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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 161)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 520)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Iranian Journal of Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.149]   [H-I: 11]   [0 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 2322-2921 - ISSN (Online) 1728-3043
   Published by Kowsar Publishing Co Homepage  [23 journals]
  • Sequence Characterization in the 3'-Flanking Region of Bovine TNF-α Gene
           and its Association ...

    • Abstract: Background: Tumor necrosis factor- a (TNF-α) is a cytokine that was identifi ed as a factor with a wide range ofproinfl ammatory activities. The expression of bovine TNF-α in mammary tissue during pregnancy seems to have role in development of the corresponding glands.Objective: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were defi ned in 3’-fl anking region of bovine TNF-α incattle. Moreover, its association with performance traits in Holstein dairy cattle was evaluated.Materials and Methods: The 3’-fl anking region of TNF-α was screened by single strand conformationpolymorphism (SSCP) and DNA sequencing in Holstein cattle breeds. SAS statistical software was used toanalyze the relationship between diff erent genotypes of amplifi ed fragment with milk production traits (dailymilk yield, fat and protein percentage) and SCS.Results: A total of 6 distinct SSCP patterns were observed. It was further revealed to be 3 novel SNPs. Statistical analysis revealed that diff erent haplotypes of amplifi ed fragment in the TNF-α 3’-region had a signifi cant effect on average daily milk production (p < 0.05), but no such correlation was established with fat percentage, protein percentage and SCS.Conclusion: The association identifi ed in the 3’-fl anking region of TNF-α may have potential to serve ascandidate genetic marker for genomic selection in dairy cattle.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • The Desirability Optimization Methodology (DOM); a Tool to Predict Two
           Antagonist Responses in ...

    • Abstract: Background: The use of the desirability function approach combined with the response surface methodology (RSM), also called Desirability Optimization Methodology (DOM), has been successfully applied to solve medical, chemical, and technological questions. It is particularly effi cient for the determination of the optimal conditions in natural or industrial processes involving diff erent factors leading to the antagonist responses.Objectives: Surprisingly, DOM has never been applied to the research programs devoted to the study of plant responses to the complex environmental changes, and thus to biotechnological questions.Materials and Methods: In this article, DOM is used to study the response of Datura stramonium hairy roots (HRs), obtained by genetic transformation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes A4 strain, subjected to the jasmonate treatments.Results: Antagonist eff ects on the growth and tropane alkaloid biosynthesis are confi rmed. With a limited number of experimental conditions, it is shown that 0.06 mM jasmonic acid (JA) applied for 24 h leads to an optimal compromise. Hyoscyamine levels increase by up to 290% after 24 h and this treatment does not signifi cantly inhibit biomass growth.Conclusions: It is thus demonstrated that the use of DOM can effi ciently - with a minimized number of replicates - leads to the optimization of the biotechnological processes.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Factors Influencing in vitro Organogenesis of Chrysanthemum morifolium cv.
           ‘Resomee Splendid’

    • Abstract: Background: Chrysanthemum; also commonly known as mums or chrysanths, is one of the most important ornamental crops worldwide. Introducing desirable traits into this valuable plant by the conventional breeding has so far been faced with some restrictions due to the limited gene pool and cross-incompatibility. Therefore, breeders have decided to exploit Agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods in order to satisfy the growing market demands. However, the more efficient in vitro regeneration protocols are required for this approach.Objectives: The objective of this research was to develop an effi cient protocol for an in vitro plant regeneration by the examining the eff ects of various combinations and concentrations of the plant growth regulators (PGRs) and different explants types.Materials and Methods: The leaf and petiole explants of the Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. ‘Resomee Splendid’ were collected from the in vitro grown plantlets. Murashige and Skooge (MS) medium was supplemented with different concentrations and combinations of benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and thidiazuron (TDZ). Thereafter, the eff ects of these hormonal treatments were investigated on shoot initiation percentage, the average number of shoots per explants, callogenesis, and the type of organogenesis in regard to both types of the explants.Results: Shoots were directly formed from leaf explants on the media that only contained BAP without callus formation. Amongst the other hormonal treatments, a combination of 4.5 mg.L-1 BAP plus 1 mg.L-1 NAA resulted in the direct organogenesis from the leaf explants, which was superior to the other combinations and concentrations. In regard to the petiole explants, direct shoot formation occurred in all the media except for the ones which were fortifi ed with TDZ. In this case, considering the shoot initiation percentage and the mean shoot number per explants, the best results were achieved in the medium supplemented with 1.5 mg.L-1 BAP and 1 mg.L-1 NAA. Results showed that interaction of either BAP or TDZ with NAA was necessary for the callus induction.Conclusions: Signifi cant diff erences in shoot initiation percentage and the average number of shoots per explants were observed both in leaves and petioles grown on diff erent media. Moreover, the callogenesis rates, as well as organogenesis types, showed some diff erences among the studied explants when compared on the same media.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Effects of Nonionic Surfactants on Xanthan Gum Production: a Survey on
           Cellular Interactions

    • Abstract: Background: Xanthomonas campestris is a biopolymer producing gram negative bacterium. Production of xanthan biopolymer can be aff ected by diff erent extrinsic factors as well as surfactants. Hitherto, eff ects of nonionic surfactants on xanthan production have been studied in a limited number of articles.Objective: In the present study, nonionic surfactants were used to pursue their eff ects on improvement of xanthan production. Moreover, a number of cellular consequences upon the treatment were investigated with impacts on gum production.Materials and Methods: Eff ects of diff erent nonionic surfactants (Tween 20, Tween 80 and Triton X100) on xanthan production and Xanthomonas campestris cells were assessed by ultramicroscopy (SEM), changes in culture turbidity, leakage of sugars and ATP, and quality of xanthan (i.e. pyruvate content and determination of polymer molecular weight).Results: The nonionic surfactant Tween 20 increased ATP (3.2 folds) and sugar leakage (3.1 folds). Furthermore, they caused cell shape alteration. Tween 80 improved both xanthan production (11 g.L-1) and viscosity of the product (1368 cP), while the total biomass remained unchanged (2.2 g.L-1). Molecular weight of xanthan was enhanced (from 23 to 59 million Da). Toxic eff ect of 5% (v/v) Triton X 100 decreased the turbidity of culture to 120 NTU and total biomass was diminishedto 1 g.L-1. Tween 20 caused the loss of ATP and sugar leakage and led to lower xanthan production. Thus, it had no effect on biomass content.Conclusions: In general, amounts of surfactants that bacterial cells can tolerate seem to be helpful in substrate and metabolite transportation, and enzyme activities involved in xanthan biosynthesis and release. Surfactants induce harsh damages to cell barriers, preventing the growth and adversely aff ecting quantity and quality of xanthan gum.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Development of A Novel Gene Expression System for Secretory Production of
           Heterologous Proteins ...

    • Abstract: Background: Corynebacterium glutamicum (C. glutamicum) is a potential host for the secretory production of the heterologous proteins. However, to this date few secretion-type gene expression systems in C. glutamicum have been developed, which limit applications of C. glutamicum in a secretory production of the heterologous proteins.Objectives: In this study, a novel and effi cient general secretory (Sec) pathway-dependent type gene expression system for the production of heterologous proteins was developed in C. glutamicum.Materials and Methods: The synthesized cloning/expression cassette C was assembled into the basic E. coli-C. glutamicum shuttle vector pAU2, generating the Sec-dependent type gene expression vector pAU5. Subsequently, the applicability of the C. glutamicum/pAU5 system was tested using the α-amylase AmyE from Bacillus subtilis as a reporter protein.Results: The vector pAU5 was successfully constructed. The SDS-PAGE experiment showed the AmyE protein band could be observed in the original culture supernatant of the 14067/pAU5-amyE. The Western blotting experiment showed that the AmyE polypeptide could be detected in the culture supernatant of the 14067/pAU5-amyE, not in the cell lysate of 14067/pAU5-amyE. The α-amylase specifi c activity of the culture supernatant of 14067/pAU5-amyE was 103.24±7.14 protein, while no α-amylase activity was detected in the cell homogenate supernatant of 14067/pAU5-amyE. These results demonstrate that the recombinant AmyE was effi ciently expressed and completely secreted into the extracellular environmentin an active form in C. glutamicum/pAU5 system.Conclusions: A novel effi cient Sec-dependent type gene expression vector pAU5 was constructed in the C. glutamicum. The vector pAU5 employs the strong promoter tac-M for controlling a constitutive transcription of the target gene, the consensus ribosome binding site (RBS) sequence of C. glutamicum to ensure protein translation, and the effi cient Sectype cgR_2070 signal sequence to mediate protein secretion in the C. glutamicum. The C. glutamicum/pAU5 system is an efficient expression system for the secretory production of the heterologous proteins.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Functional and Molecular Characterization of C91S Mutation in the Second
           Epidermal Growth ...

    • Abstract: Background: Coagulation Factor VII is a vitamin K-dependent serine protease which has a pivotal role in the initiation of the coagulation cascade. The congenital Factor VII defi ciency is a recessive hemorrhagic disorder that occurs due to mutations of F7 gene. In the present study C91S (p.C91S) substitution was detected in a patient with FVII defi ciency. This mutation has not been characterized by a functional study.Objectives: In this study, we aimed to evaluate the impact of C91S substitution on factor VII expression and function.Materials and Methods: The F7 complete cDNA was isolated from HepG2 cell line and inserted into the pcDNA3.1 mammalian expression vector. The desired mutation was generated by the site-directed mutagenesis and the wild-type and mutated constructs were transfected into CHO-K1 cells. The protein activity and antigen level (antigen concentration) were validated in the culture medium and cell lysate of the transiently transformed cells. An immunocytochemistry procedure was also performed to evaluate the intracellular localization of the mutated and the wild-type FVII, as well.Results: The present in vitro study has demonstrated that C91S antigen expression was increased in the transfected CHO-K1 cells compared to the wild-type (WT) protein. Despite an increased protein secretion, the factor VII coagulant activity was diminished following C91S substitution when it was assessed by a standard one-stage analysis. In addition, the immunocytochemistry procedure revealed that there was no diff erence in the intracellular localization of the C91S mutated FVII compared to the WT protein.Conclusions: Our results present that C91S mutation has an eff ect on the coagulation activity, secretion, biosynthesis, and probably folding of the FVII leading to the FVII defi ciency.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Addition of Fillers to Sodium Alginate Solution Improves Stability and
           Immobilization Capacity ...

    • Abstract: Background: Although advantages of immobilization of cells through entrapment in calcium alginate gel beads have already been demonstrated, nevertheless, instability of the beads and the mass transfer limitations remain as the major challenges.Objective: The objective of the present study was to increase the stability, porosity (reduce mass transfer limitation), and cell immobilization capacity of calcium alginate gel beads.Materials and Method: Sodium alginate was mixed with various concentrations of the starch or sugar and gelled in 2% calcium chloride solution. During the gelling and curing, the starch or sugar leached out of the beads and created micropores.Results: Micro-porous beads prepared with starch were more stable and had higher immobilization capacity than those prepared with sugar. After 24 hours of incubation (curing) of the micro-porous beads prepared with starch in calcium alginate, the solubilization time in citrate buff er was 93 minutes compared to 41 minutes for the control beads (without starch). The compressive strength of the micro-porous beads was also higher (5.62 Mpa) than that of the control beads (5.54 Mpa). The optimal starch concentration for cell immobilization was 0.4%. With this starch concentration, the immobilized Bacillus subtilis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell density were 5.6 × 109 and 1.2 × 108 cells/beads, respectively. These values were 36.5% and 74% higher than the value obtained for the control beads. This method of immobilization resulted in more uniform cell distribution.Conclusion: Addition of starch to the sodium alginate solution before gelation in calcium chloride solution increased the stability of the beads, increased the immobilized cell density, and resulted in a more uniform cell distribution in the beads.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • The Eff ect of Oxalic Acid, the Pathogenicity Factor of Sclerotinia
           sclerotiorum on the Two ...

    • Abstract: Background: One of the main sunfl ower diseases is the white mold Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The oxalic acid (OA), which is one of the main pathogenicity factors of this fungus, beside the direct toxicity on the host, has other functions such as the disruption of the cell wall and chelating out the calcium ions.Objectives: Regarding the importance of this disease, it is important to study the reactions of the plant to OA which is a nonspecifi c toxin for many necrotrophic fungi.Materials and Methods: In this study, two susceptible and moderately resistant sunfl ower lines were inoculated with OA and samples at the fi rst leaf stage which was collected within the intervals of 2, 6, 12 and 24 hours post inoculation. The expression of fi ve genes related to tricarboxylic acid cycle, including citrate synthase, fumarase, iso-citrate lyase, malate synthase and malate dehydrogenase was studied under OA treatment.Results: Two hours after the inoculation, no signifi cant change has been observed in the expression of the fi ve studied genes in the moderately resistant line. The iso-citrate lyase gene, which is related to glyoxylate cycle (a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle), showed no change in the moderately resistant line; however, it showed an increase in the susceptible line. The increase in fumarase gene expression in moderately resistant line was higher than the susceptible line. The result showed the activation of glyoxylate cycle and destruction of fatty acids in the susceptible line.Conclusions: Activation of glyoxylate cycle indicates induction of senescent symptoms by OA in susceptible line. Increase in H2O2 leads to oxidative burst and cell death. Cell death has an apparent benefi t for development and growth of necrotrophic pathogens in the plant cells. The study of resistance mechanisms in response to the pathogen can be useful for breeding programs to provide lines with higher resistance to this pathogen.
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Transient Expression of Biologically Active Anti-rabies Virus Monoclonal
           Antibody in Tobacco Leaves

    • Abstract: Background: Rabies virus is a neurotropic virus that causes fatal, but, a preventable disease in mammals. Administration of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) is essential for the post-exposure of the prophylaxis to prevent the disease. However, replacement of polyclonal RIGs with alternative monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that are capable of neutralizing rabies virus has been recommended.Objectives: Here, we have investigated the transient expression of the full-size human MAb against rabies virus glycoprotein; the MAb SO57 in the tobacco plants using vacuum agro-infi ltration. Previously, stably transformed plants expressing the MAb have been reported.Materials and Methods: In this study three vectors carrying the codon-optimized genes for the heavy or light chain and p19 silencing-suppressor were constructed. These vectors were co-infi ltrated into Nicotiana tabacum leaves and the transgenes were expressed.Results: Dot blot, Western blotting, ELISA, and in vitro neutralization assays of the plant extracts showed that the human MAb could assemble in tobacco leaves and was able to neutralize rabies virus.Conclusions: This study is the fi rst report of transient expression of human MAb SO57 gene in tobacco plant within a few days after vacuum agro-infi ltration
      PubDate: Sat, 10 Mar 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Functional Assessment of an Overexpressed Arabidopsis Purple Acid
           Phosphatase Gene (Atpap26) in ...

    • Abstract: Background: Overexpression of known genes encoding key phosphate (Pi)-metabolizing enzymes, such as acid phosphatases (APases), is presumed to help plants with Pi availability and absorption as they are mostly exposed to suboptimal environmental conditions for this vital element.Objectives: In this study, the overexpression eff ect of AtPAP26, one of the main contributors in retrieving Pi from intracellular and extracellular compounds was evaluated from various angles in tobacco plants.Materials and Methods: As a heterologous expression system, the encoding cDNA sequence of AtPAP26 was transferred into tobacco plants.Results: A high growth rate of the transgenic lines was observed which could be due to an increased APase activity, leading to the high total phosphorus as well as the free Pi content of the transgenic plants. Interestingly, a signifi cant increased activity of the other APases was also noticed, indicating a networking among them. These were accompanied by less branched and short primary roots and a decreased lateral root numbers when grown in Pi-starvation condition compared to the wild type seedlings. Besides, a delayed germination and dwarf phenotype indicates the possible reduction in gibberellic acid biosynthesis in the transgenic lines.Conclusions: Such transgenic plants are of interest not only for increased yield but also for the reduced need for chemical fertilizers and removal of excessive Pi accumulation in soils as a consequence of fertilizer over-usage or poultry wastes.
      PubDate: Wed, 28 Feb 2018 20:30:00 +010
  • Presence of Recombinant Strain of Cucurbit Aphid Borne Yellows Virus in

    • Abstract: Background: Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV) is among the most important yellowing viruses on cucurbits in Iran. The presence of CABYV has been previously reported from the major cucurbit growing areas in Iran, however, there are few studies concerning the detection of the different strains of this virus in the grower’s fields, and especially, there is no report of the weed host plants near crop fields. Objectives: This study was done in order to detect the new strains of the CABYV polerovirus in cucurbits and the weed plants in the Lorestan province, Iran, as an introductory investigation for initiating a program of the breeding for resistance. Material and Methods: During a survey carried out in 2013-2014 in Lorestan province; Iran, 189 cucurbit and 261 weed samples were investigated for the presence of CABYV using RT-PCR. In addition, the phylogeny and nucleotide similarities were discussed on the basis of the partial nucleotide sequence of RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) gene. Results: The RT-PCR carried out on leaf samples revealed the infection with the CABYV in 43 cucumber and 12 weed samples. RT-PCR using strain specific primers detected the presence of the both common (C) and recombinant (R) strains of CABYV in the tested samples. On the basis of the phylogenetic analyses, the CABYV-C isolates from Iran were clustered into two distinct sub-populations (CI and CII), such that all the weed samples with two sequenced cucumber isolates were clustered in the CI sub-population. Meanwhile, a distinct sub-population of the isolates was clustered in the CABYV-R group showed a shared sequence identity of 97% to a Taiwanese isolate (JQ700306). Conclusions: This study has indicated the incidence of CABYV-R in the Southwest Asia; Iran for the first time. We were also able to show CABYV occurrence in Sysimbrium irio and Citrullus colocynthis from this area of the world. Identification of cucurbit infecting viruses and studying their distribution and potential reservoir hosts are important for developing successful control programs for virus disease management.  
      PubDate: Thu, 28 Dec 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • From a Chemical Matrix to Biologically/Biomechanically-Defined
           Matrices-Optimizing/Correlating ...

    • Abstract: Use of Adipose Stem Cells (ADSCs), obtained easily in a relatively less invasive manner (abdominoplasty) and characterized by flow cytometry, is a classical approach in stem cell research and clinical aspects. Other techniques such as isolation of the cells from bone marrow aspirates  (1) are rather more invasive. Further, it is pertinent to point out that growth rate, differentiation potential and functions are better in abdominal Adipose Stem Cells (ADSCs), in comparison with those isolated from the Visceral Omental Pads.  Such changes are attributable to these cells retaining the memory of their sites of origin (2). Furthermore, their other features of having the potential to differentiate into a number of lineages coupled with their immunomodulatory, angiogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects puts ADSCs as the prominent cell type in stem cell research and clinical aspects. The authors have chosen alginate (specific M/G ratio)-gelatin composite hydrogel, with favourable charge properties, to demonstrate an increased growth rate and differentiation potential (50:50 ratio better than the 70:30 ratio) (1) Gelatin is widely accepted as a biocompatible, biodegradable, cost-effective substratum for cell growth...
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Characterization of the Electric Current Generation Potential of the
           Pseudomonas aeruginosa ...

    • Abstract: Background: Different concentrations of the simple carbon substrates i.e. glucose, fructose, and sucrose were tested to enhance the performance of the mediator-less double chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC).Objectives: The power generation potential of the different electron donors was studied using a mesophilic Fe (III) reducer and non-fermentative bacteria Pseudomonas aeruginosa-isolated from municipal wastewater.Materials and Methods: A double chamber MFC was operated with three different electron donors including glucose, sucrose, and fructose. Substrate utilization pattern was determined through chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal rate and voltage generation. In addition, electrochemical, physicochemical, and microscopic analysis of the anodic biofilm was conducted.Results:P. aeruginosa was proven to effectively utilize hexose and pentose sugars through anode respiration. Higher power density was generated from glucose (136 ± 87 mWm-²) lead by fructose (3.6 ± 1.6 mWm-²) and sucrose (8.606 ± mWm-²). Furthermore, a direct relation was demonstrated between current generation rate and COD removal efficiency. COD removal rates were, 88.5% ± 4.3%, 67.5% ± 2.6%, and 54.2% ± 1.9% with the three respective sugars in MFC. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) demonstrated that the bacterial attachment was considerably abundant in glucose fed MFC than in the fructose and sucrose operated MFC. Conclusion: This study has revealed that electron donor type in the anodic compartment controls the growth of anodic biofilm or anode-respiring bacteria (ARB). 
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Enhancement of Alpha 1-antitrypsin Production in Pichia pastoris by
           Designing and Optimizing ...

    • Abstract: Background: Human alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a monomeric glycosylated protein; it is the potent inhibitor of a whole range of serine proteases and protects tissues against their destructive effects. The human plasma-derived AAT, which is currently used to augment the AAT level in patients, is limited due to high cost and source limitation. Recombinant production of AAT can be considered as a potential alternative.Objectives: This study aims to develop and optimize a new chemically defined medium based on an elemental analysis of the yeast Pichia pastoris for an efficient culture of the recombinant yeast-producing secretory AAT.Material and Methods:An elemental analysis of Carbon (C), Hydrogen (H), Nitrogen (N), Sulfur (S); CHNS in its abbreviated form, and metallic elements was performed to determine the exact molecular constituent of the P. pastoris. The medium components were selected according to the obtained formula; they were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM). The grown yeast cell was measured at the end of 18 h glycerol batch culture. The amounts of AAT production and elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) were measured at the end of three days’ methanol feeding. Results: The optimized medium compositions consist of glycerol (40 g.L-1), KH2PO4 (24.78 g.L-1), NaCl, (0.88 g.L-1), MgSO4.7H2O (1.95 g.L-1), (NH4)2SO4 (22.76 g.L-1), and trace elements (20 mL.L-1). The presented quadratic models show that KH2PO4 and (NH4)2SO4, are the most abundant ones in the P. pastoris biomass and have the greatest effect on the cell growth, EIC, and AAT protein production responses.Conclusions: According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the characterizing cell composition formula could be considered as an appropriate method to design culture media in order to improve cell growth and productivity. Compared to the common P. pastoris chemically defined media, FM22 and BSM, production of AAT protein increased by 1.5 and 1.4 times, respectively, in this new medium. 
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Purification of Endoxylanase from Bacillus pumilus B20 for Production of
           Prebiotic ...

    • Abstract: Background:The need for more cost-effective compounds is imperative because the demand for prebiotic compounds is ever on the rise.Objective:The focus of this study is the purification of the endoxylanase from Bacillus pumilus B20 and its application in a cost-effective production of the prebiotic xylooligosaccharide (XOS) syrup having a high concentration of oligosaccharides.Materials and Methods:Theextracellular endoxylanase was purified using ammonium sulphate fractionation, DEAE anion exchange, and Sephacryl gel filtration chromatography. The enzymatically produced XOS was used in the preparation of XOS syrup adopting the method of ultrafiltration with 10 and 3 kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) membranes. Culture-dependent technique for the bacterial enumeration using selective probiotic microorganisms in an in vitro analysis was employed to confirm the prebiotic nature of XOS syrup.Results:The molecular mass of the purified xylanase (XylB) was found to be approximately 85 kDa with the optimum pH and temperature of 6.5 and 60 °C, respectively. XylB hydrolyzed the xylan and produced short-chain xylooligosaccharides (XOS). At the end of the two-step ultrafiltration process, the hydrolysate was refined to form XOS syrup (44.4%) consisting of XOS with a degree of polymerization (DP) between 2 and 5, and >5.  Among all the tested probiotic strains, Lactobacillus brevis exhibited maximum growth in the presence of 0.5% XOS syrup with a specific growth rate of 1.2 h-1.Conclusion:Through this study, we have identified a method to produce XOS syrup that can be used as an effective prebiotic supplement for the growth of several probiotic strains. Human gut probiotics was used as a model system for in vitro analysis of prebiotic oligosaccharide XOS, but for further confirmation of the prebiotic activity, in vivo feeding studies using animal models are needed to be carried out. 
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Effect of Simulated Microgravity Conditions on Differentiation of Adipose
           Derived Stem Cells ...

    • Abstract: Background: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells able to differentiating into a variety of mesenchymal tissues including osteoblasts, adipocytes and several other tissues. Objectives: Differentiation of MSCs into fibroblast cells in vitro is an attractive strategy to achieve fibroblast cell and use them for purposes such as regeneration medicine. The goal of this study was investigate the simulated microgravity effect on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) to fibroblasts. Materials and Methods: To fibroblast differentiation 100 ng.mL-1 of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and for simulation microgravity, 2D clinostat was used. After isolation the human ADSCs from adipose, cells were passaged, and at passages 3 they were used for characterization and subsequent steps. After 7 days of CTGF and simulated microgravity treatment, proliferation, and differentiation were analyzed collectively by MTT assay, quantitative PCR analyses, and Immunocytochemistry staining. Results: MTT assay revealed that CTGF stimulate the proliferation but simulated microgravity didn’t have statistically significant effect on cell proliferation. In RNA level the expression of these genes are investigated: collagen type I (COLI), elastin (ELA), collagen type III (ColIII), Matrix Metalloproteinases I(MMP1), Fibronectin 1 (FN1), CD44, Fibroblast Specific protein (FSP-1), Integrin Subunit Beta 1 (ITGB1), Vimentin (VIM) and Fibrillin (FBN). We found that expression of ELN, FN1, FSP1, COL1A1, ITGB1, MMP1 and COL3A1 in both condition, and VIM and FBN1 just in differentiation medium in normal gravity increased. In protein level the expression of COL III and ELN in simulated microgravity increased. Conclusions: These findings collectively demonstrate that the simulated microgravity condition alters the marker fibroblast gene expression in fibroblast differentiation process.    
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Ginsenoside Rg5: Rk1 Exerts an Anti-obesity Effect on 3T3-L1 Cell Line by
           the Downregulation of ...

    • Abstract: Background: Obesity, a global health problem and a chronic disease, is associated with increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes and coronary heart diseases. A wide variety of natural remedies have been explored for their obesity treatment potential. Objective: The anti-adipogenic effect of ginsenoside Rg5:Rk1 (Rg5:Rk1) on 3T3-L1 mature adipocytes was investigated. Materials and Methods: To elucidate the anti-obesity effect of Rg5:Rk1, a mixture of protopanaxadiol type ginsenosides isolated from Panax ginseng Meyer in a 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In order to determine the anti-obesity effect of Rg5:Rk1, based on oil Red O Staining, triglyceride (TG) content in adipose cells was assessed. Furthermore, to elucidate the possible mechanism of Rg5:RK1 effect on lipid accumulation, mRNA and protein expression analyses of adipocyte markers such as STAT3, PPARγ, CBEPα and ap2 were carried out. Results: Rg5:Rk1 treatment showed an inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation and decrease of TG content. In addition, expression of STAT3, PPARγ, CEBPα and ap2 were decreased in a dose dependent manner. Similarly, the Rg5:Rk1 treatment reduced PPARγ and CEBPα protein expression. Conclusion: Rg5:Rk1 treatment exhibits anti-adipogenic activity by down-regulation of the STAT3/ PPARg/CEBPa signaling pathway in 3T3-L1 adipocyte cell line.  
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Sugarcane Mosaic Virus-Based Gene Silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana

    • Abstract: Background:Potyvirus-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is used for knocking down the expression of a target gene in numerous plant species. Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) is a monopartite, positive single strand RNA virus. Objectives:pBINTRA6 vector was modified by inserting a gene segment of SCMV in place of Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) genome part 1 (TRV1 or RNA1) and the two nonstructural proteins of TRV2(RNA2). Materials and Methods:SCMV construct was inoculated into 3-4 weeks Nicotiana benthamiana plant leaves either by using a needleless syringe or applying pricking with a toothpick. Results:The construct (SCMV-RNA2) successfully induced post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of the target genes GFP and ChlI through agroinoculation proving that SCMV is a substitute of the RNA1, which plays a pivotal role in the systemic gene silencing. 2-3-weeks of post inoculation, target genes’ silencing was observed in the newly developed non-inoculated leaves. Conclusions:The newly developed construct expresses the knocked down of the endogenous as well as exogenous genes and only four weeks are required for the transient expression of the gene silencing based on SCMV-VIGS system.  
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Biologically Synthesized
           Tellurium Nanorods; A ...

    • Abstract: Background: Recent theranostic (therapeutic or diagnostic) applications of tellurium nanoparticles have attracted a great interest for development of different methods for synthesis of this valuable nanostructure, especially via biological resources. Objectives: In the present study, the antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of the tellurium nanorods (Te NRs) biosynthesized by a bacterial strain Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain Te were evaluated. Materials and Methods: The antimicrobial effect of Te NRs and potassium tellurite against different bacterial and fungal pathogens was assessed by microdilution method. Furthermore, the disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antibacterial effect of the biogenic Te NRs and potassium tellurite against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, alone or in combination with various antibiotics. Also, the biogenic Te NRs were investigated for antioxidant activity using 2, 2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and reducing power assay. Results: Transmission electron micrograph (TEM) of the purified Te NRs showed individual and rod-shaped nanostructure (~22 nm diameter by 185 nm in length). Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the K2TeO3 exhibited a higher antibacterial and antifungal activity compared to the Te NRs. The measured IC50 for the biogenic Te NRs (i.e. DPPH radical scavenging activity) was found to be 24.9 μg.mL-1, while, K2TeO3 has represented only 17.6 ± 0.8 % DPPH radical scavenging effect at the concentration of 160 μg.mL-1. The reducing power assay revealed a higher electron-donating activity for Te NRs compared to K2TeO3. Conclusions:Based on the data obtained from both microdilution and disk diffusion method the K2TeO3 exhibited a higher antimicrobial and antifungal activity than Te NRs. Te NRs didn’t show the antibacterial effect against the tested bacterial strain: MRSA and showed an inhibitory effect and antibacterial activity of the effective antibiotics. However, more studies should be performed to explore the action mechanism of the produced biogenic Te NRs.   Keywords :
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Sustained Release of Green Tea Polyphenols from Liposomal Nanoparticles;
           Release Kinetics and ...

    • Abstract: Background: Green tea polyphenols (GTP) are known to have several health benefits. In spite of these benefits, its application as a therapeutic agent is limited due to some of its limitations such as stability, bioavailability, and biotransformation. To overcome these limitations, liposomal nanoparticles have been used as a carrier of the GTP. Objective: Encapsulation of GTP to the liposomal nanoparticles in order to achieve a sustained release of the GTP and to determine the drug release kinetics and the mechanism of the release. Materials and Methods: GTP encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles were prepared using phosphatidyl choline and cholesterol. The synthesized particles were characterized for their particle size and morphology. In vitro release studies were carried out, followed by drug release kinetics, and determining the mechanism of release. In vitro, antioxidant assay was determined following 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Results: Atomic force microscope (AFM) and high resolution scanning electron microscope (HR SEM) images showed spherical particles of the size of 64.5 and 252 nm. An encapsulation efficiency as high as 77.7% was observed with GTP concentration of 5 mg.mL-1. In vitro release studies showed that the loading concentrations of GTP were independent to the cumulative percentage of the drug release. GTP release by varying the pH and temperature showed a direct correlation between the release parameter and the percentage of drug release. The higher the pH and temperature, the higher was the percentage of the drug release. The release data showed a good correlation with Zero order kinetics and the mechanism of the release being anomalous mode. Radical scavenging activity of the released GTP showed a potent scavenging activity. Conclusion: GTP encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles could be used as a delivery vehicle for achieving a sustained release.  
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • Differential Expression of Mitochondrial Manganese Superoxide Dismutase
           (SOD) in Triticum ...

    • Abstract: Background: The increasing use of nanoparticles (NPs) may have negative impacts on both organisms andthe environment. Objectives: The differential expression of mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) gene in wheat in response to silver nitrate nanoparticles (AgNPs) and AgNO3 was investigated.Materials and Methods: A quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR experiment was carried out with MnSOD gene using RNAs isolated from wheat shoots treated for 0, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h with 100 mg.L-1 of either AgNO3 or AgNPs.Results: The results of this study showed that both treatments cause changes in the expression pattern of the MnSOD gene. While 2 and 6 h following the beginning of the stress, MnSOD expression was up-regulated significantly, in response to AgNO3 (1.4 and 2.8 fold, respectively), in response to AgNPs, it was up-regulated significant only after 6 h (1.6 fold), compared with the control. The gene expression, after 12 h in response to AgNO3 and AgNPs were down-regulated significantly (0.7 and 0.8 fold, respectively), and in the next 12 h , the expression appeared to be similar to the control.Conclusion: Exposure to both AgNPs and Ag ions led to a significant increase in MnSOD expression, but AgNO3 changed the MnSOD expression faster than AgNPs. Therefore, it is suggested that AgNO3 has greater penetrability and effectiveness.
      PubDate: Sat, 30 Sep 2017 20:30:00 +010
  • TiO2 Nanoparticles as Potential Promoting Agents of Fibrillation of
           α-Synuclein, a ...

    • Abstract: Background: In recent years, nanomaterials have been widely used in large quantities which make people be more frequently exposed to the chemically synthesized nanoparticles (NPs). When NPs are introduced into an organism, they may interact with a variety of cellular components with yet largely unknown pathological consequences. Objective: It was found that NPs enhance the rate of protein fibrillation in the brain by decreasing the lag time for nucleation. Protein fibrillation is implicated in the pathogenesis of the several neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). α-Synuclein (αS) is natively an unfolded protein which is involved in the pathogenesis of PD. In the present study, we have analyzed the effects of three different NPs on αS fibrillation. Materials and Methods:  αS protein expression and purification was done and fibrils formation was induced in the absence or presence of the three types of NPs (i. e., TiO2, SiO2, and SnO2). The enhancement of the fluorescence emission of Thioflavin T (ThT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to monitor the appearance and growth of the fibrils. The adsorption of αS monomers on the surface of NPs was investigated by tyrosine fluorescence emission measurements.Results:We found that TiO2-NPs enhances αS fibril formation even at a concentration of 5 µg.mL-1, while the two other NPs show no significant effect on the kinetics of the fibrillation. Intrinsic tyrosine emission measurement has confirmed that the TiO2-NPs interact with αS fibrillation products. It is suggested that TiO2-NPs may enhance the nucleation of αS protein that leads to protein fibril formation.Conclusion: The fibrillization process of αS protein is profoundly affected by the presence of TiO2-NPs. This finding unveils the neurotoxicity potential of the TiO2-NPs, which may be considered as a probable risk for PD. 
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Production of Marker-free Transgenic Rice (Oryza sativa L. ...

    • Abstract: Background: Rice seed proteins are lacking essential amino acids (EAAs). Genetic engineering offers a fast and sustainable method to solve this problem as it allows the specific expression of heterologous EAA-rich proteins. The use of selectable marker gene is essential for generation of transgenic crops, but might also lead to potential environmental and food safety problems. Therefore, the production of marker-free transgenic crops is becoming an extremely attractive alternative and could contribute to the public acceptance of transgenic crops.Objectives: The present study was conducted to examine whether AmA1 can be expressed specifically in rice seeds, and generate marker-free transgenic rice with improved nutritive value.Materials and Methods: AmA1 was transferred into rice using Agrobacterium-mediated co-transformation system with a twin T-DNA binary vector and its integration in rice genome was confirmed by southern blot. Transcription of AmA1 was analyzed by Real-Time PCR and its expression  was verified by western analysis. Protein and amino acid content were measured by the Kjeldahl method and the high-speed amino acid analyzer, respectively.Results: Five selectable marker-free homozygous transgenic lines were obtained from the progeny. The expression of recombinant AmA1 was confirmed by the observation of a 35 kDa band in SDS-PAGE and western blot. Compared to the wild-type control, the total protein contents in the seeds of five homozygous lines were increased by 1.06~12.87%. In addition, the content of several EAAs, including lysine, threonine, and valine was increased significantly in the best expressing line.Conclusions: The results indicated that the amino acid composition of rice grain could be improved by seed-specific expression of AmA1.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Biological Removal of the Mixed Pharmaceuticals: Diclofenac, Ibuprofen,
           and Sulfamethoxazole ...

    • Abstract: Background: The presence of pharmaceuticals at low concentrations (ng to µg) in the environment has become a hot spot for researchers in the past decades due to the unknown environmental impact and the possible damages they might have to the plantae and fauna present in the aquatic systems, as well as to the other living organisms.Objectives: The aim of the present investigation was to develop a bacterial consortium isolated from different origins to evaluate the ability of such a consortium to remove a mixture of pharmaceuticals in the batch system at lab scale, as well as assessment of its resistance to the other micropollutants present in the environment.Material and Methods: Using a closed bottle test, biodegradation of the mixed pharmaceuticals including Diclofenac (DCF), Ibuprofen (IBU), and Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) (at a concentration of 3 mg.L-1 of each drug) by the bacterial consortium was investigated. The test was carried out under metabolic (pharmaceutical was used as the sole source of carbon) and co-metabolic condition (in the presence of glucose). Finally, the ability of the bacterial consortium to resist other micropollutants like antibiotics and heavy metals was investigated.Results: Under the metabolic condition, the mixed bacteria (i.e., consortium) were able to metabolize 23.08% and 9.12% of IBU, and DCF at a concentration of 3 mg.L-1 of each drug, respectively. Whereas, in co-metabolic conditions, IBU was eliminated totally, in addition, 56% of the total concentration of DCF was removed, as well. In both metabolic and co-metabolic conditions, removal of SMX was not observed. The selected bacteria were able to resist to most of the applied antibiotics and the used heavy metals, except mercury, where only one strain (S4) was resistant to the later heavy metal.Conclusion: Results suggest that the developed consortium might be an excellent candidate for the application in the bioremediation process for treating ecosystems contaminated with the pharmaceuticals.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Real-Time PCR: An Appropriate Approach to Confirm ssDNA Generation from
           PCR Product in SELEX Process

    • Abstract: Background: Aptamers are single stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA molecules. The potential of aptamers for binding to the different targets has made them be widely used as the preferred diagnostic and therapeutic tools. DNA aptamers present several advantages over the RNA oligonucleotides due to their higher stability, easier selection, and production. Selection of DNA aptamers which is facilitated through a systematic evolution of ligand by exponential enrichment (SELEX) method is much dependent on the successful conversion of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) to ssDNA. Objective: There are different methods available for ssDNA generation. While visualization of ssDNA is limited to the gel-based method, the method is not applicable in the initial rounds of SELEX due to more than 1015 different sequences. This study was designed to evaluate the efficiency of another technique for confirming the ssDNA generation in comparison to the polyacrylamide electrophoresis (PAGE) analysis. Materials and Methods: Real-time PCR was employed in the present study for PCR amplification of the initial library that was followed by enzymatic digestion of the dsDNA. Subsequently melting curve analysis was carried out to evaluate ssDNA generation from dsDNA. Moreover, PAGE analysis was performed and the results were compared with the melt curve analysis. Results: The melt curves, revealed dsDNA conversion to the ssDNA based on a significant reduction of Tm from 73.8 to 41.5 °C. Applying PAGE analysis, it was not effectively feasible to show ssDNA generation from the corresponding initial dsDNA library, while, it was efficient enough to confirm ssDNA generation in accordance with the increasing the number of SELEX rounds. Conclusion: The present study has proven the applicability of the real-time PCR as a suitable confirmatory technique for validating ssDNA generation in the DNA aptamer selection process for the initial library preparation.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Bone Marrow Stromal Cells Associated with Poly L-Lactic-Co-Glycolic Acid
           (PLGA) Nanofiber ...

    • Abstract: Background: Although peripheral nerves show capacity for regeneration after injury to a certain extent, but, the extent of regeneration is not remarkable. Previous studies have suggested that through the production of growth factors or extracellular matrix components, mesenchymal stem cells may enhance nerve regeneration.Objectives: In the present study, the therapeutic potency of the Bone Marrow Stromal Cells (BMSCs) associated with Poly L-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanofiber Scaffoldson rat sciatic nerve repair was evaluated.Material and Methods: Thirtyadult male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were divided randomly into six groups, including Control 1 (transected sciatic nerve), Control 2 (transected sciatic nerve and stitched), Sham, PLGA, BMSCs, and PLGA+BMSCs. Functional recovery was evaluated at the end of 2nd, 4th, 6th, and 8th weeks after surgery using sciatic functional index (SFI) and hot water test. After killing all rats at the end of 8th week, their sciatic nerves were removed, fixed, and processed for the histological  examination and analysis by the Motic software.Results: A significant recovery of the sciatic nerve function was observed in the PLGA+BMSCs transplanted group at the  8th week after surgery as demonstrated by SFI and hot water findings. Histological examinations also showed a significant improvement in the PLGA+BMSCs group compared to the Control 1, 2, Sham, PLGA and BMSCs groups.Conclusion: BMSCs associated with PLGA nanofiber scaffold might be useful for improving the functional peripheral nerve repair having some clinical outcome.
      PubDate: Mon, 19 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Antimicrobial Activity of Chitosan Film Forming Solution Enriched with
           Essential Oils; an in ...

    • Abstract: Background: The resistance of the bacteria and fungi to the innumerous antimicrobial agents is a major challenge in the treatment of the infections demands to the necessity for searching and finding new sources of substances with antimicrobial properties. The incorporation of the essential oils (EOs) in chitosan film forming solution may enhance antimicrobial properties. However, its use as the feeding additive in the poultry nutrition needs to clarify the product’s activity against both pathogen and the useful microbes in the gastrointestinal tract.  Objectives: In the present study, we carried out an in vitro investigation and evaluated the antimicrobial activity of chitosan film forming solution incorporated with essential oils (CFs+EOs) against microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecium, Lactobacillus rahmnosus, Aspergillus niger and Alternaria alternate. Material and Methods: In three replicates, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of different treatments including: 1- essential oils (EOs), 2- chitosan film solution (CFs), and 3-chitosan film solution enriched with EOs (CFs+EOs) were determined against above mentioned microbes. Results: The results indicated that the chitosan solution enriched with essential oils (CFs+EOs) is capable of inhibiting the bacterial and fungal growth even at the lowest concentrations. The MIC and MBC for all the antimicrobial agents against Escherichia coli andStaphylococcus aureus were very low compared to the concentrations needed to inhibit the growth of useful bacteria,Lactobacillus rahmnosus and Enterococcus faecium. The antifungal activity of chitosan was enhanced as the concentration of EOs increased in the film solution. Conclusion: Chitosan-EOs complexes are the promising candidate for novel contact antimicrobial agents that can be used in animal feeds.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Pine Pollen and Evaluation of
           the Antifungal Efficiency

    • Abstract: Background: Nanoparticles have been applied to medicine, hygiene, pharmacy and dentistry, and will bring significant advances in the prevention, diagnosis, drug delivery and treatment of disease. Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles has a very important role in nanobiotechnology, allowing production of non-toxic and eco-friendly particles. Objectives: Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was studied using pine pollen as a novel, cost-effective, simple and non-hazardous bioresource. The antifungal activity of the synthesized AgNPs was investigated in vitro.Materials and Methods: Biosynthesis of AgNPs was conducted using pollen of pine (as a novel bioresource) acting as both reducing and capping agents. AgNPs were characterized using UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. In evaluation for antifungal properties, the synthesized AgNPs represented significant in vitro inhibitory effects on Neofusicoccum parvum cultures.Results: Pine pollen can mediate biosynthesis of colloidal AgNPs with an average size of 12 nm. AgNPs were formed at 22°C and observed to be highly stable up to three months without precipitation or decreased antifungal property. AgNPs showed significant inhibitory effects against Neofusicoccum parvum.Conclusion: The first report for a low-cost, simple, well feasible and eco-friendly procedure for biosynthesis of AgNPs was presented. The synthesized AgNPs by pine pollen were nontoxic and eco-friendly, and can be employed for large-scale production. The nanoparticles showed strong effect on quantitative inhibition and disruption of antifungal growth.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • The Increase in Protein and Plasmid Yields of E. ...

    • Abstract: Background: Escherichia coli is still the common host for cloning and heterologous protein expression. Various strategies have been employed to increase protein expression in E. coli, but, it seems that external factors such as selection marker concentration can drastically affect the yield of protein and plasmid.Objectives Alterations of protein expression and plasmid yields of E. coli in different concentrations of ampicillin, as selection marker, will be determined.  In order to improve heterologous expression, the system will be redesigned and optimized.Materials and Methods: The expression cassette of codon optimized EGFP for E. coli was synthesized in pUC57. The pUC57-GFP was transformed into E. coli Top10F’. The expression of GFP was verified by SDS-PAGE and flow cytometry after induction by IPTG (0.5 mM) and incubation with 0, 100, 200 and 300 µg.mL-1 ampicillin. Plasmid copy numbers of samples were determined by Real-Time PCR on AMP gene using regression line of diluted standard curve.Results: GFP expressing colons formed fair green colonies on LB agar supplemented with 0.5 mM IPTG and showed fluorescence in FL1 filter of flow cytometry and an extra protein band on SDS-PAGE gel. The fluorescent intensity of GFP in 0, 100, 200 and 300 µg.mL-1 ampicillin in medium were 549.83, 549.78, 1443.52, 684.87, and plasmid copy numbers were 6.07×109, 3.21×109, 2.32×1010 , 8.11×108, respectively. The plasmid yields were 55 ng.µL-1, 69 ng.µL-1, 164 ng.µL-1 and 41 ng.µL-1, respectively.Conclusion: Protein and plasmid yields of E. coli are variable in different concentrations of ampicillin and need to be optimized in newly designed expression systems. Both protein and plasmid yields in the optimized concentration of ampicillin (200 µg.mL-1) were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than those in other doses.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Targeting Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines Using Nanobodies; AgSK1as a
           Potential Target

    • Abstract: Background: Colorectal cancer is the third most common type of aggressive cancers. Chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy are the common therapeutic options for treating this cancer. Due to the adverse side-effects of these methods, immunotherapy is considered as an appropriate alternative therapeutic option. Treatment through the application of monoclonal antibodies is considered as a novel alternative therapeutic method for cancers. The variable fragments of the antibodies' heavy chain or VHHs have a wide application in molecular biology and biotechnology. VHHs are compatible with the phage display technology which allows rapid and high throughput screening for antibodies isolation.Objectives: We aimed to use naive VHH phage library to isolate a specific nanobody against colorectal tumor associated antigen; the AgSK1.Materials and Methods: In this research, naive VHH phage library was panned against two colorectal cell lines; Ls174T and HT29 expressing different levels of AgSK1 tumor associated marker. The high affinity binders were selected and subcloned for higher expression levels of the VHH. The affinity and specify of the isolated VHH was tested using ELISA. The reactivity of the VHH toward cancer cells was analyzed by competitive ELISA applying sera isolated from colorectal cancer patients.Results: Results show that the isolated VHH recognizes and binds to the colorectal cancer cells with a high affinity. Moreover, the isolated nanobody is able to compete with the antibodies in the patient sera for the binding to the cancer cells.Conclusions: Results suggest that this nanobody has a specific reaction toward colorectal cells and can be used for further investigation on the tumor associated antigens or production of mimotopes useful for immunotherapy.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
  • Production of Xanthanases by Paenibacillus spp. ...

    • Abstract: Background: A number of microorganisms and their enzymes have been reported as xanthan depolymerizers.Paenibacillus species are well-known polysaccharide hydrolyzing bacteria. However, Paenibacillus alginolyticus and Paenibacillus sp. XD are the only species in the genus which are now known to degrade xanthan.Objectives: Complete biodegradation of the xanthan exopolysaccharide is a rarely found capability among microorganisms. The aim of this study is to survey xanthanase producing bacteria with an appropriate bioactivity for the biopolymer degradation under different environmental conditions.Materials and Methods: The bacteria were isolated based on viscosity reduction of the xanthan solution. Bacterial isolates were identified using rep-PCR (repetitive element-based genomic fingerprinting) and 16S rDNA sequencing. Xanthanases were characterized by measuring their activity at different temperatures, pH values, and NaCl concentrations. Degradation of other polysaccharides and xanthan degradation products were investigated based on the screening plate method and TLC (thin-layer chromatography), respectively.Results: Six isolates from different Paenibacillus species with a complete xanthan degrading capability were isolated from Urmia Lake. Phylogenetic analysis placed these strains within the genus Paenibacillus with the closest relatives that were found to be P. nanensis, P. phyllosphaerae, P. agaridevorans, P. agarexedens, and P. taohuashanense. These isolates displayed different levels of the xanthan biodegradation activity in temperatures ranging from 15 to 55°C and pH values from 4 to 11. Xanthanolytic activity was generally prevented in presence of NaCl (>0.1 mol.L-1). Furthermore, the isolated Paenibacillus spp. could degrade several other polysaccharides including xylan, CMC (carboxymethyl cellulose), starch, alginate, and pectin.Conclusion: Novel strains of the six different Paenibacillus species that were introduced in the present study are able to produce xanthanases with interesting characteristics. In light of the results from this study, special applications, particularly in healthcare, medicine, and the environment is hereby proposed for these enzymes.
      PubDate: Sun, 18 Jun 2017 19:30:00 +010
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