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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Biotechnology Reports
  [SJR: 0.34]   [H-I: 4]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2215-017X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Transcriptome sequencing and de novo assembly in arecanut, Areca catechu L
           elucidates the secondary metabolite pathway genes

    • Authors: Ramaswamy Manimekalai; Smita Nair; A. Naganeeswaran; Anitha Karun; Suresh Malhotra; V. Hubbali
      Pages: 63 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ramaswamy Manimekalai, Smita Nair, A. Naganeeswaran, Anitha Karun, Suresh Malhotra, V. Hubbali
      Areca catechu L. belongs to the Arecaceae family which comprises many economically important palms. The palm is a source of alkaloids and carotenoids. The lack of ample genetic information in public databases has been a constraint for the genetic improvement of arecanut. To gain molecular insight into the palm, high throughput RNA sequencing and de novo assembly of arecanut leaf transcriptome was undertaken in the present study. A total 56,321,907 paired end reads of 101 bp length consisting of 11.343 Gb nucleotides were generated. De novo assembly resulted in 48,783 good quality transcripts, of which 67% of transcripts could be annotated against NCBI non – redundant database. The Gene Ontology (GO) analysis with UniProt database identified 9222 biological process, 11268 molecular function and 7574 cellular components GO terms. Large scale expression profiling through Fragments per Kilobase per Million mapped reads (FPKM) showed major genes involved in different metabolic pathways of the plant. Metabolic pathway analysis of the assembled transcripts identified 124 plant related pathways. The transcripts related to carotenoid and alkaloid biosynthetic pathways had more number of reads and FPKM values suggesting higher expression of these genes. The arecanut transcript sequences generated in the study showed high similarity with coconut, oil palm and date palm sequences retrieved from public domains. We also identified 6853 genic SSR regions in the arecanut. The possible primers were designed for SSR detection and this would simplify the future efforts in genetic characterization of arecanut.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Evaluating the effect of enzymatic pretreatment on the anaerobic
           digestibility of pulp and paper biosludge

    • Authors: Sofia Bonilla; Zahra Choolaei; Torsten Meyer; Elizabeth A. Edwards; Alexander F. Yakunin; D. Grant Allen
      Pages: 77 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Sofia Bonilla, Zahra Choolaei, Torsten Meyer, Elizabeth A. Edwards, Alexander F. Yakunin, D. Grant Allen
      Anaerobic digestion of biosludge has not yet been implemented in pulp mills due to low biogas yields. Enzymatic pretreatment of biosludge has shown improvements in biogas yields but results are varied. A key limitation of previous studies is that they fail to consider the COD contribution from the enzyme solutions. The aim of this study was to systematically investigate the potential for enzymatic pretreatment on the anaerobic digestibility of pulp mill biosludge. Out of the six enzymes tested, four enhanced the anaerobic digestibility of biosludge. At the end of the BMP, a maximum improvement of 26% in biogas yield was observed with protease from B. licheniformis. There was no correlation between enzymatic activities on standard substrates and/or on biosludge and the effect of enzymes on biogas yields. Enzymes have potential for improving biosludge anaerobic digestibility but more research on optimal conditions and potential synergies with other pretreatment is needed.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Inulin hydrolysis by inulinase immobilized covalently on magnetic
           nanoparticles prepared with wheat gluten hydrolysates

    • Authors: Homa Torabizadeh; Asieh Mahmoudi
      Pages: 97 - 103
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Homa Torabizadeh, Asieh Mahmoudi
      Inulinase can produce a high amount of fructose syrup from inulin in a one-step enzymatic process. Inulinase from Aspergillus niger was immobilized covalently on Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). Wheat gluten was enzymatically hydrolyzed by two endopeptidases Alcalase and Neutrase and related nanoparticles were prepared by desolvation method. Magnetite nanoparticles were coated with WGHs nanoparticles and then inulinase was immobilized onto it using glutaraldehyde as crosslinking agent. Parallel studies employing differential scanning calorimetry and field emmision scanning electron microscopy were carried out to observe functional and structural variations in free inulinase during immobilization. Optimum temperature of immobilized inulinase was increased, while, pH and Km values were decreased compared to free enzyme. Overall, a 12.3 folds rise was detected in enzyme half-life value after Immobilization at 75 °C and enzyme preserved 70% of its initial activity after 12 cycles of hydrolysis with 75% of enzyme loading.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-13T23:40:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.004
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Single-use membrane adsorbers for endotoxin removal and purification of
           endogenous polysialic acid from Escherichia coli K1

    • Authors: Ingo de Vries; Sarah Schreiber; Daniel Boßmann; Zawadi Hellmann; Jens Kopatz; Harald Neumann; Sascha Beutel
      Pages: 110 - 116
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ingo de Vries, Sarah Schreiber, Daniel Boßmann, Zawadi Hellmann, Jens Kopatz, Harald Neumann, Sascha Beutel
      Polysialic acid (polySia) is a promising molecule for various medical applications (e.g., treatment of inflammatory neurodegenerative diseases). In this study a complete production process for human-identical α-(2,8)-linked polySia was developed using a disposable bioreactor for cultivation of Escherichia coli K1 and single-use membrane adsorbers for downstream processing (DSP). The cultivation process was optimized to minimize complex media components and a maturation process after cultivation was established. The maturation led to further product release from the cell surface into the supernatant. Afterwards DSP was established using sodium hydroxide treatment combined with anion exchange membrane adsorbers for endotoxin and DNA depletion. After downstream processing the final product had neither detectable protein nor DNA contamination. Endotoxin content was below 3 EU mg−1. Investigation of the maximal chain length showed no effect of the harsh sodium hydroxide treatment during DSP on the stability of the polySia. Maximal chain length was ∼98 degree of polymerization.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Possible bioremediation of arsenic toxicity by isolating indigenous
           bacteria from the middle Gangetic plain of Bihar, India

    • Authors: Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal; Santosh Kumar Mishra; Amrita Srivastava; Rajesh Kumar Ranjan; Krishna Prakash; Rizwanul Haque; Nitish Kumar
      Pages: 117 - 125
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Ghanshyam Kumar Satyapal, Santosh Kumar Mishra, Amrita Srivastava, Rajesh Kumar Ranjan, Krishna Prakash, Rizwanul Haque, Nitish Kumar
      In middle Gangetic plain, high arsenic concentration is present in water, which causes a significant health risk. Total 48 morphologically distinct arsenite resistant bacteria were isolated from middle Gangetic plain. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of arsenite varied widely in the range 1–15 mM of the isolates. On the basis of their MIC, two isolates, AK1 (KY569423) and AK9 (KY569424) were selected. The analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of selected isolates revealed that they are belong to the genus Pseudomonas. The AgNO3 test based microplate method revealed that isolates, AK1 and AK9, have potential in transformation of arsenic species. Further, the presence of aoxR, aoxB and aoxC genes in the both isolated strain AK1 and AK9 was confirmed, which play an important role in arsenic bioremediation by arsenite oxidation. Isolated strains also showed heavy metal resistance against Cr(IV), Ni(II), Co(II), Pb(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Ag(I) and Cd(II).

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Phytochemical analysis and In-vitro Biochemical Characterization of
           aqueous and methanolic extract of Triphala, a conventional herbal remedy

    • Authors: Romana Parveen; Tooba Naz Shamsi; Gurjeet Singh; Teeba Athar; Sadaf Fatima
      Pages: 126 - 136
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Romana Parveen, Tooba Naz Shamsi, Gurjeet Singh, Teeba Athar, Sadaf Fatima
      Triphala, an Indian ayurvedic triherbal formulation, is an equiproportional mixture of fruits of three herbs, amalaki (Emblica officinalis), haritaki (Terminalia chebula) and bibhitaki (Terminalia bellerica). The present study focused on phytocompounds detection and comparative analysis of various biochemical activities in the aqueous and methanolic extracts of triphala and its constituting herbs. Antioxidant activity was determined by 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), super oxide dismutase (SOD), catalase assay. Antibacterial potential was determined by broth dilution and agar well diffusion assays. Results revealed the presence of valuable bioactive compounds such as flavonoids, alkaloids, phenols, etc which might be responsible for biochemical activities. Extracts exhibited satisfactory radical-scavenging activity comparable with ascorbic acid. Methanolic extracts demonstrated higher antioxidant activity compared to aqueous extract. Extracts showed promising antibacterial potential against tested strain comparable to ampicillin. Hence, it can be concluded that triphala may be a promising candidate in pharmaceuticals and future medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.003
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Evaluation of the ethanol tolerance for wild and mutant Synechocystis
           strains by flow cytometry

    • Authors: Teresa Lopes da Silva; Paula C. Passarinho; Ricardo Galriça; Afonso Zenóglio; Patricia Armshaw; J. Tony Pembroke; Con Sheahan; Alberto Reis; Francisco Gírio
      Pages: 137 - 147
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Teresa Lopes da Silva, Paula C. Passarinho, Ricardo Galriça, Afonso Zenóglio, Patricia Armshaw, J. Tony Pembroke, Con Sheahan, Alberto Reis, Francisco Gírio
      Flow cytometry was used to evaluate the effect of initial ethanol concentrations on cyanobacterial strains of Synechocystis PCC 6803 [wild-type (WT), and ethanol producing recombinants (UL 004 and UL 030)] in batch cultures. Ethanol recombinants, containing one or two metabolically engineered cassettes, were designed towards the development of an economically competitive process for the direct production of bioethanol from microalgae through an exclusive autotrophic route. It can be concluded that the recombinant Synechocystis UL 030 containing two copies of the genes per genome was the most tolerant to ethanol. Nevertheless, to implement a production process using recombinant strains, the bioethanol produced will be required to be continuously extracted from the culture media via a membrane-based technological process for example to prevent detrimental effects on the biomass. The results presented here are of significance in defining the maximum threshold for bulk ethanol concentration in production media.

      PubDate: 2018-02-25T01:09:59Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2018)
  • Elements for optimizing a one-step enzymatic bio-refinery process of
           shrimp cuticles: Focus on enzymatic proteolysis screening

    • Authors: R. Baron; M. Socol; R. Kaas; A. Arhaliass; J. Rodriguez del Pino; K. Le Roux; C. Donnay-Moreno; J.P. Bergé
      Pages: 70 - 74
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 15
      Author(s): R. Baron, M. Socol, R. Kaas, A. Arhaliass, J. Rodriguez del Pino, K. Le Roux, C. Donnay-Moreno, J.P. Bergé
      This article complements an earlier work published in 2015 Baron et al. (2015) that showed the interest of a shrimp shells bio-refining process. We compare here the effect of eleven commercial proteases at pH 3.5 or 4.0 on a residual amount of shrimp shells proteins after 6h at 50°C. The two pH are obtained when respectively 40 and 25mmol of formic acid are added to 5g of mild dried shell. Deproteinisation yield above 95% are obtained. Residual amino acids profile in the solid phase was identical for the eleven proteases except for pepsin which was similar to the raw material profile. A significant relative increase in the proportion of Glycine is observed for the ten other cases. Likewise, shapes of size exclusion chromatograms of the dissolved phase are similar except with pepsin.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T10:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.01.003
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2018)
  • Synthesis and investigations on tellurium myconanoparticles

    • Authors: Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud; Ola E.A. Al-Hagar; Eman S. Abdelkhalek; N.M. Sidkey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Mostafa M. Abo Elsoud, Ola E.A. Al-Hagar, Eman S. Abdelkhalek, N.M. Sidkey
      Tellurium has attracted the attention of many researchers and manufacturers due to its unique properties. Through the current work, six fungal isolates have been screened for their ability to reduce potassium tellurite (K2TeO3) into elemental tellurium nanoparticles (TeNPs). The most promising fungal isolate was identified as Aspergillus welwitschiae and given the accession number (KY766958) based on molecular basis and has been used for biogenic (enzymatic) production of TeNPs. The produced TeNPs have been characterized using DLS, TEM and FTIR. Data showed that, the particle size is 60.80 d.nm with oval to spherical shape. The produced TeNPs have been evaluated for antimicrobial activity at 25 mg/ml. Data revealed antibacterial activity against E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Evaluation of the effect of γ-irradiation on TeNPs production showed that, the productivity was improved at 1 kGy and suppressed gradually at higher doses.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T11:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00247
  • Synthesis of Designer Triglycerides by Enzymatic Acidolysis

    • Authors: Monali R. Kavadia; Manish G. Yadav; Annamma A. Odaneth; Arvind M. Lali
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Monali R. Kavadia, Manish G. Yadav, Annamma A. Odaneth, Arvind M. Lali
      Enzymatic acidolysis process was developed for modification of fully hydrogenated soybean oil (FHSO) by incorporation of caprylic acid, a medium chain fatty acid. Immobilized sn-1,3 specific lipase PyLip was used to modify FHSO to produce a new fat with improved physico-chemical and functional properties. PyLip mediated acidolysis resulted in 88% reduction of substrate triglycerides and 45.16% incorporation of caprylic acid in FHSO at molar ratio of 1:3 of FHSO and caprylic acid in 60 min reaction time. HPLC analysis revealed formation of mono-substituted and di-substituted TAGs post enzymatic acidolysis. Physical properties of synthesized lipid were studied using DSC and XRD and considerable change was observed in the final product compared to the starting material. The present study reports a faster acidolysis process in the presence of solvent enhancing the modification of FHSO with caprylic acid and having no side products formation (monoglycerides and diglycerides) making the entire process highly efficient and commercially attaractive.

      PubDate: 2018-03-18T11:13:17Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00246
  • Co-fermentation of the main sugar types from a beechwood organosolv
           hydrolysate by several strains of Bacillus coagulans results in effective
           lactic acid production

    • Authors: Robert Glaser; Joachim Venus
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Robert Glaser, Joachim Venus
      Bacillus coagulans is an interesting facultative anaerobic microorganism for biotechnological production of lactic acid that arouses interest. To determine the efficiency of biotechnological production of lactic acid from lignocellulosic feedstock hydrolysates, five Bacillus coagulans strains were grown in lignocellulose organosolv hydrolysate from ethanol/water-pulped beechwood. Parameter estimation based on a Monod-type model was used to derive the basic key parameters for a performance evaluation of the batch process. Three of the Bacillus coagulans strains, including DSM No. 2314, were able to produce lactate, primarily via uptake of glucose and xylose. Two other strains were identified as having the ability of utilizing cellobiose to a high degree, but they also had a lower affinity to xylose. The lactate yield concentration varied from 79.4 ± 2.1 g/L to 93.7 ± 1.4 g/L (85.4 ± 4.7 % of consumed carbohydrates) from the diluted organosolv hydrolysate.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T05:52:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2018.e00245
  • Effect of polysaccharide admixtures on expression of multiple
           polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in Microbulbifer strain CMC-5

    • Authors: RaviChand Jonnadula; Md Imran; Preethi B. Poduval; Sanjeev C. Ghadi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): RaviChand Jonnadula, Md Imran, Preethi B. Poduval, Sanjeev C. Ghadi
      Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 produces agarase, alginate lyase, xylanase, carboxymethyl cellulase and carrageenase. The extracellular production of the above carbohydrases was investigated by growing Microbulbifer strain CMC-5 in a sea water based medium containing homologous/heterologous polysaccharides as a single substrate or as a combination of mixed assorted substrate. Presence of singular homologous polysaccharides in the growth medium induces respective carbohydrase at high levels. Any two polysaccharides in various combinations produced high level of homologous carbohydrase and low level of other heterologous carbohydrase. All five carbohydrases were consistently produced by strain CMC-5, when carboxymethyl cellulose was included as one of the substrate in dual substrate combination, or in presence of mix blends of all five polysaccharides. Interestingly, thalli of Gracilaria sp. that contain agar and cellulose predominantly in their cell wall induces only agarase expression in strain CMC-5.

      PubDate: 2018-01-13T20:01:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.008
  • Improvement of Aspergillus flavus saponin hydrolase thermal stability and
           productivity via immobilization on a novel carrier based on sugarcane

    • Authors: Hala A. Amin; Francesco Secundo; Hassan Amer; Faten M. Ahmed; Wafaa A. Helmy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Hala A. Amin, Francesco Secundo, Hassan Amer, Faten M. Ahmed, Wafaa A. Helmy
      Soyasapogenol B (SB) is known to have many biological activities such as hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, antiviral and anticancer activities. Enzymatic conversion of soyasaponins to SB was carried out using saponin hydrolase (SH) extracted from Aspergillus flavus. The partially purified enzyme was immobilized on different carriers by physical adsorption, covalent binding or entrapment. Among the investigated carriers, Eupergit C and sugarcane bagasse (SCB) activated by DIC and NHS were the most suitable two carriers for immobilization (the immobilized forms recovered 46.5 and 37.1% of the loaded enzyme activity, respectively). Under optimized immobilization conditions, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SBC recovered 87.7 and 83.3% of its original activity, respectively. Compared to free SH, immobilized SH on Eupergit C and on activated SCB showed higher optimum pH, activation energy, half-lives and lower deactivation constant rate. Also, their SB productivities were improved by 2.3- and 2.2-folds compared to free SH (87.7 and 83.3 vs. 37.5%, respectively). Hence, being SCB more sustainable and an inexpensive material, it can be considered a good alternative to Eupergit C as a support for SH immobilization. SH immobilization on industrially applicable and inexpensive carrier is necessary to improve SB yield and reduce its production cost. The chemical structure of SCB and the resulting cellulose derivatives were studied by ATR-IR spectroscopy. The thermal analysis technique was used to study the chemical treatment of SCB and coupling with the enzyme. This technique confirmed the removal of lignin and hemicellulose by chemical treatment of SCB.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T10:54:35Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.007
  • Synthesis and biomedical applications of Cerium oxide nanoparticles
           – A Review

    • Authors: S. Rajeshkumar; Poonam Naik
      Pages: 1 - 5
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): S. Rajeshkumar, Poonam Naik
      A cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) has a wide range of applications in different fields, especially biomedical division. As a matter of concern, it has a major impact on the human health and environment. The aim of this review is to address the different ways of synthesis of nanoceria using chemical and green synthesis methods and characterization and the applications of nanoceria for antioxidant, anticancer, antibacterial activities and toxicological studies including the most recent studies carried out in vivo and in vitro to study the problems. We have exclusively discussed on the toxicology of nanoceria exposed to the general public along with recent advances in the studies of antimicrobial, toxicity and anti-oxidant activity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.008
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Complete genome sequence of N2-fixing model strain Klebsiella sp. nov.
           M5al, which produces plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and siderophores

    • Authors: Zhili Yu; Shuying Li; Yuanyuan Li; Zhuang Jiang; Jinru Zhou; Qianli An
      Pages: 6 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Zhili Yu, Shuying Li, Yuanyuan Li, Zhuang Jiang, Jinru Zhou, Qianli An
      The bacterial strain M5al is a model strain for studying the molecular genetics of N2-fixation and molecular engineering of microbial production of platform chemicals 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the strain M5al, which belongs to a novel species closely related to Klebsiella michiganensis. M5al secretes plant cell wall-degrading enzymes and colonizes rice roots but does not cause soft rot disease. M5al also produces siderophores and contains the gene clusters for synthesis and transport of yersiniabactin which is a critical virulence factor for Klebsiella pathogens in causing human disease. We propose that the model strain M5al can be genetically modified to study bacterial N2-fixation in association with non-legume plants and production of 1,3-propanediol and 2,3-butanediol through degradation of plant cell wall biomass.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Transient expression of CCL21as recombinant protein in tomato

    • Authors: Maria Beihaghi; Hasan Marashi; Abdolreza Bagheri; Mojtaba Sankian
      Pages: 10 - 15
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Maria Beihaghi, Hasan Marashi, Abdolreza Bagheri, Mojtaba Sankian
      The main goal of this study was to investigate the possibility of expressing recombinant protein of C-C chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) in Solanum lycopersicum via agroinfiltration. CCL21 is a chemokine can be used for anti-metastatic of cancer cell lines. To examine the expression of CCL21 protein in S. lycopersicum, the construct of ccl21 was synthesized. This construct was cloned into pBI121 and the resulting CCL21 plasmid was agro-infiltrated into S. lycopersicum leaves. Within three days after infiltration, Expression of the foreign gene was confirmed by quantitative Real-time PCR. A recombinant CCL21 protein was immunogenically detected by western blot, dot blot and ELISA assay. And results showed that the foreign gene was expressed in the transformed leaves in high level. Also scratch assay was used to investigate the role of this protein in anti-metastatic function. The results demonstrated anti-metastatic of cancer cells in the presence of this protein.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Characterization of Scenedesmus obtusiusculus AT-UAM for high-energy
           molecules accumulation: deeper insight into biotechnological potential of
           strains of the same species

    • Authors: Alma Toledo-Cervantes; Gloria Garduño Solórzano; Jorge E. Campos; Martha Martínez-García; Marcia Morales
      Pages: 16 - 23
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Alma Toledo-Cervantes, Gloria Garduño Solórzano, Jorge E. Campos, Martha Martínez-García, Marcia Morales
      Scenedesmus obtusiusculus AT-UAM, isolated from Cuatro Ciénegas wetlands in Mexico was taxonomically, molecularly and biochemically compared to S. obtusiusculus CCAP 276/25 (Culture Collection of Algae and Protozoa, Scotland, UK). Analysis of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS2) secondary structures confirmed that the mexican strain belongs to S. obtusiusculus with one change in the ITS2 nucleotide sequence. However, both strains exhibited different biochemical and fatty acid profiles and therefore biotechnological potential, emphasizing the need for deeper studies among strains of the same species. Furthermore, the biochemical variations of S. obtusiusculus AT-UAM under nitrogen starvation and different levels of irradiance were evaluated. The maximum lipid production (1730 mg L−1) was obtained at 613 μmol m−2 s−1 while the highest carbohydrate content (49%) was achieved at 896 μmol m−2 s−1. Additionally, this strain was capable of storing lipids (∼52%) and carbohydrates (∼40%) under outdoor condition depending on the light availability in the cultivation broth.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.009
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Effect of the Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its main
           constituents, citral and limonene, on the tracheal smooth muscle of rats

    • Authors: Poliana M.M. Carvalho; Cícero A.F. Macêdo; Tiago F. Ribeiro; Andressa A. Silva; Renata E.R. Da Silva; Luís P. de Morais; Marta R. Kerntopf; Irwin R.A. Menezes; Roseli Barbosa
      Pages: 31 - 34
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Poliana M.M. Carvalho, Cícero A.F. Macêdo, Tiago F. Ribeiro, Andressa A. Silva, Renata E.R. Da Silva, Luís P. de Morais, Marta R. Kerntopf, Irwin R.A. Menezes, Roseli Barbosa
      The Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown (Verbenaceae) species, has effects sedative, analgesic and spasmolytic properties. This study had as its main objective to evaluate the essential oil of L. alba (EOLa) effect and that of its main constituents, citral and limonene, over tracheal smooth muscle from Wistar rats. EOLa, citral and limonene promoted relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle in contractions induced by potassium (60 mM K+), presenting an EC50 of 148 ± 7 μg/mL for the EOLa, 136 ± 7 μg/mL for citral and 581 ± 7 μg/mL for limonene. In contractions induced by Acetylcholine (Ach; 10 μM) the EC50 for the EOLa and citral were of 731 ± 5 μg/mL and 795 ± 9 μg/mL, respectively. In preparations pre-incubated with 1000 μg/mL of the EOLa and citral, both agents were found to block the influx of BaCl2 by VOCCs. This study demonstrated that the EOLa and its main component citral present antispasmodic effect over tracheal smooth muscle of rats.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Smoke produced from plants waste material elicits growth of wheat
           (Triticum aestivum L.) by improving morphological, physiological and
           biochemical activity

    • Authors: Muhammad Iqbal; Saira Asif; Noshin Ilyas; Fayyaz-ul-Hassan; Naveed Iqbal Raja; Mubashir Hussain; Muhammad Ejaz; Hafiza Saira
      Pages: 35 - 44
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Muhammad Iqbal, Saira Asif, Noshin Ilyas, Fayyaz-ul-Hassan, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Mubashir Hussain, Muhammad Ejaz, Hafiza Saira
      The experimental work presented in this study was carried out with the hypothesis that plant derived smoke enhanced the morphological, physiological and biochemical attributes of a cereal crop, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Furthermore, this study supported the hypothesis that plant derived smoke acts as vegetative growth promoter, inexpensive, rapid and most appropriate eco-friendly bio-fertilizer for sustainable agriculture. Plant derived smoke was generated by burning of plant material (leaf, straws etc) in a specially designed furnace, and seeds were treated with this smoke for different time duration. Four level of plant derived smoke (1 h, 2 h, 3 h and 4 h) along with control were tested on four wheat cultivars in CRD repeated pot experiment. The smoke-related treatments modified number of morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat. Compared with the control, aerosol smoke treatment of the seeds significantly improved root length (2.6%), shoot length (7.7%), RFW (0.04%), SFW (0.7%), SDW (0.1%) and leaf area (63.9%). All the smoke-related treatments significantly promoted RWC (17.3%), water potential (1.5%), osmotic potential (1.4%) and MSI (14.6%) whereas a pronounced increase in chlorophyll a (24.9%), chlorophyll b (21.7%) and total chlorophyll contents (15.5%) were recorded in response to aerosol-smoke treatments. Plant derived smoke exposure applied for short time i.e. 1 h & 2 h induced significant results as compared to prolonged PDS exposure (3 h and 4 h). The best results were observed in Pak-13 and Glaxy-13 wheat cultivars. These findings indicated that the plant-derived smoke treatment has a great potential to improve morphological, physiological and biochemical features of wheat crop.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 17 (2017)
  • Peroxidase production and ligninolytic potentials of fresh water bacteria
           Raoultella ornithinolytica and Ensifer adhaerens

    • Authors: Ayodeji O. Falade; Onyedikachi A.L. Eyisi; Leonard V. Mabinya; Uchechukwu U. Nwodo; Anthony I. Okoh
      Pages: 12 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 October 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Ayodeji O. Falade, Onyedikachi A.L. Eyisi, Leonard V. Mabinya, Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Anthony I. Okoh
      Interest in novel ligninolytic bacteria has remained topical due to, in part, the maneuverability of the bacterial genome. Conversely, the fungal genome lacks the dexterity for similar maneuverability thus, posing challenges in the fungal enzyme yield optimization process. Some impact of this situation includes the inability to commercialize the bio-catalytic process of lignin degradation by fungi. Consequently, this study assessed some fresh water bacteria isolates for ligninolytic and peroxidase properties through the utilization and degradation of model lignin compounds (guaiacol and veratryl alcohol) and the decolourization of selected ligninolytic indicator dyes; Azure B (AZB), Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) and Congo Red (CR). Bacterial strains with appreciable ligninolytic and peroxidase production potentials were identified through 16S rDNA sequence analysis and the nucleotide sequences deposited in the GenBank. About 5 isolates were positive for the degradation of both guaiacol (GA) and veratryl alcohol (VA) thus, accounting for about 17% of the test isolates. Similarly, AZB, RBBR and CR were respectively decolorized by 3, 2 and 5 bacterial strains thus, accounting for 10%, 7% and 17% of the test isolates. Two of the test bacterial strains were able to decolourize AZB, RBBR and CR respectively and these bacterial strains were identified as Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2 with respective accession numbers as KX640917 and KX640918. Upon quantitation of the peroxidase activities; 5250±0.00U/L was recorded against Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and 5833±0.00U/L against Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2. The ligninolytic and dye decolourization properties of Raoultella ornithinolytica OKOH-1 and Ensifer adhaerens NWODO-2 marks for novelty particularly, as dyes with arene substituent were decolourized. Consequently, the potentials for the industrial applicability of these test bacterial strains abound as there is a dearth of information on organisms with such potentials.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-13T20:58:11Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.10.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Allele specific LAMP- gold nanoparticle for characterization of single
           nucleotide polymorphisms

    • Authors: Fábio Ferreira Carlos; Bruno Veigas; Ana S. Matias; Gonçalo Doria; Orfeu Flores; Pedro V. Baptista
      Pages: 21 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 16
      Author(s): Fábio Ferreira Carlos, Bruno Veigas, Ana S. Matias, Gonçalo Doria, Orfeu Flores, Pedro V. Baptista
      Due to their relevance as disease biomarkers and for diagnostics, screening of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) requires simple and straightforward strategies capable to provide results in medium throughput settings. Suitable approaches relying on isothermal amplification techniques have been evolving to substitute the cumbersome and highly specialized PCR amplification detection schemes. Nonetheless, identification of an individual’s genotype still requires sophisticated equipment and laborious methods. Here, we present a low-cost and reliable approach based on the allele specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification (AS-LAMP) coupled to ssDNA functionalized gold nanoparticle (Au-nanoprobe) colorimetric sequence discrimination. The Au-nanoprobe integration allows for the colorimetric detection of AS-LAMP amplification product that can be easily interpreted in less than 15min. We targeted a clinical relevant SNP responsible for lactose intolerance (-13910C/T dbSNP rs#: 4988235) to demonstrate its proof of concept and full potential of this novel approach.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.10.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Paternal inheritance of plastid-encoded transgenes in Petunia hybrida in
           the greenhouse and under field conditions

    • Authors: Patricia Horn; Henrik Nausch; Susanne Baars; Jörg Schmidtke; Kerstin Schmidt; Inge Broer
      Pages: 26 - 31
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 16
      Author(s): Patricia Horn, Henrik Nausch, Susanne Baars, Jörg Schmidtke, Kerstin Schmidt, Inge Broer
      As already demonstrated in greenhouse trials, outcrossing of transgenic plants can be drastically reduced via transgene integration into the plastid. We verified this result in the field with Petunia, for which the highest paternal leakage has been observed. The variety white 115 (W115) served as recipient and Pink Wave (PW) and the transplastomic variant PW T16, encoding the uidA reporter gene, as pollen donor. While manual pollination in the greenhouse led to over 90% hybrids for both crossings, the transgenic donor resulted only in 2% hybrids in the field. Nevertheless paternal leakage was detected in one case which proves that paternal inheritance of plastid-located transgenes is possible under artificial conditions. In the greenhouse, paternal leakage occurred in a frequency comparable to published results. As expected natural pollination reduced the hybrid formation in the field from 90 to 7.6% and the transgenic donor did not result in any hybrid.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Amino acid catabolism-directed biofuel production in Clostridium
           sticklandii: An insight into model-driven systems engineering

    • Authors: C Sangavai; P Chellapandi
      Pages: 32 - 43
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 16
      Author(s): C Sangavai, P Chellapandi
      Model-driven systems engineering has been more fascinating process for the microbial production of biofuel and bio-refineries in chemical and pharmaceutical industries. Genome-scale modeling and simulations have been guided for metabolic engineering of Clostridium species for the production of organic solvents and organic acids. Among them, Clostridium sticklandii is one of the potential organisms to be exploited as a microbial cell factory for biofuel production. It is a hyper-ammonia producing bacterium and is able to catabolize amino acids as important carbon and energy sources via Stickland reactions and the development of the specific pathways. Current genomic and metabolic aspects of this bacterium are comprehensively reviewed herein, which provided information for learning about protein catabolism-directed biofuel production. It has a metabolic potential to drive energy and direct solventogenesis as well as acidogenesis from protein catabolism. It produces by-products such as ethanol, acetate, n-butanol, n-butyrate and hydrogen from amino acid catabolism. Model-driven systems engineering of this organism would improve the performance of the industrial sectors and enhance the industrial economy by using protein-based waste in environment-friendly ways.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Study on bioremediation of Lead by exopolysaccharide producing
           metallophilic bacterium isolated from extreme habitat

    • Authors: Debajit Kalita; S.R. Joshi
      Pages: 48 - 57
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 16
      Author(s): Debajit Kalita, S.R. Joshi
      Lead released from manufacturing factories, recycling plants, automobile company and landfill leachate is abundantly found in wastewater. An efficient bioremediating agent for lead removal from wastewater is expected to ease the ever increasing problem. The present study reports Pseudomonas sp. W6 isolated from extreme habitat of hot water spring of North–East India evaluated for its Lead biosorption property. The bacterium showed capacity to resist 1.0mM lead in both solid and liquid minimal media. Epifluorescence microscopy reveal the viability of bacterial cells under metal stress condition. ICP-MS analysis revealed 65% and 61.2% removal of lead from the Synthetic Bangladesh Ground Water medium in batch culture and column study respectively which was higher when compared to biosorption capacity of P. aeruginosa MTCC2474, P. alcaligenes MJ7 from forest soil and P. ficuserectae PKRS11 from uranium rich soil. Exopolysaccharide released by the isolate which influenced biosorption revealed the presence of ligands assayed using microbial hydrophobicity and FTIR. The extremophilic isolate is proposed as a choice for efficient bioremediation of lead contaminated wastewater.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Development and implementation of tPA clot lysis activity assay using ACL
           TOP™ hemeostasis testing system in QC laboratories

    • Authors: Lichun Huang
      Pages: 58 - 64
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 16
      Author(s): Lichun Huang
      This report describes the design, development, validation and long-term performance of tPA clot lysis activity assay using Advanced Chemistry Line Total Operational Performance (ACL TOP)™ Homeostasis Testing System. The results of the study demonstrated robust and stable performance of the analytical method. The accuracy of the assay, expressed by percent recovery is 98–99%. The intermediate precision and repeatability precision, expressed as Relative Standard Deviation (RSD), was 3% and less than 2% respectively. The validated range is from 70% to 130% of the target potency of 5.8×105 IU/mg. The linearity of this range, expressed in correlation coefficient, is 0.997. After the assay is transferred to a QC laboratory, the assay retained high accuracy and precision with a success rate of >99%.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.10.002
      Issue No: Vol. 16 (2017)
  • Sugar, acid and furfural quantification in a sulphite pulp mill:
           Feedstock, product and hydrolysate analysis by HPLC/RID

    • Authors: Tamara Llano; Natalia Quijorna; Ana Andrés; Alberto Coz
      Pages: 75 - 83
      Abstract: Publication date: September 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 15
      Author(s): Tamara Llano, Natalia Quijorna, Ana Andrés, Alberto Coz
      Waste from pulp and paper mills consist of sugar-rich fractions comprising hemicellulose derivatives and cellulose by-products. A complete characterisation of the waste streams is necessary to study the possibilities of an existing mill. In this work, four chromatographic methods have been developed to obtain the most suitable chromatographic method conditions for measuring woody feedstocks, lignocellulosic hydrolysates and cellulose pulp in sulphite pulping processes. The analysis of major and minor monosaccharides, aliphatic carboxylic acids and furfurals has been optimised. An important drawback of the spent liquors generated after sulphite pulping is their acidic nature, high viscosity and adhesive properties that interfere in the column lifetime. This work recommends both a CHO-782Pb column for the sugar analysis and an SH-1011 resin-based cross-linked gel column to separate low-molecular-weight chain acids, alcohols and furfurals. Such columns resulted in a good separation with long lifetime, wide pH operating range and low fouling issues.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T07:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 15 (2017)
  • Isolation and characterization of two crude oil-degrading fungi strains
           from Rumaila oil field, Iraq

    • Authors: Adnan B. Al-Hawash; Jawadayn T. Alkooranee; Hayder A. Abbood; Jialong Zhang; Jin Sun; Xiaoyu Zhang; Fuying Ma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Adnan B. Al-Hawash, Jawadayn T. Alkooranee, Hayder A. Abbood, Jialong Zhang, Jin Sun, Xiaoyu Zhang, Fuying Ma
      Among four crude oil-degrading fungi strains that were isolated from a petroleum-polluted area in the Rumaila oil field, two fungi strains showed high activity in aliphatic hydrocarbon degradation. ITS sequencing and analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics identified these strains as Penicillium sp. RMA1 and RMA2. Gravimetric and gas chromatography analysis of the crude oil remaining in the culture medium after 14 days of incubation at 30 °C showed that RMA1 and RMA2 degraded the crude oil by 57% and 55%, respectively. These strains reduced surface tension when cultured on crude oil (1% v/v) and exhibited a cell surface hydrophobicity of more than 70%. These results suggested that RMA1 and RMA2 performed effective crude oil-degrading activity and crude oil emulsification. In conclusion, these fungal strains can be used in bioremediation process and oil pollution reduction in aquatic ecosystems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:02:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.006
  • Characterization of a Lactococcus lactis promoter for heterologous protein

    • Authors: Christian E. Ogaugwu; Qiuying Cheng; Annabeth Fieck; Ivy Hurwitz; Ravi Durvasula
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Christian E. Ogaugwu, Qiuying Cheng, Annabeth Fieck, Ivy Hurwitz, Ravi Durvasula
      Constitutively active promoter elements for heterologous protein production in Lactococcus lactis are scarce. Here, the promoter of the PTS-IIC gene cluster from L. lactis NZ3900 is described. This promoter was cloned upstream of an enhanced green fluorescent protein, GFPmut3a, and transformed into L. lactis. Transformants produced up to 13.5 μg of GFPmut3a per milliliter of log phase cells. Addition of cellobiose further increased the production of GFPmut3a by up to two-fold when compared to glucose. Analysis of mutations at two specific positions in the PTS-IIC promoter showed that a ‘T’ to ‘G’ mutation within the −35 element resulted in constitutive expression in glucose, while a ‘C’ at nucleotide 7 in the putative cre site enhanced promoter activity in cellobiose. Finally, this PTS-IIC promoter is capable of mediating protein expression in Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, suggesting the potential for future biotechnological applications of this element and its derivatives.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T10:02:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.010
  • Cancer cell lines involving cancer stem cell populations respond to
           oxidative stress

    • Authors: Yilmazer
      Abstract: Publication date: March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Reports, Volume 17
      Author(s): Açelya Yilmazer
      Cancer cells may be more prone to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) than normal cells; therefore increased oxidative stress can specifically kill cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). In order to generate oxidative stress in various cancer cell lines including A549, G361 and MCF-7, cultured cells were exposed to H2O2. Incubation of cancer cells with H2O2 results in concentration-dependent cell death in A549 and G361-7 cells, whereas MCF-7 cells showed higher sensitivity even at a lower H2O2 concentration. H2O2 treatment decreased the number of cells in G2/M phase and increased the number of apoptotic cells. Both CD24 negative/CD44 positive cells and CD146 positive cells were found to be present in all tested cancer cell lines, indicating that CSC populations may play role in the cellular response to oxidative stress. This study showed that inducing oxidative stress through ROS can offer a promising approach for anti-cancer therapy.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
  • Time-course and degradation rate of membrane scaffold protein (MSP1D1)
           during recombinant production

    • Authors: Ramona Faas; Dirk Kiefer; Laura Job; Annelie Pohle; Karin Moß; Marius Henkel; Rudolf Hausmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Ramona Faas, Dirk Kiefer, Laura Job, Annelie Pohle, Karin Moß, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann
      Membrane scaffold proteins (MSPs) are synthetic derivatives of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of human high-density lipoprotein complexes. The most common among these is the variant MSP1D1, which has been in the focus of research on membrane mimetics in the past. As such, the amphipathic MSP1D1 has the ability to self-assemble in the presence of synthetic phospholipids into discoidal nanoparticles, so called nanodiscs. The recombinant production of MSP is exclusively reported using a standard laboratory expression system of the pET family. However, strong variations in both yield and achieved concentration as well as complications related to unspecific degradation are commonly reported. In addition, the time-course of recombinant protein as well as specific protein yields have not yet been quantified conclusively. In this study, the time-course of MSP1D1 concentration was investigated in a standard pET expression system in terms of quantification of production and degradation rates in comparison to a reference protein (eGFP).

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.003
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of an Aspergillus niger
           phytase produced by solid-state fermentation using triticale residues as

    • Authors: Alberto A. Neira-Vielma; Cristóbal N. Aguilar; Anna Ilyina; Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel; María das Graça Carneiro-da-Cunha; Georgina Michelena-Álvarez; José L. Martínez-Hernández
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Alberto A. Neira-Vielma, Cristóbal N. Aguilar, Anna Ilyina, Juan C. Contreras-Esquivel, María das Graça Carneiro-da-Cunha, Georgina Michelena-Álvarez, José L. Martínez-Hernández
      In this study, an extracellular phytase produced by Aspergillus niger 7A-1, was biochemically characterized for possible industrial application. The enzyme was purified from a crude extract obtained by solid-state fermentation (SSF) of triticale waste. The extract was obtained by microfiltration, ultrafiltration (300, 100 and 30 kDa) and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was estimated to be 89 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The purified enzyme was most active at pH 5.3 and 56 °C, and retained 50% activity over a wide pH range of 4 to 7. The enzymatic thermostability assay showed that the enzyme retained more than 70% activity at 80 °C for 60 s, 40% activity for 120 s and 9% after 300 s. The phytase showed broad substrate specificity, a Km value of 220 μM and Vmax of 25 μM/min. The purified phytase retained 50% of its activity with phosphorylated compounds such as phenyl phosphate, 1-Naphthyl phosphate, 2-Naphthyl phosphate, p-Nitrophenyl phosphate and Glycerol-2-phosphate. The inhibition of phytase activity by metal ions was observed to be drastically inhibited (50%) by Ca++ and was slightly inhibited (10%) by Ni++, K+, and Na+, at 10 and 20 mM concentrations. A positive effect was obtained with Mg++, Mn++, Cu++, Cd++ and Ba++ at 25 and 35% with stimulatory effect on the phytase activity.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.12.004
  • Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion − viable alternative options for
           terrestrial weed management − a review

    • Authors: Biswanath Saha; Chaichi Devi; Meena Khwairakpam; Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Biswanath Saha, Chaichi Devi, Meena Khwairakpam, Ajay S. Kalamdhad
      The management of terrestrial weed is of great concern for the scientific community as these weeds cause adverse effect in different ecosystems like forest, agriculture and urban. The widespread of these weeds by their adaptive capability and morphological advancement is difficult to control. Parthenium hysterophorous, Lantena camara, Sacharam spontaenium, Azaratum conyzoides this are the weeds spread all over the world. There are various management practices employed for the control of this weeds. But all of these practices have some drawbacks those are neither environment friendly nor economical. In this paper a review has been done to evaluate various alternative management practices for these terrestrial weeds and to analyze their feasibility. Vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion can be viable alternative option which is cost effective as well. There are few studies regarding vermicomposting and anaerobic digestions of terrestrial weeds are done.

      PubDate: 2017-12-19T09:24:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.11.005
  • High-throughput microarray for antimicrobial susceptibility testing

    • Authors: Anand Srinivasan; Grace C. Lee; Nelson S. Torres; Kevin Hernandez; Steven D. Dallas; Jose Lopez-Ribot; Christopher R. Frei; Anand K. Ramasubramanian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Anand Srinivasan, Grace C. Lee, Nelson S. Torres, Kevin Hernandez, Steven D. Dallas, Jose Lopez-Ribot, Christopher R. Frei, Anand K. Ramasubramanian
      We describe the development of a novel, high-throughput, nano-scale microarray platform for antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST). The platform allows to process 480 samples at 50nL volume on a single chip, analyze by fluorescence read-out with an easy dunk-and-rinse step, and the ability to process multiple samples and chips simultaneously. We demonstrate the applicability of this chip for culturing community acquired methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA), and perform AST against clinical isolates of CA-MRSA. The chip platform holds promise for an impact in microbial biotechnology as an attractive high-throughput, lower sample volume and quicker alternative to conventional AST such as the traditional broth microdilution or the newer automated systems.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T08:17:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.10.004
  • Significance of Fermentation Process on Biochemical Properties of
           Phaseolus vulgaris (Red Beans)

    • Authors: Anteneh Worku; Omprakash Sahu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Anteneh Worku, Omprakash Sahu
      Phaseolus vulgaris L. beans have been characterized as a nearly perfect food in all around the world. It is consider functional in terms of providing nutrients and energy to sustain daily life. Red bean contain high protein, mineral, fibres and chemically diverse micronutrient composition, which can be affected by processing. The main aim of this work is to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence- causing oligosaccharides of a domesticated bean (Anger, conscope and Loko). Open fermentation was done using endogenous microorganism present in the seed of beans, while controlled fermentation was done on autoclaved beans flour inoculated with thermophilic lactic culture which is a mixed strain culture containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium and Streptococcus thermophillus. The result shows that the open and controlled fermentation increased the protein digestibility up to 90% in all samples and 4days of fermentation time, loko red bean was found to more suitable. The chemical compositions and mineral contain was also high as compared to remaining two verities.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:45:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.09.001
  • Self-assembly of Nanoscale Particles with Biosurfactants and Membrane
           Scaffold Proteins

    • Authors: Ramona Bosch; Annelie Pohle; Karin Moß; Marius Henkel; Rudolf Hausmann
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 September 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Ramona Bosch, Annelie Pohle, Karin Moß, Marius Henkel, Rudolf Hausmann
      Nanodiscs are membrane mimetics which may be used as tools for biochemical and biophysical studies of a variety of membrane proteins. These nanoscale structures are composed of a phospholipid bilayer held together by an amphipathic membrane scaffold protein (MSP). In the past, nanodiscs were successfully assembled with membrane scaffold protein 1D1 and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine with a homogeneous diameter of ∼10nm. In this study, the formation of nanoscale particles from MSP1D1 and rhamnolipid biosurfactants is investigated. Different protein to lipid ratios of 1:80, 1:90 and 1:100 were used for the assembly reaction, which were consecutively separated, purified and analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Size distributions were measured to determine homogeneity and confirm size dimensions. In this study, first evidence is presented on the formation of nanoscale particles, which are summarized under the term rhamnodiscs.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T12:53:08Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.08.001
  • Draft genome sequence of Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy
           mildew pathogen

    • Authors: S. Chandra Nayaka; H. Shekar Shetty; C.Tara Satyavathi; Rattan S. Yadav; P.B.Kavi Kishor; M. Nagaraju; T.A. Anoop; M. Milner Kumar; Boney Kuriakose; Navajeet Chakravartty; A.V.S.K. Mohan Katta; V.B. Reddy Lachagari; Om Vir Singh; Pranav Pankaj Sahu; Swati Puranik; Pankaj Kaushal; Rakesh K. Srivastava
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): S. Chandra Nayaka, H. Shekar Shetty, C.Tara Satyavathi, Rattan S. Yadav, P.B.Kavi Kishor, M. Nagaraju, T.A. Anoop, M. Milner Kumar, Boney Kuriakose, Navajeet Chakravartty, A.V.S.K. Mohan Katta, V.B. Reddy Lachagari, Om Vir Singh, Pranav Pankaj Sahu, Swati Puranik, Pankaj Kaushal, Rakesh K. Srivastava
      Sclerospora graminicola pathogen is the most important biotic production constraints of pearl millet in India, Africa and other parts of the world. We report a de novo whole genome assembly and analysis of pathotype 1, one of the most virulent pathotypes of S. graminicola from India. The draft genome assembly contained 299,901,251bp with 65,404 genes. This study may help understand the evolutionary pattern of pathogen and aid elucidation of effector evolution for devising effective durable resistance breeding strategies in pearl millet.

      PubDate: 2017-09-01T11:07:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.07.006
  • Evaluation of ITS2 for intraspecific identification of Paeonia lactiflora

    • Authors: Qian Li; Jinguang Xu; Lu Han; Chengrong Gao; Jie Lu; Guangcong Du; Xia Sun
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Qian Li, Jinguang Xu, Lu Han, Chengrong Gao, Jie Lu, Guangcong Du, Xia Sun
      Herbaceous peony (Paeonia lactiflora Pall.) is an important ornamental and medicinal plant. DNA barcodes can reveal species identity via the nucleotide diversity of short DNA segments. In this study, two main candidate DNA barcodes (ITS2 and psbA-trnH) were tested to identify twenty-one cutting cultivars of P. lactiflora and their wild species. The efficacy of the candidate DNA barcodes was assessed by PCR amplification, sequence quality, sequence diversity, rate of correct identification, and phylogenetic analysis. ITS2 was easy to be amplified and sequenced among the samples. The identification by Blastn and phylogenetic analysis was 95.4% and 63.6%, respectively. For psbA-trnH, the presence of poly A-T led to sequencing failure which limited its use as DNA barcode candidate. Moreover, the authentic efficiency of psbA-trnH was lower than ITS2. The results showed that ITS2 is suitable as a candidate DNA barcode for the intraspecific identification of P. lactiflora cultivars.

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T07:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.07.003
  • Biodecolorization of textile azo dye using Bacillus sp. strain CH12
           isolated from alkaline lake

    • Authors: Awoke Guadie; Samson Tizazu; Meseretu Melese; Wenshan Guo; Huu Hao Ngo; Siqing Xia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Awoke Guadie, Samson Tizazu, Meseretu Melese, Wenshan Guo, Huu Hao Ngo, Siqing Xia
      Textile azo dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from alkaline Lakes Abaya and Chamo using Reactive Red 239 (RR239) dye. Through subsequent screening process, strain CH12 was selected to investigate the effects of nutrient supplement, DO, pH, temperature, dye concentration and types on decolorization. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain CH12 was identified as Bacillus sp. Decolorization efficiencies were significantly enhanced with carbon (≥98%) and organic nitrogen (∼100%) supplements. Complete decolorization was also observed under anoxic and anaerobic conditions, and at the temperature of 30°C and the pH of 10. However, the azo dye decolorization efficiency of strain CH12 was significantly reduced when NaNO3 (1−8%) was supplemented or under aerobic culturing condition (≤6%), indicating that RR239 was less preferred electron acceptor. Overall, strain CH12 can be a promising candidate for decolorization applications due to its potential to effectively decolorize higher RR239 concentrations (50−250mg/L) and six additional dyes.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T07:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.06.007
  • Synthesis and characterization of bacterial cellulose and gelatin-based
           hydrogel composites for drug-delivery systems

    • Authors: W. Treesuppharat; P. Rojanapanthu; C. Siangsanoh; H. Manuspiya; S. Ummartyotin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): W. Treesuppharat, P. Rojanapanthu, C. Siangsanoh, H. Manuspiya, S. Ummartyotin
      Bacterial cellulose and gelatin were successfully used to develop a hydrogel composite material. Hydrogel was synthesized by copolymerization between bacterial cellulose and gelatin. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images showed that the bacterial cellulose chain was uniform in size and shape. Glutaraldehyde was employed as a crosslinking agent. H-bonds were formed via the reaction between the amine and hydroxyl groups, which were the functional groups of the gelatin and bacterial cellulose, respectively. The hydrogel composite presented excellent properties in terms of its thermal stability, chemical resistance, and mechanical properties. Moreover, the swelling ratio of the hydrogel network, in water, was estimated to be 400-600%. Importantly, the hydrogel composite developed during this study is considered a good candidate for drug-delivery systems.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-07-09T07:49:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.07.002
  • Selecting an appropriate method for expressing S locus F-box-S2
           recombinant protein

    • Authors: Jahanshah Ashkani; D.J.G. Rees
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Jahanshah Ashkani, D.J.G. Rees
      A single locus (S locus) including at least two linked genes (female and male determinants) genetically controls the gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in apple, which has evolved to avoid self-fertilization. There has been extensive work done on the female determinant of self-incompatibility, which has led to the determination of the tertiary structure of S-RNase. However, the tertiary structure of male determinant (S locus F-box, SLF/SFB) remains unresolved, which could mainly be due to difficulties associated with its expression in the recombinant expression systems. In addressing this, we have evaluated several in vivo (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) and in vitro expression systems for their efficiency in the expression of apple SLF2. The most successful expression of SLF2 (1mg/ml) was achieved in E. coli using the synthesized gene in a high salt culture and applying heat shock before induction of culture. We therefore present an approach for the efficient expression of S locus F-box recombinant proteins for future functional and structural studies.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T00:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.06.005
  • Mutagenesis of threonine to serine in the active site of Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (Class II) retains partial enzyme

    • Authors: Jasper Marc; G.Bondoc Nina M.Wolf Michael Ndichuck Celerino Abad-Zapatero Farahnaz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Jasper Marc G.Bondoc, Nina M.Wolf, Michael Ndichuck, Celerino Abad-Zapatero, Farahnaz Movahedzadeh
      The glpX gene encodes for the Class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mt), an essential enzyme for pathogenesis. We have performed site directed mutagenesis to introduce two mutations at residue Thr84, T84A and T84S, to explore the binding affinity of the substrate and the catalytic mechanism. The T84A mutant fully abolishes enzyme activity while retaining substrate binding affinity. In contrast, the T84S mutant retains some activity having a 10 times reduction in Vmax and exhibited similar sensitivity to lithium when compared to the wildtype. Homology modeling of the Escherichia coli enzyme suggests that the replacement of the critical nucleophile OH− in the Thr84 residue of the wildtype of MtFBPase by Ser84 results in subtle alterations of the position and orientation that reduce the catalytic efficiency. This mutant could be used to trap reaction intermediates, through crystallographic methods, facilitating the design of potent inhibitors via structure-based drug design.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:40:24Z
  • Hydrogen from Algal Biomass: A review of Production process

    • Authors: Archita Sharma; Shailendra Kumar Arya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Archita Sharma, Shailendra Kumar Arya
      Multifariousness of biofuel sources has marked an edge to an imperative energy issue. Production of hydrogen from microalgae has been gathering much contemplation right away. But, mercantile production of microalgae biofuels considering bio-hydrogen is still not practicable because of low biomass concentration and costly down streaming processes. This review has taken up the hydrogen production by microalgae. Biofuels are the up and coming alternative to exhaustible, environmentally and unsafe fossil fuels. Algal biomass has been considered as an enticing raw material for biofuel production, these days photobioreactors and open-air systems are being used for hydrogen production from algal biomass. The formers allow the careful cultivation control whereas the latter ones are cheaper and simpler. A contemporary, encouraging optimization access has been included called algal cell immobilization on various matrixes which has resulted in marked increase in the productivity per volume of a reactor and addition of the hydrogen-production phase.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.06.001
  • Synthesis of silver nanoparticles using bacterial exopolysaccharide and
           its application for degradation of azo-dyes

    • Authors: Chinnashanmugam Saravanan; Rajendiran Rajesh; Thanamegam Kaviarasan; Krishnan Muthukumar; Digambar Kavitake; Prathapkumar Halady Shetty
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Chinnashanmugam Saravanan, Rajendiran Rajesh, Thanamegam Kaviarasan, Krishnan Muthukumar, Digambar Kavitake, Prathapkumar Halady Shetty
      In this study, the synthesis and characterization of exopolysaccharide-stabilized sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was carried out for the degradation of industrial textile dyes. Characterization of AgNPs was done using surface plasmon spectra using UV–Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy. The morphological nature of AgNPs was determined through transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), which indicated that the AgNPs were spherical in shape, with an average size of 35nm. The thermal behaviour of AgNPs revealed that it is stable up to 437.1°C and the required energy is 808.2J/g in TGA-DTA analysis. Ability of EPS stabilized AgNPs for degradation of azo dyes such as Methyl orange (MO) and Congo red (CR) showed that EPS stabilized AgNPs were found to be efficient in facilitating the degradation process of industrial textile dyes. The electron transfer takes place from reducing agent to dye molecule via nanoparticles, resulting in the destruction of the dye chromophore structure. This makes EPS-AgNPs a suitable, cheap and environment friendly candidate for biodegradation of harmful textile dyes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:40:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.02.006
  • In vitro and in silico characterization of metagenomic soil-derived
           cellulases capable of hydrolyzing oil palm empty fruit bunch.

    • Authors: Laura Marcela Palma Medina; Diana Catalina Ardila; María Mercedes Zambrano; Silvia Restrepo; Andrés Fernando González Barrios
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Laura Marcela Palma Medina, Diana Catalina Ardila, María Mercedes Zambrano, Silvia Restrepo, Andrés Fernando González Barrios
      Diversification of raw material for biofuel production is of interest to both academia and industry. One attractive substrate is a renewable lignocellulosic material such as oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) empty fruit bunch (OPEFB), which is a byproduct of the palm oil industry. This study aimed to characterize cellulases active against this substrate. Cellulases with activity against OPEFB were identified from a metagenomic library obtained from DNA extracted from a high-Andean forest ecosystem. Our findings show that the highest cellulolytic activities were obtained at pH and temperature ranges of 4–10 and 30°C–60°C, respectively. Due to the heterogeneous character of the system, degradation profiles were fitted to a fractal-like kinetic model, evidencing transport mass transfer limitations. The sequence analysis of the metagenomic library inserts revealed three glycosyl hydrolase families. Finally, molecular docking simulations of the cellulases were carried out corroborating possible exoglucanase and β-glucosidase activity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-11T00:04:52Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.06.003
  • Characterization of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 gene harbouring

    • Authors: Showkat Ahmad Lone; Abdul Malik; Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Showkat Ahmad Lone, Abdul Malik, Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria
      Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides are feasible alternatives to chemical pesticides. Here, we present the distribution of lepidopteran-specific cry1 and cry2 genes in native B. thuringiensis. Forty four out of 86 colonies were found to harbour crystals by phase contrast microscopy exhibiting a Bt index of 0.51. PCR analysis resulted in the amplification of cry1 in 24 and cry2 in 14 isolates. Twelve of the isolates showed presence of both cry1 and cry2, while 18 isolates did not show presence of either of the genes. Toxicity screening using spore-crystal mixtures against 2nd instar larvae of Helicoverpa armigera revealed that the isolates (50%) were either mildly toxic or not toxic (36.36%), and only 13.63% were toxic. The results are interesting, particularly so because the same isolates were previously reported to contain lepidopteran specific vip3A genes also, hence can complement the toxicity of the isolates harbouring vip3A genes.

      PubDate: 2017-06-05T23:27:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.05.001
  • Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

    • Authors: Joginder Singh; Duhan Ravinder Kumar Naresh Kumar Pawan Kaur Kiran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Joginder Singh Duhan, Ravinder Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Pawan Kaur, Kiran Nehra, Surekha
      Nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary research field. In recent past efforts have been made to improve agricultural yield through exhaustive research in nanotechnology. The green revolution resulted in blind usage of pesticides and chemical fertilizers which caused loss of soil biodiversity and developed resistance against pathogens and pests as well. Nanoparticle-mediated material delivery to plants and advanced biosensors for precision farming are possible only by nanoparticles or nanochips. Nanoencapsulated conventional fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides helps in slow and sustained release of nutrients and agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. Nanotechnology based plant viral disease detection kits are also becoming popular and are useful in speedy and early detection of viral diseases. In this article, the potential uses and benefits of nanotechnology in precision agriculture are discussed. The modern nanotechnology based tools and techniques have the potential to address the various problems of conventional agriculture and can revolutionize this sector.

      PubDate: 2017-05-26T21:52:15Z
  • Dusquetide: Reduction in Oral Mucositis associated with Enduring Ancillary
           Benefits in Tumor Resolution and Decreased Mortality in Head and Neck
           Cancer Patients

    • Authors: Mahesh Kudrimoti; Amarinthia Curtis; Samar Azawi; Francis Worden; Sanford Katz; Douglas Adkins; Marcelo Bonomi; Zack Scott; Jenna Elder; Stephen T. Sonis; Richard Straube; Oreola Donini
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Mahesh Kudrimoti, Amarinthia Curtis, Samar Azawi, Francis Worden, Sanford Katz, Douglas Adkins, Marcelo Bonomi, Zack Scott, Jenna Elder, Stephen T. Sonis, Richard Straube, Oreola Donini
      Innate immunity is a key component in the pathogenesis of oral mucositis, a universal toxicity of chemoradiation therapy (CRT). Dusquetide, a novel Innate Defense Regulator, has demonstrated both nonclinical and clinical efficacy in ameliorating severe oral mucositis (SOM). Long term follow-up studies from the Phase 2 clinical study evaluating dusquetide as a treatment for SOM in head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving CRT have now been completed. Extended analysis indicates that dusquetide therapy was well-tolerated and did not contribute to increased infection, tumor growth or mortality. Potential ancillary benefits of duquetide therapy were also identified.

      PubDate: 2017-05-21T20:48:28Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.05.002
  • Comparative study on the degradation of dibutyl phthalate by two newly
           isolated Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F

    • Authors: Vinay Kumar; Neha Sharma; S.S Maitra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Vinay Kumar, Neha Sharma, S.S Maitra
      Dibutyl phthalate is (DBP) the top priority toxicant responsible for carcinogenicity, teratogenicity and endocrine disruption. This study demonstrates the DBP degradation capability of the two newly isolated bacteria from municipal solid waste leachate samples. The isolated bacteria were designated as Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F after scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Gram-staining, antibiotic sensitivity tests, biochemical characterization, 16S-rRNA gene identification and phylogenetic studies. They were able to grow on DBP, benzyl butyl phthalate, monobutyl phthalate, diisodecyl phthalate, dioctyl phthalate, and protocatechuate. It was observed that Pseudomonas sp. V21b was more efficient in DBP degradation when compared with Comamonas sp. 51F. It degraded 57% and 76% of the initial DBP in minimal salt medium and in DBP contaminated samples respectively. Kinetics for the effects of DBP concentration on Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F growth was also evaluated. Stoichiometry for DBP degradation and biomass formation was compared for both the isolates. Two major metabolites diethyl phthalate and monobutyl phthalates were identified using GC-MS in the extracts. Key genes were amplified from the genomes of Pseudomonas sp. V21b and Comamonas sp. 51F. DBP degradation pathway was also proposed.

      PubDate: 2017-05-01T07:54:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.04.002
  • Enhanced hyluronic acid production in Streptococcus Zooepidemicus by over
           expressing HasA and molecular weight control with Niscin and glucose

    • Authors: Alireza Zakeri; Mohammad Javad Rasaee Navid Pourzardosht
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Alireza Zakeri, Mohammad Javad Rasaee, Navid Pourzardosht
      Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a high molecular weight linear polysaccharide, endowed with unique physiological and biological properties. Given its unique properties, HA have unprecedented applications in the fields of medicine and cosmetics. The ever growing demand for HA production is the driving force behind the need for finding and developing novel and amenable sources of the HA producers. Microbial fermentation of Streptococcus Zooepidemicus deemed as one the most expeditious and pervasive methods of HA production. Herein, a wild type Streptococcus Zooepidemicus, intrinsically expressing high levels of HA, was selected and optimized for HA production. HasA gene was amplified and introduced into the wild type Streptococcus Zooepidemicus, under the control of Nisin promoter. The HasA over-expression increased the HA production, while the molecular weight was decreased. In order to compensate for molecular weight loss, the glucose concentration was increased to an optimum amount of 90g/L. It is hypostatizes that excess glucose would rectify the distribution of the monomers and each HasA molecule would be provided with sufficient amount of substrates to lengthen the HA molecules. Arriving at an improved strain and optimized cultivating condition would pave the way for industrial grade HA production with high quality and quantity.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:42:09Z
  • High frequency regeneration of plants from cotyledon and hypocotyl
           cultures in Brassica oleracea cv. Pride of India

    • Authors: Geetika Gambhir; Pankaj Kumar; DK Srivastava
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Reports
      Author(s): Geetika Gambhir, Pankaj Kumar, DK Srivastava
      Morphogenic potential of cabbage cv. Pride of India, for multiple shoot induction was tested under in vitro conditions using cotyledon and hypocotyl explants. Aseptically grown seven to nine days old seedlings of cabbage were used as source of explants for reproducible plant regeneration studies. Forty different concentrations and combinations of TDZ (alone), TDZ with adenine, TDZ with NAA and TDZ with IAA were tried. Maximum shoot regeneration response from cotyledon explants (91.11%) and hypocotyl (94.40%) was obtained on MS medium containing 0.330mg/l TDZ+79.70mg/l Adenine and 0.220mg/l TDZ+0.088mg/l IAA, respectively. Rooting was achieved within two to three weeks on all the rooting media, but MS medium containing 0.10mg/l NAA produced the maximum number of strong and healthy roots (100%). The regenerated complete plantlets with healthy roots and shoot system were transferred to pots containing sterilized cocopeat and successfully acclimatized and no phenotypic variations were observed among regenerated plants. Highly efficient, reproducible plant regeneration protocol has been standardized in cabbage cv. Pride of India, which would be valuable for Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer studies in cabbage.

      PubDate: 2017-03-02T08:42:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.btre.2017.02.005
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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