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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 30)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 521)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
  [SJR: 0.478]   [H-I: 11]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Online) 1878-8181
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Biochemical properties of peroxidase from white and red cultivars of
           kolanut (Cola nitida)
    • Authors: Isaac Olusanjo Adewale; Adeola Tomilola Adekunle
      Pages: 1 - 9
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Isaac Olusanjo Adewale, Adeola Tomilola Adekunle
      We report the properties of peroxidase from red and white cultivars of kolanut, Cola nitida, for the purpose of providing information on suitability or otherwise of the enzyme for different biotechnological applications. Peroxidase is present in the crude extract of both cultivars with a specific activity of 52 ± 4 and 50 ± 7 units/mg protein for red and white nuts respectively. During purification the enzyme was separated into two isoforms with native molecular weight of 38.2 ± 1.8 kDa for white kolanut; 43.3 ± 1.5 kDa and 26 ± 1.8 kDa respectively for isoenzymes A and B of the red cultivar. Optimum temperature of all the isoforms of peroxidase from the two cultivars was 35 °C. Optimum pH for white cultivar enzyme was 4.5 and red cultivars had 5.0. All the isoforms were quite stable in 5 mM H2O2 concentrations or below. The catalytic efficiencies (k cat/K m) of all the purified proteins were between 105–107 M−1 s−1. Some of the isoforms were activated in water-miscible organic solvents. Kolanut peroxidase could be bonded to bovine serum albumin forming a higher molecular weight adduct. The study concluded that kolanut peroxidase possesses many physicochemical properties that make it suitable for application in biotechnology.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.013
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Effects of macro/micronutrients on green and brown microalgal cell growth
           and fatty acids in photobioreactor and open-tank systems
    • Authors: Syed Muhammad Usman Shah; Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah
      Pages: 10 - 17
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Syed Muhammad Usman Shah, Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah
      This study described the optimization of growth parameters that affected locally-isolated green Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis suecica and brown Isochrysis galbana and Pavlova lutheri microalgae using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Under deficiency conditions of 10–65 g L−1 KNO3, 3–7.5 g L−1 Na2HPO4 and 2.5 g L−1 FeCl3, the highest lipid accumulation of 37.3%, 23.6%, 28.3% and 37.2%, with slightly reduced cell growth of 0.64, 0.49, 0.54 and 0.38 g L−1 were achieved for N. oculata, T. suecica, I. galbana and P. lutheri, respectively. The macronutrients significantly influenced the biomass and lipid content positively. However, the interaction of phosphate-phosphate for N. oculata, and nitrate-nitrate for I. galbana may affect cell growth negatively. The highest biomass of 0.62–0.96 g L−1 and lipid content of 31.6–42.2% in 5 L PBR and the highest biomass of 0.45–0.72 g L−1 and lipid content of 24.4–38.5 in 300 L open tank were achieved for all the four species. The total saturated fatty acids (44.3–63.8% and 30.4–55.03%); monounsaturated fatty acids (6.1–37.0% and 4.2–13.1%); and polyunsaturated fatty acids (8.3–22.3% and 1.02–15.2%) were obtained, respectively, with pentadecanoic (C15:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), heptadecanoic (C17:0), oleic (C18:1), eicosanoic (C20:0), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) as predominant fatty acids.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.011
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • An approach to enhance nutritive quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea
           L.) seed oil through endo mycorrhizal fertigation
    • Authors: Prerna B. Pawar; Jayshri P. Khadilkar; Mohan V. Kulkarni; Jose S. Melo
      Pages: 18 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Prerna B. Pawar, Jayshri P. Khadilkar, Mohan V. Kulkarni, Jose S. Melo
      Groundnut is the sixth most important oilseed crop in the world and India is the second largest groundnut producing country. There is a need of increasing the production of groundnut and stabilizing its yield by using proper agricultural practices. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been considered as an important strategy for sustainable agricultural practices. Approach of the present study was to evaluate effectiveness of ten different indigenous mycorrhizal species viz. Glomus mosseae, Glomus clarum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus ambisporum, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora denticulata, Glomus globiferum, Gigaspora albida and Glomus pansiholus on oil content, acid value, fatty acid profile and elemental status of groundnut oil. All the mycorrhizal treatments showed significant results as compared to the control (non mycorrhizal plants), but Glomus mosseae was found to be the most superior of all the ten mycorrhizal species. Oil percentage, extracted from Glomus mosseae (41.66%) treated groundnut oil was higher as compared to control (28.50%). Oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid content from groundnut oil of mycorrhiza treated plants varied in range of 36–45%, 16–22%, 13–18% respectively. Oil from Glomus mosseae treated groundnut plant showed increase in zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese content than other mycorrhiza treated groundnut seed oil and control. Oil extracted from mycorrhiza treated groundnut oil showed decrease in acid value (AV) than control, which indicates higher stability of oil and longer shelf life. Therefore, it is very important to select the correct and specific species of AMF for improving the oil profile of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.012
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Biosurfactants: Production and potential applications in microbial
           enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)
    • Authors: Geetha S.J.; Ibrahim M. Banat; Sanket J. Joshi
      Pages: 23 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Geetha S.J., Ibrahim M. Banat, Sanket J. Joshi
      Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a type of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology, generally employed as a tertiary stage where oil recovery using primary and secondary traditional methods is not feasible anymore. Amongst several potential biological agents useful for MEOR, biosurfactants (biologically produced amphiphilic surfactants) play key roles. They are mostly equivalent to or better than their chemical counterparts in several aspects including; better environmental compatibility, production from renewable waste substrates, maintaining activity at harsh environmental conditions, lower or no environmental toxicity. Biosurfactants are still not cost-competitive when compared to chemical surfactants. Different strategies like the use of cheaper raw materials, optimization of media components, fermentation processes and downstream processes, use of hyperproducers are currently explored to improve biosurfactant production economics. Biosurfactant mediated MEOR (BS-MEOR) could be applied by either in-situ or ex-situ techniques. In-situ BS-MEOR could be applied by injecting biosurfactant producing microorganisms in the oil well with or without additional nutrients. Generally followed by shut-in phase and subsequently monitoring microbial activities, metabolites production and oil recovery from the producer wells. Whereas for ex-situ BS-MEOR applications, the biosurfactant is produced outside the oil well and injected directly for enhancing oil recovery. This review highlights the biosurfactant production and economics, general protocols for applications from lab-to-field scale, different successful trials along with pros and cons of both in-situ and ex-situ BS-MEOR applications.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.010
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Evaluation of microbiological management strategy of herbicide toxicity to
           greengram plants
    • Authors: Mohammad Shahid; Bilal Ahmed; Mohammad Saghir Khan
      Pages: 96 - 108
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Mohammad Shahid, Bilal Ahmed, Mohammad Saghir Khan
      In order to circumvent the problems of herbicidal toxicity, tolerant N2 fixing and phosphate solubilizing bacterial strains were isolated and identified. Among 20 bacterial isolates, Azotobacter sp. strain AZ1 survived 2400, 3200, and 1600 μg/mL while Bacillus sp. strain PSB2 tolerated up to 1600, 2400 and 1600 μg/mL glyphosate, quizalofop and metribuzin, respectively. Under in vitro conditions, these bacterial strains secreted IAA, siderophores, exopolysaccharides, ammonia and transformed inorganic P into organic P even under herbicides stress. SEM and CLSM images revealed a clear toxic impact of herbicides on bacterial cells above tolerance limit. Phytotoxicity to greengram plants increased with increasing concentrations of herbicides. Herbicide tolerant Azotobacter strain AZ1 and Bacillus sp. strain PSB2 when used as inoculant, substantially reduced the herbicidal toxicity to greengram. For instance, strain AZ1 increased the length of roots (10%) and shoot (6%), dry biomass of root (28%) and shoot (6%), different symbiotic parameters like nodule number (6%), nodule dry biomass (8%), LHb (15%), photosynthetic pigments and seed yield (39%), whereas, Bacillus sp. strain PSB2 enhanced the measured parameters by 12%, 13%, 23%, 21%, 4%, 6%, 22%, 5% and 27%, respectively relative to positive control (1444 μg/kg glyphosate). Additionally, proline in shoot tissues declined rapidly in bio-inoculated plants. Conclusively, the microbial cultures resulted in better management of herbicidal toxicity to greengram plants. And hence, Azotobacter sp. strain AZ1 and Bacillus sp. strain PSB2 could be recommended for use as an effective and inexpensive microbial inoculant/biofertilizer to augment the production of greengram in herbicide contaminated soils.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Screening of a biological control bacterium to fight avocado diseases:
           from agroecosystem to bioreactor
    • Authors: Sinar David Granada; Sara Ramírez-Restrepo; Lorena López-Luján; Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo; Juan Carlos Bedoya-Pérez
      Pages: 109 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sinar David Granada, Sara Ramírez-Restrepo, Lorena López-Luján, Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo, Juan Carlos Bedoya-Pérez
      Avocado diseases remain to be a major constraint for the development of this agribusiness, which is largely led by Latin American countries. In this study, a collection of 667 native avocado bacterial isolates was established and screened for antagonistic activity and bioactive secondary metabolite production against two important avocado pathogens (Phytophthora cinnamomi and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The isolate ARP5.1 demonstrated the highest potential for in vitro control of the phytopathogens and was identified as Serratia sp. To enhance bioactive metabolite production by ARP5.1, different combinations of agitation speeds and aeration rates were evaluated on a stirred tank bioreactor. The activity of the crude extracts was tested and cell growth kinetics, oxygen and glucose consumption, and production of secondary metabolites were determined at the fermentation conditions of higher inhibitory activity. Results evidenced oxygen as critical factor for the biosynthesis of metabolites of interest. In addition, shear stress and glucose were limiting factors in metabolite production. Prodigiosin, serratamolide and haterumalide NC were identified in the extracts by Liquid Chromatography coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. However, the presence of haterumalide NC might explain the high activity of the crude extract against P. cinnamomi. We concluded that this bacterium might be a promising candidate for the control of avocado pathogens in field and a good source of bioactive metabolites.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Deposition of manure nutrients in a novel mycoalgae biofilm for Nutrient
    • Authors: Aravindan Rajendran; Tyler Fox; Cristiano Rodrigues Reis; Bruce Wilson; Bo Hu
      Pages: 120 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: April 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14
      Author(s): Aravindan Rajendran, Tyler Fox, Cristiano Rodrigues Reis, Bruce Wilson, Bo Hu
      With the increase in intensive crop and livestock production, excess application of P as fertilizer and manure contributes to the build-up of soil P levels causing eutrophication. A novel biofilm-based technology was developed to recover and reposition the nutrients in manure, producing biofilm fertilizer and the treated water with better nutrient composition. Anaerobically digested and pretreated manure was used as a medium to grow the surface-attached composite biofilm, which constitutes the selected polyphosphate accumulating fungi and nitrogen accumulating fresh water microalgae for efficient recovery of nutrients on a matrix for better biomass harvesting. Under the tested conditions in lab-scale with the pretreated digested manure, the removal efficiency of the nutrients by attached mycoalgae biofilm was 76.74% P and 76.40% N with COD removal of 65.75%. To increase the nutrient content of the biomass and for enhancing the cell growth the wastewater generated in corn ethanol process (thin stillage) was added as an external nutrient at different ratios in the digested manure. The cell growth, nutrient removal efficiency, lipid content of the biomass, COD removal and reducing sugar content at different medium conditions were evaluated. The nutrient-rich solid biofilm can be harvested by scraping off the biofilm from the matrix and the nutrient lean liquid can be discharged or further used for agriculture. The microbial biofilm assimilates the organic and inorganic components in manure and converts them into cellular constituents together with N-P-K resulting in deposition of manure nutrients in biofilm, which can be directly used as a bio-fertilizer.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T20:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.014
      Issue No: Vol. 14 (2018)
  • Differential behavior of the antioxidant system in response to salinity
           induced oxidative stress in salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive cultivars of
           Brassica juncea L.
    • Authors: Mukesh Kumar; Rakesh Kumar; Veena Jain; Sunita Jain
      Pages: 12 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Mukesh Kumar, Rakesh Kumar, Veena Jain, Sunita Jain
      In the present study, the ability of salt tolerant (CS-52) and salt sensitive (RH-8113) cultivars of Brassica juncea L. was investigated for their differential antioxidant defense mechanism to counter the salinity induced oxidative stress. The seedlings were treated with varying levels of NaCl (0, 50, 100 and 150mM) and changes in content of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ascorbic acid, glutathione and proline were examined. Further, salinity induced variations in activity levels of leaf superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APOX), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) in both the cultivars were also investigated. Production of H2O2 and MDA was much higher in salt sensitive cultivar RH-8113. Glutathione, ascorbic acid and proline content enhanced in both the cultivars with more pronounced effect on tolerant cultivar CS-52. The salt tolerant cultivar CS-52 exhibited significant increase in the activities of SOD, DHAR and GR in response to the increasing salinity, though no increase in the activity of CAT, POX and APOX was observed. However, basal level of POX and APOX was found to be much higher in the salt tolerant cultivar CS-52. In comparison, SOD activity declined and that of CAT, DHAR and GR remained unaltered in salt sensitive cultivar RH-8113, though there was significant increase in the activities of POX and APOX. These results suggest that cultivar CS-52 exhibit better protective mechanism against salt induced oxidative damage by maintaining higher levels of antioxidant enzymes and of some antioxidants in comparison to salt sensitive cultivar RH-8113.

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • Phytotoxic effects of several essential oils on two weed species and
    • Authors: Hossein Hazrati; Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz; Mahmoodreza Moein; Hassan Khoshghalb
      Pages: 204 - 212
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Hossein Hazrati, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Mahmoodreza Moein, Hassan Khoshghalb
      Essential oils (EOs) composition of Rosmarinus officinalis L., Satureja hortensis L. and Laurus nobilis were analyzed by GC and GC–MS instrument. Then phytotoxic activities of mentioned EOs and a combination of R. officinalis and L. nobilis EOs (R+L) were evaluated against germination and growth of two weeds species, A. retroflexus (dicot), B. tectorum (monocot) and tomato. Applied EOs strongly inhibited the germination and seedling growth of the tested species, in a dose dependent manner with A. retroflexus being significantly more sensitive than others. Indeed, at 400 μ L . L − 1 EO of R. officinalis, germination of A. retroflexus decreased 91.3%, while for the same dose, germination and seedling growth of B. tectorum and tomato were reduced by 56.7 and 26.7%, respectively, compared with control. R. officinalis EO caused the most germination inhibitory for A. retroflexus and tomato while B. tectorum germination was well inhibited by S. hortensis EO. Seedling growth were also affected by EO application in a dose response manner. A. retroflexus shoot length was inhibited by the R+L EO more than other EOs while most root growth inhibition caused by S. hortensis EO. For B. tectorum, and tomato, S. hortensis had the strongest inhibitory effect on root and shoot elongation.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.014
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • Optimization of solid substrate mixture and process parameters for the
           production of L-asparaginase and scale-up using tray bioreactor
    • Authors: Kruthi Doriya; Devarai Santhosh Kumar
      Pages: 244 - 250
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kruthi Doriya, Devarai Santhosh Kumar
      L-asparaginase is a key enzyme that degrades asparagine and this aspect of the enzyme has found a dominant role in chemotherapeutic and food processing industry. The aim of the present study is to sequentially optimize L-asparaginase production from newly isolated Aspergillus sp. using agro-industrial residues as solid substrate. In the first stage, through simplex centroid design maximum L-asparaginase activity was observed using a ternary mixture of cotton seed cake (2/3), wheat bran (1/6), and red gram husk (1/6). In the next step, cultivation parameters such as pH, temperature and moisture content were optimized using Box-Behnken design. After 6 days of fermentation using optimized ternary mixture, maximum activity of 12.57U/mL was obtained at temperature 35°C, pH-8 and moisture content 70% (v/w). Optimized bounds were further translated to lab-scale tray bioreactor and L-asparaginase activity was found to be 5.41 and 6.67U/mL in tray bioreactor with 500g and 1000g of substrate mixture respectively. L-asparaginase production increased 5 fold through mixture design and 1.3 times increase in enzyme activity was observed with Box-Behnken design. Present work signifies the importance of optimization in the bioprocess industry for complete understanding and evaluation of enzyme production.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • The β-xylosidase from Ceratocystis fimbriata RM35 improves the
           saccharification of sugarcane bagasse
    • Authors: Marcele Pandeló Martins; Rafaela Zandonade Ventorim; Roberta Ribeiro Coura; Gabriela Piccolo Maitan-Alfenas; Rafael Ferreira Alfenas; Valéria Monteze Guimarães
      Pages: 291 - 298
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Marcele Pandeló Martins, Rafaela Zandonade Ventorim, Roberta Ribeiro Coura, Gabriela Piccolo Maitan-Alfenas, Rafael Ferreira Alfenas, Valéria Monteze Guimarães
      The phytopathogenic fungus Ceratocystis fimbriata produced an extracellular β-xylosidase when grown in mineral medium with wheat bran as carbon source. The enzyme was purified and characterized. The molecular mass was estimated by SDS-PAGE (161.6 kDa). The enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 3.9 and 65 °C, and it showed to be significantly thermostable at 60 °C, maintaining 70% of its maximum activity after 24 h of incubation at this temperature. The KM and VMAX using ρNρβXyl were 0.326 mM and 0.91 × 10−3 µmol/min, respectively. The β-xylosidase was partially inhibited by 1 mM of aluminum chloride, copper sulfate II, iron sulfate and SDS. The β-xylosidase combined with a xylanase had an additive effect on beechwood xylan hydrolysis, generating xylose as a final product. The supplementation of the enzymatic cocktail Multifect CL® with the β-xylosidase generated a more efficient hydrolysis of alkali-pretreated sugarcane bagasse when compared to the saccharification performed only by the cocktail Multifect CL®, showing an increase of 97.7% and 45.7% in glucose and xylose release, respectively.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.009
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • Isolation, characterization and purification of xylanase producing
           bacteria from sea sediment
    • Authors: P. Senthil Kumar; P.R. Yaashikaa; A. Saravanan
      Pages: 299 - 303
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): P. Senthil Kumar, P.R. Yaashikaa, A. Saravanan
      Xylan is the most important natural hemicellulose which has several industrial applications such as food, textile, bleaching of cellulose pulp, seed germination, degumming and agro waste treatment. Micro-organisms play a major role in the production of xylanase enzyme. In the present research, an attempt has been made to produce the xylanase enzyme from bacterial strains. The sea sediment was collected from Kovalam beach, Chennai (Latitude: 8.4004° North, Longitude: 76.9787° East) and serial dilution was done. The serially diluted sample was plated on xylan agar medium. The isolates were characterized and identified based on morphological, biochemical and physiological characters. The zones of hydrolysis for twelve xylan utilizing bacterial isolates were obtained. Of the 12 bacterial isolates, the species obtained from the serial dilution of 10−8 showed higher activity. The single colonies from the xylan agar plate was isolated and grown in nutrient broth supplemented with xylan in shake flask. The culture medium was centrifuged and the supernatant was used as crude enzyme. The enzyme partially purified to homogeneity by a combination of Ammonium-sulphate precipitation and dialyzed using culture supernatant as crude enzyme. The activity of the enzyme xylanase was assayed by DNSA method. The enzyme was optimally active at temperature 55 ºC and pH 9.0. The enzyme showed 95%, 90%, and 85% thermal stability at 55 °C, 60 °C and 65 °C. The enzyme was stable over a broad pH range of 8.0–10.0.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.007
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • Optimization of ethanol modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of
           acetyl 11 keto β boswellic acid (AKBA) from Boswellia serrata using
           Box–Behnken experimental design
    • Authors: S.S. Niphadkar; V.K. Rathod
      Pages: 304 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): S.S. Niphadkar, V.K. Rathod
      Acetyl 11 keto β boswellic acid (AKBA), a potent anti-inflammatory agent obtained from Boswellia serrata oleogum resin, is mostly used for the treatment of various chronic inflammatory diseases. Ethanol modified supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was employed to extract AKBA from Boswellia serrata. The optimal conditions for AKBA extraction were determined by Box–Behnken design which was employed to estimate the effect of three independent variables (pressure, extraction time and temperature) on the AKBA yield. The interactions between pressure with temperature and extraction time were found to be significant (p < 0.05). The optimum conditions were found as pressure 26MPa, extraction time 3.75h (225min) and temperature 54°C using a constant CO2 flow rate of 3mL/min. Under the optimum conditions, AKBA showed maximum extraction yield of 54.12 ± 0.41mg/g which was closer to the predicted yield. Ethanol modified SFE showed higher extraction yield as compared to batch extraction and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE).

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.013
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2018)
  • Allopurinol supplementation of the growth medium enhances the fermentation
           of lignocellulosic hydrolysates to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    • Authors: Chidozie Victor Agu; Victor Ujor; Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Chidozie Victor Agu, Victor Ujor, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji
      To fully harness lignocellulosic sugars as fermentation substrates for the production of biofuels and fine chemicals, the tolerance of fermenting microbes to lignocellulose-derived microbial inhibitory compounds (LDMICs) must be improved. Towards this goal, we exploited the ability of allopurinol, a xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase inhibitor, to promote purine salvage and nucleic acid biosynthesis to alleviate LDMIC-induced DNA damage, thereby improving the LDMIC tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL Y-566 during the fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to ethanol. By supplementing LDMIC-replete wheat straw and corn stover hydrolysates (CSH) with 0.5 to 8mM allopurinol, a concentration-dependent increase in ethanol production was observed. Also, by pulse-feeding allopurinol to model sugar-LDMIC mixture and switching fermentation from aerobic to microaerophilic condition at the exponential growth phase of S. cerevisiae NRRL Y-566, cell growth, ethanol concentration, productivity, and yield were improved by 12.0%, 53.1%, 54.0%, and 50.0%, respectively, when compared to the allopurinol-unsupplemented control. Similarly, when 100% (v/v) CSH was used as carbon source, S. cerevisiae NRRL Y-566 growth, and ethanol titer, productivity, and yield increased by 19%, 21%, 20% and 24%, respectively. Additionally, allopurinol reduced the onset of stationary growth phase of S. cerevisiae by 12h and extended its chronological lifespan by 16h during growth in100% CSH. These results underscore the feasibility of exploiting allopurinol-mediated increase in LDMIC tolerance by S. cerevisiae for the fermentation of lignocellulosic-derived sugars to ethanol.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T20:07:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.03.001
  • A systematic study regarding hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation from
           microalgal biomass
    • Authors: Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva; Davide Meneghello; Alberto Bertucco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Carlos Eduardo de Farias Silva, Davide Meneghello, Alberto Bertucco
      In this study, acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis were carried out with Chlorella vulgaris and Scenedesmus obliquus, and a systematic evaluation of the yeast inoculum optimization (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis) during the hydrolysates fermentation was made. Acidic hydrolysis with 3% of sulphuric acid at 121°C and 30min of reaction time (50–100g/L of biomass) was found as best condition, and more than 90% of sugars recovery in the liquid phase was achieved even though S. obliquus be more sensible to thermal degradation than C. vulgaris. On the other hand, during the enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrasonication showed to be an effective method of biomass pretreatment to provide higher enzyme accessibility what together with a combination between amylases, cellulase/hemicellulase mix and pectinases achieved more than 90% of sugars recovery in 8hours of hydrolysis time. Thus, both treatments could recover efficiently the sugars present in microalgae. After inoculum optimization (concentration and consortium between S. cerevisiae and P. stipitis) and saline influence on yeast performance were evaluated, the fermentation of microalgal hydrolysate exhibited very different profiles in comparison with the control conditions and ethanol biochemical yield changed between 45–61%, emphasizing the importance to optimize this last but not less important step of ethanol production.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.016
  • The potential of selected purple nonsulfur bacteria with ability to
           produce proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds for using in shrimp
    • Authors: Natchapat Seangtumnor; Duangporn Kantachote; Phithaya Nookongbut; Ampaitip Sukhoom
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Natchapat Seangtumnor, Duangporn Kantachote, Phithaya Nookongbut, Ampaitip Sukhoom
      This study was aimed to screen 22 purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolates with the ability to secrete proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds, including affecting factors on proteolytic enzyme production of the selected PNSB. Use of overlay diffusion method under aerobic dark conditions found that only 12 PNSB isolates (54.55%) were able to inhibit shrimp pathogenic Vibrio spp.; while 18 isolates (81.82%) could liquefy gelatin under conditions of aerobic dark and microaerobic light. Twenty-time freeze-dried culture supernatant concentrates collected from 12 PNSB grown under the microaerobic light conditions, with the use of agar well diffusion found that only strain PS342 was capable to inhibit all 6 tested shrimp pathogenic vibrios. Among 18 proteolytic PNSB, only 5 strains showed high activity of gelatin liquefaction and this included strain PS342. The strain PS342 was identified using 16S rRNA gene as Rhodovulum sulfidophilum. Glutamate-malate (GM) medium supplemented with 1.5% NaCl was the most suitable medium by giving µmax as 0.336h-1. Use of central composite design, the maximal proteolytic activity was an average of 14.52 unit/ml in the suitable medium containing 1% gelatin under aerobic-dark conditions with the optimal speed at 150rpm. The results of the verify test showed that optimum conditions (pH 7.90, 1.30% NaCl and 29.50°C) for the proteolytic activity (15.40 unit/ml) were very close to real conditions for shrimp cultivation. R. sulfidophilum PS342 has the potential to be used in shrimp cultivation for its activities as a good producer of both proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.013
  • Effect of ginger endophyte Rhizopycnis vagum on rhizome bud formation and
           protection from phytopathogens
    • Authors: C. Anisha; P. Jishma; V. Sasi Bilzamol; E.K. Radhakrishnan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): C. Anisha, P. Jishma, V. Sasi Bilzamol, E.K. Radhakrishnan
      Most of the microorganisms residing within the plants are likely to be beneficial to the host plants as they inhibit invasion of phytopathogens and produce plant growth regulators. In the current study, endophytic fungal isolate from Zingiber officinale Rosc. with antagonism to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum was investigated for its broad antiphytopathogenic properties. The crude extract prepared from the organism was found to have activity against various phytopathogens and was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. The isolate was identified as Rhizopycnis vagum by ITS sequencing. Remarkably, during the rhizome protective studies, the organism was found to prevent P. myriotylum infection in ginger with associated enhancement in germination and bud development. Hence the result is indication of role of endophytic fungi as highly promising and broad spectrum plant probiotic agent.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.015
  • Thermodynamics characterization and potential textile applications of
           Trichoderma longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase
    • Authors: Abeer A. Abd El Aty; Shireen A.A. Saleh; Basma M. Eid; Nabil A. Ibrahim; Faten A. Mostafa
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Abeer A. Abd El Aty, Shireen A.A. Saleh, Basma M. Eid, Nabil A. Ibrahim, Faten A. Mostafa
      Our study was a trial to participate in solving two main problems namely, environmental pollution resulting from accumulation and bad disposal of agro-industrial wastes, and high cost of industrial xylanase enzyme production. This was achieved through successful xylanase production by solid-state fermentation of low cost disposable agricultural wastes by marine fungal isolate Trichoderma longibrachiatum KT693225. The highest xylanase production 7.13±0.11−1 was obtained utilizing rice straw (RS) waste after 7days of fermentation. Xylanase was purified by fractional precipitation with ethanol causing 4.24-fold purification. The 75% ethanol fraction was rich in cellulase, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes beside xylanase. The maximal xylanase activity was obtained at 60°C, pH 5 and 2.5% xylan concentration. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 20mgml−1 and 20 µmol min−1 ml−1, respectively. The thermostability of T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase was indicated by low Ea (activation energy)and high Ed (energy of denaturation). High T1/2 (half life), D-value (decimal reduction time), ΔH° (enthalpy), ΔG° (free energy) and low Kd (denaturation rate constant), ΔS° (entropy) values at 70°C emphasized high T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase stability. T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase showed high effectiveness at several textile wet-processing stages including desizing, bioscouring and biofinishing of cellulosic fabrics without adding any additives. These findings in this study have great implications for the future applications of xylanases.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.011
  • Microwave assisted solvent-free synthesis of n-butyl propionate by
           immobilized lipase as catalyst
    • Authors: Kalpesh V. Bhavsar; Ganapati D. Yadav
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kalpesh V. Bhavsar, Ganapati D. Yadav
      Operational simplicity, solvent free media, potential reusability of catalyst and wide functional group tolerance are the advantages for solvent free synthesis under microwave irradiation technique. In the current work, n-butyl propionate was synthesized by esterification of propionic acid with n-butanol using different immobilized enzymes under microwave irradiation vis-à-vis conventional heating. Commercially available lipases such as Lypozyme RM IM, Lypozyme TLIM and Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase B) were screened for n-butyl propionate synthesis from propionic acid and n-butanol for which Novozym 435 showed the best catalytic activity. n-Butyl propionate is widely used in flavour, painting, enamels, appliance coating and similar processes. In 8h 92% conversions were achieved at 60°C with 1:12 mol ratio of propionic acid to n-butanol under microwave irradiation. Systematic studies were done to understand mechanism and rate. In the Lineweaver-Burk plot the lines are intersecting at a point, showing that the reaction follows ternary complex mechanism with inhibition by n-butanol.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T18:34:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.012
  • Expression profile of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phenolic
           content during early stages of graft development in bud grafted Hevea
    • Authors: Auraiporn Prabpree; Porntip Sangsil; Charassri Nualsri; Korakot Nakkanong
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Auraiporn Prabpree, Porntip Sangsil, Charassri Nualsri, Korakot Nakkanong
      Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway responsible for the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, flavanols, and lignins. This study investigated the effect of grafting on vegetative growth, PAL expression and phenolic content of RRIM 600 and RRIT 251 bud grafted on different rubber rootstocks: for homografts (RRIM 600/RRIM 600 and RRIT 251/RRIT 251) and heterografts (RRIM 600/RRIM 623, RRIM 600/Clone#1, RRIM 600/Clone#2) (RRIT 251/RRIM 623, RRIT 251/Clone#1, RRIT 251/Clone#2) at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after bud grafting. For the RRIM 600 scion, the rootstock that provided the highest growth rate was Clone#1 while RRIT 251 showed uniform growth on different graft combinations. The results indicate that grafting alters PAL gene expression. PAL transcripts at higher levels during the early stages of grafting development especially 7 days after grafting. However, no significant differences were detected in the phenolic content at different post-grafting times. These findings suggest that the expression of the PAL gene is related to grafting compatibility in grafted H. brasiliensis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.010
  • Immobilization of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii in polyester
    • Authors: Néstor D. Giraldo Calderón; Kenny C. Díaz Bayona; Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Néstor D. Giraldo Calderón, Kenny C. Díaz Bayona, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés
      Botryococcus braunii is a renowned source of biomass, lipids and hydrocarbons for biofuel production. However, this microalga also produces exopolysaccharides (EPS) which might be used industrially. The artificial immobilization of B. braunii has proven to influence its growth and metabolite yield. In this work, B. braunii was immobilized using 3g/L of polyester wadding, a recyclable material no reported before as fixing matrix for this microalga. This inexpensive polymer was non-toxic to the cells and allowed their fixing during 2 months. After 24 days, the final biomass yield (g/L) was statistically higher (P ˂ 0.05) in immobilized (1.05 ± 0.05) than in suspended cultures (0.734 ± 0.003). The final EPS yield (g/L) was also higher in immobilized (0.094 ± 0.008) than in the suspended cultures (0.077 ± 0.004). In both cases, the sugar composition of the EPS (mainly 71.73mol% galactose) and the profile of fatty acids were the same.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.006
  • Application of Central Composite Design as a Strategy to Maximize the
           Productivity of Agaricus bisporus CU13 Laccase and Its Application in Dye
    • Authors: Abdelmageed M. Othman; Maysa A. Elsayed; Ali M. Elshafei; Mohamed M. Hassan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Abdelmageed M. Othman, Maysa A. Elsayed, Ali M. Elshafei, Mohamed M. Hassan
      The optimization of laccase production by Agaricus bisporus CU13 under submerged fermentation conditions was conducted via response surface methodology. Incubation period, cultivation pH value, carbon sources, and nitrogen sources parameters were studied using 2, 2´-azino-bis (3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) as substrate for laccase activity evaluation. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the fermentation medium composition through studying the major effective factors resulted from the one factor per time study as follows: pH values (pH 5.0 − 9.0), soluble starch concentration (7.5 − 17.5g/L), yeast extract concentration (2.5 − 12.5g/L), and incubation time (15 − 35 days). Central composite design (CCD) revealed that the pH value of 6.99, 15g/L soluble starch, and 5.52g/L yeast extract were the optimum values for laccase production after 24 days of incubation at 28°C. The optimization statistics leads to the improvement of laccase activity by 156% in comparison with pre-optimization values, which reveals the efficiency of the proposed model. A. bisporus CU13 laccase was evaluated as a green alternative in dyes decolorization, where it was able to decolorize Acid Green 27 dye with decolorization percentage range of 73 to 51% at concentration range of 25 to 200 mgL−1 after 30min.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.008
  • Biofuels: Production of fungal-mediated ligninolytic enzymes and the modes
           of bioprocesses utilizing agro-based residues
    • Authors: Saroj Paramjeet; P. Manasa; Narasimhulu Korrapati
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Saroj Paramjeet, P. Manasa, Narasimhulu Korrapati
      The depletion of fossil fuels and rise in their global energy consumption and demand have had a major impact on the stability of the ecosystem and highlighted the need for efficient, sustainable, and renewable alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass-based biofuels are highly advantageous due to their enormous supply in nature. Enzymatic bioconversion of lignocellulose polysaccharides into monomeric sugars has a higher efficiency than traditional chemical modes of action. Fungal-mediated ligninolytic enzymes offer even greater advantages in the bioconversion of lignocelluloses into simple sugars due to their thermostability, activity across a wide range of pH values, high specificity, and minimal by-products. This review, based on recent developments in the field of fungal-derived ligninolytic enzymes, discusses their mechanisms of action along with their production and the modes of bioprocesses involved as well as different techniques, such as heterologous gene expression, mutagenesis, and co-culturing, that enhance production and improve catalytic and stability properties.

      PubDate: 2018-02-18T18:09:00Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.007
  • Optimization of Extraction Conditions and Assessment of Antioxidant,
           α-Glucosidase Inhibitory and Antimicrobial Activities of Xanthium
           strumarium L. fruits
    • Authors: Amol Subhash Ingawale; Muhammad Bilal Sadiq; Loc Thai Nguyen; Tu Bao Ngan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Amol Subhash Ingawale, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Loc Thai Nguyen, Tu Bao Ngan
      In this study, Xanthium strumarium L. fruit was extracted and the product obtained was analyzed for its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic activity. The effects of solvent (methanol), extraction time and solid/solvent ratios on total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. The results indicated that optimal methanol concentration, extraction time and solid to solvent ratio were 60%, 30min and 1:5, respectively. Corresponding TPC, DPPH and FRAP values were 12.1mg of GAE/g of sample, 72.5% and 92.6μM of Fe (II)/g of sample, respectively. Methanol concentration and solid to solvent ratio were found to have significant effects on TPC, DPPH and FRAP values. On the other hand, the fruit extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. When tested for antidiabetic potential, the extract exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 15.25µg/ml. Electrochemical measurements were found to be helpful for determining the content as well as redox properties of the extracted compounds. The results could be of significant importance for industrial applications of the extract in novel plant-derived drugs or functional foods.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.004
  • Fermentative production of butyric acid from Paper Mill Sludge
           Hydrolysates using Clostridium tyrobutyricum NRRL B-67062/RPT 4213
    • Authors: Siqing Liu; Shona Duncan; Nasib Qureshi; Joseph Rich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Siqing Liu, Shona Duncan, Nasib Qureshi, Joseph Rich
      The pulp and paper industry produces about 300–350 million tons of paper mill sludge (PMS) annually and majority is disposed of by landfill. PMS contains up to 75% carbohydrates. In this study, PMS was treated by de-ashing, fiber regeneration and enzymatic hydrolysis. The PMS hydrolysate was used for butyric acid production by Clostridium tyrobutyricum B-67062/RPT 4213. We reported that 8.52 and 8.35 gL−1 butyric acid was produced from 4 l batch fermentation in MRS and RCM4 medium respectively. Moreover, nearly 7 gL−1 butyric acid was produced by using PMS hydrolysates from two different mills when combined with a fraction of MRS, and over 6 gL−1 butyric acid was produced from hydrolysate combined with a fraction of RCM4 medium. This study suggested that beside agricultural lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks, low valued waste materials from the pulp and paper industries could also be used for the sustainable production of butyric acid.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.002
  • Preparation of chiral phenylethanols using various vegetables grown in
    • Authors: Manhel Bennamane; Samra Razi; Saoussen Zeror; Louisa Aribi-Zouioueche
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Manhel Bennamane, Samra Razi, Saoussen Zeror, Louisa Aribi-Zouioueche
      Ginger root, strawberry tree and mandarin growing in Algeria were evaluated for their ability to stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones. The reactivity and the enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the biocatalyst used, and the structure of ketone. High enantioselectivities were observed for some substrates (70–99% ee) especially for the bioreduction of acetophenone 1, p-chloroacetophenone 2, tetralone 5, thiochromanone 6 and chromanone 7. Using two different batchs of Citrus reticulata from two regions of our country Annaba and Skikda, the corresponding optically active alcohols were obtained with high enantioselectivity and Skikda's variety was the best biocatalyst. The results reveal that these plants species can be a promising biocatalysts for the production of key intermediates.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.003
  • Process optimization for production of a fibrinolytic enzyme from newly
           isolated marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa KU1
    • Authors: Swaroop S. Kumar; Madhathilkovilakathu Haridas; Abdulhameed Sabu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Swaroop S. Kumar, Madhathilkovilakathu Haridas, Abdulhameed Sabu
      A potent fibrinolytic enzyme producing bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KU1 was isolated from marine sediments of Ezhara beach, Kannur, Kerala. Enzyme production was optimized using statistical approach. Placket-Burman factorial design was used in picking key factors (Tryptone, skimmed milk and inoculum size) that influence fibrinolytic enzyme production of the isolate and further optimized using Box-Benhken design. Optimal concentrations for the selected independent variables in the medium were identified to be 0.72% w/v tryptone, 0.09% w/v skimmed milk and 3.95% v/v inoculum size. Peak production was achieved empirically in shake flask culture and it was very close to the projected activity by the response surface model. The Peak production showed 3.25 fold increase over the activity prior to any optimization and a maximum of 1.32 fold increase of one factor at a time optimization. Though many reports are available on fibrinolytic enzyme production from Pseudomonas sp. media optimization studies for enhancement of fibrinolytic enzyme production has not been performed so far. This may be the first report on statistical optimization of production of a fibrinolytic enzyme from marine Pseudomonas sp.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.02.001
  • Aqueous Two-Phase Purification of α-Amylase from White Pitaya (Hylocereus
           undatus) Peel in Polyethylene glycol /Citrate System: Optimization by
           Response Surface Methodology
    • Authors: Zahra Shad; Hamed Mirhosseini; Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin; Bita Forghani; Mahsa Motshakeri; Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Zahra Shad, Hamed Mirhosseini, Anis Shobirin Meor Hussin, Bita Forghani, Mahsa Motshakeri, Mohd Yazid Abdul Manap
      α-Amylase is a significant enzyme with numerous commercial applications, which is largely used to convert starches into oligosaccharides. So, purification of α-Amylase from by products or cheap sources is of great importance due to its ease of production and industrially widespread applications. In the present study, α-amylase was purified from white pitaya peel in a system composed of two phase based on salt and polyethylene glycol. Furthermore, the impact of four independent variables, including (X1) polyethylene glycol molecular weight (4000–8000g/mol), (X2) polyethylene glycol concentration (10–18% (w/w)), (X3) sodium citrate concentration (12–20% (w/w)), and (X4) NaCl (2–8% (w/w)), on partition coefficient (Y1), purification factor (Y2) and yield (Y3) of the purified enzyme was investigated using central composite design of response surface methodology. Results showed that optimum conditions for amylase purification were that, 14% (w/w) polyethylene glycol 6000 (g/mol), 16% (w/w) sodium citrate and 5% (w/v) NaCl; the partition coefficient, purification factor and amylase yield under the optimal conditions were 6.62, 4.43 and 89.12%, respectively. Moreover, the experimental and predicted results were in considerable agreement, which established the reliability and validity of the proposed model. This study indicated that the citrate-based aqueous two-phase system provides a promising tool for effective purification of amylase at a low cost with a large loading capacity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-07T16:27:46Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.014
  • Bioprocessing of Agro-Industrial Residues for Optimization of Xylanase
           Production by Solid- State Fermentation in Flask and Tray Bioreactor
    • Authors: Morteza Khanahmadi; Iman Arezi; Motahhareh-sadat Amiri; Mokhtar Miranzadeh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Morteza Khanahmadi, Iman Arezi, Motahhareh-sadat Amiri, Mokhtar Miranzadeh
      Xylanases encompass a broad spectrum of industrial applications like food, animal feed, textile and biofuel. This study aimed at optimization of solid-state fermentation by Aspergillus niger CCUG33991 for maximum xylanase production using low-cost agro-industrial residues 1 1 Agricultural- industrial residues in tray bioreactor. SSF 2 2 Solid- state fermentation was performed using wheat bran, sorghum stover, corn cob and soybean meal in flasks for investigation of appropriate substrate, initial pH, media composition and minerals solution. Thereafter, the obtained results combined with results of earlier experiments were used for exploring the effects of particle size, initial moisture content and temperature in tray bioreactor. OFAT method 3 3 One-factor-at-a-time method was followed to select optimum level of each parameter. Next, effect of air-drying and pelleting condition were tested on enzyme stability. Finally, the extracted enzymes were subjected to zymography. The highest xylanase activity of 2919±174 U/g-IDW 4 4 Initial dry weight at 48h was achieved using wheat bran with particle size range of 0.3–0.6mm, initial moisture level of 70%, moistened by distilled water containing 1% (v/v) glycerol and 1% (w/v) of (NH4)2SO4, and controlled bed temperature in the range of 28–35°C with surface aeration. As a result, a 2.5-fold higher and 24h faster xylanase production in trays than in flasks was attained. The enzyme also showed a great deal of stability to air-drying and pelleting condition. Zymogram analysis confirmed multiple isoforms of xylanase. SSF in tray bioreactor is a potential method for xylanase production. Wheat bran as low-cost, time-saving and xylan-containing hemicellulosic agro-waste is preferable to use as the carbon and energy sources for maximum production of xylanase.

      PubDate: 2018-01-27T14:57:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.005
  • Insights into the microbial degradation pathways of the ioxynil octanoate
    • Authors: Karina O. Oliveira; Amanda R.M. Silva; Bianca F. da Silva; Humberto M.S. Milagre; Cintia D.F. Milagre
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Karina O. Oliveira, Amanda R.M. Silva, Bianca F. da Silva, Humberto M.S. Milagre, Cintia D.F. Milagre
      This paper describes the biodegradation of the ioxynil octanoate herbicide by indigenous microorganisms isolated from herbicide impacted soil-enrichment cultures. Eleven positive hits out of twenty-nine microorganisms screened for nitrile hydratase, nitrilase and amidase activity were further evaluated based on their growth in microtiter plates containing liquid medium with increasing concentrations of herbicide (0.97 to 250mM). Two strains were selected from this assay for biodegradation studies and were identified as Lysinibacillus boronitolerans MLH-31 and Bacillus cereus MLH-61. The bacterial degradation of ioxynil octanoate and its biodegradation products were monitored, identified and characterized by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In addition to 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzamide and 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, which are commonly detected metabolites, two new metabolites were observed: mono-deiodinated compound 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid and the product of Caromatic-CN cleaved 1,3-diiodophenol. The experimentally observed metabolites were correlated with the enzymatic systems involved, revealing the presence of esterases, nitrile hydratases, amidases, nitrilases, dehalogenases and carbon-carbon lyases during biodegradation. Lysinibacillus boronitolerans MLH-31 was found to degrade ioxynil octanoate at a rate of 97% over 7 days through a batch-resting cells experiment, while Bacillus cereus MLH-61 was found to do so at a rate of 75% under the same conditions.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.002
    • Authors: Sangita Singh; Troy Hinkley; Sam R. Nugen; Joey N. Talbert
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sangita Singh, Troy Hinkley, Sam R. Nugen, Joey N. Talbert
      Immobilized alkaline phosphatase (AP) has the potential to be utilized in biotechnology applications including molecular cloning, inhibitor screening, and the production of phosphorylated compound. Traditional immobilization methods are limited by specificity and reproducibility, and can require multiple steps to modify the support or the enzyme. In this study, a double mutant alkaline phosphatase (D153G/D330N AP⁎) was expressed with a carbohydrate binding module (CBM 2a) fused to the N- or C-terminal to enable immobilization of the enzyme to cellulose microparticles. The modified enzyme was characterized in both free and immobilized states. Immobilization was achievable with a maximum loading of 0.33 µmole/g of cellulose for the N-tagged enzyme (CBM-AP⁎) and 0.26 µmole/g of cellulose for the C-tagged enzyme (AP⁎-CBM). Fusion of the CBM tag to either the N- or C-terminal resulted in catalytically active enzymes, with modification of the C-terminal retaining the highest catalytic efficiency (52%) relative to the unmodified mutant. The immobilized conjugates retained 83.7% and 80% catalytic efficiency for N-terminal and C-terminal tagged AP⁎, respectively, when compared to their free enzyme counterparts, and could be washed ten times without a significant loss in catalytic activity. These results suggest that immobilized CBM-tagged alkaline phosphatase may be a viable form for the pragmatic utilization of the enzyme in biotechnology applications.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T14:21:37Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2018.01.003
  • Evaluation of Candida tropicalis (NCIM 3321) extracellular phytase having
           plant growth promoting potential and process development
    • Authors: Kumar Raja Puppala; Tejali Naik; Alfina Shaik; Syed Dastager; Ravi Kumar V; Jayant Khire; Mahesh Dharne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kumar Raja Puppala, Tejali Naik, Alfina Shaik, Syed Dastager, Ravi Kumar V, Jayant Khire, Mahesh Dharne
      Phytase is known to provide a solution for depletion of phosphorus (P). It helps it by hydrolyzing the insoluble P source in soil which is phytate. In this study, provides insight on yeast Candida tropicalis (NCIM 3321) which produces cell bound and extracellular thermostable phytase. The media components were optimized to enhance the enzyme production and checked for plant growth promoting activity. On optimization the isolate exhibited enhanced cell bound and extracellular phytase activity by four folds from (236 to 1024 IU DCG−1) and by five folds (from 0.46 to 1.95 IU ml−1) respectively in 36h. The production time decreased to 24h compare to shake flask on Up-scaling the production process upto 10L scale, thus increasing the productivity of cell bound (1810 IU DCG−1day−1) and extracellular phytase (6.08 IU ml−1 day−1). The crude phytase (12 IU) from NCIM 3321 strain was studied for plant growth promotion activity in lab scale and field level experiments with maize crop. Findings of the study revealed that the extracellular phytase derived from non pathogenic C. tropicalis (NCIM 3321) was found to be plant growth stimulating by increasing the available P in soil. Our findings of phytase isolated from non-pathogenic yeast C. tropicalis NCIM 3321 exhibited dephytinization potential. Therefore, current study may have profound application in sustainable agriculture.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.013
  • Tolerance of wetland rice field's cyanobacteria to agrochemicals in
           cultural condition
    • Authors: Manish Singh Kaushik; Ajay Kumar; Gerard Abraham; Pawan Kumar Singh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Manish Singh Kaushik, Ajay Kumar, Gerard Abraham, Pawan Kumar Singh
      The wetland rice fields are favorable for cyanobacterial growth, which play an important role in building soil fertility. Since agrochemicals are intensively being applied in rice fields to boost crop productivity, this study was undertaken to observe their effects on dominant N2-fixing cyanobacteria i.e. filamentous, heterocystous Nostoc linckia and unicellular Aphanothece pallida. These cyanobacteria were isolated from flooded rice fields and used to find out the effects of urea N-fertilizer, herbicide benthiocarb and insecticide metacid (in isolation and combinations) on their growth and N2-fixation ability. It was observed that N. linckia and A. pallida grew up to 25 days after inoculation (DAI) whereas acetylene reduction activity (ARA) increased up to 15 DAI in N-free medium without supplementation of agrochemicals in both cyanobacteria where N. linckia exhibited higher growth and ARA than A. pallida. Urea-N (30 ppm) was inhibitory for the growth of N. linckia whereas it stimulated the growth of A. pallida. Addition of benthiocarb (0.5 ppm) was found to have no significant impact on the growth of N. linckia but showed initial enhancement in the growth of A. pallida up to 10 DAI. Metacid supplementation at 0.25 ppm supported growth and ARA of both the cyanobacteria. It was also revealed that the use of urea-N, benthiocarb and metacid in combination reduced the growth and N2-fixation of N. linckia, however, these chemicals together were promotary for A. pallida. Overall, it was observed that combinations of these agrochemicals caused additive toxicity to heterocystous cyanobacterium whereas these were promotary to unicellular ones.

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:48:23Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.016
  • Metalophilic lipase from Ralstonia solanacearum: Gene cloning, expression,
           and biochemical characterization
    • Authors: Waznah Moayad; Genhan Zha; Yunjun Yan
      Pages: 31 - 37
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Waznah Moayad, Genhan Zha, Yunjun Yan
      A screening for lipase was carried out in the metalophile of Ralstonia solanacearum. The putative lipase gene (FW376093) was cloned and expressed using E. coli as host. Subsequently, the recombined enzyme was purified and its enzyme properties were further examined. The results indicated the lipase of FW376093 was able to catalyze hydrolysis of short-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (C2–C12). It showed the optimal temperature and pH were respectively 80°C and 8.5. The enzyme could be significantly enhanced by Na+2, Ca+2, and Fe+2, but significantly repressed by Cu+2, Ni+2 and Mn+2. Nevertheless, the lipase of FW376093 exhibited high tolerance to detergents and organic solvents. Phylogenetic assay reveals that it belongs to family II. The unique properties of the lipase of FW376093, having metalophilicity and high tolerance to organic solvent, render it with prosperous prospect in practical applications.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T09:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • Exposure to zebularine and 5-azaC triggers microsatellite instability in
           the exposed Arabidopsis thaliana plants and their progeny
    • Authors: Youli Yao; Igor Kovalchuk
      Pages: 38 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Youli Yao, Igor Kovalchuk
      Plant genome stability can be altered by exposure to stress. Many stresses that are not directly mutagenic can alter genome stability. Our recent work showed that stresses such as salt, heat and drought can change the frequency of homologous recombination. We showed that exposure to stress triggers changes in methylation, and that these changes are important for the establishment of transgenerational response to stress. Here, we tested whether exposure to zebularine or 5-azaC, two chemicals interfering with normal cytosine methylation patterns, would destabilize the genome and lead to transgenerational changes. Exposure to both chemicals resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in global DNA methylation, with changes at symmetrical CNG cytosines being the most pronounced. The analysis of genome instability showed a dose-dependent increase in microsatellite instability and to a lesser degree in recombination frequency in somatic cells of exposed plants. The analysis of the progeny showed that the spontaneous non-induced recombination frequency was decreased in response to zebularine and did not change in response to 5-azaC, whereas the frequency of microsatellite instability increased profoundly in response to both chemicals. At the same time, the analysis of cytosine methylation in progeny of plants exposed to zebularine and 5-azaC showed a more pronounced decrease at CNG cytosines. Our work shows that the maintenance of DNA methylation is likely important for the prevention of microsatellite instability and that hypomethylation may affect genome stability in progeny differently in different genomic regions with genomic regions containing microsatellites being more prone to destabilization.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T09:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.006
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • Pseudomonas stutzeri E25 and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia CR71 endophytes
           produce antifungal volatile organic compounds and exhibit additive plant
           growth-promoting effects
    • Authors: Daniel Rojas-Solís; Elizabeth Zetter-Salmón; Miguel Contreras-Pérez; Ma del Carmen Rocha-Granados; Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez; Gustavo Santoyo
      Pages: 46 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Daniel Rojas-Solís, Elizabeth Zetter-Salmón, Miguel Contreras-Pérez, Ma del Carmen Rocha-Granados, Lourdes Macías-Rodríguez, Gustavo Santoyo
      Endophytic bacteria are part of the plant microbiome, which can promote the growth of plants and act as biocontrol agents against potential phytopathogens through various mechanisms, including the production of volatile compounds. In this work, we isolated and characterized two new bacterial endophytes, strains E25 and CR71, that exhibited antifungal activity and plant growth promotion. Analysis of the complete 16S ribosomal gene sequences of the strains showed high species-level identity (99%) with Pseudomonas stutzeri (E25) and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (CR71). In in vitro assays, both strains showed excellent antagonistic action against Botrytis cinerea by emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but not through diffusible compounds. Interestingly, the volatile cocktails emitted by E25 and CR71 were quite similar, highlighting the production of sulphur-containing compounds such as the antimicrobial volatile dimethyl disulphide (DMDS). Analysis of the pure DMDS compound showed mycelial inhibitory activity against the fungal strain. In a greenhouse experiment, inoculation of strains promoted the shoot and root length, chlorophyll content, and total fresh weight of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum cv Saladette). Interestingly, when strains were co-inoculated, a better plant growth-promoting effect was observed. In conclusion, the co-inoculation of novel endophytic strains reported herein represents an excellent option to promote growth and achieve the biocontrol of B. cinerea through the production of potent volatiles such as DMDS.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T09:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.007
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • Extraction, purification and characterization of phycoerythrin from
           Michrochaete and its biological activities
    • Authors: Hemlata; Sumbul Afreen; Tasneem Fatma
      Pages: 84 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Hemlata, Sumbul Afreen, Tasneem Fatma
      Phycoerythrin, (PE) is red colored naturally abundant protein and is found in red algae and cyanobacteria. Till now, red algae are being characterized and exploited commercially for PE. But, cyanobacterial PE still need attention. PE is good for human health as it possess free radical scavenging ability and promotes human health. In present study PE was isolated and purified from cyanobacterium Michrochaete and was further tested for its antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and anticancer potential. Purified PE yielded two bands of 15.8kDa and 17.7kDa. Purity value of PE increased from 0.73 to 4.1 during successive purification steps. Purified PE showed anticancer activity against HepG2 cell line (IC50 = 105µg/ml). Candida albicans was more resistant than Aspergillus niger at 0.2mg/ml PE. Furthermore, PE showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative bacterial species. The order of inhibitory activity was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC2543) > E.coli (ATCC 25922) > Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC902) with 0.1mg/ml PE. Antioxidant activity of purified PE was evaluated by measuring the free radical scavenging ability using DPPH, ABTS and SOR. PE was found to have better free radical scavenging activity with ABTS (IC50 = 0.023mg/ml) than DPPH (IC50 = 0.043mg/ml) and SOR (IC50 = 0.553mg/ml).

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T09:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.012
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • A novel oxidative destruction of lignin and enzymatic digestibility of
           hazelnut shells
    • Authors: Sibel Uzuner; Ratna R. Sharma-Shivappa; Deniz Cekmecelioglu; Praveen Kolar
      Pages: 110 - 115
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): Sibel Uzuner, Ratna R. Sharma-Shivappa, Deniz Cekmecelioglu, Praveen Kolar
      This study investigated the effect of sequential oxidative (ozonolysis) pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of hazelnut shells on production of fermentable sugars. Two factors (ozone concentration and pretreatment time), which were determined to be significant by the Box-Behnken response surface methodology, were further maximized for total lignin removal, solid recovery, and total reducing sugar yield via enzymatic hydrolysis of the pretreated biomass using full-factorial design. The ozonolysis was performed by passing 30, 40, and 50mg/L of ozone gas through a packed bed of ground hazelnut shells for up to 120min at a flow rate of 0.25L/min. The highest lignin reduction (20.5%) was obtained in the shells with 30% moisture content subjected to ozone concentration of 50mg/L for 120min, which corresponded to a high biomass recovery (94%). The reducing sugar yield also increased from 119.9mg/g dry untreated biomass to 284.6mg/g dry untreated biomass for hazelnut shells ozonated at 30mg/L for 60min. Thus, these results indicate remarkable benefits of ozonolysis during pretreatment of hazelnut shells.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T12:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • Preparation and characterization of physicochemical properties of golden
           apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) protein hydrolysate as affected by
           different proteases
    • Authors: S.N.K.M. Putra; N.H. Ishak; N.M. Sarbon
      Pages: 123 - 128
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2018
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 13
      Author(s): S.N.K.M. Putra, N.H. Ishak, N.M. Sarbon
      This study aims to prepare and characterize the physicochemical properties of golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) (GAS) hydrolysate as affected by alcalase and papain commercial proteases. Characterizations of yield, degree of hydrolysis (DH), protein concentration, pH value, solubility, emulsifying and foaming properties, water holding capacity, fat binding capacity, and the structural properties of golden apple snail hydrolysate were measured. GAS hydrolysate prepared using alcalase (GASHA) showed higher yields (12.61%) and DH (88.18%) than GAS hydrolysate prepared using papain (GASHP) which showed lower yields (10.45%) and DH (72.96%). The pH value of the GASHA (pH 9.31) was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than GASHP (pH 7.42). GASHA also indicated higher solubility (77.78%) (p < 0.05), emulsifying activity and stability index (19.90m2/g, 47.26min) and foaming stability (34.67%) compared to GASHP. However, there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between GASHA and GASHP in terms of protein concentration, foaming capacity, water holding capacity, or fat binding capacity. Examination of structural properties showed that GAHSA had higher intensity of amide II (1559.85cm−1), while GASHP showed higher intensity of amide I (1654.26cm−1) and III (1411.35cm−1). Hence, the study has shown that varying the type of enzyme used in the hydrolysis of GAS significantly affects the physicochemical properties of the hydrolysate produced.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T12:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 13 (2017)
  • In vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of water and methanol extracts
           of linden bee pollen
    • Authors: Tie-Yan Jin; Kandasamy Saravanakumar; Myeong-Hyeon Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Tie-Yan Jin, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Myeong-Hyeon Wang
      Bee pollen is an important source of the herbal medicine with active bio-compounds, but there are no reports on its antioxidant properties. Herein, we report for the first time the antioxidant properties of two different (water and methanol) extracts of Linden bee pollen through analysis various in vitro and animal experimental (in vivo) antioxidant assays including DPPH free radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, reducing power, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid per-oxidant and total antioxidant capacity. The results demonstrated that the methanol extract of bee pollen exhibited the higher in vitro antioxidant activity than water extract. Besides, the animal experiments showed the dose dependent increase of superoxide dismutase and total antioxidant capacity in water and methanol extracts. MDA content was significantly lowered in medium and high treated mice group and there was no significant difference between two extracts. These results indicated that methanol extract of Linden bee pollen can be considered as a natural antioxidant source for the potential utilization in future herbal medicine.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.010
  • Utilization of Glucose-Based Medium and optimization of Bacillus subtilis
           natto Growth Parameters for Vitamin K (Menaquinone-7) Production in
           Biofilm Reactors
    • Authors: Ehsan Mahdinia; Ali Demirci Aydin Berenjian
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ehsan Mahdinia, Ali Demirci, Aydin Berenjian
      Menaquinone −7 (MK-7) is the most potent form of vitamin K prescribed as a dietary supplement. MK-7 is commonly produced via static fermentation of Bacillus subtilis natto. The fermentation of this bacterium is associated with formation of large amounts of pellicles and biofilm, which are effective in MK-7 production, but also result in significant heat and mass transfer challenges during the scale-up process. Thus, the objectives of this study were to develop and evaluate the possibility of using a biofilm reactor for MK-7 production. In this research, biofilm reactors were constructed using the Plastic Composite Supports (PCS). In order to optimize the fermentation parameters for MK-7 production, Central Composite Design (CCD) was carried out along with supplementary runs to determine the optimum temperature, pH, and agitation. The biofilm reactors were able to produce a maximum concentration of 18.45±0.76mg/L of MK-7, which was 237% higher than the suspended-cell fermentation. Therefore, the present work suggests the possibility of using biofilm reactors as a new and effective fermentation strategy to address the issues associated with MK-7 fermentation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:52:13Z
  • Galacto-oligosaccharide Hydrolysis by Genetically-Engineered
           Alpha-Galactosidase-Producing Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strains
    • Authors: Daniel K.Y. Solaiman; Richard D. Ashby; Kawalpreet K. Aneja; Nicole V. Crocker; Yanhong Liu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Daniel K.Y. Solaiman, Richard D. Ashby, Kawalpreet K. Aneja, Nicole V. Crocker, Yanhong Liu
      Various Pseudomonas chlororaphis strains have been shown to produce rhamnolipid, poly(hydroxyalkanoate), and antifungal compounds for plants. Ability to metabolize galacto-oligosaccharides would allow P. chlororaphis to use soy molasses as a low-cost fermentation feedstock. In this study, genetically engineered P. chlororaphis strains expressing a Streptomyces coelicolor α-galactosidase (α-gal) were constructed. In recombinant P. chlororaphis [chr::AG], the α-gal was integrated into the chromosome. P. chlororaphis [pBS-dAG], however, contains a truncated α-gal (coding for the N-terminal catalytic domain of the enzyme) on an expression vector. Real-time RT-qPCR showed 1,438-fold higher α-gal gene expression in [pBS-dAG] than [chr::AG]. In agreement with qPCR study, the results of an enzyme assay using p-nitrophenyl-α-galactopyranoside (p-NP-α-Gal) as a chromogenic substrate also showed that the cell extracts of [pBS-dAG] contained ca. 8-times higher p-NP-α-Gal-hydrolyzing activity than that of [chr::AG]. The cell extracts of [pBS-dAG] were also demonstrated to hydrolyze raffinose (32.7 ± 4.1% of the initial amount remained in the reaction mixture) > melibiose (65.4 ± 7.9%) > stachyose (72.8 ± 11.9%). The incubation of an EDTA-permeabilized (1.5μM, 28°C, 200rpm shaking, 20min) P. chlororaphis [pBS-dAG] whole-cell preparation with 0.5% (w/v) raffinose in a Medium E⁎ for 7 days resulted in the reduction of the carbon source to 0.14% (w/v), or 28% relative to the initially added amount, and the biomass reached a value of 0.46g CDW (cell dry weight)/l. In contrast, EDTA-permeabilized wild-type P. chlororaphis did not hydrolyze the 0.5% (w/v) raffinose in the medium, and the final biomass yield was 0.26g CDW/l.

      PubDate: 2017-12-27T12:52:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.008
  • Characterization of endophytic bacteria and their response to plant growth
           promotion in Helianthus tuberosus L
    • Authors: Sumolnat Khamwan; Sophon Boonlue; Nuntavun riddech; Sanun Jogloy; Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Sumolnat Khamwan, Sophon Boonlue, Nuntavun riddech, Sanun Jogloy, Wiyada Mongkolthanaruk
      The endophytic bacteria isolated from the leaves, stems, tubers and roots of Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) were studied and characterized. The isolated endophytes were clustered by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) technique and identified by 16S rRNA sequencing to demonstrate bacteria diversity, mainly in Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Microbacterium, Curtobacterium. The proportions of endophytes exhibited colonization (from most to least) in stems, leaves, roots and tubers. The more isolates had ACC (1 aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate) deaminase and nitrogen fixation, the less they showed phosphate and potassium solubilization. Antifungal activity was exhibited only in Bacillus, while many isolates had stress tolerance in polyethylene glycol. Six endophytic bacteria were recolonized into 2 varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (HEL65 and JA102xJA89) and showed increases in height, root and stem weight, and tuber number. The potential local endophyte, Pantoea ananatis 4.14 responded to the tuber by increasing inulin content, which is a valued product of Jerusalem artichoke.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T12:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.007
  • Isolation and Characterisation of Urease-producing Bacteria from Tropical
    • Authors: Ignatius Ren Kai Phang; Yen San Chan; Kwong Soon Wong; Sie Yon Lau
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ignatius Ren Kai Phang, Yen San Chan, Kwong Soon Wong, Sie Yon Lau
      Urease were known to catalyze the conversion of urea to ammonia and carbon dioxide. Microbial urease has demonstrated its benefits in wide biotechnological, agricultural, medicinal and engineering application. There are number of diverse microbial species contribute to urease activity in different natural habitats like soil, ocean and in various geological formation. For this study, urease bacteria were screened and isolate from acidic peat in Sarawak, Malaysia. Five distinct and diverse bacterial strains that were able to produce urease constitutively were selected to be characterized with respect to morphology, biochemical test, growth conditions and urease activity. The selected strain showed their capability to precipitate calcium carbonate (CaCO3). Hence, the isolates could be potential source of acid ureases that can be use in various industrial utilizations. 16S rRNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis found that the selected isolates belong to the genus of Bacillus.

      PubDate: 2017-12-17T12:01:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.12.006
  • Molecular modeling and docking of protease from Bacillus sp. for the
           keratin degradation
    • Authors: Selvam Kandasamy; Senbagam Duraisamy; Sudhakar Chinnappan; Senthilkumar Balakrishnan; Selvankumar Thangasamy; Govarthanan Muthusamy; Sengottaiyan Arumugam; Palanisamy Srinivasan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Selvam Kandasamy, Senbagam Duraisamy, Sudhakar Chinnappan, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan, Selvankumar Thangasamy, Govarthanan Muthusamy, Sengottaiyan Arumugam, Palanisamy Srinivasan
      In this present study, the 3D structure of protease from Bacillus sp. was modeled by using modeler 9v9. The generated structure was accessed for geometrical errors and energy stability using RAMPAGE, VERFIY 3D, ERRAT and PROSA. The proteolytic nature of this modeled protease was determined by docking studies using FlexX. The kertinolytic activity was revealed by using polysacchadire sub units such as arabinose, rhamnose, galactose, and glucose; aminopeptidase activity was revealed by using amino acids like methionine, leucine, rivastigmine and also by protease inhibitor like N-carbobenzyloxy-L-alanine and 4-amidino phenyl methanesulfonyl flurode. The docking studies showed that Asp160 and Try246 residues were mainly involved in binding of all the compounds and other important amino acid residues such as His85, Asp97, Glu131, Asp160, Glu131, Glu132, Asp160, Tyr246, and His247 were involved in hydrogen bonding with the substrates. These studies pave a path to determine the substrate recognition pattern and the development of suitable protease can potentially enhance its applications in keratin degradation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T09:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.016
  • Flaxseed: composition, detoxification, utilization, and opportunities
    • Authors: Alaa El-Din A Bekhit; Amin Shavandi; Teguh Jodjaja; John Birch; Suesiang Teh; Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed; Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi; Pouya Saeedi; Adnan A. Bekhit
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Alaa El-Din A Bekhit, Amin Shavandi, Teguh Jodjaja, John Birch, Suesiang Teh, Isam A. Mohamed Ahmed, Fahad Y. Al-Juhaimi, Pouya Saeedi, Adnan A. Bekhit
      Flaxseed cake is a low value, a protein-rich by-product of flaxseed oil pressing companies. Flaxseed oil has been known as a rich source of omega-3 fatty acids and has been widely used. However, due to the presence of anti-nutritive compounds such as phytic acid, linatine, and cyanogenic glycosides, flaxseed cake that has a high protein content has limited food application. Cyanogenic compounds, particularly cyanogenic glycosides, can be degraded to toxic HCN upon ingestion. Therefore, the cake with a high content of fibre and protein with great nutritional potential has been underutilised and has some limited animal feed applications. Detoxification of the flax cake from cyanogenic content can, therefore, improve the market value of the protein and increase its food application. This review focuses on various available methods for detoxification of flax seed cake with emphasis on nutritional properties of the final product. The impact of various flaxseed cake detoxification methods on the protein is critically evaluated, discussing the options available toward increasing the food application value of this high protein product.

      PubDate: 2017-12-06T09:31:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.017
  • Purification and characterization of extracellular phospholipase A1 from
           Trichoderma atroviride sp. ZB-ZH292
    • Authors: Zahra Beig-Mohammadi; Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani; Mohammad-Ali Sahari; Kianoush Khosravi-Darani
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Zahra Beig-Mohammadi, Zohreh Hamidi-Esfahani, Mohammad-Ali Sahari, Kianoush Khosravi-Darani
      Phospholipase A1 has been used in degumming process of vegetable oils and release functional free fatty acids and lysophospholipid. This study was aimed to isolate and identify a new Trichoderma atroviride sp. ZB-ZH192 as producer of PLA1. Then gamma rays mutants with increased efficiency of extracellular production were used for purification and characterization of PLA1. The maximum protein content (0.03 mg), activity (594 U), and specific activity (1220 U/mg protein) of enzyme from T. atroviride sp. ZB-ZH292 was found at pH 6 and 60 °C, which is more comparing to wild type. The molecular weight of phospholipase A1 was detected as 40 kDa by electrophoresis. To confirm the activity of phospholipase, zymography method was used. Rresults indicate that the purified phospholipase A1 from mutant source had suitable potential to serve as a biocatalyst in vegetable oil processing degumming.

      PubDate: 2017-11-25T09:48:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.009
  • Characterization of quorum quenching enzymes from endophytic rhizosphere
           colonizing bacteria
    • Authors: Gauri A. Achari; R. Ramesh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 November 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Gauri A. Achari, R. Ramesh
      Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum affects cultivation of solanaceaous vegetables throughout the world. Quorum quenching is recently emerging as a novel sustainable biocontrol option to curb bacterial diseases since it does not lead to resistance in the phytopathogen. In the present study, crude quorum quenching enzymes extracted from endophytic rhizosphere colonizing strains XB7 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), XB122 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and XB102 (Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were characterized. Vmax/Km ratios indicated that quorum quenching enzymes had high higher activity towards p-Nitrophyenyl acetate as compared to p-Nitrophyenyl palmitate. Optimum temperature for the activity of quorum quenching esterase of XB7, and XB122 was 37°C whereas esterase from XB102 had an optimum temperature of 28°C. Optimum pH for the activity of quorum quenching enzymes of XB7 and XB122 was pH 6.8 whereas pH 8.0 was optimal for XB102. Cu2+ and Ca2+ enhanced activity of quorum quenching enzymes extracted from all strains. Activity staining following native PAGE indicated the molecular weight of esterase from XB7 and XB122 to be approximately 24kDa whereas that of XB102 as 20.0kDa. The study indicates that the extracellular quorum quenching esterases from XB7, XB122 and XB102 exhibit pH and temperature optima similar to common soil enzymes and can remain active in presence of metal ions which can occur in rhizosphere soil. These features of extracellular quorum quenching esterases from endophytic rhizosphere colonizing strains led us to a conclusion that these enzymes may have potential applications in innovative and ecofriendly bacterial wilt management approaches.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.004
  • Bioconversion of mevastatin to pravastatin by various microorganisms and
           its applications - a review
    • Authors: Mahin Basha Syed; Thiruvelselvan Ponnusamy
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Mahin Basha Syed, Thiruvelselvan Ponnusamy
      Hypercholesterolemia is considered to be an important risk factor in coronary heart disease. Statins has received a lot of attention in recent years due to control of cholesterol biosynthesis and level of cholesterol in the body, by inhibiting the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl Coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase. Inhibition results in reduced levels of mevalonate in the body, leading to pleiotropic effects. Compactin and its hydroxy derivative pravastatin are natural statins and are used as hypocholesterolemic agents which are potent inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase activity. Pravastatin was more effective drug than compactin. Various fungi and bacteria have been used for the commercial production of pravastatin. Using different strategies for improving production levels, yields have been increased more than the amount originally produced. Recently, the gene sequencing is responsible for pravastatin production has been cloned and sequenced. It has been incorporated into other fungal or bacterial species for better compactin resistant as well as for maximum bioconversion rate. This review deals with the structure and chemistry, applications, mode of action, bioconversion, and production of pravastatin. This review is an effort to compile the available information on various aspects of pravastatin.

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.11.002
  • Obtaining hesperetin 7-O-glucosyl 6’’-O-laurate, a high lipophilic
           flavonoid ester, from Citrus waste
    • Authors: Gustavo Céliz; Ramón Díaz; Mirta Daz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2017
      Source:Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
      Author(s): Gustavo Céliz, Ramón Díaz, Mirta Daz
      A biotechnological process that combines the treatment of Citrus processing waste to extract a high-valuable biomolecule, neohesperidin (NEO), and its further modification by biocatalysis to enhance the lipophilicity of its flavonoic moiety is presented. NEO was extracted from immature fruits of Citrus aurantium and hydrolyzed by a commercial alpha-rhamnosidase to obtain hesperetin 7-glucoside (HG). NEO and HG were mono-acylated with vinyl laurate by using Novozym 435 in their primary OH-groups, but the esterification reaction was substantially faster for HG than NEO. Furthermore, the activation energy of the reaction lowers as solvents’ log-P decreases linearly. Under best conditions, HGL was obtained at gram scale with a simple downstream process. The solubility in n-octanol increased with each biocatalytic step (NEO˂HG˂HGL), reaching a difference of 2 orders when comparing HGL with its parent molecules. This dramatic change in hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance opens many possibilities to use the product in lipophilic media as an active agent in functional foods, therapeutic and cosmetic industries.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-11-15T00:28:56Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.bcab.2017.10.015
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