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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3134 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-157X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3162 journals]
  • In silico analysis of squalene synthase in Fabaceae family using
           bioinformatics tools

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Zahra Aminfar, Masoud Tohidfar
      Triterpenoid saponins are a diverse group of bioactive compounds, which are used for possessing of many biomedical and pharmaceutical products. Generally, squalene synthase (SQS) is defined as an emerging and essential branch point enzyme far from the major pathway of isoprenoids biosynthetic and a latent adjusting point, which manages carbon flux into triterpenes biosynthesis and sterols. The present study deals with the detailed characterization of SQS by bioinformatics approaches to evaluate physicochemical properties, structural characteristics including secondary and 3D structure prediction and functional analysis from eight plants related to Fabaceae family and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that SQS proteins have two transmembrane regions in the C-terminal. The predicted motifs were used to design universal degenerate primers for PCR analysis and other molecular applications. Phylogenetic analysis showed conserved regions at different stretches with maximum homology in amino acid residues within all SQSs. The secondary structure prediction results showed that the amino acid sequence of all squalene synthases had α helix and random coil as the main components. The reliability of the received model was confirmed using the ProSA and RAMPAGE programs. Determining of active site by CASTp proposes the possibility of using this protein as probable medication target. The findings of the present study may be useful for further assessments on characterization and cloning of squalene synthase.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T21:22:19Z
       
  • Healthcare-associated (HA) and community-associated (CA) methicillin
           resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Bangladesh – Source, diagnosis
           and treatment

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Md. Anowar Khasru Parvez, Rabeya Nahar Ferdous, Md. Shahedur Rahman, Sohidul Islam
      Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has long been a common pathogen in healthcare facilities, but now, it has emerged as a problematic pathogen in the community setting as well. This study reported source, diagnosis and treatment of HA-MRSA and CA-MRSA. A total of sixty-five clinical samples (urine, pus, wound swab) were collected from clinical origin of Dhaka city, Bangladesh. All the isolates were tested phenotypically by conventional methods and genotypically by PCR targeting nuc, pvl and mecA genes. Finally sequencing was carried out for pvl gene to know the mutagenic variation or any amino acid changes in pvl gene. Chi square test was employed for statistical analysis. Patients of age group 51–60 years are more susceptible (46.15%) to MRSA, CA-MRSA or HA-MRSA infection. Female are (32.30%) more susceptible to MRSA infection. Among 65 isolates 53 isolates identified phenotypically as S. aureus. These were positive for amplification of nuc (270 bp) gene of S. aureus. Moreover, among 53 isolates 33 phenotypically considered as MRSA and 38 (72%) showed positive amplification for mecA (162 bp) gene. Among 38 MRSA isolates 22 (57.89%) confirmed as CA-MRSA and 16 (42.10%) as HA-MRSA. Finally, sequence analysis for lukS/F-PV genes from 4 representative isolates detected a new single nucleotide polymorphism in comparison with the control sequence. However, no amino acid changes were found. Statistical analysis showed HA-MRSA isolates were more commonly found in urine sample and CA-MRSA in pus and wound swab. CA-MRSA isolates were more resistant to tested antibiotics than HA-MRSA.

      PubDate: 2018-06-05T20:59:11Z
       
  • In silico studies on bacterial xylanase enzyme: Structural and functional
           insight

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Bhramar Dutta, Aparna Banerjee, Priyanka Chakraborty, Rajib Bandopadhyay
      Xylans are the second most abundant form of hemicelluloses and are the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose. To degrade xylan, microbes produce mainly xylanase enzyme. Wide range of microorganisms like fungi, bacteria, yeast, marine algae etc. are capable of producing xylanase. Main source of xylanase is fungi but industrial production of bacterial xylanase is low cost, easy downstream process and high production rate. To understand primary, secondary and tertiary structure of xylanase, in silico composition of amino acids, basic physiological characteristics; viz., pI, molecular weight, instability index, GRAVY, molar extinction coefficient, secondary structure, presence of functional domain and motifs, phylogenetic tree, salt bridge compositions are determined. In silico study of xylanase focused on 36 different bacterial sources are performed by retrieving FASTA and PDB sequences using RCSB PDB. FASTA and PDB files are proceed further in ExPASy-ProtParam, RAMPAGE, QMEAN, MEME, PSIPRED, InterProScan, MOTIF scan, ERRAT, Peptide cutter, ESBRI and MEGA 7. The instability index range (16.90–38.78) clearly indicates that the protein is highly stable. α-helix mean value (27.11%) infers the protein is dominated by α-helix region. The aliphatic index (39.80–90.68) gives information that the protein is highly thermostable, prevalence by alanine amino acid in aliphatic side chain. No transmembrane domain was found in the protein which confirms the enzyme is extracellular in nature. Ancestor chart analysis confirmed that it is a part of carbohydrate metabolic process and more specifically a member of glycoside hydrolase super family.

      PubDate: 2018-06-02T20:42:44Z
       
  • Increased level of B cell differentiation factor in systemic lupus
           erythematosus patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Hala Zaki Raslan, Hiba Sibaii, Salwa Refat El- Zayat, Hagar Hassan, Mahitab El- Kassaby
      Most autoimmune disease are driven by a dysfunction in T and B cells, but B cells are still an interesting area of research, perturbations in their development are implicated in autoimmune diseases. B cell differentiating factor (BCDF) plays a part in the differentiation of B cells. The aim was To assess the levels of BCDF, IgM and IgG in SLE patients and whether they have any peculiarity in the clinical context of SLE. Thirty six patients with SLE and 24 healthy volunteers as control were enrolled in the study. BCDF was measured using Sandwich ELISA, total human IgM and IgG were measured by calorimetric methods. The mean concentrations of BCDF and IgM were significantly higher in patients with SLE as compared with controls (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001 respectively). No significant difference was observed as regard IgG. We observed positive correlation between BCDF and IgM (r = 0.281, P = 0.03), and between IgG and IgM, duration of the disease (r = 0.468, P = 0.004, r = 0.337, P = 0.008 respectively). Moreover we observed lower IgM level in patients with discoid lesion (P = 0.009) and lower IgG level in those with hematologic manifestations (P = 0.02). ROC analysis revealed area under curve (AUC) 0.861 for BCDF and 0.902 for IgM, they can delineate SLE from controls at a cut-off value of 98.5 pg/ml, and 18 mg/dl IgM respectively. Conclusion BCDF and IgM are increased in SLE patients and are promissing diagnostic markers for SLE.

      PubDate: 2018-05-30T20:15:43Z
       
  • Biodegradation of feather waste by keratinase produced from newly isolated
           Bacillus licheniformis ALW1

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Azza M. Abdel-Fattah, Mamdouh S. El-Gamal, Siham A. Ismail, Mohamed A. Emran, Amal M. Hashem
      Keratinase are proteolytic enzymes which have gained much attention to convert keratinous wastes that cause huge environmental pollution problems. Ten microbial isolates were screened for their keratinase production. The most potent isolate produce 25.2 U/ml under static condition and was primarily identified by partial 16s rRNA gene sequence as Bacillus licheniformis ALW1. Optimization studies for the fermentation conditions increased the keratinase biosynthesis to 72.2 U/ml (2.9-fold). The crude extracellular keratinase was optimally active at pH 8.0 and temperature 65 °C with 0.7% soluble keratin as substrate. The produced B. licheniformis ALW1 keratinase exhibited a good stability over pH range from 7 to 9 and over a temperature range 50–60 °C for almost 90 min. The crude enzyme solution was able to degrade native feather up to 63% in redox free system.

      PubDate: 2018-05-30T20:15:43Z
       
  • Bioprospecting of indigenous resources for the exploration of
           exopolysaccharide producing lactic acid bacteria

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Syeda Bushra Zafar, Nadir Naveed Siddiqui, Faiza Shahid, Shah Ali Ul Qader, Afsheen Aman
      Exploration of biodiversity lead towards the discovery of novel exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing microbes that have multiple applications. The safety compatibility status of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) makes it an attractive candidate for the production of EPS in industries. Therefore, new bacterial isolates are continuously being identified from different habitats. Current research was conducted to explore indigenous biodiversity for the production of dextransucrase, which is involved in the synthesis of dextran. Dextran is an EPS which is used in different industries. In this study, thirty-nine LAB were isolated from different food samples. The isolates were identified as genus Leuconostoc, Weissella and Streptococcus based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics. Screening revealed that only eight isolates can produce dextransucrase in high titres. Fermentation conditions of dextran producing LAB was optimized. The results indicated that Weissella confusa exhibited maximum specific activity (1.50 DSU mg−1) in 8 h at 25 °C with pH 7.5. Dextran produced from Weissella proved to be a useful alternative to commercially used dextran produced by Leuconostoc mesenteroides in industries for various applications.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Production and characterisation of exopolysaccharide from Streptomyces
           carpaticus isolated from marine sediments in Egypt and its effect on
           breast and colon cell lines

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Manal S. Selim, Shaimaa K. Amer, Sahar S. Mohamed, Marwa M. Mounier, Hala M. Rifaat
      Twenty streptomycete strains were isolated from marine sediment samples collected from Nabq area, Sharm El-Sheikh, Red Sea Coast, Egypt. Four of them produce exopolysaccharides (EPS) showing marked in vitro antitumor activities. Morphological and cultural characteristics of the most significant strain (No. 3) were shown. Moreover, the sequence of this strain showed similarity with Streptomyces carpaticus. The results reveal that EPS produced by Streptomyces carpaticus No. 3 had high cytotoxicity reaching 51.7% and 59.1% against human tumor cells of breast and colon lines respectively. A chemical analysis of EPS indicated that the composing monosaccharides were galactouronic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, mannose, and fructose with relative ratio of 3:1:1:2:2:1 respectively, with an average molecular weight (Mw) 1.180×105 g/mol and of a number average molecular weight (Mn) 1.052×105 g/mol. Also the EPS contained uronic acid (0.5072%) and monosaccharide sulphates (21.753%).

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Partial purification and characterization of serine protease produced
           through fermentation of organic municipal solid wastes by Serratia
           marcescens A3 and Pseudomonas putida A2

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Asif Iqbal, Al Hakim, Md. Saddam Hossain, Mohammad Rejaur Rahman, Kamrul Islam, Md. Faisal Azim, Jahed Ahmed, Md. Assaduzzaman, Md. Mozammel Hoq, Abul Kalam Azad
      Proteolytic bacteria isolated from municipal solid wastes (MSW) were identified as Serratia marcescens A3 and Pseudomonas putida A2 based on 16S rDNA sequencing. Protease produced through fermentation of organic MSW by these bacteria under some optimized physicochemical parameters was partially purified and characterized. The estimated molecular mass of the partially purified protease from S. marcescens and P. putida was approximately 25 and 38 kDa, respectively. Protease from both sources showed low Km 0.3 and 0.5 mg ml−1 and high Vmax 333 and 500 µmole min−1 at 40 °C, and thermodynamics analysis suggested formation of ordered enzyme-substrate (E-S) complexes. The activation energy (Ea) and temperature quotient (Q10) of protease from S. marcescens and P. putida were 16.2 and 19.9 kJ/mol, and 1.4 and 1.3 at temperature range from 20 to 40 °C, respectively. Protease of the both bacterial isolates was serine and cysteine type. The protease retained approximately 97% of activity in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate. It was observed that the purified protease of S. marcescens could remove blood stains from white cotton cloth and degrade chicken flesh remarkably. Our study revealed that organic MSW can be used as raw materials for bacterial protease production and the protease produced by S. marcescens A3 might be potential for applications.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Isolation, partial purification, biochemical characterization and
           detergent compatibility of alkaline protease produced by Bacillus
           subtilis, Alcaligenes faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa obtained from
           sea water samples

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sarika Kedar Marathe, Manisha Arun Vashistht, Aishwarya Prashanth, Nikhat Parveen, Shailayee Chakraborty, Sindhu S. Nair
      In the current study, bacteria isolated from sea water samples of Murdeshwar, Karnataka, were screened for the production of alkaline protease by culturing them onto skim milk agar media. Of the isolated bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes faecalis showed distinct zones of hydrolysis due to enzyme production. They were each inoculated into enzyme production media under submerged fermentation conditions at 37 °C for 48 h with a constant agitation of 120 rpm. Partial purification of alkaline protease was carried out by isoelectric precipitation. Enzyme activity was determined under varying conditions of pH, incubation temperature, different substrates, carbon and nitrogen sources and salt concentrations using sigma’s universal protease activity assay. Enzyme immobilization was carried out using 2% Sodium alginate and 0.1 M ice cold CaCl2 and its activity under varying pH, temperature conditions and detergent compatibility was assayed. Efficacy of enzyme in stain removal was tested and haemolysis was observed within of 60 s which resulted in removal of the stain. Among the three organisms, enzyme from Bacillus subtilis showed highest activity in all cases indicating that it was the most ideal organism for enzyme production.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Impact of Apo E gene polymorphism on HCV therapy related outcome in a
           cohort of HCV Egyptian patients

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Howayda E. Gomaa, Mohamed Mahmoud, Nevine E. Saad, Amal Saad-Hussein, Somaia Ismail, Eman H. Thabet, Hebatallah Farouk, Dina Kandil, Ahmed Heiba, Wael Hafez
      The functional apolipoprotein E (Apo E) gene polymorphism could be used as a determinant of outcome of HCV infection. This study aimed to demonstrate the impact of Apo E genotype on the response to HCV combined therapy. Material and methods: The study has been implemented on 125 individuals with persistent HCV infection and 120 cases with sustained virologic response (SVR). All participants were genotyped for ApoE gene polymorphism by a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). Results: Statistically significant differences were demonstrated regarding the Apo E genotypes between the two groups (P-value < .001) where the frequency of E3E3 was significantly higher among the chronic HCV-patients while E3E4 and E4E4 genotypes frequencies were higher among the SVR-subjects group and E3E3 genotype was associated with increased risk of chronicity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 1.9–12.1, P-value < .001). Moreover, There were statically significant differences regarding E3 and E4 alleles frequencies, where E3 allele display a higher frequency among the chronic HCV-patient group while the SVR-subjects group showed higher frequency of E4 allele and the carriers of E3 allele have 1.4 times more risk to develop chronicity than those with E4 allele (OR 1.4; 95% CI 1.0–2.0, P-value < .05). Meanwhile the protective E2 allele was absent in all infected participants. Conclusion: This study supports the hypothesis of the protective impact of Apo E4 allele that favors viral clearance of HCV infection and its recovery after combined therapy, while the Apo E3 allele is considered as a particular risk factor for the chronicity in HCV patients and resistance to therapy. Whereas the Apo E2 allele confers a resistance to HCV infection at a time of exposure.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Effect of vitamin A deficiency on thymosin-β4 and CD4 concentrations

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Salwa Refat El-Zayat, Hiba Sibaii, Nermine N. Mahfouz, Sara F. Sallam, Reham F. Fahmy, Azza Abd El-Shaheed
      Vitamins are evaluated for their role in immunity. Recently, vitamin A received a particular attention as a critical micronutrient for regulating immune system. Therefore, the present study aimed to search for new about vitamin A. Forty-eight Egyptian adults aged from 18 to 42 years old from both sexes were subjected to clinical examination and nutrition questionnaire and were screened for vitamin A by using ELISA method. Forty subjects were selected and subdivided into two groups. Group 1 with vitamin A at level >200 µg/dl consists of 10 healthy subjects. Group 2 with vitamin A deficiency at level <50 µg/dl consists of 30 subjects. Tβ4 and CD4 levels were also determined by a commercial ELISA kit. Results showed a significant decrease in serum levels of Tβ4 and CD4 in group 2 than group 1 at P<.003 and P<.019 respectively. Both of Tβ4 and CD4 had positive correlation with vitamin A level at P<.000 and P<.003 respectively as well as with each other at p<.000. We concluded that vitamin A deficiency may be influence the levels of Tβ4 and CD4.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Differentially expressed genes: OCT-4, SOX2, STAT3, CDH1 and CDH2, in
           cultured mesenchymal stem cells challenged with serum of women with
           endometriosis

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ehab Salama, Ghada Nour Eldeen, Mazen Abdel Rasheed, Sahar Abdel Atti, Amr Elnoury, Tamer Taha, Osama Azmy
      Endometriosis is a common chronic gynecological disorder defined as the presence of ectopic functional endometrial tissues, outside uterine cavity, primarily on the pelvic peritoneum and the ovaries. Several studies revealed a correlation between aberrant stem-cell activity in the endometrium and endometriosis. Yet the molecular and cellular behaviors of mesnchymal stem cells in development of endometriosis are hampered by lack of invitro experiments. Our aim was to explore morphological and molecular changes associated with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) exposition to serum derived from women with severe endometriosis. Two cell cultures of MSCs isolated from endometrial tissues of two endometriosis-free women. Each cell culture was treated individually with the serum of women with endometriosis (experimental group/n= 7), and serum of women without endometriosis (control group/ n=4) for 14 days. Quantitative Real-Time PCR was performed later to reveal expression of OCT-4, CDH1 and CDH2, STAT3 and SOX2 genes. Morphologically, cells showed no significant changes. However from molecular point of view, we found increased expression in OCT-4, CDH1 and CDH2. For STAT3 and SOX2 we did not find a significant difference. This study shows that endometriosis serum induced molecular changes in human endometrial MSCs (EnMSCs) that might be related to altered cell behavior which may be a step in differentiation that may be completed invivo by other factors to complete the process of transition. Further researches are needed for optimization to reach differentiation.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • The sensitivity and efficacy method of PIK3CA exon 9 E545A as a high
           diagnostic accuracy in breast cancer

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Desriani, Fuad Al-Ahwani
      The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PIK3s) are lipid kinases. Mutation in the exon 9 and exon 20 determined as a predictive factor in anti-HER-2 therapy. In some countries, such as Singapore, China, and Peru, PIK3CA exon 9 E545A was reported to produce the highest rate of mutation. In this research, we developed and optimized PIK3CA exon 9 E545A detection methods with intercalating dye SYBR Green I based on the Tm Shift approach by using prepared recombinant plasmid pGEMT-easy PIK3CA exon 9 and PIK3CA exon 9 E545A. Recombinant plasmid was used due to the limited number of samples. Methods Recombinant plasmid was prepared based on manufactured procedures, and this process was then followed by Tm prediction with Poland software, Tm Shift SYBR Green I development, and its characterization (reproducibility, repeatability, sensitivity, qPCR efficiency, and qPCR amplification), respectively. Result A method for PIK3CA E545A detection based on TM shift SYBR Green I has been successfully developed. The melting temperature for PIK3CA exon 9 was 78.1±0.1 °C, while that for PIK3CA exon E545A was 80.20 °C. The Tm of mutant was the same as that predicted using Polland Software. The reproducibility of the methods was high, with the coefficient values for inter and intra assays were below 10% with a high sensitivity at 1%, while R2 0.99 and PCR efficiency was 97.75%. Conclusion The results presented here demonstrate that the PIK3CA exon 9 E545A detection method has a good sensitivity and efficacy assay, which proves that the method has a high diagnostic accuracy in breast cancer.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Identification of Mx gene nucleotide dimorphism (G/A) as genetic marker
           for antiviral activity in Egyptian chickens

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed S. Hassanane, Amal A.M. Hassan, Fatma M. Ahmed, Esteftah M. El-Komy, Khaled M. Roushdy, Nagwa A. Hassan
      Egyptian chickens, representing 2 breeds and 7 strains, were genotyped using the PCR-RFLP and sequencing techniques for detection of a non-synonymous dimorphism (G/A) in exon 14 of chicken Myxovirus resistance (Mx) gene. This dimorphic position is responsible for altering Mx protein’s antiviral activity. Polymerase Chain reactions were performed using Egyptian chickens DNA and specific primer set to amplify Mx DNA fragments of 299 or 301 bp, containing the dimorphic position. Amplicons were cut with restriction enzyme Hpy81. Genotype and allele frequencies for the resistant allele A and sensitive allele G were calculated in all the tested chickens. Results of PCR-RFLP were confirmed by sequencing. The three genotypes AA, AG, GG at the target nucleotide position in Mx gene were represented in all the studied Egyptian chicken breeds and strains except Baladi strain which showed only one genotype AA. The average allele frequency of the resistant A allele in the tested birds (0.67) was higher than the sensitive G allele average frequency in the same birds (0.33). Appling PCR-RFLP technique in the breeding program can be used to select chickens carrying the A allele with high frequencies. This will help in improving poultry breeding in Egypt by producing infectious disease-resistant chickens.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Genetic variability of myostatin and prolactin genes in popular goat
           breeds in Egypt

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Sekena H. Abdel-Aziem, K.F. Mahrous, M.A.M. Abd El-Hafez, M. Abdel Mordy
      The genetic polymorphisms of two functional genes named: myostatin (MSTN) and prolactin (PRL) were investigated in three goat breeds (Barki, Damascus and Zaraibi) using Sanger nucleotide sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) methods, in order to differentiate between these breeds. Nucleotide sequencing of 337 bp MSTN gene detected five SNPs in Barki breed, two SNPs in Damascus breed, while the Zaraibi breed did not show any SNPs. Moreover, MSTN-HaeIII/PCR-RFLP gave a single Genotype BB was found in all the studied breeds. Meanwhile, Nucleotide sequencing of 196 bp PRL gene showed two SNPs in Damascus breed, one SNPs in Zaraibi breed, while the Barki breed did not show any SNPs. Moreover, PRL-Eco24I/PCR-RFLP showed three genotypes (AA, AB and BB). The genotype AB showed the maximum frequency in all the studied breeds (0.75, 0.85, and 0.90 for Damascus, Barki and Zaraibi breeds, respectively). Observed heterozygosity (Ho) value was higher than expected heterozygosity (He) value all studied breeds. In addition, the values of both Ho and He were the highest in Zaraibi breed (0.90 and 0.51 respectively). Chi-square (χ2) value revealed a significant variation Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (P < .05) in the three studied breeds. It is the highest in Zaraibi goats and lowest in Damascus breed. The results demonstrated that the PRL-Eco24I/PCR-RFLP polymorphism may be utilized as effective marker for genetic differentiation between goat breeds, but MSTN-HaeIII/PCR-RFLP revealed no polymorphism or variation, thus it is not recommended in the selection program. Moreover, these results open up interesting prospects for future selection programs, especially marker assisted selection. In addition, the results established that PCR-RFLP method is a suitable tool for calculating genetic variability.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Production and purification of IgY antibodies from chicken egg yolk

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Wala Ahmad Amro, Wael Al-Qaisi, Fawzi Al-Razem
      The isolation of polyclonal antibodies from the serum of immunized mammals has significantly contributed to scientific research and diagnosis. The fact that recent technologies allow the production of antibodies in the yolk of eggs laid by hens, has led to the development of an alternative method for antibody generation that is less stressful to animals. As hens are kept under almost all their natural conditions, antibodies are isolated from the collected eggs; this technology is expected to become an interesting alternative to the conventionally serum-based techniques that eventually require to sacrifice the animal. Here we present a modified protocol for the isolation of IgY antibodies from immunized chickens and provide comparison between two chicken breeds in relative to IgY yield per egg. Our results show the possibility of generating large quantities of highly pure IgY from chicken eggs and also show large differences in the yield of IgY production between the two studied breeds. The results of this work indicate that IgY technology can be used for the production of primary antibodies for immunological work and disease diagnosis.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Evaluation of genetic diversity in wild populations of Peganum harmala L.,
           a medicinal plant

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ranya EL-Bakatoushi, Dalia Gamil Aseel Ahmed
      Peganum harmala L. is a perennial herbaceous plant and can be a future drug due to its wide medicinal purposes. Despite its economic importance, the molecular genetics of P. harmal have not yet been studied in detail. Genetic diversity of 12 P. harmala genotypes were investigated by using Inter-Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR), PCR-RFLP of rDNA-ITS, PCR-SSCP of rDNA-ITS and Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) markers. The level of polymorphism revealed by ITS-SSCP is the lowest, followed by ITS-RFLP then ISSR and the highest polymorphism level was reported for SSR marker. The AMOVA analysis implied that most of the variation occurred within the Populations. A value of inbreeding coefficient F is estimated by the three co-dominant markers was nearly equal and offer an indication of the partial out-crossing reproductive system of P. harmala. Principal Coordinate Analysis (PCOA) plot revealed a clear pattern of clustering based on the locations of collected plants which coincide with the isolation by distance. The study revealed that ITS-SSCP and ISSR markers respectively were more informative than the other used markers in the assessment of genetic diversity of P. harmala. The results reflect the great diversity of P. harmala and data obtained from this study can be used for future collecting missions.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity in Colletotrichum falcatum Went accessions
           based on RAPD and ISSR markers

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Prittesh Patel, B.K. Rajkumar, Preeti Parmar, Rusabh Shah, R. Krishnamurthy
      Sugarcane is susceptible to red rot disease caused by phytopathogenic fungus Colletotrichum falcatum Went which ultimately affect the economy of farmers as well as sugar based industry. One of the various ways to control this devastating disease is to develop disease resistance sugarcane cultivar and this requires the complete understanding of genetic makeup of pathogen. Although South Gujarat is well known sugarcane cultivating area, less published data can be found about PCR-based genetic diversity in prevalent C. falcatum accessions. So, present investigation aims at finding molecular variation among the ten accessions of C. falcatum using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers. A total of 35 RAPD and 39 ISSR primers were screened across 10 C. falcatum accessions, of which 15 RAPD and 21 ISSR primers have showed consistent amplification. Statistics related to genetic variation were estimated using NTSYS-PC by means of Dice’s coefficient. The results revealed 80.6% and 68.07% polymorphism and similarity coefficient ranged from 0.43 to 0.91 and 0.73 to 0.93 in RPAD and ISSR analysis respectively. The dendrogram generated using RAPD, ISSR and combined RAPD-ISSR grouped accessions into different clusters which reveal considerable level molecular variation among the C. falcatum accessions. It is also evident from PCA plots that accessions are rather dispersed with tested marker systems indicating good genetic base. So, in nut shell, we found considerable genetic variation and relatedness within C. falcatum accessions collected from different areas of south Gujarat, India using RAPD and ISSR markers.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Genetic variation of salt-stressed durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp.
           durum Desf.) genotypes under field conditions and gynogenetic capacity

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Olfa Ayed-Slama, Imen Bouhaouel, Zoubeir Chamekh, Youssef Trifa, Ali Sahli, Nadhira Ben Aissa, Hajer Slim-Amara
      Agriculture has new challenges against the climate change: the preservation of genetic resources and the rapid creation of new varieties better adapted to abiotic stress, specially salinity. In this context, the agronomic performance of 25 durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Desf.) genotypes (nineteen landraces and six improved varieties), cultivated in two semi-arid regions in the center area of Tunisia, were assessed. These sites (Echbika, 2.2 g l−1; Barrouta, 4.2 g l−1) differ by their degree of salinity of the water irrigation. The results showed that most of the agronomic traits (e.g. spike per meter square, thousand kernels weight and grain yield) were reduced by salinity. Durum wheat landraces, Mahmoudi and Hmira, and improved varieties, Maali and Om Rabia showed the widest adaptability to different quality of irrigation water. Genotypes including Jneh Kotifa and Arbi were estimated as stable genotypes under adverse conditions. Thereafter, salt-tolerant (Hmira and Jneh Khotifa) and the most cultivated high-yielding (Karim, Razzak and Khiar) genotypes were tested for their gynogenetic ability to obtain haploids and doubled haploid lines. Genotypes with good induction capacity had not necessarily a good capacity of regeneration of haploid plantlets. In our conditions, Hmira and Khiar exhibited the best gynogenetic ability (3.1% and 2.9% of haploid plantlets, respectively).

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Molecular insights into the genetic and haplotype diversity among four
           populations of Catla catla from Madhya Pradesh revealed through mtDNA cyto
           b gene sequences

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): R.K. Garg, Vaishali Mishra
      In the present investigation, the genetic structure of four populations of Catla catla, sequences of mitochondrial gene, cytochrome b (cyto b) from four populations were sequenced and analyzed. The sequences of mitochondrial regions revealed high haplotype diversity and low nucleotide diversity. The lowest 249 polymorphic sites and 0.00 parsimony informative sites were detected in populations of Fish Federation Pond (CCFFB) whereas highest 330 polymorphic sites and 56 parsimony informative sites were detected in populations of Narmada River (CCNRH) in the cyto b gene sequences in Catla catla populations. The twelve different haplotypes were detected among the four populations studied, lowest population specific haplotype as 2.00 was observed in Fish Federation Pond (CCFFB) and highest was in Population of Narmada River and Tighra reservoir. Sequencing of cyto b gene revealed 12 number of haplotypes (h) with haplotype (gene) diversity (Hd) 0.8736 and nucleotide diversity (π) 0.6474. These data clearly indicated that, feral/wild population showing highest values of polymorphisms, parsimony, haplotype diversity showing good, healthy habitat is lotic water (Narmada River) and lentic water body (Tighra reservoir). The results also concluded that the partial cyto b is polymorphic and can be a potential marker to determine ecological habitat based genetic differentiation among the populations.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Effect of plant growth regulators on indirect shoot organogenesis of Ficus
           religiosa through seedling derived petiole segments

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohsen Hesami, Mohammad Hosein Daneshvar, Mohsen Yoosefzadeh-Najafabadi, Milad Alizadeh
      Ficus religiosa is known as a long-lived multipurpose forest tree. The tree plays an important role for religious, medicinal, and ornamental purposes. However, the propagation rate of Ficus religiosa is low in natural habitat so the plant tissue culture techniques are an applicable method for multiplication of this valuable medicinal plants. Thus, the aim of this study is to understand the effect of different auxin/cytokinin ratios on indirect shoot organogenesis of this plant. According to our results, the maximum callus induction frequency (100%) was obtained on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) plus 0.05 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) from petiole segments. For shoot induction purpose, the yellow-brownish, friable, organogenic calli were inoculated on shoot induction medium. On MS medium supplemented with 1.5 mg/l BAP and 0.15 mg/l Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), 96.66% of the petiole-derived calli responded with an average number of 3.56 shoots per culture. The highest root formation frequency (96.66%), root number (5.5), and root length (4.83 cm) were achieved on MS medium containing 2.0 mg/l IBA plus 0.1 mg/l Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA). The rooted shoots were successfully transferred to field condition and the substrate with the mixture of cocopeat and perlite (1:1) had the highest survival rate (96.66%). This is the first report of an effective in vitro organogenesis protocol for F. religiosa by indirect shoot organogenesis through axenic seedling derived petiole explants, which can be efficiently employed for conservation of this important medicinal plant species as well as the utilization of active biomolecules.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Optimization of germination, callus induction, and cell suspension culture
           of African locust beans Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Benth

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mohamed S. Abbas, Hattem M. El-Shabrawi, Amira Sh. Soliman, Mai A. Selim
      The present study was carried out to determine the best pre-sowing treatments that can enhance the germination and seedling growth of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) Also, to establish and long-term maintenance of calli and cell suspension cultures . The result of various pre-sowing treatments showed that seeds soaked in concentrated H2SO4 treatment appeared the highest germination percentage, higher value of plant height, number of leaves, number of branches and stem girth. The MS medium containing 1mg/l 2, 4-D was the best for callus induction of stem explants. The addition of 50mg /l citric acid to the MS medium was effective for reducing browning of callus than other treatments. However, the viability percent recorded the maximum (87.76%) on the 9th day while the concentration of viable cells per ml reached the higher record (137.5 viable cell/ml) at the 12th and cell viability remains (≈ 68.39%) throughout 18 days of culture

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Influence of PEG induced drought stress on molecular and biochemical
           constituents and seedling growth of Egyptian barley cultivars

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): F.A. Hellal, H.M. El-Shabrawi, M. Abd El-Hady, I.A. Khatab, S.A.A. El-Sayed, Chedly Abdelly
      In order to investigate the effects of drought stress on germination components of barley cultivars, a laboratory experiment was conducted in a factorial randomized complete design with four replications. The controlled experiment included ten of Egyptian barley cultivars namely; (Giza 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 134, 135 and 2000) as first factor. The second factor included 4 levels of drought stress inducer by applying 0, 5, 10 and 20% of polyethylene glycol-6000 (PEG) which is equivalent to four osmotic potential levels including −0.001, −0.27, −0.54 and −1.09 MPa, respectively. The results showed that, the highest reduction was related to the drought level of 20% PEG among the barley cultivars. The best cultivars in terms of germination traits were Giza 134, Giza 127, and Giza 126 this indicate their tolerance to drought stress and Giza 130, 135, 2000 cultivars was moderately tolerance and remaining is less tolerance. The protein band 27 kDa and 78 kDa showed high intensity after stress in almost all cultivars. Those two protein bands their exciting was very clear in treated barley leaf tissue. It could be related to dehydrine and oxygen evolving enhancer protein 2 (OEE2) which involved in drought stress tolerance response. Cultivars Giza 127, 130 and 134 showed highest tolerance response under drought stress. The antioxidant enzymes PAGE pattern of Peroxidase (POX), Sodium dismutase (SOD) and Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) for Barley cultivars under drought stress revealed a high activities for Giza 126, 127, 134, 136 and 2000 under −0.5 MPa osmotic stress by PEG in most of their isoforms. Based on similarity coefficient values the highest values were 1.0 with 100% similarly between tolerant cultivars Giza 130 and Giza 127. Similarly between the susceptible cultivars 125 and Giza 129 was 60%.These data confirmed by the growth parameters which we ranked as tolerant to drought stress.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Study the influence of culture conditions on rennin production by
           Rhizomucor miehei using solid-state fermentations

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Houthail Alahmad Aljammas, Hassan Al Fathi, Walid Alkhalaf
      Investigations were conducted on the production of Rennin enzyme from the fungi Rhizomucor miehei 3420 NRRL using Solid-State fermentation. Wheat bran was used as a substrate. The influence of moisture content, incubation temperature, and the initial pH of fermentation medium were studied. The protein content, milk clotting activity (MCA), specific activity, proteolytic activity (PA), and (MCA/PA) ratio of the extracted enzyme were calculated after 4days of incubation to evaluate the quality of the enzyme. The results showed that the optimal conditions for production were as follows: incubation temperature of 40°C, moisture content of 60%, and pH of (3). Under these conditions, a production process of Rennin enzyme was established, and the values of protein content, milk clotting activity, specific activity, proteolytic activity, and (MCA/PA) ratio reached to 4mg/mL, 600SU/mL, 150SU/mg, 45PU/mL, 13.3 respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Detecting protein complexes based on a combination of topological and
           biological properties in protein-protein interaction network

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Pooja Sharma, D.K. Bhattacharyya, J.K. Kalita
      Protein complexes are known to play a major role in controlling cellular activity in a living being. Identifying complexes from raw protein protein interactions (PPIs) is an important area of research. Earlier work has been limited mostly to yeast. Such protein complex identification methods, when applied to large human PPIs often give poor performance. We introduce a novel method called CSC to detect protein complexes. The method is evaluated in terms of positive predictive value, sensitivity and accuracy using the datasets of the model organism, yeast and humans. CSC outperforms several other competing algorithms for both organisms. Further, we present a framework to establish the usefulness of CSC in analyzing the influence of a given disease gene in a complex topologically as well as biologically considering eight major association factors.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • A common neighbor based technique to detect protein complexes in PPI
           networks

    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 16, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mokhtarul Haque, Rosy Sarmah, Dhruba K. Bhattacharyya
      Detection of protein complexes by analyzing and understanding PPI networks is an important task and critical to all aspects of cell biology. We present a technique called PROtein COmplex DEtection based on common neighborhood (PROCODE) that considers the inherent organization of protein complexes as well as the regions with heavy interactions in PPI networks to detect protein complexes. Initially, the core of the protein complexes is detected based on the neighborhood of PPI network. Then a merging strategy based on density is used to attach proteins and protein complexes to the core-protein complexes to form biologically meaningful structures. The predicted protein complexes of PROCODE was evaluated and analyzed using four PPI network datasets out of which three were from budding yeast and one from human. Our proposed technique is compared with some of the existing techniques using standard benchmark complexes and PROCODE was found to match very well with actual protein complexes in the benchmark data. The detected complexes were at par with existing biological evidence and knowledge.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Purification and characterization of alkaline protease with novel
           properties from Bacillus cereus strain S8

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): B.K.M Lakshmi, D. Muni Kumar, K.P.J Hemalatha
      Proteases are the hydrolytic enzymes which hydrolyzes peptide bond between proteins with paramount applications in pharmaceutical and industrial sector. Therefore production of proteases with efficient characteristics of biotechnological interest from novel strain is significant. Hence, in this study, an alkaline serine protease produced by Bacillus cereus strain S8 (MTCC NO 11901) was purified and characterized. The alkaline protease was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation (50%), ion exchange (DEAE-Cellulose) and gel filtration (Sephadex G-100) chromatographic techniques. As a result of this purification, a protein with specific activity of 300U/mg protein was obtained with purification fold 17.04 and recovery percentage of 34.6%. The molecular weight of the purified protease was determined using SDS-PAGE under non-reducing (71 kDa) and reducing conditions (35 kDa and 22 kDa). Zymogram analysis revealed that proteolytic activity was only associated with 22 kDa. These results indicate that existence of the enzyme as dimer in its native state. The molecular weight of the protease (22 kDa) was also determined by gel filtration (Sephadex G-200) chromatography and it was calculated as 21.8 kDa. The optimum activity of the protease was observed at pH 10.0 and temperature 70 °C with great stability towards pH and temperature with casein as a specific substrate. The enzyme was completely inhibited by PMSF and TLCK indicating that it is a serine protease of trypsin type. The enzyme exhibits a great stability towards organic solvents, oxidizing and bleaching agents and it is negatively influenced by Li2+ and Co2+ metal ions. The purified protein was further characterized by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization/Mass Spectroscopy (MALDI/MS) analysis which reveals that total number of amino acids is 208 with isoelectric point 9.52.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Enhancement of nematicidal potential through cloning and expression of
           chitinase gene from Bacillus subtilis subsp. Subtilis BTN7A strain

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Mohamed S. Abdel-Salam, Hoda H. Ameen, Abdallah S.M. Kassab, Ahmed E.A. Mahgoob, Usama S. Elkelany
      A gene encoding chitinase from B. subtilis has been isolated after optimization of PCR conditions. It was cloned with two different prometers, T7 promoter of the pJET1.2/blunt cloning vector and the SP6 promoter of pGEM®-T Easy vector. After transforming E. coli DH5α, two transformants were selected, CHI-NRC-4 from the first vector and T-CHI-NRC-6 from the second vector, and used for further studies. The complete CDS sequence of chitinase gene was determined and submitted to GenBank with the accession number KX268692.1. Culture supernatants of E. coli (CHI-NRC-4) and E. coli (T-CHI-NRC-6) were investigated for their inhibitory effect on M. javanica egg hatch under laboratory conditions. Result showed up to 96% inhibition in egg hatching due to both E. coli transformants as compared to control which reflect the same expression efficiency of both used prometers. A greenhouse experiment was carried out to evaluate the nematicidal effect of culture supernatants of the two transformts E. coli (CHI-NRC-4) and E. coli (T-CHI-NRC-6) against M. javanica infected eggplant. Obtained results showed a significant reduction in nematode population in soil and roots and enhancement in eggplant growth parameters as compared to control.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Molecular diversity of internal transcribed spacer among the monoconidial
           isolates of Magnaporthe oryzae isolated from rice in Southern Karnataka,
           India

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): D. Jagadeesh, M.K. Prasanna Kumar, R. Chandrakanth, N.S. Devaki
      Blast disease of rice plant is caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (anamorph Pyricularia oryzae). This disease is recognized to be one of the most serious diseases of rice crop around the world. A total of 72 monoconidial isolates of M. oryzae obtained from blast disease samples collected around Southern Karnataka were characterized using internal transcribed spacers of the ribosomal DNA sequences. These were analyzed by comparing with already deposited sequences in GenBank database. It helped in diagnosing the invasive pathogen in all locations. Variability of rDNA sequences was found to be highly polymorphic with 0.068962 nucleotide diversity showing 6 distinct clades. 33 haplotype groups were identified with haplotype diversity of 0.8881 and Tajima's neutrality test with a D value of −1.96827 with P < 0.05 showing the presence of variations among the sequences of pathogen isolates. The Tajima’s D value of less than one indicates the presence of a high number of rare alleles. Our study indicates that the pathogen might have undergone recent selection pressure because of the exposure to a large number of cultivars resulting in the evolution of rare alleles. This shows the importance of characterizing internal transcribed spacer (ITS) to know pathogen diversity and its fitness which has potential to contribute to the field of breeding for blast disease resistance.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Study on the potential of cold-active lipases from psychrotrophic fungi
           for detergent formulation

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sanjay Sahay, Deepak Chouhan
      Lipases from psychrotrophic fungal isolates BPF4 and BPF6 identified as Penicilium canesense and Pseudogymnoascus roseus respectively were characterized for their compatibility towards laundry detergent. BPF4 and BPF6 lipases showed maximum activity at pH 11 and 9 respectively and at 40 °C. The residual activities at 20 °C and 4 °C of BPF4 lipase were 35% and 20% and of BPF6 lipase were 70% and 20 °C respectively. Both the enzymes were stable at 4 °C, 20 °C and 40 °C for 2 h losing at the most 20% of activities. Both the enzymes were metalloenzymes with activity enhancement by nearly threefold by Ca2+. Contrary to BPF6 lipase, BPF4 enzyme was not stimulated by EDTA nor inhibited, rather stimulated by SDS and Triton X-100 by 125% and 330% respectively. Both the lipases showed minor to moderate inhibition by NaClO3 and H2O2, and exhibited nearly 90% residual activity after 1 h of incubation in selected detergent brands thus indicating potential for their inclusion in detergent formulation thereby facilitating cold-washing as a step towards mitigation of climate change.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Isolation and characterization of Bacillus sp. strain BC01 from soil
           displaying potent antagonistic activity against plant and fish pathogenic
           fungi and bacteria

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Md Javed Foysal, Asura Khanam Lisa
      Fungal and bacterial pathogens infect a diverse range of hosts including various plant and animal species. Fungal and bacterial diseases, especially of plants and aquatic animals, such as fish, lead to significant damage to crops and aquaculture, respectively, worldwide. The present study was conducted to isolate and characterize potent Bacillus strains with significant antagonistic activity against the major plant and fish pathogenic fungi and bacteria. We randomly collected 22 isolates of Bacillus from the soil, rhizosphere, and sediment from different parts of Bangladesh. Initial characterization, based on in vitro antagonistic activity on the culture plate, resulted in the selection of four gram-positive Bacillus sp. isolates. Among these, the isolate BC01, obtained from soil demonstrated the highest broad-spectrum anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities. We confirmed the genus of BC01 to be Bacillus by morphological and biochemical tests as well as using molecular data analysis tools, including the study of 16s rDNA, phylogenetic relationship, and evolutionary divergence scores. The isolate significantly inhibited the mycelial growth of the plant pathogen, Penicillium digitatum and fish pathogen, Aphanomyces invadans in vitro. The anti-bacterial effect of the isolate was also evaluated against Pseudomonas spp. and Xanthomonas spp., the two deadliest plant pathogens, and Aeromonas veronii, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Streptococcus iniae, three major fish pathogens that are primarily responsible for global aquaculture loss. The results of the present study could pave the way for developing potent drugs to combat microbial infection of plants and fish.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Assessment of genetic diversity in Salvadora persica L. based on inter
           simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genetic marker

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Mohammad Asadi Monfared, Davood Samsampour, Gholam Reza Sharifi-Sirchi, Fatemeh Sadeghi
      Studies on the genetic variation in marginal populations and differentiation between them are essential for assessment of best gene conservation strategies and sampling schemes. In this study, ISSR markers were used to establish the level of genetic relationships and polymorphism 50 genotypes of Salvadora persica collected from 6 different regions of Hormozgan province. The ISSR analysis with 9 anchored primers also generated 105 scorable loci, of which 85 were polymorphic (80.95%). Parameters of genetic diversity and its partitioning were calculated. The genetic analysis demonstrated that S. persica maintain relatively high genetic diversity (PIC was 0.63, Na was 1.27 and Ho and He were 0.15 and 0.17 respectively). The coefficient of genetic differentiation among populations based on FST equaled 0.20. Genetic identities between population's pairs were high (mean I = 0.88). These values are high as compared with other widespread congener species. Cluster analysis based on the Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Averages (UPGMA) revealed 3 main clusters for the ISSR data. The levels of genetic diversity maintained within populations of S. persica indicate that an appropriate sampling design for ex situ safeguarding should capture the majority of genetic diversity found within these taxa to help ensure the long term viability of this species. Furthermore, it could be inferred that ISSR markers are suitable tools for the evaluation of genetic diversity and relationships within the Salvadora persica.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Optimization of novel halophilic lipase production by Fusarium solani
           strain NFCCL 4084 using palm oil mill effluent

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kiptoo Geoffry, Rajeshwara N. Achur
      Among different sources of lipases, fungal lipases have continued to attract a wide range of applications. Further, halophilic lipases are highly desirable for biodiesel production due to the need to mitigate environmental pollution caused as result of extensive use of fossil fuels. However, currently, the high production cost limits the industrial application of lipases. In order to address this issue, we have attempted to optimize lipase production by Fusarium solani NFCCL 4084 and using palm oil mill effluent (POME) based medium. The production was optimized using a combinatory approach of Plackett-Burman (PB) design, one factor at a time (OFAT) design and face centred central composite design (FCCCD). The variables (malt extract, (NH4)2SO4, CaCl2, MgSO4, olive oil, peptone, K2HPO4, NaNO3, Tween-80, POME and pH) were analyzed using PB design and the variables with positive contrast coefficient were found to be K2HPO4, NaNO3, Tween-80, POME and pH. The significant variables selected were further analyzed for possible optimum range by using OFAT approach and the findings revealed that K2HPO4, NaNO3, and Tween-80 as the most significant medium components, and thus were further optimized by using FCCCD. The optimum medium yielded a lipase with an activity of 7.8 U/ml, a significant 3.2-fold increase compared to un-optimized medium. The present findings revealed that POME is an alternative and suitable substrate for halophilic lipase production at low cost. Also, it is clearly evident that the combinatory approach employed here proved to be very effective in producing high activity halophilic lipases, in general.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Detection of myostatin gene MSTN in some goat breeds (Capra hircus)

    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Y.A. Dowidar, M.A. El-Sayed, Aly M. Elrefy, Hytham E. Shoura
      Till now not information about myostatin MSTN gene in Egyptian goat breeds. Here we show more information about MSTN in some Egyptian goat breeds to enrich the database with new sequences for Egyptian goat breeds. Our conducted study focused on detection and identifying the MSTN gene as a candidate gene of the muscles growth trait in three goat breeds (Zaraibi, Baladi and Damascus). We found the similarity between the registered sequences with the accession numbers KY463684 for Zaraibi and KY463685 for Baladi and Chinese goat breeds of the MSTN gene deposited with international gene banks by up to 99% and some other species including sheep, cows and bull breeds with percentages of 95 to 97% and between 95 to 99%, respectively. There is also a correlation between the sequences of the registered pieces of Baladi with KY463686 and Damascus and Chinese breeds with KY441464 of MSTN deposited with international gene banks by up to 99% and some other species including sheep and bull breeds at a ratio of 99% for two pieces. Results demonstrated the deposited sequences of object are part of intron 1, exon 2 is fully sequenced with Zaraibi and Baladi breeds; the intron 1, exon 1 with Baladi breed; and the intron 2, part of exon 3 with Damascus breed. Therefore, the Egyptian goat breeds consider national wealth can be used to develop breeding and improvement programs which helps in more applicable scopes like biotechnology, genetic engineering and molecular biology with the help of bioinformatics tools.

      PubDate: 2018-05-27T19:55:52Z
       
  • Cloning and expression of MPT83 gene from Mycobacterium tuberculosis in E.
           coli BL21 as vaccine candidate of tuberculosis: A preliminary study

    • Authors: Ahyar Ahmad; Rosana Agus; Muh. Nasrum Massi; Rosdiana Natzir; Radha Madhyastha; Harish Kumar Madhyastha; Masugi Maruyama
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ahyar Ahmad, Rosana Agus, Muh. Nasrum Massi, Rosdiana Natzir, Radha Madhyastha, Harish Kumar Madhyastha, Masugi Maruyama
      The appearance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains leading to drug resistance has caused new problems in TB treatment in various parts of the world and forces WHO to declare TB as a global emergency. With the increase of TB drug resistance, it is convinced that a more effective vaccine development will stop the epidemic of TB. Some M. tuberculosis antigens, one of which is MPT83, have been examined as TB vaccine candidate. MPT83 antigen, which is very immunogenic in lipoprotein micro bacteria, is identified as surface cell interrelated to antigen with cytometry circulation. Having TB resistance from BCG vaccine, MPT83 is considered TB vaccine candidate that can protect people against TB at adult age. The purpose of this research is to conduct amplification of MPT83 antigen cloning, and expression of its antigen on E. coli bacteria. From the result of the research, it is expected that raw material to produce TB vaccine as well as a high-quality antigen can be obtained. The band of DNA in PCR product is 660 bp, while the one in pGEMT-Easy-Mpt83 recombinant plasmid is 3678 bp. This is expressed in E. coli BL21 strain and produces 48 kDa protein as well as GST-MPT83 fusion protein.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.04.001
       
  • High level expression and purification of recombinant flounder growth
           hormone in E. coli

    • Authors: Tae-Jin Choi; Temesgen Tola Geletu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Tae-Jin Choi, Temesgen Tola Geletu
      Recombinant flounder growth hormone was overproduced in E. coli by using codon optimized synthetic gene and optimized expression conditions for high level production. The gene was cloned into PET-28a expression vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Induction at lower temperature, lower IPTG concentrations and richer growth media during expression resulted in increased expression level. The protein expression profile was analyzed by SDS-PAGE, the authenticity was confirmed by western blotting and the concentration was determined by Bradford assay. In addition, several attempts were made to produce soluble product and all resulted in insoluble product. The overexpressed protein was efficiently purified from inclusion bodies by moderate speed centrifugation after cell lysis. Among the solubilization buffers examined, buffer with 1% N-lauroylsarcosine in the presence of reducing agent DTT at alkaline pH resulted in efficient solubilization and recovery. The denaturant was removed by filtration and dialysis. The amount of the growth hormone recovered was significantly higher than previous reports that expressed native growth hormone genes in E. coli. The methodology adapted in this study, can be used to produce flounder growth hormone at large scale level so that it can be used in aquaculture. This approach may also apply to other proteins if high level expression and efficient purification is sought in E. coli.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.006
       
  • Micropropagation protocol for Antigonon leptopus an important ornamental
           and medicinal plant

    • Authors: Zenna Fawzia Ghareeb; Lobna S. Taha
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Zenna Fawzia Ghareeb, Lobna S. Taha
      The effect of some factors on in vitro consecutive micropropagation behavior of Antigonon leptopus was examined including those of culture establishment, shootlets multiplication, rooting and acclimatization stages. The highest percent of aseptic cultures and survival of explants (100%) were obtained as a result of using Clorox 10% for 3 min followed by MC 0.1% for 2 min while, using each of them individually (Clorox 20% or MC 0.1%) for 5 min caused the highest percent of shoot formation. During the multiplication stage, the highest percent of shoot formation was reached to 100% with repeating culture of explants (two times) on MS medium supplemented with 2ip at 1.0 and IBA at 0.2 mg/l. The highest numbers of shootlets/explant were obtained when 2.0 mg/l of BAP or 0.5 mg/l BA + 0.2 mg/l of IBA were added to MS culture medium. Culturing the explants on MS medium supplemented with 2ip at 0.5 or 1.0 mg/l each combined with 0.2 mg/l of IBA showed the longest shootlets. Reducing the strength of culture media to ½ or ¾ had promotion effect on rooting formation of shootlets. The best results of plant acclimatization (survival percent, plant height and root length) were obtained by using sand or peat moss soil. The amplified DNA fragments using B7, B9 and C19 primers for mother and micropropagated plants showed that the produced pattern by primer B7 had a maximum number of 10 bands of DNA fragments with molecular size ranging between 1025.57 and 176.36 bp, micropropagated plants showed 95.2% similarity in relation to mother plant.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.008
       
  • Immobilization of thermostable exo-inulinase from mutant thermophilic
           Aspergillus tamarii-U4 using kaolin clay and its application in inulin
           hydrolysis

    • Authors: Emmanuel O. Garuba; Abiodun; A. Onilude
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Emmanuel O. Garuba, Abiodun, A. Onilude
      In this study, attempts were made to immobilize purified exo-inulinase from mutant thermophic Aspergillus tamarii-U4 onto Kaolinite clay by covalent bonding cross-linked with glutaraldehyde with an immobilization yield of 66% achieved. The free and immobilized inulinases were then characterized and characterization of the enzymes revealed that temperature and pH optima for the activity of the free and immobilized enzymes were both 65 °C and pH 4.5 respectively. The free inulinase completely lost its activity after incubation at 65 °C for 6 h while the immobilized inulinase retained 16.4% of its activity under the same condition of temperature and incubation time. The estimated kinetic parameters Km and Vmax for the free inulinase as estimated from Lineweaver-Burk plots were 0.39 mM and 4.21 µmol/min for the free inulinase and 0.37 mM and 4.01 µmol/min for the immobilized inulinase respectively. Inulin at 2.5% (w/v) and a flow rate of 0.1 mL was completely hydrolysed for 10 days at 60 °C in a continuous packed bed column and the operational stability of the system revealed that the half-life of the immobilized inulinase was 51 days. These properties make the immobilized exo-inulinase from Aspergillus tamarii-U4 a potential candidate for the production of fructose from inulin hydrolysis.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.009
       
  • Screening of potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria and production of
           amylase and its partial purification

    • Authors: Tallapragada Padmavathi; Rayavarapu Bhargavi; Purushothama Rao Priyanka; Naige Ranganath Niranjan; Pogakul Veerabhadrappa Pavitra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Tallapragada Padmavathi, Rayavarapu Bhargavi, Purushothama Rao Priyanka, Naige Ranganath Niranjan, Pogakul Veerabhadrappa Pavitra
      Probiotics are the healthy living bacteria when administered in adequate amounts confers health benefits in the host. The main objective of present study was to screen the bacteria for potential probiotic characters and enzyme production. The probiotic characters like tolerance to low pH, bile salts, antibiotic sensitivity, hydrophobicity and auto-aggregation properties were evaluated. Among all isolates Lactobacillus fermentum and Lactobacillus sp G3_4_1TO2 showed maximum potential probiotic characters and produced amylase enzyme by observing the halo zone around the colonies with the diameter 0.9 mm and 1.23 mm. Lactobacillus sp G3_4_1TO2 produced maximum amylase when compared with Lb. fermentum. The protein yield was 55.4% with the specific activity of 88.9 U/mg and obtained 40.8% purification fold. The molecular weight of amylase enzyme determined by SDS PAGE was 95,000 Da. From the present study it was considered that Lactobacillus sp G3_4_1TO2 was a potential probiotic bacteria producing maximum amylase enzyme.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.005
       
  • Screening of anti-inflammatory phytocompounds from Crateva adansonii leaf
           extracts and its validation by in silico modeling

    • Authors: Rathinavel Thirumalaisamy; Subramanian Ammashi; Govarthanan Muthusamy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Rathinavel Thirumalaisamy, Subramanian Ammashi, Govarthanan Muthusamy
      Anti-inflammatory phytocompounds from Crateva adansonii DC leaf extracts were identified by GCMS analysis and its anti-inflammatory potential was evaluated by in silico molecular docking study against inflammatory molecular targets. Three different (Aqueous, Methanol and Petroleum ether) dried leaf extracts of Crateva adansonii were obtained from soxhlet extraction method. Preliminary phytoconstituents analysis of three different leaf extracts of C. adansonii confirmed the presence of various major classes of bioactive phytoconstituents such as polyphenols (tannins and flavonoids), steroids, alkaloid, coumarin, carbohydrate and terpenoids. Among three leaf extracts, methanolic leaf extract possess highest total phenolic content of 77 ± 1.65 µg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g of dry weight of leaf extract, subsequently methanolic leaf extract also shows maximal in vitro antioxidant activity (DPPH scavenging activity) of 71.22 ± 1.32% among three different leaf extracts. GC–MS analysis of petroleum ether leaf extract revealed the presence of nine phytocompounds representing 95.43% peak area percentage, among nine identified phytocompounds three phytocompounds of C. adansonii possess anti-inflammatory property namely phytol, 1-Hexyl-2-Nitrohexane and 2-Isopropyl-5-Methylcyclohexyl 3-(1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-3-Oxobutyl)-Coumarin-4-Yl Carbonate were chosen for in silico molecular docking study against four inflammatory receptor targets (COX-2, TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6) and they shows less binding energy with highest docking score ranging from −15.9500 to 5.0869. The present study substantially indicated and proven that anti-inflammatory potential of phytocompounds from C. adansonii leaf extracts which can be exploited for commercial designing of novel anti-inflammatory drug to treat various inflammatory disorders.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.004
       
  • Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of ginger
           (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizome, callus and callus treated with some
           elicitors

    • Authors: Ammar Mohammed Ahmed Ali; Mawahib ElAmin Mohamed El-Nour; Sakina Mohamed Yagi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ammar Mohammed Ahmed Ali, Mawahib ElAmin Mohamed El-Nour, Sakina Mohamed Yagi
      The present study was aimed at determining total phenolic and flavonoid contents and studying the antioxidant activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) rhizome and callus, 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol and callus treated with elicitors. Petroleum ether (PE) and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) (CM) extracts were prepared by maceration. Highest total phenolic content was obtained from the CM extract (60.34 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid/g) of rhizome while callus showed lower content detected in the CM extract (33.6 ± 0.07 mg gallic acid/g). Flavonoids were only detected in rhizome (CM extract 40.25 ± 0.21 mg quercetin/g). Both rhizome extracts exhibited good antioxidant activity with higher activity recorded in PE extract (IC50 value 8.29 ± 1.73 μg/mL). Callus extracts revealed lower antioxidant activity (IC50 value 1265.49 ± 59.9 μg/mL obtained from CM extract). 6-gingerol and 6-shogaol displayed high antioxidant activity in both assays with IC50 4.85 + 0.58DPPH and 5.35 ± 0.33ABTS μg/mL for the former and IC50 7.61 ± 0.81DPPH and IC50 7.05 ± 0.23ABTS μg/mL for the latter. Treatment of callus with elicitors showed significant (p < 0.05) effects in enhancing phenolic content and related antioxidant activity. The highest significant increase in phenolic content (37% and 34%) and antioxidant activity in DPPH assay (34% and 30%) was observed in callus treated with 100 mg/L yeast extract and 50 mg/L salicylic acid respectively. Therefore, studying the effect of the elicitation of ginger cultured tissues in phenolic accumulation would be of immense importance for pharmacological, cosmetic and agronomic industries.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T10:22:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.003
       
  • Omics based approach for biodiscovery of microbial natural products in
           antibiotic resistance era

    • Authors: N. Chandra Mohana; H.C. Yashavantha Rao; D. Rakshith; P.R. Mithun; B.R. Nuthan; S. Satish
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): N. Chandra Mohana, H.C. Yashavantha Rao, D. Rakshith, P.R. Mithun, B.R. Nuthan, S. Satish
      The need for a new antibiotic pipeline to confront threat imposed by resistant pathogens has become a major global concern for human health. To confront the challenge there is a need for discovery and development of new class of antibiotics. Nature which is considered treasure trove, there is re-emerged interest in exploring untapped microbial to yield novel molecules, due to their wide array of negative effects associated with synthetic drugs. Natural product researchers have developed many new techniques over the past few years for developing diverse compounds of biopotential. Taking edge in the advancement of genomics, genetic engineering, in silico drug design, surface modification, scaffolds, pharmacophores and target-based approach is necessary. These techniques have been economically sustainable and also proven efficient in natural product discovery. This review will focus on recent advances in diverse discipline approach from integrated Bioinformatics predictions, genetic engineering and medicinal chemistry for the synthesis of natural products vital for the discovery of novel antibiotics having potential application.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.006
       
  • Down-regulation of circulating microRNA let-7a in Egyptian smokers

    • Authors: Sanaa A. Rizk; Fateheya M. Metwally; Asmaa M. Elfiky; Asmaa A. Mahmoud; Nadia A. Badawi; Nevin E. Sharaf; Mahmoud M. Elhefnawi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sanaa A. Rizk, Fateheya M. Metwally, Asmaa M. Elfiky, Asmaa A. Mahmoud, Nadia A. Badawi, Nevin E. Sharaf, Mahmoud M. Elhefnawi
      Altered miRNAs were associated with cigarette smoking. The study aimed to examine the gene expression level of plasma let-7a among healthy smokers and compared it with the non-smokers. Forty subjects were recruited for the present study and classified into 21 smokers and 19 non-smokers, age, and sex were matched. The software that used to design functional primers was MIRprimer. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to compare the relative expression of plasma let-7a. Results showed that the level of let-7a was down-regulated in smokers to 0.34fold (p = 0.006) that of the non-smokers. Plasma let-7a showed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.749 with sensitivity 43% and specificity 100%. In conclusion, plasma let-7a was significantly down-regulated in the smokers, and it might be considered a candidate biomarker to discriminate between smokers and non-smokers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.003
       
  • Green synthesis of zero valent colloidal nanosilver targeting A549 lung
           cancer cell: In vitro cytotoxicity

    • Authors: Minakshi Jha; Navinchandra G. Shimpi; S.S. Sonawane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Minakshi Jha, Navinchandra G. Shimpi, S.S. Sonawane
      An eco-friendly green approach was proposed to synthesise stable, cytotoxic colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Momordica charantia (M. charantia) fruit extract. Bioinspired green method adopted for fabrication of AgNPs because of easy, fast, low-cost and benign bioprocess. Phytocomponents played the crucial role in capping, stabilisation and inherent cytotoxic potential of colloidal nanosilver. The physiochemical, crystalline, optical and morphological properties of AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and AFM. FT-IR reveals the presence of carbonyl, methyl, polyphenol (flavonoid), primary and secondary amine (protein), carboxyl group, ester as major functional groups over the surface of nanomaterials. Mechanistic pathway for formation and stabilisation of colloidal nanosilver has been discussed. Average crystalline size of AgNPs was found to be 12.55 nm from XRD. TEM shows AgNPs nanosphere with size range 1–13.85 nm. Consistency in spherical morphology was also confirmed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM measurement provided image Rq value 3.62, image Ra 2.47, roughness Rmax 36.4 nm, skewness 1.99 and kurtosis 9.87. The SRB assay revealed substantial in vitro noticeable anti-cancer activity of colloidal nanosilver on A549 and HOP-62 human lung cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 value of 51.93 µg/ml and 76.92 µg/ml. In addition, M. charantia capped AgNPs were found to be more biocompatible in comparison to M. charantia FE. Our study demonstrated the integration of green chemistry principle in nanomaterials fabrication and focused on the potential use of M. charantia fruit extract as an efficient precursor for biocompatible AgNPs anodrug formulation with improved cytotoxic applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.001
       
  • Augmented cellulase production by Bacillus subtilis strain MU S1 using
           different statistical experimental designs

    • Authors: C.P. Sreena; Denoj Sebastian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): C.P. Sreena, Denoj Sebastian
      The production of cellulase by Bacillus subtilis MU S1, a strain isolated from Eravikulam National Park, was optimized using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and statistical methods. Physical parameters like incubation temperature and agitation speed were optimized using OFAT and found to be 40 °C and 150 rpm, respectively, whereas, medium was optimized by statistical tools. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was employed to screen the significant variables that highly influence cellulase production. The design showed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), yeast extract, NaCl, pH, MgSO4 and NaNO3 as the most significant components that affect cellulase production. Among these CMC, yeast extract, NaCl and pH showed positive effect whereas MgSO4 and NaNO3 were found to be significant at their lower levels. The optimum levels of the components that positively affect enzyme production were determined using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Three factors namely CMC, yeast extract and NaCl were studied at five levels whilst pH of the medium was kept constant at 7. The optimal levels of the components were CMC (13.46 g/l), yeast extract (8.38 g/l) and NaCl (6.31 g/l) at pH 7. The maximum cellulase activity in optimized medium was 566.66 U/ml which was close to the predicted activity of 541.05 U/ml. Optimization of physical parameters and medium components showed an overall 3.2-fold increase in activity compared to unoptimized condition (179.06 U/ml).

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.005
       
  • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles formation from Caesalpinia
           pulcherrima stem metabolites and their broad spectrum biological
           activities

    • Authors: Pooja Moteriya; Sumitra Chanda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Pooja Moteriya, Sumitra Chanda
      The present work illustrates eco-friendly, rapid and cost effective method of AgNPs synthesis using C. pulcherrima stem extract. Initially, various physico chemical factors were optimized. Characterization was done by different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. AgNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs showed good synergistic antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity effect against HeLa cancer cell line was dose dependent while genotoxic study revealed the non toxic nature of AgNPs at lower concentration. The results suggest that AgNPs from C. pulcherrima stem extract have great potential in biomedical applications.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.003
       
  • Molecular detection and PCR-RFLP analysis using Pst1 and Alu1 of multidrug
           resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae causing urinary tract infection in women
           in the eastern part of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Golam Mahmudunnabi; Al Nahian Khan Majlish; Farhana Momtaz; Md Javed Foysal; Md Mahbubur Rahman; Kamrul Islam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Golam Mahmudunnabi, Al Nahian Khan Majlish, Farhana Momtaz, Md Javed Foysal, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Kamrul Islam
      Klebsiella pneumoniae is the second leading causative agent of UTI. In this study, a rapid combined polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed to identify K. pneumoniae in women, infected with urinary tract infection in the Sylhet city of Bangladesh. Analysis of 11 isolates from women at the age range of 20–55 from three different hospitals were done firstly by amplification with K. pneumoniae specific ITS primers. All of the 11 collected isolates were amplified in PCR and showed the expected 136 bp products. Then, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 11 isolates were conducted after PCR amplification by 16s rRNA universal primers, followed by subsequent digestion and incubation with two restriction enzymes, Pst1 and Alu1. Seven out of 11 isolates were digested by Pst1 restriction enzymes, six isolates digested by Alu1, and while others were negative for both enzymes. Data results reveal that, women at age between 25 and 50 were digested by both enzymes. A woman aged over than 50 was negative while bellow 20 was digested by only Pst1. The results could pave the tactic for further research in the detection of K. pneumoniae from UTI infected women.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.004
       
  • Overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp) gene in transgenic
           cassava results in enhanced tolerance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.
           sp. manihotis

    • Authors: Patroba Odeny Ojola; Evans N. Nyaboga; Paul N. Njiru; George Orinda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Patroba Odeny Ojola, Evans N. Nyaboga, Paul N. Njiru, George Orinda
      Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the most important staple food for more than 300 million people in Africa, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis is the most destructive fungal disease affecting cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to improve anthracnose resistance in cassava through genetic engineering. Transgenic cassava plants harbouring rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp) gene, driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) of cultivar TMS 60444. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence, integration, copy number of the transgene all the independent transgenic events. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed high expression levels of Ostlp in six transgenic lines tested. The antifungal activity of the transgene against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogen was evaluated using the leaves and stem cuttings bioassay. The results demonstrated significantly delayed disease development and reduced size of necrotic lesions in leaves and stem cuttings of all transgenic lines compared to the leaves and stem cuttingss of non-transgenic control plants. Therefore, constitutive overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein in transgenic cassava confers enhanced tolerance to the fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. These results can therefore serve as an initial step towards genetic engineering of farmer-preffered cassava cultivars for resistance to anthracnose disease.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.002
       
  • Utilization of horticultural waste (Apple Pomace) for multiple
           carbohydrase production from Rhizopus delemar F2 under solid state
           fermentation

    • Authors: Shruti Pathania; Nivedita Sharma; Shweta Handa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Shruti Pathania, Nivedita Sharma, Shweta Handa
      The brown rot fungus Rhizopus delemar F2 was shown to produce extracellular thermostable and multiple carbohydrase enzymes. The potential of Rhizopus delemar F2 in utilizing apple pomace under solid state fermentation (SSF) is the purpose of the study. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is a very effective technique opposed to submerged fermentation in various aspects. Enhanced production of multiple carbohydrases 18.20 U g−1 of cellulose, 158.30 U g−1 of xylanase, 61.50 U g−1 of pectinase and amylase 21.03 U g−1 was released by microwave pretreatment of apple pomace at 450 W for 1 min and then by incubation the culture thus obtained at 30 °C for 6 days with moisture content of 1:4.5. Apple pomace can serve as a potential source of raw material for the production of multiple carbohydrases. Besides, it can find great commercial significance in production of bioethanol and various industries like textile, fruit juice, paper and pulp industry.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.10.013
       
 
 
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