth Fieck, Ivy Hurwitz, Ravi Durvasula
      Constitutively active promoter elements for heterologous protein production in Lactococcus lactis are scarce. Here, the promoter of the PTS-IIC gene cluster from L. lactis NZ3900 is described. This promoter was cloned upstream of an enhanced green fluorescent protein, GFPmut3a, and transformed into L. lactis. Transformants produced up to 13.5 μg of GFPmut3a per milliliter of log phase cells. Addition of cellobiose further increased the production of GFPmut3a by up to two-fold when compared to glucose. Analysis of mutations at two specific positions in the PTS-IIC promoter showed that a ‘T’ to ‘G’ mutation within the −35 element resulted in constitutive expression in glucose, while a ‘C’ at nucleotide 7 in the putative cre site enhanced promoter activity in cellobiose. Finally, this PTS-IIC promoter is capable of mediating protein expression in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, suggesting the potential for future biotechnological applications of this element and its derivatives.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:02:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.010
  • Cancer cell lines involving cancer stem cell populations respond to
           oxidative stress

    • Authors: Yilmazer
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Açelya Yilmazer
      Cancer cells may be more prone to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells; therefore increased oxidative stress can specifically kill cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). In order to generate oxidative stress in various cancer cell lines including A549, G361 and MCF-7, cultured cells were exposed to H2O2. Incubation of cancer cells with H2O2 results in concentration-dependent cell death in A549 and G361-7 cells, whereas MCF-7 cells showed higher sensitivity even at a lower H2O2 concentration. H2O2 treatment decreased the number of cells in G2/M phase and increased the number of apoptotic cells. Both CD24 negative/CD44 positive cells and CD146 positive cells were found to be present in all tested cancer cell lines, indicating that CSC populations may play role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. This study showed that inducing oxidative stress through ROS can offer a promising approach for anti-cancer therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
  • Time-course and degradation rate of membrane scaffold protein (MSP1D1)
           during recombinant production

    • Authors: Ramona Faas; Dirk Kiefer; Laura Job; Annelie Pohle; Karin Moß; Marius Henkel; Rudolf Hausmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Ramona Faas, Dirk Kiefer, Laura Job, Annelie Pohle, Karin Moß, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann
      Membrane scaffold proteins (MSPs) are synthetic derivatives of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of human high-density lipoprotein complexes. The most common among these is the variant MSP1D1, which has been in the focus of research on membrane mimetics in the past. As such, the amphipathic MSP1D1 has the ability to self-assemble in the presence of synthetic phospholipids into discoidal nanoparticles, so called nanodiscs. The recombinant production of MSP is exclusively reported using a standard laboratory expression system of the pET family. However, strong variations in both yield and achieved concentration as well as complications related to unspecific degradation are commonly reported. In addition, the time-course of recombinant protein as well as specific protein yields have not yet been quantified conclusively. In this study, the time-course of MSP1D1 concentration was investigated in a standard pET expression system in terms of quantification of production and degradation rates in comparison to a reference protein (eGFP).

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.003
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger
           phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as

    • Authors: Alberto A. Neira-Vielma; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Anna Ilyina; Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel; María das Graça Carneiro-da-Cunha; Georgina Michelena-Álvarez; José L. Martínez-Hernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Alberto A. Neira-Vielma, Cristóbal N. Aguilar, Anna Ilyina, Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel, María das Graça Carneiro-da-Cunha, Georgina Michelena-Álvarez, José L. Martínez-Hernández
      In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa) and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a Km value of 220 μM and Vmax of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50%) by Ca++ and was slightly inhibited (10%) by Ni++, K+, and Na+, at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg++, Mn++, Cu++, Cd++ and Ba++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.004
  • Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion − viable alternative options for
           terrestrial weed management − a review

    • Authors: Biswanath Saha; Chaichi Devi; Meena Khwairakpam; Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Biswanath Saha, Chaichi Devi, Meena Khwairakpam, Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantena camara, Sacharam spontaenium, Azaratum conyzoides this are the weeds spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.005
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