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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
  [5 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1687-157X
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Assessment of Ki-67 as a potential biomarker in patients with breast

    • Authors: Halla Mohamed Ragab; Nervana Samy; Mie Afify; Nabila Abd El Maksoud; HebatAllah Mohamed Shaaban
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Halla Mohamed Ragab, Nervana Samy, Mie Afify, Nabila Abd El Maksoud, HebatAllah Mohamed Shaaban
      Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females, it accounts for one third of all malignancies affecting women. Appropriate biomarkers play significant role in predicting the prognosis and decide the specific therapy to each patient. In this study we aimed at evaluating the value of Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients and to analyze the associations between Ki-67 and their clinicopathological parameters. This study included 92 patients with developed non metastatic breast cancer and 10 women had benign breast tumor served as controls. We measured the serum level by ELISA technique and tissue expression of Ki-67 by immunohistochemical technique. Our results showed that there were no statistically significant differences in serum Ki-67 levels between the two studied groups. As for Ki-67expression in breast cancer cells, the score increases with increase of tumor size, grade, premenopausal, Ki-67 expression in estrogen and progesterone receptor positive tumors showed lower values than estrogen and progesterone negative tumors, while higher Ki-67 expression was more frequently associated with HER2-positive. In conclusion; our study supports the finding that tissue Ki-67 expression may add prognostic information to that obtained from classical prognostic factors and can provide data of significant value to other important prognostic indicators such as pathological grading, and axillary lymph node involvement.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.002
  • Partial purification and characterization of exoinulinase produced from
           Bacillus sp.

    • Authors: R. Ramapriya; A. Thirumurugan; T. Sathishkumar; D.R. Manimaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): R. Ramapriya, A. Thirumurugan, T. Sathishkumar, D.R. Manimaran
      Inulinase are industrial food enzymes which have gained much attention in recent scenario. In this study, Inulinase producing eight bacterial colonies were isolated and screened from three different plant root tubers soil sample. Among 8 inulinase producing colonies, the higher yielding colony was selected with 25.10 U/mL for further studies. The best inulinase producing colony was identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence as Bacillus sp. The crude inulinase was purified by using ammonium sulphate precipitation, dialysis and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE – sephacel and obtained 1.9 purification fold with total activity 293 U. The purified enzyme was subjected to characterization studies and it was found to be stable at 30–60 °C and optimum temperature was at 55 °C. The enzyme was stable at pH 3.0–7.0 and optimum pH was at 6.5. The Km and Vmax value for inulinase was found to be 0.117 mg/mL and 4.45 μmol min mg−1 respectively, demonstrate its greater affinity. Hence, this enzyme can be widely used for the production of fructose, and fructooligosaccharides, which are important ingredients in food and pharmaceutical industry.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T04:29:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.03.001
  • Elevated carotenoids in staple crops: The biosynthesis, challenges and
           measures for target delivery

    • Authors: Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Adebanjo Ayobamidele Badejo
      Poverty eradication and global food security are among the targets of world leaders, most especially combating the scourge of hidden hunger. Provitamin A carotenoids cannot be synthesized de novo by human and so it must be taken as part of the diet. The deficiency of which is causing almost 6000 sights to be lost daily in most developing countries because of the monotonous starchy diets lacking substantial amount of carotenoid. Conventional breeding as well as genetic engineering have been used to increase the level of carotenoid in many staples including rice, potato, maize and cassava. While products from genetic engineering are still been subjected to strict regulatory measures preventing the delivery of the products to target consumers, some of the products from conventional breeding are already on the table of consumers. Interestingly, both technologies are crucial to tackling micronutrient deficiencies. This review discusses the role of carotenoid in human, the biosynthesis in plant and some of the staple crops that have been modified for increased carotenoid. Some measures expected of the leaders of the countries in need of these products for safe delivery to the target population after two decades is also highlighted.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.010
  • Physiological and molecular studies on the effect of gamma radiation in
           fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) plants

    • Authors: Rania Samy Hanafy; Samia Ageeb Akladious
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Rania Samy Hanafy, Samia Ageeb Akladious
      This experiment assessed the biochemical changes in fenugreek plants exposed to gamma radiation. Two pot experiments were carried out during two growing seasons of 2015 and 2016. Seeds were subjected to five doses of gamma irradiation (25, 50, 100, 200 and 400 Gy) and were immediately planted into soil pots in a greenhouse. The experimental analysis was performed in M1 and M2 generations. Significant differences between irradiated and control plants were detected for most studied characters in M1 and M2 generations. It was demonstrated that low doses of gamma irradiation led to gradually increases in growth, yield characters, leaf soluble protein concomitantly with increases in the contents of phenolic and flavonoids compounds particularly at 100 Gy. These changes were accompanied by a substantial increase in ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol and retinol contents. Proline content was increased under all doses of gamma rays in M1 generation and the highest amount of proline was obtained at 200 Gy with visible decrease in M2 generation under the same dose. Meanwhile, the highest dose of gamma radiation (400 Gy) decreased all the studied parameters in both mutagenic generations as compared with control plants. In addition, gamma irradiation doses induced changes in DNA profile on using five primers and caused the appearance and disappearance of DNA polymorphic bands with variation in their intensity. These findings confirm the effectiveness of relatively low doses of gamma rays on improving the physiological and biochemical criteria of fenugreek plants.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.012
  • Effect of vitamins and cell constructions on the activity of microbial
           fuel cell battery

    • Authors: Dena Z. Khater; K.M. El-Khatib; Rabeay Y.A. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Dena Z. Khater, K.M. El-Khatib, Rabeay Y.A. Hassan
      Construction of efficient performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires certain practical considerations. In the single chamber microbial fuel cell, there is no border between the anode and the cathode, thus the diffusion of the dissolved oxygen has a contrary effect on the anodic respiration and this leads to the inhibition of the direct electron transfer from the biofilm to the anodic surface. Here, a fed-batch single chambered microbial fuel cells are constructed with different distances 3 and 6 cm (anode- cathode spacing), while keeping the working volume is constant. The performance of each MFC is individually evaluated under the effects of vitamins & minerals with acetate as a fed load. The maximum open circuit potential during testing the 3 and 6 cm microbial fuel cells is about 946 and 791 mV respectively. By decreasing the distance between the anode and the cathode from 6 to 3 cm, the power density is decreased from 108.3 mW m−2 to 24.5 mW m−2. Thus, the short distance in membrane-less MFC weakened the cathode and inhibited the anodic respiration which affects the overall performance of the MFC efficiency. The system is displayed a maximum potential of 564 and 791 mV in absence & presence of vitamins respectively. Eventually, the overall functions of the acetate single chamber microbial fuel cell can be improved by the addition of vitamins & minerals and increasing the distance between the cathode and the anode.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.011
  • Omics based approach for biodiscovery of microbial natural products in
           antibiotic resistance era

    • Authors: N. Chandra Mohana; H.C. Yashavantha Rao; D. Rakshith; P.R. Mithun; B.R. Nuthan; S. Satish
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 March 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): N. Chandra Mohana, H.C. Yashavantha Rao, D. Rakshith, P.R. Mithun, B.R. Nuthan, S. Satish
      The need for a new antibiotic pipeline to confront threat imposed by resistant pathogens has become a major global concern for human health. To confront the challenge there is a need for discovery and development of new class of antibiotics. Nature which is considered treasure trove, there is re-emerged interest in exploring untapped microbial to yield novel molecules, due to their wide array of negative effects associated with synthetic drugs. Natural product researchers have developed many new techniques over the past few years for developing diverse compounds of biopotential. Taking edge in the advancement of genomics, genetic engineering, in silico drug design, surface modification, scaffolds, pharmacophores and target-based approach is necessary. These techniques have been economically sustainable and also proven efficient in natural product discovery. This review will focus on recent advances in diverse discipline approach from integrated Bioinformatics predictions, genetic engineering and medicinal chemistry for the synthesis of natural products vital for the discovery of novel antibiotics having potential application.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.006
  • Five BoLA-DRB3 genotypes detected in Egyptian buffalo infected with Foot
           and Mouth disease virus serotype O

    • Authors: Othman E. Othman; Muhammad G. Khodary; Ayman H. El-Deeb; Hussein A. Hussein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Othman E. Othman, Muhammad G. Khodary, Ayman H. El-Deeb, Hussein A. Hussein
      Foot and Mouth disease (FMD) is a contagious disease leads to economically loss in livestock production all over the world. This serious disease is caused due to the infection of the animal with a single-stranded RNA virus (FMDV). This study aimed to investigate the genetic polymorphism of BoLA-DRB3 gene in Egyptian buffalo as a candidate genetic marker included in multi-factorial process of FMD resistance/susceptibility. Also this work aimed to genetically characterization and serotyping of circulating FMD virus in Egypt during 2016. For serotyping of FMDV, RT-PCR was used for FMDV-positive samples and the results declared the presence of serotype O in all tested animals. The sequence analysis of FMDV samples revealed five different patterns for the detected serotype O which were submitted to GenBank under the accession Nos.: MG017361–MG017365. The 302-bp amplified fragments from BoLA-DRB3 exon 2 were digested with HaeIII endonuclease and the results showed that the presence of five BoLA-DRB3 genotypes, among them the genotype AA might be associated with FMD-resistance (P < 0.01). On the other hand, genotype AC could be correlated with susceptibility (P < 0.01) to FMD in Egyptian buffaloes where it was absent in resistant group. The five detected genotypes of BoLA-DRB3 exon 2 were submitted to GenBank with the accession Nos.: MF977316–MF977320. In conclusion, our findings suggested that the detection of different BoLA-DRB3 genotypes may be has a promising role for raising the resistance of Egyptian buffalo against FMDV especially serotype O which is prevalent in Egypt with preferring genotype AA.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.009
  • In silico thermodynamic stability of mammalian adaptation and virulence
           determinants in polymerase complex proteins of H9N2 virus

    • Authors: Zienab Mosaad; Abdelsatar Arafa; Hussein A. Hussein; Mohamed A. Shalaby
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Zienab Mosaad, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A. Hussein, Mohamed A. Shalaby
      The polymerase complex proteins (PB2, PB1, and PA) are responsible primarily for the replication of avian influenza virus and play an important role in virus virulence, mammalian adaptation, and interspecies transmission. In this study; eight Egyptian LPAI-H9N2 viruses isolated from apparent healthy chickens and quails from 2014 to 2016. Characterization of complete nucleotide sequences, phylogenetic and mutation analysis were carried out. The measurement of thermodynamic stability of the H9N2 polymerase protein in comparison to human H3N2 and H1N1 proteins was carried out using in silico method. Phylogenetic analysis of these viruses revealed a close relationship to viruses isolated from neighboring Middle Eastern countries with an average of 96–99% homology. They are sharing the common ancestor A/quail/Hong Kong/G1/1997 (G1-Like) without any evidence for genetic reassortment. In addition, eight markers related to virulence were identified, including the combination of 627V and 391E in the PB2 gene with full-length PB1-F2 and PA-X proteins were observed in all viruses and the substitution N66S in PB1-F2 which suggest increasing virus virulence. Moreover, six markers that may affect the virus replication and transmission in mammalian hosts were identified. Five mutations related to mammalian adaptation show a structural stabilizing effect on LPAI-H9N2 polymerase complex protein according to the free-energy change (ΔΔG). Three out of those six adaptive mutations shown to increase polymerase complex protein stability were found in Egyptian LPAI-H9N2 viruses similar to Human H3N2 and H1N1 (661 in PB2, 225 and 409 in PA genes). Our results suggested that the stabilizing mutations in the polymerase complex protein have likely affected the protein structure and induced favorable conditions for avian virus replication and transmission in mammalian hosts. Indeed, the study reports the mutational analysis of the circulating LPAI-H9N2 strains in Egypt.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T03:22:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.008
  • Rice straw fermentation by Schizophyllum commune ARC-11 to produce high
           level of xylanase for its application in pre-bleaching

    • Authors: Archana Gautam; Amit Kumar; Amit Kumar Bharti; Dharm Dutt
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Archana Gautam, Amit Kumar, Amit Kumar Bharti, Dharm Dutt
      Rice straw is valuable resource that has been used as substrate for cost effective production of xylanase under solid-state fermentation by a newly isolated white rot fungi, S. commune ARC-11. Out of eleven carbon sources tested, rice straw was found most effective for the induction of xylanase that produced 4288.3 IU/gds of xylanase by S. commune ARC-11. Maximum xylanase production (6721.9 IU/gds) was observed on 8th day of incubation at temperature (30 °C), initial pH (7.0) and initial moisture content (70.0%). The supplementation of ammonium sulphate (0.08% N, as available nitrogen) enhanced the xylanase production up to 8591.4 IU/gds. The xylanase production by S. commune ARC-11 was further improved by the addition of 0.10%, (w/v) of Tween-20 as surfactant. The maximum xylanase activities were found at pH 5.0 and temperature 55 °C with a longer stability (180 min) at temperature 45, 50 and 55 °C. This xylanase preparation was also evaluated for the pre-bleaching of ethanol-soda pulp from Eulaliopsis binata. An enzyme dosage of 10 IU/g of xylanase resulted maximum decrease in kappa number (14.51%) with a maximum improvement 2.9% in ISO brightness compared to control.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.006
  • In vitro culture, transformation and genetic fidelity of Milk Thistle

    • Authors: M.R. Rady; M.M. Saker; M.A. Matter
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): M.R. Rady, M.M. Saker, M.A. Matter
      This review article presents a consolidated explanation and provides a comprehensive description of various studies, carried out on in vitro culture and hairy root cultures of S. marianum which can be consider an alternative source of flavonolignans. To overcome the constrains of conventional propagation of silybum plant, tissue culture and advanced biotechnology proved to be an influential tool that can complement conventional breeding and accelerate silybum development. The present review is focused on biotechnological tools like in vitro culture, hairy root cultures and genetic fidelity of S. marianum which can be a potent tool for production of secondary metabolites from these cultures.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.007
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Dendrobium
           lasianthera J.J.Sm: An important medicinal orchid

    • Authors: Edy Setiti Wida Utami; Sucipto Hariyanto; Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Edy Setiti Wida Utami, Sucipto Hariyanto, Yosephine Sri Wulan Manuhara
      A protocol for genetic transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and production of transgenic Dendrobium lasianthera has been developed for the first time. The 8-week-old protocorm explants were used as target of transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 carrying plasmid pG35SKNAT1. Several parameters such as infection period, Agrobacterium density, concentration of acetosyringone, and co-cultivation period were evaluated for the transformation efficiency. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's Multiple Range Test (DMRT) with p < 0.05. Subsequently, KNAT1 gene expression was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. The highest efficiency of transformation (70%) obtained from protocorm explants infected with Agrobacterium culture was at the OD600 concentration of 0.6 for 30 min, and co-cultivated with acetosyringone 100 µM for 5 days. The results of confirmation by PCR analysis show that the KNAT1 gene has been integrated and expressed in the genome of Dendrobium lasianthera transgenic.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.002
  • Decolorization of Textile Reactive Dyes by Bacterial Monoculture and
           Consortium Screened from Textile Dyeing Effluent

    • Authors: Md. Ekramul Karim; Kartik Dhar; Md. Towhid Hossain
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Md. Ekramul Karim, Kartik Dhar, Md. Towhid Hossain
      Dyeing effluents have become a vital source of water pollution. Due to the xenobiotic properties and toxicity to all life forms including humans, removal of undesirable color and associated toxicity is crucial. In this study, five dye decolorizing bacteria were isolated from dyeing effluent using selective enrichment culture in Bushnell-Haas (BH) medium amended with co-substrate (i.e. glucose, yeast extract) and 100 mg L−1 of each commercially available reactive dyes viz. Novacron Orange FN-R, Novacron Brilliant Blue FN-R, Novacron Super Black G, Bezema Yellow S8-G and Bezema Red S2-B. The isolated bacteria were identified and assigned as Neisseria sp., Vibrio sp., Bacillus sp., Bacillus sp. and Aeromonas sp. based on their phenotypic (cultural, morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristic) observation. The dye decolorization efficiency was estimated spectrophotometrically up to 6 days of static incubation at 37 °C and observed that all of the isolates were unable to induce decolorization in absence of co-substrate. In case of monoculture, decolorization percentage varies from no visible decolorization (Bezema Red S2-B by Ek-5) to highest 90% decolorization (Novacron Brilliant Blue FN-R by Ek-13) whereas the decolorization percentage of bacterial consortium varies from 65% (Bezema Yellow S8-G) to 90% (Novacron Brilliant Blue FN-R and Novacron Super Black G). The study outlines the co-substrates mediated decolorization process where bacterial consortium proved as efficient dye decolorizer than that of the monocultures. This finding confers possibility of using novel microbial consortium for biological treatment of disreputable dyeing effluents.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.005
  • Kolaviron and selenium reduce hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations of the
           inflammatory response

    • Authors: Tebekeme Okoko
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Tebekeme Okoko
      The abilities of kolaviron and selenium (either separately or in combination) to prevent hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations in cell viability and activation were investigated. The cell line U937 was incubated with the antioxidants (i.e. kolaviron or selenium) for 24 h before exposure to hydrogen peroxide and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue dye exclusion assay. The U937 cells were also transformed to the macrophage form, incubated with the antioxidants before exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Subsequently, production of nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines were assessed as indices of macrophage activation. The myoblast cell line H9c2 was also incubated with Se and kolaviron for 24 h before exposure to hydrogen peroxide. Cell viability and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed via MTT and DCHF assays. The results revealed that hydrogen peroxide significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the viability of U937 cells which was ameliorated by kolaviron and selenium. Kolaviron and selenium also reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced secretion of nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 by transformed U937 cells. Hydrogen peroxide also significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the viability of H9c2 cells which was significantly restored by kolaviron. Though selenium had no effect on the proliferation of H9c2 cells, co-treatment with kolaviron significantly reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations. Both kolaviron and selenium also reduced hydrogen peroxide-mediated ROS production by H9c2 cells. In all cases, the combined action of kolaviron and selenium offered greater amelioration of the hydrogen peroxide-induced alterations than their separate effects (p < 0.05) but may not be synergistic or additive.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:46:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.004
  • Down-regulation of circulating microRNA let-7a in Egyptian smokers

    • Authors: Sanaa A. Rizk; Fateheya M. Metwally; Asmaa M. Elfiky; Asmaa A. Mahmoud; Nadia A. Badawi; Nevin E. Sharaf; Mahmoud M. Elhefnawi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sanaa A. Rizk, Fateheya M. Metwally, Asmaa M. Elfiky, Asmaa A. Mahmoud, Nadia A. Badawi, Nevin E. Sharaf, Mahmoud M. Elhefnawi
      Altered miRNAs were associated with cigarette smoking. The study aimed to examine the gene expression level of plasma let-7a among healthy smokers and compared it with the non-smokers. Forty subjects were recruited for the present study and classified into 21 smokers and 19 non-smokers, age, and sex were matched. The software that used to design functional primers was MIRprimer. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to compare the relative expression of plasma let-7a. Results showed that the level of let-7a was down-regulated in smokers to 0.34fold (p = 0.006) that of the non-smokers. Plasma let-7a showed an area under curve (AUC) of 0.749 with sensitivity 43% and specificity 100%. In conclusion, plasma let-7a was significantly down-regulated in the smokers, and it might be considered a candidate biomarker to discriminate between smokers and non-smokers.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.003
  • Optimization of quorum quenching mediated bacterial attenuation of Solanum
           torvum root extract by response surface modelling through Box-Behnken

    • Authors: Kayeen Vadakkan; Selvaraj Vijayanand; Abbas Alam Choudhury; Ramya Gunasekaran; Janarthanam Hemapriya
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kayeen Vadakkan, Selvaraj Vijayanand, Abbas Alam Choudhury, Ramya Gunasekaran, Janarthanam Hemapriya
      The present study was intended to optimize the quorum sensing inhibitory action of Solanum torvum root extract against Chromobacterium violaceum. Factors such as bacterial density, frequency of administration and concentration of extract were analysed. Plant samples were collected from Thrissur District, Kerala, India. Response surface modelling of factors by Box-Behnken approach was employed for optimizing quorum quenching activity of extract. The adequacy of mathematical model was verified by ANOVA and Cook’s distance table. Results revealed that quorum quenching property of Solanum torvum root extract is highly influenced by variables studied whereas maximum activity was found during administration of 300 µg/ml extract thrice in a day. It was also understood that extract does not possess any bactericidal activity wherein it only silence its quorum sensing mediated functions. This observations can be further used in quorum quenching studies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.02.001
  • Expression of Leptospira membrane proteins Signal Peptidase (SP) and
           Leptospira Endostatin like A (Len A) in BL-21(DE3) is toxic to the host

    • Authors: Padikara K. Satheeshkumar; Prasannan V. Anu; Mohmed I. Junaida; Madathiparambil G. Madanan; Tennison Jebasingh; Ananthakrishnan J. Nair; Gangaprasad A. Nair; Govinda Pillai M. Nair; Perumana R. Sudhakaran
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Padikara K. Satheeshkumar, Prasannan V. Anu, Mohmed I. Junaida, Madathiparambil G. Madanan, Tennison Jebasingh, Ananthakrishnan J. Nair, Gangaprasad A. Nair, Govinda Pillai M. Nair, Perumana R. Sudhakaran
      Heterologous expression of Integral Membrane Proteins (IMPs) is reported to be toxic to the host system in many studies. Even though there are reports on various concerns like transformation efficiency, growth properties, protein toxicity, inefficient expression and protein degradation in IMP overexpression, no studies so far addressed these issues in a comprehensive way. In the present study, two transmembrane proteins of the pathogen Leptospira interrogans, namely Signal peptidase (SP), and Leptospira Endostatin like A (Len-A) were taken along with a cytosolic protein Hydrolase (HYD) to assess the differences in transformation efficiency, protein toxicity, and protein stability when over expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Bioinformatics analysis to predict the transmembrane localization indicated that both SP and Len are targeted to the membrane. The three proteins were expressed in full length in the E. coli expression strain, BL 21 (DE3). Significant changes were observed for the strains transformed with IMP genes under the parameters analysed such as, the transformation efficiency, survival of colonies on IPTG-plate, culture growth kinetics and protein expression compared to the strain harbouring the cytosolic protein gene.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.004
  • Scenedesmus obliquus: Antioxidant and antiviral activity of proteins
           hydrolyzed by three enzymes

    • Authors: Abd El-Moneim M.R. Afify; Gamal S. El Baroty; Farouk K. El Baz; Hanaa H. Abd El Baky; Soha A. Murad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Abd El-Moneim M.R. Afify, Gamal S. El Baroty, Farouk K. El Baz, Hanaa H. Abd El Baky, Soha A. Murad
      Purpose To obtain protein hydrolysates from fresh water green algae Scenedesmus obliquus by three different enzymes and evaluate its antioxidant and antiviral activity. Methods Enzymatic hydrolysates of green algae Scenedesmus obliquus protein were prepared by treatment with: 1.2% solution of pepsin, trypsin or papain. Protein was extracted from S. obliquus by three different extraction methods. Protein extracts and hydrolysates were assessed from stained gels following SDS–PAGE of samples. Antioxidant activity of protein hydrolysates was investigated. Results S. obliquus cells and protein extracts were rich in Arg, Lys, Asp, Ala, and His. Protein hydrolyzed by papain (Sd1pa) and protein hydrolyzed by trypsin (Sd2Try) induced highest antioxidant activity based on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging (41.41% and 40.62%) respectively, and on 2,2′-azinobis 3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radical (87.03% and 45.12%) respectively, at 150 µg/ml. The inhibitory effect and mode of action of protein hydrolysates were evaluated against Coxsackie B3 virus (CVB3). Protein hydrolyzed by papain (Sd2pa) and protein hydrolyzed by pepsin (Sd1pep) at 100 µg/ml exhibited antiviral activity (66.2% and 57.6%, respectively), against (CVB3) from all protein hydrolysates. Conclusion S. obliquus protein hydrolysates have a potential as antioxidative neutraceutical ingredients and a potential therapeutic agent against CVB3.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.002
  • Interaction of rs316019 variants of SLC22A2 with metformin and other
           drugs- an in silico analysis

    • Authors: Abu Ashfaqur Sajib; Tasmia Islam; Nilanjana Paul; Sabina Yeasmin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Abu Ashfaqur Sajib, Tasmia Islam, Nilanjana Paul, Sabina Yeasmin
      Metformin is one of the first-line and most widely prescribed drugs to treat type 2 diabetes (T2D). Its clearance from circulation is mostly facilitated by SLC22A2 (OCT2) in the renal cells. SLC22A2 is a polyspecific organic cation transporter and mediate transport of structurally unrelated endogenous and exogenous compounds including many drugs. rs316019 (p.270A > S) is the most common variant of SLC22A2 with a frequency as high as 15% or more in many populations. The 270S form of SLC22A2 clears metformin from circulation at much reduced level compared to the 270A form. If accumulated, metformin increases plasma lactate level in a concentration-dependent manner which can lead to a condition known as metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA). MALA is a potentially life-threatening complication with a mortality rate of 30–50%. Pre-existing clinical conditions, such as renal impairment, sepsis, anoxia, etc may make individuals more prone to MALA. In this study, we used computational approaches to investigate the effect of 270A > S change in SLC22A2 on interaction with metformin and other drugs. Based on the structural models, all substrates bind to the same pocket of SLC22A2. The substrates fit better to the binding site of 270A form of SLC22A2. The binding site has a few core interacting residues, among which SER358 appears to be the most important. It is an in silico prediction that the T2D patients, who are under metformin regimen, should be cautious in taking ranitidine (an over-the-counter sold drug) on a regular basis as it may lead to metformin associated lactate accumulation in blood.

      PubDate: 2018-02-17T00:40:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.003
  • Statistical optimization of crude oil bio-degradation by a local marine
           bacterium isolate Pseudomonas sp. sp48

    • Authors: Soha Farag; Nadia A. Soliman; Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Soha Farag, Nadia A. Soliman, Yasser R. Abdel-Fattah
      Pseudomonas sp. sp48, a marine bacterium isolated from Bahary area (Alexandria, Egypt), showed a high potency for oil degradation up to 1.5%. Additionally, it showed an ability to consume aromatic hydrocarbons (phenol & naphthalene) and aliphatic (pentadecane) reaching to 79; 73; 62%, respectively. In the current study, Plackett-Burman factorial design was applied to evaluate culture conditions affecting the degradation potency. Analysis of Plackett-Burman design results revealed that, the most significant variables affecting oil removal were magnesium sulfate, inoculum size, glucose and Triton X-100. To optimize the levels of these significant variables Response Surface Methodology (RSM) was followed. In this respect, the three-level Box–Behnken design was employed and a polynomial model was created to correlate the relationship between the three variables and oil removal. The optimal combinations of the major constituents of media that was evaluated from the non-linear optimization algorithm of EXCEL-Solver was as follows: (w/v%) 1 crude oil, 0.5 peptone, 0.5 yeast-extract, 1 ammonium chloride, 0.7418 D-glucose, 0.5 MgSO4·7H2O, 0.1 Triton X-100 and inoculums size 4.18 ml% in natural sea water at pH 7; 30 °C incubation temperature, 200 rpm for 6 days. The predicted optimum oil removal was 89%, which is 2.4 times more than the basal medium.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2018.01.001
  • Green synthesis of zero valent colloidal nanosilver targeting A549 lung
           cancer cell: In vitro cytotoxicity

    • Authors: Minakshi Jha; Navinchandra G. Shimpi; S.S. Sonawane
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Minakshi Jha, Navinchandra G. Shimpi, S.S. Sonawane
      An eco-friendly green approach was proposed to synthesise stable, cytotoxic colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using Momordica charantia (M. charantia) fruit extract. Bioinspired green method adopted for fabrication of AgNPs because of easy, fast, low-cost and benign bioprocess. Phytocomponents played the crucial role in capping, stabilisation and inherent cytotoxic potential of colloidal nanosilver. The physiochemical, crystalline, optical and morphological properties of AgNPs were characterized using UV-vis, FT-IR, XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and AFM. FT-IR reveals the presence of carbonyl, methyl, polyphenol (flavonoid), primary and secondary amine (protein), carboxyl group, ester as major functional groups over the surface of nanomaterials. Mechanistic pathway for formation and stabilisation of colloidal nanosilver has been discussed. Average crystalline size of AgNPs was found to be 12.55 nm from XRD. TEM shows AgNPs nanosphere with size range 1–13.85 nm. Consistency in spherical morphology was also confirmed through Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). AFM measurement provided image Rq value 3.62, image Ra 2.47, roughness Rmax 36.4 nm, skewness 1.99 and kurtosis 9.87. The SRB assay revealed substantial in vitro noticeable anti-cancer activity of colloidal nanosilver on A549 and HOP-62 human lung cancer cells in a dose dependent manner with IC50 value of 51.93 µg/ml and 76.92 µg/ml. In addition, M. charantia capped AgNPs were found to be more biocompatible in comparison to M. charantia FE. Our study demonstrated the integration of green chemistry principle in nanomaterials fabrication and focused on the potential use of M. charantia fruit extract as an efficient precursor for biocompatible AgNPs anodrug formulation with improved cytotoxic applications.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.001
  • Augmented cellulase production by Bacillus subtilis strain MU S1 using
           different statistical experimental designs

    • Authors: C.P. Sreena; Denoj Sebastian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): C.P. Sreena, Denoj Sebastian
      The production of cellulase by Bacillus subtilis MU S1, a strain isolated from Eravikulam National Park, was optimized using one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and statistical methods. Physical parameters like incubation temperature and agitation speed were optimized using OFAT and found to be 40 °C and 150 rpm, respectively, whereas, medium was optimized by statistical tools. Plackett-Burman design (PBD) was employed to screen the significant variables that highly influence cellulase production. The design showed carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), yeast extract, NaCl, pH, MgSO4 and NaNO3 as the most significant components that affect cellulase production. Among these CMC, yeast extract, NaCl and pH showed positive effect whereas MgSO4 and NaNO3 were found to be significant at their lower levels. The optimum levels of the components that positively affect enzyme production were determined using response surface methodology (RSM) based on central composite design (CCD). Three factors namely CMC, yeast extract and NaCl were studied at five levels whilst pH of the medium was kept constant at 7. The optimal levels of the components were CMC (13.46 g/l), yeast extract (8.38 g/l) and NaCl (6.31 g/l) at pH 7. The maximum cellulase activity in optimized medium was 566.66 U/ml which was close to the predicted activity of 541.05 U/ml. Optimization of physical parameters and medium components showed an overall 3.2-fold increase in activity compared to unoptimized condition (179.06 U/ml).

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.005
  • Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles formation from Caesalpinia
           pulcherrima stem metabolites and their broad spectrum biological

    • Authors: Pooja Moteriya; Sumitra Chanda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Pooja Moteriya, Sumitra Chanda
      The present work illustrates eco-friendly, rapid and cost effective method of AgNPs synthesis using C. pulcherrima stem extract. Initially, various physico chemical factors were optimized. Characterization was done by different spectroscopic and microscopic analysis. AgNPs were spherical in shape with an average size of 8 nm. AgNPs showed good synergistic antimicrobial, antibiofilm and antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity effect against HeLa cancer cell line was dose dependent while genotoxic study revealed the non toxic nature of AgNPs at lower concentration. The results suggest that AgNPs from C. pulcherrima stem extract have great potential in biomedical applications.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.003
  • Molecular detection and PCR-RFLP analysis using Pst1 and Alu1 of multidrug
           resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae causing urinary tract infection in women
           in the eastern part of Bangladesh

    • Authors: Golam Mahmudunnabi; Al Nahian Khan Majlish; Farhana Momtaz; Md Javed Foysal; Md Mahbubur Rahman; Kamrul Islam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Golam Mahmudunnabi, Al Nahian Khan Majlish, Farhana Momtaz, Md Javed Foysal, Md Mahbubur Rahman, Kamrul Islam
      Klebsiella pneumoniae is the second leading causative agent of UTI. In this study, a rapid combined polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was developed to identify K. pneumoniae in women, infected with urinary tract infection in the Sylhet city of Bangladesh. Analysis of 11 isolates from women at the age range of 20–55 from three different hospitals were done firstly by amplification with K. pneumoniae specific ITS primers. All of the 11 collected isolates were amplified in PCR and showed the expected 136 bp products. Then, restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 11 isolates were conducted after PCR amplification by 16s rRNA universal primers, followed by subsequent digestion and incubation with two restriction enzymes, Pst1 and Alu1. Seven out of 11 isolates were digested by Pst1 restriction enzymes, six isolates digested by Alu1, and while others were negative for both enzymes. Data results reveal that, women at age between 25 and 50 were digested by both enzymes. A woman aged over than 50 was negative while bellow 20 was digested by only Pst1. The results could pave the tactic for further research in the detection of K. pneumoniae from UTI infected women.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T23:09:26Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.004
  • Influence of bioprocess variables on the production of extracellular
           chitinase under submerged fermentation by Streptomyces pratensis strain

    • Authors: A. Shivalee; K. Lingappa; Divatar Mahesh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): A. Shivalee, K. Lingappa, Divatar Mahesh
      Chitinases are the enzymes which are capable of hydrolyzing chitin to its monomer N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNac). Present study emphasizes on the impact of critical process variables on the production of chitinase from Streptomyces pratensis strain KLSL55. Initially the isolate was noticed to produce 84.67 IU chitinase in basal production medium. At optimization of bioprocess variables, the physical parameters pH of 8.00, 40 °C of incubation temperature, agitation speed of 160 rpm and 1.25 mL of spore suspension were found optimum for improved production of chitinase. Further, formulated production medium with 1.5% colloidal chitin, 1.25% fructose greatly influenced the chitinase production. At all described optimum conditions with formulated production media, a total of 14.30-fold increment was achieved in the chitinase production with final activity of 1210.67 IU when compared to the initial fermentation conditions in basal production medium.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.006
  • Overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp) gene in transgenic
           cassava results in enhanced tolerance to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f.
           sp. manihotis

    • Authors: Patroba Odeny Ojola; Evans N. Nyaboga; Paul N. Njiru; George Orinda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Patroba Odeny Ojola, Evans N. Nyaboga, Paul N. Njiru, George Orinda
      Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is the most important staple food for more than 300 million people in Africa, and anthracnose disease caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis is the most destructive fungal disease affecting cassava production in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of this study was to improve anthracnose resistance in cassava through genetic engineering. Transgenic cassava plants harbouring rice thaumatin-like protein (Ostlp) gene, driven by the constitutive CaMV35S promoter, were generated using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of friable embryogenic calli (FEC) of cultivar TMS 60444. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence, integration, copy number of the transgene all the independent transgenic events. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR confirmed high expression levels of Ostlp in six transgenic lines tested. The antifungal activity of the transgene against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogen was evaluated using the leaves and stem cuttings bioassay. The results demonstrated significantly delayed disease development and reduced size of necrotic lesions in leaves and stem cuttings of all transgenic lines compared to the leaves and stem cuttingss of non-transgenic control plants. Therefore, constitutive overexpression of rice thaumatin-like protein in transgenic cassava confers enhanced tolerance to the fungal pathogen C. gloeosporioides f. sp. manihotis. These results can therefore serve as an initial step towards genetic engineering of farmer-preffered cassava cultivars for resistance to anthracnose disease.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.12.002
  • Utilization of horticultural waste (Apple Pomace) for multiple
           carbohydrase production from Rhizopus delemar F2 under solid state

    • Authors: Shruti Pathania; Nivedita Sharma; Shweta Handa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Shruti Pathania, Nivedita Sharma, Shweta Handa
      The brown rot fungus Rhizopus delemar F2 was shown to produce extracellular thermostable and multiple carbohydrase enzymes. The potential of Rhizopus delemar F2 in utilizing apple pomace under solid state fermentation (SSF) is the purpose of the study. Solid state fermentation (SSF) is a very effective technique opposed to submerged fermentation in various aspects. Enhanced production of multiple carbohydrases 18.20 U g−1 of cellulose, 158.30 U g−1 of xylanase, 61.50 U g−1 of pectinase and amylase 21.03 U g−1 was released by microwave pretreatment of apple pomace at 450 W for 1 min and then by incubation the culture thus obtained at 30 °C for 6 days with moisture content of 1:4.5. Apple pomace can serve as a potential source of raw material for the production of multiple carbohydrases. Besides, it can find great commercial significance in production of bioethanol and various industries like textile, fruit juice, paper and pulp industry.

      PubDate: 2018-01-03T22:25:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.10.013
  • Endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene (T786C and G894T) polymorphisms in
           Egyptian patients with type 2 diabetes

    • Authors: Omneya Moguib; Hala M. Raslan; Inas Abdel Rasheed; Laila Effat; Nadia Mohamed; Safaa El Serougy; Ghada Hussein; Salwa Tawfeek; Amany H. AbdelRahman; Khalda Omar
      Pages: 431 - 436
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 15, Issue 2
      Author(s): Omneya Moguib, Hala M. Raslan, Inas Abdel Rasheed, Laila Effat, Nadia Mohamed, Safaa El Serougy, Ghada Hussein, Salwa Tawfeek, Amany H. AbdelRahman, Khalda Omar
      Background Genetic factors play important role in the development of type 2 diabetes and diabetic nephropathy. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene is responsible for the bioavailability of nitric oxide and endothelial function. Aim To assess the association of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) (T786C and G894T) single nucleotide polymorphisms with Egyptian type 2 diabetes mellitus and diabetic nephropathy. Patients and methods A total of 200 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 apparently healthy volunteers as controls were included in the study. They were subjected to clinical examination and laboratory tests: fasting blood glucose, HBA1C, lipid profile, serum creatinine, blood urea and albumin creatinine ratio (ACR). Assessment of the T786C and G894T polymorphisms in the eNOS gene was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Results There was no significant difference in distribution of eNOS T-786C polymorphism between patients and controls; TT genotype of eNOS G894T was more frequent in diabetic patients with and without albuminuria compared to controls. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to ACR. Normoalbuminuria: 37 patients with ACR≤30mg/g, microalbuminuria: 96 patients with ACR>30mg/g and≤300mg/g, and macroalbuminuria: 67 patients with ACR>300mg/g. There was no significant difference in genotype distribution of eNOS T-786C between the 3 groups of diabetic patients. The prevalence of TT genotype of eNOS G894T was higher in microalbuminuria patients compared to other groups. Conclusion eNOS G894T variant may increase risk of type 2 diabetes with lack of association between eNOS T786C, eNOS G894T and DN in Egyptians.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T06:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.05.001
  • Effect of natural PAL-enzyme on the quality of egg white and mushroom
           flour and study its impact on the expression of PKU related genes and
           phenylalanine reduction in mice fed on

    • Authors: Hesham A. Eissa; Zeinab Y. Abdallah; Wagdy K.B. Khalil; Wafaa A. Ibrahim; Hoda F. Booles; Mahrousa M. Hassanane
      Pages: 443 - 451
      Abstract: Publication date: December 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Volume 15, Issue 2
      Author(s): Hesham A. Eissa, Zeinab Y. Abdallah, Wagdy K.B. Khalil, Wafaa A. Ibrahim, Hoda F. Booles, Mahrousa M. Hassanane
      PKU patients react to therapy with a low phenylalanine diet, but adherence to this diet is troublesome, subsequently the expansion of alternative ways is demand. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is one of this ways, which converts phenylalanine to harmless metabolites; trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia. In the current study, the extraction of PAL enzyme was used to investigate the efficiency for production of functional PKU egg white and mushroom flour with good quality by evaluation of colour characteristics, determination of phenylalanine concentrations and genetic materials expression of PKU related genes and DNA damage. Results indicated that the PAL enzyme treated of egg white and mushroom flour was stable colour and the calculated reduction per cent in phenylalanine concentration from female mice fed on untreated and PAL–treated samples was 22.77% in egg white and 31.37% in mushroom flour. Also, the results revealed that female mice fed on diet contained treated egg white exhibited low expression levels of PKU exons (3, 6, 7, 11, and 12) and low DNA damage which were similar to those in control mice.

      PubDate: 2017-12-01T06:06:32Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.010
  • Inter and intraspecific genetic diversity (RAPD) among three most frequent
           species of macrofungi (Ganoderma lucidum, Leucoagricus sp. and Lentinus
           sp.) of Tropical forest of Central India

    • Authors: Sandhya Dwivedi; Surendra Singh; U.K. Chauhan; Mahendra Kumar Tiwari
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sandhya Dwivedi, Surendra Singh, U.K. Chauhan, Mahendra Kumar Tiwari
      In present study seven RAPD primers were used to access the diversity within and among twelve populations of three mushroom species Ganoderma lucidum, leucoagaricus sp. and Lentinus sp. Total of 111 bands were scored by 7 RAPD primers in 30 accessions of three mushroom species collected from different sampling sites of central India. Total 111 bands were generated using seven primers which were F-1, OPG-06, OPC-07, OPD-08, OPA-02, OPD-02, OPB-10. All 111 bands were polymorphic in nature (100%). Therefore, it revealed that the used primers had sufficient potency for population studies and 30 accessions had higher genetic differences among each other. In best of the knowledge, this is the first report, which accesses the genetic diversity between three mushroom species (Gd Ganoderma lucidum, Lg Leucoagaricus sp., Ls Lentinus). The polymorphic percentage ranged from 3.60 to 23% within twelve populations, while polymorphic percentage among group was 40.56, among population within groups was 41.12 and within population was 18.32. This indicated that the genetic diversity within the population was very low, but slightly higher in the populations of three species. Among three groups representing Gd., Lg and Ls, Among populations within groups shown highest percentage of variation (Pv = 41.12) while within populations, the lowest percentage of variation (18.32) was observed. This result also support that the highest genetic variation was present among groups in comparison to among the population within a species and lowest genetic variation was observed within the population.

      PubDate: 2017-12-12T06:49:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.11.008
  • Association of manganese superoxide dismutase Ala16Val polymorphism in the
           incidence of acute myocardial infarction in the Egyptians

    • Authors: Lobna M. Abdelrauf; Mohamed F. Abdel Rahman; Sahar M. Abdel-Maksoud; Nabil M. Farag; Ingy M. Hashad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 October 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Lobna M. Abdelrauf, Mohamed F. Abdel Rahman, Sahar M. Abdel-Maksoud, Nabil M. Farag, Ingy M. Hashad
      Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in various diseases including atherosclerosis; the most common pathologic process underlying acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) antioxidant enzyme affords the major defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS) within the mitochondria. MnSOD Alanine16Valine (A16V) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been shown to decrease MnSOD detoxification activity. Aim: A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between MnSOD A16V polymorphism and the incidence of AMI in the Egyptians, investigate the contribution of oxidative stress represented by hexanoyl lysine adduct (HEL), an oxidative stress biomarker, in the pathogenesis of AMI and finally correlate the MnSOD genotypes with HEL serum levels. Methods: A total of 200 Egyptian subjects were recruited for the study; 100 AMI patients and 100 control subjects. Genotypes of the MnSOD A16V polymorphism were determined using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Serum HEL was measured by ELISA. Results: A significant difference in the distribution of the MnSOD A16V genotypes was observed; VV genotype was significantly higher in AMI than controls (p ≤0.0001). Also, studying the allele frequencies revealed that Val allele was significantly higher in AMI than controls (p ≤0.0001). Serum analysis showed higher levels of HEL in AMI patients (p =0.0142). Furthermore, HEL levels were found to be significantly higher in VV genotype in AMI (p =0.0273). Conclusions: Our study suggests that MnSOD A16V polymorphism is associated with increased risk of developing AMI in the Egyptians. Moreover, the VV genotype is associated with higher HEL levels.

      PubDate: 2017-10-08T13:18:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.009
  • Cytotoxic and molecular impacts of allelopathic effects of leaf residues
           of Eucalyptus globulus on soybean (Glycine max)

    • Authors: Hala M. Abdelmigid; Maissa M. Morsi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Hala M. Abdelmigid, Maissa M. Morsi
      Eucalyptus trees litter plays a crucial role in structuring plant populations and regulating crop quality. To help characterize the allelopathic impact of Eucalyptus plantations and understand the interactions between tree litter and understorey plant populations, we performed two different genomic approaches to determine soybean (Glycine max) crop plant response to biotic stress induced by leaf residues of Eucalyptus globulus trees. For assessing cell death, a qualitative method of DNA fragmentation test (comet assay) was employed to detect cleavage of the genomic DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments and help to characterize the apoptotic event among the experimental samples. In addition, quantitative method of genome analysis at the transcriptional level also was conducted to investigate the expression responses of soybean genome to allelochemicals. Expression of specific genes, which are responsible for the breakdown of proteins during programmed cell death PCD (cysteine proteases and their inhibitors), was examined using semi-quantitative RT-PCR (sqPCR). Results of both conducted analyses proved significant genetic effects of Eucalyptus leaf residues on soybean crop genome, revealed by steady increase in DNA damage as well as variation in the transcript levels of cysteine proteases and inhibitors. Further detailed studies using more sensitive methods are necessary for a comprehensive understanding of the allelopathic effects of Eucalyptus plantations on crops.

      PubDate: 2017-09-06T10:55:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.08.005
  • Significance of growth differentiation factor 15 in chronic HCV patients

    • Authors: Mohab H. Halim; Nour A. Abdulla; Abdelkarim Kamel; Nabila Abd El Maksoud; Halla M. Ragab
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Mohab H. Halim, Nour A. Abdulla, Abdelkarim Kamel, Nabila Abd El Maksoud, Halla M. Ragab
      Background and objective: Hepatitis C virus is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in Egypt. This work aims to assess the use of the simple and noninvasive biomarker Serum Growth differentiation Factor 15 (GDF-15), along with Alpha Fetoprotein (AFP) and Ferritin for the diagnosis of advanced liver disease in chronic hepatitis C patients. Subjects and methods: This study was conducted on 60 patients, who were recruited from the National Liver and Tropical Diseases Institute, Cairo, Egypt, who were suffering from early & advanced liver cirrhosis and chronic active hepatitis. Twenty cases of healthy subjects served as controls. Serum (GDF-15), (AFP), Ferritin and Hepatitis markers were measured by ELISA method. Measurement of different liver enzyme activity was done by the kinetic methods. Results: Data analysis revealed significant increase in serum levels of GDF15 in patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and Liver Cirrhosis (LC) compared to the healthy subjects. These results were parallel to those of serum levels of AFP, which also demonstrated significant increase in all patients groups as compared to normal control. A moderate increase in the GDF15 level was detected in the patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) compared to normal healthy subjects. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that GDF15 and AFP detection can help in the diagnosis and prediction of complications associated with CHC including liver cirrhosis and HCC. Also GDF15 can be used asa satisfactory serum marker of HCC and LC.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T08:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.08.004
  • New polymorphism in the 5′ flanking region of IGF-1 gene and its
           association with wool traits in Egyptian Barki sheep

    • Authors: H.R. Darwish; H.M. El-Shorbagy; A.M. Abou-Eisha; A.E. El-Din; I.M. Farag
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): H.R. Darwish, H.M. El-Shorbagy, A.M. Abou-Eisha, A.E. El-Din, I.M. Farag
      Insulin-like growth factor-1 gene (IGF-1) is considered as a major candidate gene for the economic traits of animal production. Polymorphism of 5′ flanking region of IGF-1 gene in Barki sheep (n=91) and its association with wool traits were studied using the polymerase chain reaction coupled withsingle-strand conformation polymorphism technique (PCR-SSCP), PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), sequence analysis and different measurements of wool traits (clean fleece weight and fiber diameter). PCR-SSCP analysis revealed three different banding patterns corresponding with three genotypes frequencies GG (0.25), GA (0.58), AA (0.17). PCR-RFLP and corresponding sequence analysis revealed nucleotide transversion from Guanine (G) to Cytosine (C) at nucleotide position 85 and transition from (G) to Adenine (A) at position 87. This is the first study that recorded two SNPs within the 5′ flanking region of IGF-1 gene in Egyptian Barki sheep, which were submitted to DNA Data Bank OF Japan (DDBJ) with Accession No. LC151463.1. The genotype GG showed positive significant association (P <0.001) with clean fleece weight (CFW) trait (Odd Ratio=2.83). By contrast, genotype AA had negative significant association (P <0.05) with such trait (Odd Ratio=0.15). On the other hand, fiber diameter (FD) measurements showed no significant association (P >0.05) with different IGF-1 genotypes. This study adds evidence of the association between IGF-1 gene polymorphism and CFW of wool in Egyptian Barki sheep. Therefore; it is important to consider IGF-1 gene as a candidate gene marker for wool weight traits and it should be identified before using successful breeding program.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T08:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.08.001
  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ polymorphism (rs1801282) is
           associated with obesity in Egyptian patients with coronary artery disease
           and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    • Authors: Nehal Salah Hasan; Solaf Ahmed Kamel; Mona Hamed; Eman Awadallah; Amany Hosny Abdel Rahman; Nevine Ibrahim Musa; Ghada Hussein Sayed Hussein
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Nehal Salah Hasan, Solaf Ahmed Kamel, Mona Hamed, Eman Awadallah, Amany Hosny Abdel Rahman, Nevine Ibrahim Musa, Ghada Hussein Sayed Hussein
      Objective Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) gene is one of the possible genes linking diabetes mellitus (DM) with coronary artery disease (CAD). The aim of this study is to clarify whether PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism is associated with the development of CAD in type 2 diabetic patients and to evaluate PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism genetic distribution in type 2DM (T2DM) Egyptian subjects. Methods PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism was determined by Real-Time PCR in serum of 405 subjects classified into 4 groups; T2DM patients (n=105), T2DM with CAD (n=100), CAD patients (n=100) and healthy controls (n=100). Results The PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism was associated significantly with T2DM with CAD (group2) (OR=3, 95% CI=(1.5–6); p=0.001). In this study, T2DM with CAD complications carrying the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism had higher BMI than those without the PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism (p<0.0001). CAD patients carrying PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism had considerable insulin resistance features. Plasma paraoxanase 1(PON1) level was considerably reduced among our 3 studied groups in comparison to control group (p<0.001). Conclusions PPAR-γ Pro12Ala polymorphism might represent a novel risk factor for CAD in T2DM.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T08:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.08.002
  • A review on advanced methods in plant gene targeting

    • Authors: Raghavendrarao Sanagala; Anil Kumar Moola; Ranjitha Kumari Bollipo Diana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Raghavendrarao Sanagala, Anil Kumar Moola, Ranjitha Kumari Bollipo Diana
      Plant genetic engineering is one of the most significant tools implemented in the modern molecular crop breeding techniques. The conventional approaches of plant genetic transformation include Agrobacterium tumefaciens, particle bombardment, DNA uptake into protoplast. The transgenic events derived by these methods carry the transgenes that are integrated at random sites in the plant genome. Novel techniques that mediate integration of foreign genes at specific pre-determined locations circumvent many problems associated with the existing methods of gene transfer. The recent years have witnessed the emergence of gene targeting techniques by employing zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPR). The present review focuses on the various approaches and their performance of plant gene targeting and suggests future directions in the important areas of plant molecular biology.

      PubDate: 2017-08-17T08:19:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.004
  • Computational study of putative functional variants in human kisspeptin

    • Authors: Esmaeil Samadian; Roghaye Gharaei; Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar; Hoda Sohrabi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Esmaeil Samadian, Roghaye Gharaei, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh Colagar, Hoda Sohrabi
      Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) are a type of genetic mutations that result in amino acid substitution of the encoded proteins that may potentially affect its function and phenotype. An In Silico assay has been carried out by using bioinformatics prediction tools to identify nsSNPs which are responsible for important disorders in human kisspeptin (KISS1) gene. In this study, for the first time, KISS1 amino acid changes were discovered by tBlastn for EST database. A list of nsSNPs in human KISS1 gene from dbSNP, dbEST and UniProt databases were prepared. Computational analysis was performed using SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) and PolyPhen (Polymorphism Phenotyping) programs. Of the total 92nsSNPs, 20 were found to be damaged by both servers. Six nsSNPs (P97L, G122R, W114C, R92C, R120H and N115K) are predicted with the highest damaging scores (SIFT=0, PolyPhen=1). These intolerant changes may suggest their functional significance in critical regions which may affect the function and stability of KISS1 protein. Identifying these nsSNPs among the thousands of them make an opportunity to screen only those predicted deleterious by programs.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.007
  • Immobilized lipase from Lactobacillus plantarum in meat degradation and
           synthesis of flavor esters

    • Authors: Sita Ramyasree Uppada; Mahesh Akula; Anupam Bhattacharya; Jayati Ray Dutta
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sita Ramyasree Uppada, Mahesh Akula, Anupam Bhattacharya, Jayati Ray Dutta
      Microbial lipases owing to their broad substrate specificity are widely used in various industrial applications like food processing, organic synthesis, detergent formulation and oil manufacturing. In the current study the immobilized lipase from Lactobacillus plantarum was found novel in degrading meat which can be applied in medical field and also in synthesizing different short chain fatty acid esters like 2,3,4-hydroxybenzyl acetates and triazole ester which makes a great impingement in natural flavor industry. The 4-hydroxybenzyl acetate obtained can also be used in cosmetics.

      PubDate: 2017-08-06T16:57:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.008
  • RAPD markers for screening shoot gall maker (Betousa stylophora Swinhoe)
           tolerant genotypes of amla (Phyllanthus emblica L.)

    • Authors: Sethuraman Thilaga; Raveendran Rahul Nair; Murugesan Rajesh Kannan; Doss Ganesh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sethuraman Thilaga, Raveendran Rahul Nair, Murugesan Rajesh Kannan, Doss Ganesh
      Phyllanthus emblica Linn. is the most important medicinally useful tree crop in Asian Subcontinent and is severely infested by Betousa stylophora Swinhoe, known as shoot gall maker (SGM). This pest tunnels the shoots of seedlings and actively growing branches of trees and develops gall, leading to stunted growth, unusual branching and death of actively growing shoots. Our study revealed that trees possessing smooth bark were free from the attack of this pest than those with rough bark surface. Unfortunately, this character is not detectable either at seedling stage or during early growth of trees in the orchard. RAPD genetic fingerprinting of trees possessing smooth and rough bark revealed distinguishable and highly reproducible DNA banding pattern between the two genotypes. Of the 20 RAPD primers tested, five of them produced distinguishable RAPD bands between rough and smooth barked genotypes of P. emblica. Trees with smooth bark produced five unique RAPD bands with molecular weight ranging from 350bp to 1500bp and those with rough bark produced six RAPD bands (350bp–650bp) to utilize these DNA bands as potential DNA marker for screening tolerant genotypes of this crop against SGM. The utility of this finding in genetic improvement of this tree crop against SGM is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T16:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.003
  • Induction of shoot regeneration in cotyledon explants of the oilseed crop
           Sesamum indicum L.

    • Authors: Masochon Zimik; Neelakantan Arumugam
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Masochon Zimik, Neelakantan Arumugam
      Sesamum indicum is an ancient oilseed crop known for its high quality edible oil and its medicinally important lignans. The crop is said to be recalcitrant to plant tissue culture thus limiting the use of modern biotechnology for its genetic improvement. We present here a protocol describing plant regeneration through adventitious shoot formation from cotyledons dissected from sesame seeds soaked for four hours in water. Subculturing of the cotyledons after two weeks of culture on to a fresh Murashige and Skoog medium leads to differentiation of adventitious shoots from the proximal cut end of the explant. Culture of cotyledons on a medium containing 9% sucrose for a couple of weeks prior to transfer to MS medium supplemented with 3% sucrose induced a higher frequency of shoot regeneration. The highest frequency of 25% adventitious shoot regeneration was observed for S. indicum variety UMA. This variety also turned out to be the best among the ten genotypes tested for shoot regeneration through tissue culture. While addition of IAA marginally improved regeneration, silver nitrate was found essential for enhancing the frequency of shoot regeneration. The regenerated shoots formed roots on full strength MS medium supplemented with 1mg/l IBA and the rooted plants were established in soil.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T16:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.006
  • Isolation, characterization, optimization, immobilization and batch
           fermentation of bioflocculant produced by Bacillus aryabhattai strain PSK1

    • Authors: Ayat E. Abd El-Salam; Desouky Abd-El-Haleem; Amany S. Youssef; Sahar Zaki; Gadallah Abu-Elreesh; Samy A. El-Assar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ayat E. Abd El-Salam, Desouky Abd-El-Haleem, Amany S. Youssef, Sahar Zaki, Gadallah Abu-Elreesh, Samy A. El-Assar
      Among others, isolate PSK1 was selected and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Bacillus aryabhattai. Growth optimization of PSK1 and physicochemical parameters affected bioflocculant production was carried out by Plackett-Burman design and resulted in increasing in the activity by 4.5%. Bioflocculant production by entrapped and adsorbed immobilized microbial cells was performed using different techniques and revealed enhancement in the activity in particular with pumice adsorption. HPLC analysis of sugars and amino acids composition, FTIR and the effect of different factors on the purified PSK1 biopolymer such as presence of cations, thermal stability, pH range and clay concentration was carried out. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of free, immobilized cells, PSK1 bioflocculant and formed flocs were performed. The results revealed that bioflocculant PSK1 is mainly glycoprotein consists of glucose and rhamnose with a large number of amino acids in which arginine and phenylalanine were the major. SEM analysis demonstrated that PSK1 have a clear crystalline rod shaped structure. FTIR spectrum reported the presence of hydroxyl and amino groups which are preferred in flocculation process. PSK1 was soluble in water and insoluble in all other tested organic solvents, while it was thermally stable from 40 to 80°C. Among examined cations, CaCl2 was the best coagulant. The maximum flocculation activity of the PSK1 recorded at 50°C (92.8%), pH 2.0 (94.56%) with clay concentration range 5–9g/l. To obtain a large amount of PSK1 bioflocculant with high flocculating activity, batch fermentation was employed. The results recorded ∼6g/l yield after 24h of fermentation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T16:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.002
  • Micropropagation of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.) in liquid medium
           by temporary immersion bioreactor in comparison with solid culture

    • Authors: Marzieh Ahmadian; Alireza Babaei; Saber Shokri; Shahriar Hessami
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Marzieh Ahmadian, Alireza Babaei, Saber Shokri, Shahriar Hessami
      Developing scale-up system and automation of micropropagation in a bioreactor has been a possible way of cost reduction and intensive manual handling. We report a comparison between the results of experiments aimed at improving carnation micropropagation using new bioreactor according to Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) and solid culture. By applying different levels of BAP, at the concentration of 3mgL−1, we observed 14.3 new shoots in TIB, but the number of new shoots on solid medium reached to 5.7 at the same treatment. Our results also showed that with 3mgL−1 BAP in TIB, the initial fresh weight of plant material increased from 10g to 450g after 15days. It is concluded that TIB showed more than 10 times shoot production of carnation. Shoot elongation and rooting induction was successfully stimulated in TIB by applying 1mgL−1 IBA. Rooting of proliferated plantlets from TIB and solid culture were successfully happened, and led to highest number of roots (4.6cm) and highest length of roots (6.87cm) in TIB. More than 90% of plantlet was acclimatized to ex vitro. Our results suggested that mass production of carnation shoots in our simple TIB, with effective result, can be considered as a critical first step toward large scale production of carnation.

      PubDate: 2017-07-29T16:28:03Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.005
  • Th2 related markers in milk allergic inflammatory mice model, versus OVA

    • Authors: Lamia El-housseiny; Marwa K. Ibrahim; Ronald Sellinger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Lamia El-housseiny, Marwa K. Ibrahim, Ronald Sellinger
      Experimental studies on allergic asthma are limited by the high cost of the administrated allergens. In this study we tested the allergic potency of low fat milk as a cheap substitute to the widely used standard allergen, ovalbumin (OVA). BALB/c female mice (4weeks old) were sensitized intraperitoneally with low fat milk/or OVA followed by intranasal challenge with the two allergens on days 28 and 29. At day 31, serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lungs were harvested. Mice of the low fat milk model showed infiltration of eosinophils, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils in BALF comparable to that of the OVA model. Both allergic protocols led to the production of similar numbers of Th2 cells and induced comparable expression of Th2 cytokine (IL-13) as evident by real time PCR for IL-13 and GATA3 (Th2 transcription factor) and confirmed by immunofluorescence for Th2 surface markers (T1/ST2). In addition, both mouse models had similar elevated levels of allergen specific antibody, IgG1 and IgE. Notably, HE, PAS, and LUNA stained lung sections from low fat milk treated mice had higher average pathological scores as compared to OVA treated mice. In conclusion, this study suggests that the low fat milk-induced inflammation showed hallmarks of allergic airway inflammatory model such as eosinophilic influx in BALF, increased numbers of Th2 cells, augmented expression of IL-13, elevated levels of circulatory IgG1 and IgE, signs of robust pulmonary inflammation, and most importantly it is a cheap and promising model for studying acute allergic airway inflammation and acute asthma.

      PubDate: 2017-07-23T16:07:41Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.07.001
  • Strep-tag II fusion technology for the modification and immobilization of
           lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB)

    • Authors: Sumreet Singh Johar; Joey N. Talbert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sumreet Singh Johar, Joey N. Talbert
      Fusion tags – amino acid sequences that are genetically coded to be expressed as attached moieties to a protein – have the potential to enhance the activity of native enzyme, enable specific purification of the enzyme, and promote simple and efficient immobilization of enzymes onto material supports. In this work, we demonstrate the effect of a Strep-tag II fusion tag on the properties of free and immobilized lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB). The gene encoding the mature portion of CALB was codon-optimized and cloned in pASG-IBA2 plasmid for expression in E. coli. Purified recombinant Strep-tag II CALB was immobilized to Strep-Tactin based support through affinity binding, and the immobilized and free Strep-tag II CALB were compared to a commercial CALB. Following modification, the enzyme could be selectively purified from culture media with no observable non-specific binding. The catalytic efficiency of the purified fusion-tagged enzyme was significantly greater than that of the commercial CALB in its free form. Immobilization of the fusion-tagged enzyme to Strep-Tactin modified crosslinked agarose support yielded a catalytically active enzyme; however, the kcat of the immobilized enzyme was significantly reduced compared to the free tagged enzyme. This work indicates that a C-terminus Strep-tag II fusion tag may be employed to improve the catalytic efficiency of free CALB, but may not be suitable for immobilized applications that employ binding of the enzyme to a Strep-Tactin-modified support.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.011
  • Mitochondrial DNA genetic variations among four horse populations in Egypt

    • Authors: Othman E. Othman; Karima F. Mahrous; Heba I. Shafey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Othman E. Othman, Karima F. Mahrous, Heba I. Shafey
      Horses are one of the early domesticated animals in the world that changed societies and civilizations on a continent-wide scale. Due to the rare information about the genetic characterization of different horse populations in Egypt, this study aimed to identify the genetic biodiversity and relationships between four horse populations reared in Egypt. Genomic DNA was extracted and mtDNA region was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The alignment of 384-bp amplified fragments showed the presence of 41 polymorphic sites resulting in 29 haplotypes which their sequences were submitted to GenBank under the accession numbers: KX909898-KX909926. The phylogeny tree for tested horses declared the presence of mixing maternal lineages between the four tested populations but still there are some separated lineages especially for Arabian and Thoroughbred horses. The sequences of 72 tested sequences were aligned with 13 published sequences as references, 11 of them for different Equus caballus whereas the other two reference sequences for Equus burchellii and Equus asinus. The results showed that all tested horses from the four populations are grouped with reference sequences of Equus caballus and separated from the other two reference sequences of Equus burchellii and Equus asinus. It is concluded that sequence analysis of mtDNA control region is still the most informative tool for the identification of genetic biodiversity and phylogeny of different horse breeds and populations. The horse populations reared in Egypt possess low genetic diversity and all of them are belonged to Equus caballus breed.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.004
  • Strain improvement and statistical optimization as a combined strategy for

    • Authors: Adedeji Nelson Ademakinwa; Zainab Adenike Ayinla; Femi Kayode Agboola
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Adedeji Nelson Ademakinwa, Zainab Adenike Ayinla, Femi Kayode Agboola
      Strain improvement of a low fructosyltransferase-producing Aureobasidium pullulans NAC8 (Accession No. KX023301) was carried out using chemical mutagens such as ethidium bromide and ethyl methane sulfonate. The wild-type and mutant strain were distinguished using Random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR and DNA fingerprinting analysis. Plackett-Burman and Box Behnken design were statistical tools used to determine important media parameters and optimization, respectively. Phenotypically and genetically, the new improved strain was different from the wild-type. The most important media parameters from PDB influencing fructosyltransferase production were ammonium chloride, sucrose and yeast extract at p <0.05. Some significant parameters obtained with the BBD exhibited quadratic effects on FTase. The F values (35.37 and 32.11), correlation coefficient (0.98 and 0.97) and the percent coefficient of variation (2.53% and 2.40%) were obtained for extracellular and intracellular FTase respectively. The validation of the model in the improved strain resulted in an overall 6.0 and 2.0-fold increase in extracellular and intracellular FTase respectively compared to the wild-type. A relatively low FTase-producing strain of Aureobasidium pullulans NAC8 was enhanced for optimum production using a two-pronged approach involving mutagenesis and statistical optimization. The improved mutant strain also had remarkable biotechnological properties that make it a suitable alternative than the wild-type.

      PubDate: 2017-07-12T15:29:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.012
  • Purification and characterization of lipase by Bacillus methylotrophicus
           PS3 under submerged fermentation and its application in detergent industry

    • Authors: Pushpinder Sharma; Nivedita Sharma; Shruti Pathania; Shweta Handa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Pushpinder Sharma, Nivedita Sharma, Shruti Pathania, Shweta Handa
      Lipase production bacterial isolate was isolated from soil of service station and identified as Bacillus methylotrophicus PS3 by 16SrRNA with accession number LN999829.1 . Lipase enzyme was purified by sequential methods of ammonium sulfate precipitation and Sephadex G-100 gel column chromatography. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 31.40kDa on SDS-PAGE. This purification procedure resulted in 2.90-fold purification of lipase with a 24.10% final yield. The purified lipase presented maximal hydrolytic activity at a temperature of 55 °C, and pH of 7.0. Lipase activity was stimulated by Triton X-100 and SDS with Mg2+ and Ca2+ metals employ a positive effect and outlast its stable in organic solvent i.e. methanol and ethanol.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.007
  • Purification and characterization of deoxyribonuclease from small
           intestine of camel Camelus dromedarius

    • Authors: Somia S. Abdel-Gany; Mohamed O. El-Badry; Afaf S. Fahmy; Saleh A. Mohamed
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Somia S. Abdel-Gany, Mohamed O. El-Badry, Afaf S. Fahmy, Saleh A. Mohamed
      The chromatography of deoxyribonuclease (DNase) from small intestine of camel Camelus dromedarius by DEAE-Sepharose separated three isoforms DNase 1, DNase 2 and DNase 3. The DNase 3 was purified to homogeneity by chromatography on Sephacryl S-200. The molecular weight of DNase 3 was 30kDa using gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The pH optimum of DNase 3 was reported at 7.0 using Tris-HCl buffer. The temperature optimum of DNase 3 was found to be 50°C. The enzyme was stable up to 50°C for one h incubation. The Km value was 28.5µg DNA, where this low value indicated the high affinity of enzyme toward DNA as substrate. No activity of DNase 3 was determined in the absence of metal cations. Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused significant enhancement in the enzyme activity by 90 and 75%, respectively. The mixture of Mg2+ and Ca2+ caused 100% of enzyme activity. Ni2+, Co2+, Ba2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ showed very strong inhibitory effect on enzyme activity. In conclusion, the characterization of DNase 3 indicated that the enzyme is considered as a member of DNase I family. The low Km value of the DNA suggested that the high digestion of DNA of camel forage by small intestine DNase 3.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.008
  • Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of phosphate solubilizing
           bacteria and their efficiency on the growth of maize

    • Authors: Amit Pande; Prashant Pandey; Simmi Mehra; Mritunjay Singh; Suresh Kaushik
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Amit Pande, Prashant Pandey, Simmi Mehra, Mritunjay Singh, Suresh Kaushik
      Phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) has ability to convert insoluble form of phosphorous to an available form. Applications of PSB as inoculants increase the phosphorus uptake by plant in the agriculture field. In this study, isolation and identification of PSB were carried out in Indian agriculture field (Nainital region, Uttarakhand). A total of 8 phosphate solubilizing bacterial colonies were isolated on the Pikovskaya’s (PKV) agar medium, containing insoluble tricalcium phosphate (TCP). The colonies showed clear halo zones around the bacterial growth were considered as phosphate solubilizers. Out of 8 bacterial isolates, 3 isolates showed high phosphate solubilization index (PSI) ranged from 4.88±0.69 to 4.48±0.30, lower pH ranging 3.08±0.08 to 3.82±0.12 and high phosphate solubilization varied from 305.49±10μg/ml to 277.72±1.45μg/ml, were selected for further characterization. Based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis A4 isolate and H6 isolate were closely related to Alcaligenes aquatilis (99%), and C1 isolate was closely related to Burkholderia cepacia (99%). In addition, pot examination also showed the greatest efficiency in promotion of maize growth compared to uninoculated plant. Isolated PSB were able to produce different organic acids (such as gluconic acids, formic acid, and citric acid) in the culture supernatant and may consider as the principle mechanism for phosphate solubilization. This study clearly indicates that A4, C1 and H6 isolates may use as a biofertilizers in ecological agricultural systems instead of synthetic chemicals and may help to sustain environmental health and soil productivity.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.005
  • Statistical optimisation of xylanase production by estuarine Streptomyces
           sp. and its application in clarification of fruit juice

    • Authors: Emilda Rosmine; Neethu Changanedassery Sainjan; Reshma Silvester; Aneesa Alikkunju; Saramma Aikkarakunnath Varghese
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Emilda Rosmine, Neethu Changanedassery Sainjan, Reshma Silvester, Aneesa Alikkunju, Saramma Aikkarakunnath Varghese
      Recently, xylanase has become an essential option for environmental friendly industrial biotechnological applications and the rising demand for its large scale production urge to take the advantage of statistical approach of optimization to investigate the interactive effects of prominent process factors involved to enhance xylanase production. In the present study, xylanase production from Streptomyces sp. strain ER1 isolated from Cochin estuarine soil; was optimised using statistical designs- Plackett-Burman and Central composite design. Plackett-Burman design was used to identify important fermentation condition factors affecting the xylanase production using beechwood xylan as the substrate. The optimum levels of these significant factors were determined employing the Central Composite Design. Out of the thirteen factors screened, concentration of beechwood xylan and olive oil, agitation speed, and inoculum age were recognized as the most significant factors. By analyzing the response surface plots and using numerical optimization method, the optimal levels for concentration of xylan and olive oil, agitation speed and inoculum age were determined as 0.37%, 33.10mg/L, 42.87RPM and 21.05h, respectively. The optimised medium resulted in a 1.56-fold increased level of the xylanase (10,220U/mL) production compared to the initial level (3986.444U/mL) after 120h of fermentation. The purified enzyme could successfully clarify orange, mousambi and pineapple juice to 20.87%, 23.64% and 27.89% respectively. Thus the present study has proved that Streptomyces sp. strain ER1 (KY449279) is a potential and useful organism for xylanase production and its purified enzyme could clarify the selected fruit juices.

      PubDate: 2017-07-03T03:35:45Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.06.001
  • Serum apelin levels and metabolic risk markers in obese women

    • Authors: Moushira Zaki; Sanaa Kamal; Wafaa Ezzat; Naglaa Hassan; Walaa Yousef; Hanaa Ryad; Ramy Mohamed; Eman Youness; Walaa Basha; Yasser Elhosary
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2017
      Source:Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology
      Author(s): Moushira Zaki, Sanaa Kamal, Wafaa Ezzat, Naglaa Hassan, Walaa Yousef, Hanaa Ryad, Ramy Mohamed, Eman Youness, Walaa Basha, Yasser Elhosary
      Background Adipose tissue hormones, Adipokines, play an important role in obesity-associated complications. Apelin has recently been added to the family of adipokines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between serum apelin levels and metabolic abnormal parameters in Egyptian obese women. Materials and methods The study included 400 unrelated women; they were 200 obese women and 200 non- obese matched healthy women. All participants underwent clinical, anthropometric and biochemical examinations. Insulin resistance (IR) was determined by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Serum apelin levels and obesity biomarkers were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) kits. Fat mass was measured by Tanita Body Composition Analyzer. Results Obese women showed significant higher levels of serum apelin, leptin, triglycerides, LDL-C, total cholesterol, fasting insulin HOMA-IR and blood pressure levels than controls. Significant positive correlations between apelin and leptin levels with abnormal metabolic markers were noted in obese women. Conclusion The present study suggests the significant role that might be mediated by apelin for developing abnormal metabolic parameters among Egyptian obese women.

      PubDate: 2017-06-13T00:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.jgeb.2017.05.002
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