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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.479
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 4  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Online) 1878-8181
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Tannases: Production, Properties, Applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Amitabh Aharwar, Dharmendra Kumar Parihar Microbial tannases are industrially important enzymes belong to the family of esterases which catalyze the generation of gallic acid and glucose by the degradation of polyphenolic compounds such as tannins. In spite of wastewater treatment and gallic acid production, tannases have wide application in the processing of food, beverage and animal feed. For tannase production, tannins containing low-value agro-industrial wastes are being extensively used in industries. Downstream processing of tannase through conventional methods is cheaper, but have lower purification fold of tannase, whereas advanced methods like ion exchange and size exclusion chromatography provide high purification. Tannases have a vast molecular weight range 31–310 kDa, furthermore, they have much stability to work in broad ranges of pH (3–10) and temperature (30–70 °C). An overview of production, downstream processing, properties, applications and recent advances of tannase is discussed in this review.
       
  • Isolation, Identification and Extraction of antimicrobial compounds
           produced by Streptomyces sps from terrestrial soil
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S. Usha Nandhini, S. Sudha, Anusha Jeslin V, Manisha S The main objective of the present study was to find the antimicrobial compounds from terrestrial Strptomyces sps. Streptomycetes strains were isolated from terrestrial soil and subjected to primary screened by cross streak method against some pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative test bacteria and fungi. Streptomycetes of which one isolate showing broad spectrum of antimicrobial was characterized on the basis of their morphological and physiological properties. The antimicrobial substances were extracted from active isolates and inoculated in ISP2 broth were fermented for 7 days at 28 °C by ethyl acetate extraction method. The active crude compounds were subjected to secondary screening by agar well diffusion method to confirm activity against same pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The crude compounds were purified by Thin layer chromatography (TLC). The bioactive region was detected on the TLC plate and calculated Rf value. Two bands were detected and each band tested for agar well diffusion method for antimicrobial activity. The characterization of the bioactive compounds was further determined by using UV-visible spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS techniques. These potent isolates from terrestrial soil could be an interesting source for pharmaceutical industries to explore antibacterial and antifungal compounds.
       
  • Traditional fermented fish harbors bacteria with potent probiotic and
           anticancer properties
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Sambanduram Samarjit Singh, Surajit De Mandal, Vabeiryureilai Mathipi, Souvik Ghatak, Nachimuthu Senthil Kumar Utonga-kupsu is a fermented fish product produced by the indigenous Manipuri people (Meetei) living in the North-Eastern part of India. The aim of the present study was to isolate, identify and characterize the probiotic bacteria present in these fermented food using tolerance test; antimicrobial activity; and anticancer activity. Six potential probiotic bacterial strains were identified belonging to Staphylococcus piscifermentans, S. condimenti, S. carnosus and unknown Staphylococcus. The isolates UK12 and UK3, identified as S. piscifermentans and Staphylococcus spp. possessed highest tolerance to gastric juice, bile salts and phenol whereas UK2, UK10, UK12, UK20, and UK25 possessed good antimicrobial activity against the three bacterial pathogens tested. The crude protein of the three isolates UK3, UK10 and UK12 showed high cytotoxic activity against cancer cell lines (HeLa and HT-29) but no activity against normal lung cell L-132. Presence of such type of microorganisms might be responsible for the possible potential source of probiotics in this fermented food.
       
  • Purification and biochemical characterization of peroxidase isoenzymes
           from Ficus carica latex
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Alshaimaa M. Elsayed, Usama M. Hegazy, Marwa G.A. Hegazy, Somia S. Abdel-Ghany, Walaa H. Salama, Ahmed M.H. Salem, Afaf S. Fahmy Three peroxidase isoenzymes were isolated from Ficus carica latex using CM-Sepharose, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephacryl S-200. The complete purification was carried out for FP1 only due to the low level of activity and protein concentration of FP2 and FP3. The purified isoenzyme FP1 was found to be monomeric with a molecular weight of 30 kDa. FP1 and FP3 isoenzymes had the same pH and temperature optima at pH 5.5 and 40 °C, whereas the optimum values of pH and temperature were at pH 7.0 and 30 °C for FP2. On the other hand, FP1, FP2 and FP3 were stable at 50 °C, 40 °C and 30 °C respectively, whereas FP3 had low thermostability. FP1 isoenzyme was found to be stable between pH 5.0 and 7.5, and FP2 was stable from pH 4.0 to 8.0, while FP3 was found to be stable in acidic range between pH 4.5 and pH 5.5. The activity of both FP1 and FP2 peroxidase isoenzymes was increased by the high concentration of Ca2+ (10 mM). The three peroxidase isoenzymes have a broad specificity towards some phenolic substrates and O -Phenylenediamine showed higher affinity towards the three peroxidase isoenzymes, with Km values of 3.87, 3.64 and 3.33 mM for FP1, FP2 and FP3. The properties of these isoenzymes meet the prerequisites needed for environmental and industrial applications.
       
  • Antimicrobial and larvicidal activity of eco-friendly silver nanoparticles
           synthesized from endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambaris
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Prabu Kumar Seetharaman, Rajkuberan Chandrasekaran, Sathishkumar Gnanasekar, Gobinath chandrakasan, Mahendra gupta, Dinesh Babu, Sivaramakrishnan Sivaperumal In the quest for developing a biological-based nanomaterial for therapeutic applications, here we report a novel benign method of silver nanoparticles synthesized using the endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambaris strain SA1 (SAAgNPs). A viable method was developed to generate silver nanoparticles by reacting with silver nitrate and an extracellular filtrate of P.liquidambaris as a reducing and stabilizing agent. After formation of brown color, synthesized SAAgNPs was measured for its Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) which produces an intense absorption spectrum at 430 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) revealed the functional group moieties involved as a capping and reducing agent in SAAgNPs synthesis. Stable, spherical and polydispersed nanoparticles with an average size of 18.7 nm were affirmed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM). X-ray Diffraction study showed the diffraction peaks corresponds to (111), (200), (220) and (311) planes resembling cubic crystalline in nature. Energy dispersive analysis (EDAX) identifies the silver as a major compositional element. Moreover, SAAgNPs performed better growth inhibitory activity against the tested pathogens. Further, SAAgNPs arrest the growth of IInd and IVth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus in a dose-dependent method. Finally, SAAgNPs exhibited very low hemolytic activity; suggesting the biocompatibility and feasibility of SAAgNPs as a therapeutic agent. Thus, the study bestowed the isolation of endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambaris and its mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Further, SAAgNPs proved its efficacy as an effective antimicrobial and mosquitocidal agent.
       
  • Biotechnology of oil palm: current status of oil palm genetic
           transformation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Mat Yunus Abdul Masani, Abang Masli Dayang Izawati, Omar Abdul Rasid, Ghulam Kadir Ahmad Parveez Oil palm is the most productive vegetable oil in the world for human consumptions and industrial applications. Increasing demands of palm oil over the years have led the research interests to improve yield and oil quality through breeding approach. Concurrently, genetic transformation has been identified as the alternative method to accelerate the breeding and also to produce high-value traits that are almost impossible to obtain through breeding. During the last 25 years, significant progress has been made in oil palm genetic transformation, particularly in the development of transformation methods such as particle bombardment and Agrobacterium-mediated method. In parallel, various tissues have also been examined to identify the best target material for transformation, particularly tissue with high regenerability. Similarly, various selection systems have been developed for efficient selection of transformed cells. Transformation vectors for most target traits for oil palm improvements also have been constructed. This review provides the recent major advances and new directions that could be applied in oil palm genetic transformation.
       
  • A case study on asymmetrical texture features comparison of breast
           thermogram and mammogram in normal and breast cancer subject
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S.P. Kirubha Angeline, M. Anburajan, B. Venkataraman, M. Menaka AimThermography is noninvasive, nonhazardous radiation free imaging modality. It can be used as a screening tool, if proven the prediction of breast tumor well before. This study attempts a comparison of segmentation of mass region and asymmetrical analysis from mammogram and breast thermogram for the diagnosis of breast cancer.MethodsAbnormal breast mass region was segmented by K-means clustering from breast thermogram and multimodal segmentation from mammogram. Statistical GLCM and RLM features were extracted from the segmented mass region and from normal region for finding out difference. Analysis of asymmetrical skin surface temperature (SST) profile was performed using gray and color histograms.ResultsThe maximum temperature difference between the right and left side of the regions in breast cancer thermogram was found to be 1.1 °C whereas it was less than 0.2 in normal case. Mean, variance and Kurtosis shows higher values in the cancerous region than normal region of breast thermogram. Asymmetrical pattern between right and left breast region was found in color and gray scale histograms. Abnormal mass was identified by locating the hot region in SST profiles by K-means clustering.ConclusionK-means clustering of color thermogram may be helpful for the location of abnormal mass region and the location was confirmed by the segmented mass from mammogram.
       
  • Biorefining of wheat bran for the purification of ferulic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Nishant Gopalan, K. Madhavan Nampoothiri Feruloyl esterase, a versatile enzyme has been used for extracting an abundant phenolic acid, viz, ferulic acid (FA) from destarched wheat bran. The study probes into the dependency of various parameters including enzyme loading, reaction time, pH andtemperature on the extracted amount of ferulic acid. Statistical optimization of the process improved the extraction yield by 2.5 times and obtained a maximum of 34.6% of total alkali releasable ferulic acid was extractedand when the process is scaled up in a packed column reactor, it was able to extract 32.5% within12 h. The study has also focused on finding a good adsorbent for the purification of ferulic acid, which ended up in the use of AMBERLITE XAD4 resin owing to its capacity of binding 49.9 mg FA /g resin and obtained an impressive 99.5% recovery using methanol as an eluent.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • In vitro conservation strategies for the Indian willow (Salix tetrasperma
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Md. Imran Khan, Naseem Ahmad, Mohammad Anis, Abdulrahman A. Alatar, Mohammad Faisal Non-embryogenic, synthetic seeds were produced by encapsulating nodal segments (containing axillary buds) of Salix tetrasperma in calcium hydrogel containing Woody Plant medium (WPM). A 3% (w/v) sodium-alginate with 100 mM calcium chloride was found to be optimum concentration for the production of uniform synthetic seeds. The synseeds survived cold storage at 4 °C for a maximum period of 8 weeks. The maximum frequency (71%) of conversion of encapsulated beads into plantlets was achieved on a medium composed of WPM containing 2.5 µM Kinetin (Kin) and 0.5 µM α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) after 4 weeks of culture. Rooting in shootlets was recorded on half strength WPM supplemented with 0.5 µM indole -3- butyric acid (IBA). Plantlets obtained from stored synthetic seeds were hardened, acclimatized and established in field where they grew well without any detectable malformation. The generated RAPD profiles from regenerated plantlets and mother plant were monomorphic which confirms the genetic stability among the clones. The synthetic seed technology could possibly paves the way for short term storage, germplasm conservation exchange for improvement and an alternative clonal propagation method for elite genotypes of Indian willow.
       
  • Susceptibility of Streptococcus suis to liamocins from Aureobasidium
           pullulans
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Kenneth M. Bischoff, Susan L. Brockmeier, Christopher D. Skory, Timothy D. Leathers, Neil P.J. Price, Pennapa Manitchotpisit, Joseph O. Rich Streptococcus suis is a major pathogen of swine that is also considered an emerging zoonotic pathogen of humans. Because of increasing antibiotic resistance in S. suis, new antimicrobial agents are being sought. Liamocins are unique polyol lipids produced by certain strains of the fungus Aureobasidium pullulans. Liamocins recently have been found to have antibacterial activity with specificity for Streptococcus species. However, liamocins have not previously been tested for inhibition of S. suis. Ten strains of S. suis isolated from domestic pigs were tested for susceptibility to liamocins by the broth microdilution method. All 10 were susceptible, with MICs ranging from 39–78 μg/ml. Viability assays using the LIVE/DEAD BacLight Bacterial Viability Kit indicated that liamocins are bactericidal to S. suis. Cell-leakage assays showed that cells treated with liamocins leaked small molecular mass nucleic acids into the extracellular matrix, suggesting that liamocins act via disruption of the cell membrane. Liamocins thus show potential for development as a specific antibacterial to reduce colonization of S. suis in swine.
       
  • Inoculation of siderophore producing rhizobacteria and their consortium
           for growth enhancement of wheat plant
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Pankaj Kumar, Sachin Thakur, G.K. Dhingra, Abha Singh, Manoj Kumar Pal, Kumar Harshvardhan, R.C. Dubey, D.K. Maheshwari This experiment has been designed to assess the effects of consortium and individual strain on growth promotion, biocontrol and nutrient uptake by wheat growing in Punjab. Fifteen rhizobacteria were isolated from rhizospheric soil of farmer's field of Punjab. Based on their ability to produce siderophore and strongly inhibition of phytopathogen (Fusarium solani), three potential plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (Aneurinibacillus aneurinilyticus WBC1, Aeromonas sp. WBC4 and Pseudomonas sp. WBC10) have been identified on the basis of phenotypic and genotypic (16S rRNA gene sequencing) characters. These three rhizobacteria are best in siderophore production and antagonistic property against F. solani. Consortium (WBC1+ WBC4+ WBC10) of three rhizobacteria significantly increased germination, root and shoot length and fresh and dry weight of wheat plant compared to single inoculation of any rhizobacteria and uninoculated control. It has been suggested that this consortium could be used for production of an effective bioinoculant for eco-friendly and sustainable production of wheat and other crops of Punjab. Consequently, we suggest to the farmers of Punjab to use this type of bioinoculants by replacing detrimental chemical fertilizers and pesticides (one of the leading cause of cancer in Punjab) and could regain their natural agro-ecosystem environment and again can be breadbasket of India. Indirectly the state of Punjab can be free from stigma of cancer state of India.
       
  • Ethanol tolerant endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger isolated from wine
           fermentation cellar
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Dong sheng Xue, Xuhao Zeng, Dongqiang Lin, Shanjing Yao The endoglucanase from Aspergillus niger isolated from a wine fermentation cellar was ethanol tolerant. Optimum pH and temperature of the endoglucanase activity was 5.0 and 60 °C. The endoglcuanase activity in 8% ethanol solution was higher than that in ethanol-free solution. Melting point temperature of the endoglucanase in 8% ethanol solution was 1.9 °C higher (40.0 °C) than that in ethanol-free solution (37.1 °C). At 45–60 °C, Gbbs free energe, ΔG, in 8% ethanol solution was higher than that in ethanol-free solution. The α-helix content increased in 8% ethanol solution. The increasing of α-helix content led to higher activity and better thermostability in high concentration ethanol solution. The acidic, thermostable and ethanol tolerant endoglucanase was valuable for bioethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.
       
  • A cold tolerant lipase develops enhanced activity, thermal tolerance and
           solvent stability in the presence of calcium nanoparticles: An alternative
           approach to genetic modulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Aniket Das, Krishanu Chakrabarti An extracellular cold active lipase producing bacterium was isolated from soil. It was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa KC1 strain (GenBank accession number KT334371). There are no previous reports on purification of cold active lipase protein from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The lipase of molecular weight 54 kDa was purified to 33 fold with 8% recovery. The enzyme was active within the range 10–40 °C with maximum activity at 15 °C; pH 7.0–8.5 with 4-nitrophenyl butyrate substrate. Substrate utilization by lipase showed better affinity for short chain fatty acid esters. The enzyme activity was enhanced by Ca2+, Ba2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+; inhibited by Hg2 +, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Co2+. Nano-calcium enabled KC1 lipase (NP-lip) showed enhanced activity for both short and long chain fatty acid esters (NP: 8.8 µg/mL) compared to CaCl2 (1 mM). The activity of the NP-lip system increased 72% at 15 °C and 7 fold at 55 °C while retaining activity for 4 h. Lowering of Km (55% at 15 °C; 45% at 55 °C) and increased Vmax (7 fold at 15 °C; 3.5 fold at 55 °C) was observed for NP-lip system. Heat deactivation kinetics for NP-lip showed drastic improvement in half-life at higher temperatures and entropy-enthalpy compensation. Furthermore the NP-lip system was stable in organic solvents and was effective in the esterification of butyl butyrate and trans-esterification of sunflower oil in n-hexane. This remarkable simultaneous enhancement of activity, temperature and organic solvent tolerance of the NP-lip has potential for industrial usage.
       
  • Cytotoxic and antibacterial activities of biologically synthesized gold
           nanoparticles assisted by Micrococcus yunnanensis strain J2
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Mandana Jafari, Farrokh Rokhbakhsh-Zamin, Mojtaba Shakibaie, Mohammad Hasan Moshafi, Atefeh Ameri, Hamid Reza Rahimi, Hamid Forootanfar In the present study the capability of Micrococcus yunnanensis J2 (isolated from Sarcheshme mine soil samples and identified by 16S rDNA sequencing) for biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) was evaluated. The produced biogenic Au NPs were characterized using UV–visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) methods. The related TEM and SEM images of biogenic Au NPs indicated spherical shaped and well dispersed nanostructures with the average particle size of 53.8 nm. Zeta potential analysis of as-synthesized Au NPs showed a peak at − 17.6 ± 1.8 mV. The XRD profile of the biogenic Au NPs contained five peaks positioned at 2θ of 38.2°, 45.8°, 63.7°, 77.6°, and 82.1° due to (111), (200), (220), (311), and (222) lattice planes, respectively, which clearly indicated the crystalline structure of the obtained Au NPs. Cytotoxic activity of biologically synthesized Au NPs (assisted by MTT-based colorimetric assay) revealed IC50 (µg/mL) of 73.6 ± 1.9, 85.6 ± 2.9, 63.5 ± 2.1, 65.2 ± 1.9, 105.3 ± 1.7, and 88.4 ± 2.1 against six cancer cell lines of U87, HT1080, PC12, Caco2, MCF7, and A549, respectively. However, two normal cells of 3T3 and Vero inhibited by 85% in the presence of 500 µg/mL of the biogenic Au NPs. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of the produced Au NPs and Au3+ ions against three Gram-positive and four Gram-negative bacterial strains exhibited lower inhibitory activity of Au NPs compared to that of Au3+ ions.Graphical abstracta) mine soil samples were taken and screened for Au NPs producing bacterial isolate as observed on b) nutrient agar plate and c) scanning electron microscope (SEM). The selected isolate was cultivated and the culture broth was mixed by HAuCl4 (different concentration of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 mM) d) to synthesized Au NPs. e) Transmission electron micrograph and f) SEM image of the biogenic Au NPs were then prepared.fx1
       
  • Total phenolic, flavonoid contents and free radical scavenging capacity of
           extracts from tubers of Stachys affinis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Huifang Guo, Kandasamy Saravanakumar, Myeong-Hyeon Wang We extracted the metabolites from Stachys affinis tubers (SAT) using the 70% of ethanol followed by the extracts were concentrated using the rotary evaporator and then it were fractionated as n-hexane fraction (NHF), dichloromethane fraction (DCMF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF), n-butanol fraction (NBF) and water fraction (WF). Afterward, the antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated. Among fractions, the highest antioxidant activity including 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, reducing power, metal-chelating activity and total antioxidant activity were exhibited in EAF and lowest in NHF. Moreover, the nitrite scavenging activity was found the minimum in WE whereas maximum in EAF. The biochemical content of phenol (587.33 ± 4.18 mg TAE/g) and flavonoid (60.00 ± 0.58 mg QE/g) was exhibited higher in EAF than the other extracted were tested. Overall the present results indicated that higher concentration of the phenol and flavonoid from the EAF might be increased the antioxidant activity and further studies deserve to identify the compound specificity on the enhanced antioxidant activity of EAF.
       
  • Effect of compound isolated from Lawsonia inermis (L.) (Myrtales:
           Lythraceae) on the immature stages of filarial vector Culex
           quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae) and its docking analysis with
           Acetylcholinesterase (AChE1)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Sylvester Darvin Sandhanam, Pathalam Ganesan, Antony Stalin, Gabriel Paulraj Michael, Kedike Balakrishna, Perumal Pandikumar, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu, Abdullah Al-Dhabi Naif The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mosquito larvicidal activity of lawsone isolated from Lawsonia inermis (L). The larvae were exposed to four different concentrations of lawsone (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 ppm). After 24 h and 120 h post treatment the larval mortality and ovicidal activity were recorded. However, Lawsone shows significant larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus with LC50 and LC90 values of 0.72 and 5.04 ppm along with 84% of ovicidal activity at 2 ppm concentration. Histopathological study revealed that serious damage on the larval midgut cells. Lawsone showed no harmful effect on the tested organism Poecilia reticulata. Lawsone was highly active and inhibited AChE in a concentration dependent manner. Lawsone presented highest inhibition against AChE extracted from Cx. quinquefasciatus with IC50 of 0.69 μg/mL. The chemical structure of lawsone was identified based on spectroscopic analysis and literature spectral data. Insect-specific cysteine residues of AChE1 inhibitors will not interact with AChE1 of other organisms. Computational analysis showed that lawsone made strong binding interaction with cysteine residue in the AChE1 of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Hence, these results suggested that lawsone might act as a mosquito specific AChE1 inhibitor.
       
  • Antioxidant, antimicrobial and antibiotic resistance modifying effect of
           Heliotropium indicum
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Parvaze Ahmad Wani, Arowolo Mojisola Tolu, Shazia Wahid The present study is based on the determination of phytochemical, antimicrobial, anti-oxidant and antibiotic resistance modifying activities of soil grown Heliotropium indicum. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of Tannin, Oxalate, Phytate, Terpenoids, Trypsin inhibitors, Phenol, Carotenoids, Carotene, Xanthophyll, Flavonoid, Saponin, and Alkaloids. Acetone extracts by paper disc and open well method showed highest antimicrobial activity against different pathogens which was followed by ethanol extract. Lowest MIC was also shown by acetone, followed by ethanol. Fractional inhibitory concentration was also determined, in which acetone and ethanol generally showed synergistic effect compared to aqueous extract which showed mostly additive effect. As the concentration of the plant extract increased, antioxidant activity also increased. Acetone was able to show highest activity of antioxidants compared to other solvents. Based on the above facts, it is concluded that the extract can be used as an antimicrobial, antioxidant and antibiotic resistance modifying agent.
       
  • Biosynthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper oxide
           nanoparticles (CuO NPs) from actinomycetes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Mohammed Ishaque Nabila, Krishnan Kannabiran The aim of the present study was actinomycetes mediated biosynthesis of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs) and evaluation of its antibacterial activity against selected human and fish pathogens. The biosynthesized CuO NPs were characterized by UV–Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The presence of capping agents over the metal nanoparticles was confirmed by Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The crystalline nature of the CuO NPs was illustrated by X- Ray diffractometer (XRD). The average size of the biosynthesized CuO NPs from XRD and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was 61.7 nm. The XRD and Energy Dispersive X-Ray spectroscopy (EDX) suggests the purity of the biosynthesized CuO NPs. The morphology and size was viewed under Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) results provided the zeta potential of − 31.1 mV which further confirmed the stability of the CuO NPs. The biosynthesized CuO NPs showed higher antibacterial activity (zone of inhibition) against various human and fish bacterial pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis, Edwardsiella tarda, Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio anguillarum). The antibacterial activity of CuO NPs was significantly higher than the activity exhibited by cell free supernatant of actinomycetes. Among the pathogens tested B. cereus was more susceptible (25.3 mm) to biosynthesized CuO NPs. The antibacterial activity exhibited by the actinomycetes mediated biosynthesized CuO NPs suggests that it can combat both human as well as fish bacterial pathogens. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on actinomycetes mediated biosynthesis of CuO NPs.
       
  • Promising biocontrol agents isolated from medicinal plants rhizosphere
           against root-rot fungi
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Moustafa M. Zohair, Ahmed A. El-Beih, Mahmoud W. Sadik, Eman R. Hamed, Mohamed Z. Sedik Among of the collection of 104 fungal isolates from the rhizosphere of the medicinal plants basil (Ocimum basilicum), peppermint (Mentha piperita) and (Aloe vera), 59 of them were assessed for in vitro antagonistic activity against phytopathogenic fungi; Fusarium solani, Rhizocotina solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Verticillium dahliae. The most active antagonistic isolates were identified using molecular tools based on 18S rDNA. The sequence data of Aspergillus pseudocaelatus and Trichoderma gamsii have been submitted to GenBank given the accession no. MG772677 & KX685665, respectively. The antagonistic mechanisms were evaluated using confrontation method and scanning electron microscopy. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed using GC/MS. Biological investigation on the ethyl acetate extract of A. pseudocaelatus MG772677 and T. gamsii KX685665 isolates was evaluated. The greenhouse application with the selected isolates on basil seedlings was performed. In vitro antagonistic results indicated that the highest percentage of inhibition was observed with A. pseudocaelatus, 77.90% and T. gamsii, 77.98%. The average emergence rate in the treatments with T. gamsii and A. pseudocaelatus reached up to 100%, much more than that in the control (average 40%). The results indicated that A. pseudocaelatus MG772677 and T. gamsii KX685665, displayed antagonistic activities against the pathogenic fungi and presented appreciable biocontrol efficacy. Also the two isolates could enhance the plant growth and improve the seedlings’ emergence.
       
  • Laccase-based synthesis of SIC-RED: A new dyeing product for protein gel
           staining
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Valerio Guido Giacobelli, Cinzia Pezzella, Giovanni Sannia, Giuseppe Olivieri, Carolina Fontanarosa, Angela Amoresano, Alessandra Piscitelli In the last years, laccases have become leading biocatalysts in green bioprocesses for dye synthesis. Among fungal laccases, the high-redox potential laccase POXA1b from Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable candidate since it brings together several key-elements: stability and activity in a wide range of pHs and temperatures and the availability of a cost-effective bioprocess for its production. In this work POXA1b catalyzed the coupling of a p-phenylenediamine and α-naphtol, resulting in the production of a new dyeing product, named SIC-RED. The dye was structurally characterized and its performances in protein gel staining tested. The economic feasibility of the process was demonstrated in the case of an Italian small medium enterprise. The results let envisage a real exploitation of the herein enzymatically synthesized dye for protein gel staining.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Enzyme-catalyzed production of emollient cetostearyl stearate using
           different immobilized commercial lipases under vacuum system
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Jefferson C.P. Holz, Gabriela N. Pereira, J. Vladimir Oliveira, Lindomar A. Lerin, Débora De Oliveira This work reports the enzymatic esterification of stearic acid and cetostearyl alcohol for the production of cetostearyl stearate, a widely employed substance in the cosmetic and hygiene personal industry as emollient, as it assists in the consistency of beauty products and provides a soft feeling on the skin. The development of this work presents important results for the scientific literature since just a few references on this subject are available. For the maximization of the enzyme-catalyzed process, two immobilized commercial lipases were tested, NS 88011 and Novozym 435, and a study of reaction conditions was carried out, taking into account the catalyst concentration, enzyme catalyst type, reaction time, vacuum influence, process temperature, substrates molar ratio and agitation. Through the experimental design, the optimum reaction condition was determined as 75 °C, 1:1.5 acid to alcohol molar ratio, 600 mmHg vacuum and 760 rpm agitation. For such condition, high conversion values (99%) were obtained. The quality of the final product was characterized by the acidity index (0.6 mg KOH g−1), iodine index (0% of iodine absorbed/g of sample), hydroxyl index (17.06 mg KOH.g−1), saponification index (133.68 mg KOH g−1) and color analysis.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Use of wheat straw biomass in production of L-lactic acid applying
           biocatalysis and combined lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the
           genus Lactobacillus
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Dalia Cizeikiene, Grazina Juodeikiene, Jonas Damasius The aim of the study was to investigate the usability of wheat straw in the production of L-lactic acid via fermentation applying by newly isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus and its combinations. Biotreatment of wheat straw was carried out through a three-step procedure consisting of: (i) physical pre-treatment, (ii) enzymatic hydrolysis and (iii) fermentation with LAB strains under laboratory conditions. Lactic acid production, residual sugar, cell biomass, pH medium and the influence of ions such as magnesium, calcium and sodium on efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straw were the main features examined. Moreover, optimal parameters for enzymatic hydrolysis were selected. Increased lactic acid production was observed, when mixed LAB cultures were used in comparison to individual ones. The results confirmed that tested wheat straw could be used for lactic acid and L-lactic acid production using selected enzymes and combined LAB strains.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry:
           Production of lipase in solid state fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Rachana Jain, S.N. Naik Riccinus communis (castor) seed cake is a by-product generated after oil extraction from the seed. This deoiled seed cake contains a toxic protein ricin that restricts its application in livestock feed. In the present study, solid-state fermentation (SSF) was used to value addition in castor de-oiled cake (CDOC). It was used as a substrate for the production of lipase under SSF using different fungal species. Initially, seven fungal strains were grown on CDOC and out of seven, only four are able to grow on it. From these four strains, only two Aspergillus oryzae (NCIM 1212) and Aspergillus japonicas (MTCC no. 1975) were observed to produce lipase. The effect of different physical parameter viz., moisture content, pH and incubation time on lipase production were also determined. The maximum lipase yield was determined to be 25 U/gm. Maximum enzyme production was observed at 6th day of incubation. The optimum condition for the lipase production was pH 7.0, moisture content 100%. From these results, it can be concluded that CDOC could be a good and cheap substrate for lipase production through SSF.
       
  • Impact of a carbon source and stress conditions on some properties of
           xanthan gum produced by Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Renata A. Trindade, Adriel P. Munhoz, Carlos A.V. Burkert The main goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of using crude glycerol (CG) for either total or partial replacement of sucrose (S) as a carbon source in the cultivation of Xanthomonas campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae IBSBF 1230. It also investigated the effects of alkali stress on the production and some rheological, thermal and emulsifying properties of xanthan gum. X. campestris pv. mangiferaeindicae IBSBF 1230 grew and produced xanthan in the presence of the impurities of CG. Alkali stress increased xanthan gum production by 133.80%, 73.69% and 164.86% when S, CG and a mixture of both (SCG), respectively, were used. The rheological behavior was similar to xanthan produced with different carbon sources. However, initial viscosity was higher with S (637 cP), followed by SCG (279 cP) and CG (60 cP). The lowest values were obtained with gum recovery following the alkali stress. Emulsification indexes of almost all vegetable oils were higher when the gum produced after the alkali stress was used. As the DSC curves showed different profiles, changes may have occurred in the structure of the polysaccharide due to changes in the carbon source and cultivation.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Glycoside hydrolases from a thermophilic microbial consortium and their
           implication in the saccharification of agroresidues
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Khusboo Lepcha, Shilpi Ghosh This study investigates the potential of a thermophilic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium to act as a repository of different Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) for saccharification of agroresidues. An active thermophilic lignocellulolytic microbial consortium (TWC) was bred at 60 °C from forest soil using destarched wheat bran as the sole carbon source. TWC was screened for production of extracellular GHs at various pH and temperatures for four days. The consortium produced several extracellular GHs, such as endoglucanase, exoglucanase, β-glucosidase, endoxylanase and β-xylosidase with enhanced activity at 60 °C (as compared with 37 °C) and pH 5 − 6 at 48 h of incubation. Zymogram analysis also indicated the presence of multiple xylanase and β-glucosidase activities at 48 h of incubation. The extracellular cellulolytic enzyme cocktail (CEC) obtained from TWC was implicated in the saccharification of heat treated agro-residues. Among seven agroresidues tested, wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse were efficiently saccharified by the CEC with continued release of reducing sugars till 72 h of incubation at 60 °C. Release of reducing sugars from destarched wheat bran pretreated with moist heat was 359 mg g−1 of non-starch polysaccharides, which was about two fold greater in comparison to that released from untreated wheat bran (181 mg g−1). The production of thermophilic GHs by the microbial consortium seems promising and thus establishes their potential for application in industrial saccharification where thermotolerant enzymes are required.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Biodelignification of some agro-residues by Stenotrophomonas sp. CFB-09
           and enhanced production of ligninolytic enzymes
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Folasade M. Olajuyigbe, Cornelius O. Fatokun, Oluwadara M. Oyelere Biological delignification is an environmental friendly pretreatment method for enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass and fermentation processes. In an attempt to optimize delignification process which is crucial for effective biofuel production from agro-residues, this study investigated biodelignification of some agro-residues (coconut shell {CS}, coconut husk {CH}, palm kernel shell {PKS}, oil palm empty fruit bunch {OPEFB} and sawdust {SD}) by Stenotrophomonas sp. CFB-09 under submerged fermentation conditions. Initial lignin and residual lignin contents of each agro-residue were determined at the beginning and end of 216 h biodelignification period. Production of ligninolytic enzymes was monitored at 12 h intervals. Effects of nitrogen sources, temperature and pH on production of ligninolytic enzymes were determined over the biodegradation period. Remarkably, biodelignification of the agro-residues was in the range of 41–55%. Laccase had highest yield (31 U/mg) on CH, PKS and OPEFB. Lignin peroxidase production (381 U/mg) was maximum on OPEFB, and manganese peroxidase had highest yield (53 U/mg) on PKS. Surprisingly, there was appreciable production of ligninolytic enzymes at higher temperatures of biodegradation with 40–55% yield at 80 °C. Maximum enzyme production was achieved at 40 °C, pH 8.0 with ammonium nitrate as nitrogen source. Results provide deeper insights into biodelignification of agro-residues and demonstrate potential of Stenotrophomonas sp. CFB-09 for use in biodegradation of agro-residues, especially in pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomasses for production of biofuel and other value-added products.
       
  • Phytochemical composition, in vitro antioxidant, antibacterial potential
           and GC-MS analysis of red seaweeds (Gracilaria corticata and Gracilaria
           edulis) from Palk Bay, India
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Abimannan Arulkumar, Thomas Rosemary, Sadayan Paramasivam, Ramaswamy Babu Rajendran Increasing of resistance pathogenic microorganisms to majority of antibiotics, there is an urgent need for exploring plant based drugs and bioactive compounds with least side effects. The study was aimed to determine the level of phytochemicals, antioxidant, antibacterial properties of the edible red seaweeds, Gracilaria corticata and G. edulis. The extraction with methanol yielded 7.10 ± 0.16 and 6.39 ± 0.16% extracts from G. corticata and G. edulis respectively. The G. corticata possess higher total phenol content (4.00 ± 0.35 mg GAE/g) compare to G. edulis (3.4 ± 0.21 mg GAE/g). G. corticata and G. edulis extracts significantly varied in total flavonoid content i.e 3.33 ± 0.12 and 2.6 ± 0.08 mg CE/g DW respectively. In this investigation, G. edulis presented the highest 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity (23.95%) when compare to G. corticata (20.32%). G. edulis showed significantly higher 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activity (40.24%) compare to G. corticata (32.65%). In addition, G. corticata exhibited higher nitric oxide (NO*) radical scavenging activity (36.78%) than G. edulis 35.25%. Antimicrobial properties of 70% methanol and DMSO extracts were found effective against Bacillus subtilis. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of phytochemical compounds including sulfurous acid, 2-ethylhexyl isohexyl ester, pentatriacontane, eugenol and phthalic acid played a vital role in antioxidant and antibacterial activities.
       
  • Biosorption of low concentration levels of Lead (II) and Cadmium (II) from
           aqueous solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Response surface methodology
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Mohammad Rasoul Hadiani, Kianoush Khosravi Darani, Nahid Rahimifard, Habibollah Younesi The present study refers to application of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for bioremoval of very low amounts of heavy metals from aqueous media. The impact of process variables on biosorption of lead (II) and cadmium (II) by S. cerevisiae was first evaluated with Taguchi screening design. After determining of significant variables, optimization of biosorption process was performed by 3 independent parameters (pH, biomass, initial ion concentration) using a central composite design. So, twenty test runs were done and the experimental data fitted to the second-order polynomial models. The analysis of variance of the quadratic models showed that the models are highly significant. The adjusted conditions in the best set was 5, 52.5 µg/l and 32.5 × 107 CFU for pH, heavy metal concentration and biomass, respectively. Behavior of biosorption system in a batch process was analyzed by 3D plots which represented dual simultaneous interaction effects of variables on metal biosorption yield. The model explained that heavy metal biosorption in aqueous solution is affected by all the three factors studied. An optimum lead (II) and cadmium (II) biosorption yield of 70.3% and 76.2% were found at initial ion concentration of 65.0 and 62.6 µg/l, and S. cerevisiae of 15.0 and 15.2 × 107 CFU, respectively. The results suggest that S. cerevisiae, as a natural, low-cost and abundant sorbent, has the potential to be used in biosorption of very low concentrations of lead and cadmium, which is useful to reduce the contaminations of drinking water and foodstuff with green technologies.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Rapid production of extracellular thermostable alkaline halophilic
           protease originating from an extreme haloarchaeon, Halobacterium salinarum
           by recombinant Bacillus subtilis
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Ruangurai Promchai, Auttaporn Boonchalearn, Wonnop Visessanguan, Plearnpis Luxananil Halophilic proteases are extremely useful in harsh environments during industrial manufacturing processes. Production of the enzymes by halophiles has been hampered with their slow growth and complicated purification processes. Here, we developed a rapid method for extremozyme production by recombinant Bacillus subtilis. HProPRW1, a halophilic protease from an extreme haloarchaeon Halobacterium salinarum PRW1, was expressed from a salt-inducible expression system in B. subtilis. Three different signal peptides were evaluated for HProPRW1 secretion, revealing an efficient function of the HProPRW1 native signal peptide in B. subtilis. At optimal conditions, HProPRW1 could be produced within 22 h by recombinant B. subtilis instead of 96 h by wild type. The recombinant enzyme functions most optimally at 60 °C, pH 9% and 12% NaCl. The crude enzyme was stable for at least 1 month at 4 °C. This new protocol can be applied for production of other high-value halophilic enzymes.
       
  • Heterologously expressed carrot Hsp17.7 was denatured by ATP treatment
           under abiotic stress
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Hanseul Park, Joohee Lee, Yeh-Jin Ahn Heat shock proteins (HSPs) play a key role to maintain the solubility of cellular proteins under various stress conditions. Previous studies showed that Hsp17.7 from carrot (Daucus carota L.) increased the amount of soluble proteins under the various stress of heat, lead (Pb), and arsenic (As). We studied the molecular chaperon function of the heterologously expressed Hsp17.7 in E. coli with the supplement of ATP. In the Hsp17.7 expressing cells, the ATP supplement under the stress of heat and Pb decreased the amount of soluble proteins, in which the expression level of carrot Hsp17.7 also decreased. The same ATP supplement under the stresses of As maintained the amount of soluble proteins, in which the expression level of Hsp17.7 was also maintained. Our results suggest that the decreased amount of soluble protein under the stress conditions of heat and Pb could be due to the decreased expression level of Hsp17.7 and the influence of ATP on the stressed Hsp17.7 transformed E. coli depends on the type of stress presented. Heterologously expressed Hsp17.7 was purified by affinity chromatography. Under heat stress, purified Hsp17.7 was stable, mostly remained in a soluble fraction, while citrate synthase, a control model substrate, was denatured into the pellet fraction. The ATP supplement under both normal and heat conditions denatured the Hsp17.7 protein into the pellet fraction. Our results suggest that the decreased molecular chaperone function under heat and Pb stress conditions with the ATP supplement could be due to the instability of Hsp17.7.
       
  • Corn (Zea mays L.) yield and yield components as affected by light
           properties in response to plant parameters and N fertilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Ali Soleymani Light absorption and light extinction can importantly affect crop growth and yield production. Accordingly, two field (split plot) experiments were conducted to investigate: 1) the most optimum plant spacing (S) and density (D), which result in the highest rate of corn yield and yield components as affected by light absorption (L) and extinction (K), 2) the most efficient corn genotype (G) and the most optimum N fertilization rate (N), which effectively increase corn yield and yield components by affecting corn light properties. D and N were devoted to the main plots and S and G were used as the sub treatments. Light absorption was measured using a light meter and the coefficients of light extinction (K) were calculated. D, N and G as well as their interactions were the most effective factors on corn light properties, growth and yield. The crop density of 10–12 significantly affected corn growth and yield production. D12 resulted in the highest LAI (4.40), L (16.00%), and biological yields (20,623.8 kg/ha). However, the highest K (0.79), grain yield (2398.8 kg/ha), and harvest index (14.36) were related to D6. Although plant height increased up to S60 (234.8 cm) (P = 0.05), the highest and significantly different LAI was resulted by S50 (4.20). S60 also resulted in the highest L (20.91%). Increasing S also increased K according to the following: S50 (0.69), S60 (0.80), and S75 (0.93). Elevating N significantly increased (P = 0.05) cob length and LAI at N100 (15.39 cm, 6.574) and N150 (15.72 cm, 6.512). The highest L, (28.58%, P = 0.1), K (0.51), biological (16,230.1) and grain (3623 kg/ha) yields as well as harvest index (22.33) were resulted by N100. Genotype SC704 resulted in the highest LAI (6.381), L (22.80%), K (0.49), and grain yield (3501 kg/ha). Although with increasing D, corn leaf area index (LAI) and L increased, K decreased, which may be used as an indicator of light efficiency utilized by crop. Such results indicate that measurement of K is also essential for the proper determination of corn plant response to light. The most optimum N treatment was 100 kg/ha and the most efficient G was SC704. D, N and G are among the most important factors affecting corn light properties, growth and yield, compared with S. It is strongly suggested that such experiments be conducted under different climatic conditions to indicate the significance of the experimental treatments on corn light properties, growth and yield. The results of these experiments can be used for the proper designing of corn plantation resulting in the highest rate of efficiency with respect to the available resources and the present climatic conditions.
       
  • Screening of drought tolerant rice through morpho-physiological and
           biochemical approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Shamsun Nahar, Lingaraj Sahoo, Bhaben Tanti Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses that delimit rice production and yield especially in rainfed ecosystems. To identify the promising drought tolerant rice cultivars, an effort was made in the present study to screen few traditional rice landraces of Assam, India, aimed at investigating effect of low water potential on growth. Seeds of twenty one traditional rice cultivars along with ‘Sahbhagi Dhan’ (tolerant) and ‘IR64’ (sensitive) were subjected to drought stress. Drought was imposed in one week old seedlings by 15% PEG-6000 in Yoshida medium for 7 days followed by 20% PEG-6000 for another 7 days until the drought symptoms appeared. All the experiments were conducted in randomized block design with three replicates. Germination percentage, root length, shoot length, root fresh and dry weight, shoot fresh and dry weight, chlorophyll content and relative water content (RWC) were evaluated after stress treatment. On the basis of Standard Evaluation Score, 8 rice varieties showing high drought tolerability were finally selected for further biochemical analyses. Proline content, lipid peroxidation level and hydrogen peroxide concentration in shoots and roots were investigated. Increase in proline content and decrease in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation implied its protective role in tolerant rice cultivars against drought stress. To identify the drought tolerant rice cultivars, a thorough understanding of the various mechanisms that govern the yield of rice under drought condition is a prerequisite.
       
  • DNA polymorphism analysis of Indian germplasms of Trapa natans
           using RAPD molecular Marker
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Kumari Uma Mahto, Azma Shaheen, Swati Kumari, Indu Shekhar Singh, Nitish Kumar Water Chestnut (Trapa natans) is a starch producing annual hydrophytic plant with potential as a secure food source. Breeding programmes mostly rely on the DNA polymorphism present in the primary gene pool. Knowledge of the genetic structure for the population is limited, and there are very few reports available on the DNA polymorphism of T. natans. In this study, we have screened RAPD based marker to estimate the DNA polymorphism among 14 germplasms of water chestnut. 180 random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker were tested to investigate DNA polymorphism among 14 germplasms of T.natans. Out of 180 RAPD primers, 16 primers gave reproducible bands and are selected for further investigation. A total number of 220 bands were detected, among which 151 bands were polymorphic. The percentage polymorphism varied from 37.5 to 93.75. The average polymorphism across all the fourteen germplasms was found to be 68.63%, while average number of polymorphic band was 9.4. Jaccard's similarity coefficient ranged from 0.45 to 0.93. The analysis of DNA polymorphism is useful for crop improvement and may be helpful for future plant breeders.
       
  • Anticoagulation, fibrinolytic and the cytotoxic activities of sulfated
           hemicellulose extracted from rice straw and husk
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Tamer I.M. Ragab, Hassan Amer, Abdel Tawab Mossa, Mahmoud Emam, A.A. Hasaballah, Wafaa A. Helmy Rice straw and husk are one of the major agricultural wastes in Egypt, which cause problems for farmers. Hemicellulose is considered one of the major components of straw and husk lignocellulosic biomass. The new methods and techniques for hemicellulose extraction from renewable with low cost and their modification to produce a promising value-added hemicellulose derivative are important issues. Therefore, the present study aimed at extracting hemicellulose from Egyptian agriculture wastes rice straw and husk by 4% sodium hydroxide at 90 °C. The extracted hemicellulose was purified by 5% hydrogen peroxide and separated into soluble and insoluble hemicellulose in distilled water. The sulfation process of hemicellulose was done in presence of two different catalysts (N, N-Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC) and 4-Dimethylaminopyridine (DMAP)). Results showed that the sulfated soluble hemicelluloses have the highest degree of sulfation (DS) with low total carbohydrate content. The prepared sulfated hemicellulose using DCC or DMAP showed promising biological activities such as anticoagulation activity at 31.25 µg/mL and fibrinolytic activity lysis more than 80% at 2000 µg/mL compared standard (Hemoclar). These sulfated hemicellulose compounds were practically non-toxic on the VERO cells with LD50 ≥ 5000 mg /Kg.
       
  • Influence of diazotrophic bacteria on nodulation, nitrogen fixation,
           growth promotion and yield traits in five cultivars of chickpea
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Vadlamudi Srinivas, Anilkumar Vemula, Srinivasan Samineni, Abhishek Rathore Three bacteria, IC-59, IC-76A and IC-2002, isolated from the nodules of chickpea, were characterized for nodulation, nitrogen fixation, plant growth-promoting (PGP) and yield traits in five cultivars of chickpea such as BG256, RSG888, Subhra, K850 and ICCV2. All the bacteria produced cellulase, protease, β-1,3-glucanase, indole acetic acid, siderophore, hydro cyanic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase while none produced lipase and chitinase. The 16 S rDNA gene sequences of IC-59, IC-76A and IC-2002 were found to match closely with Rhizobium pusense, Paraburkholderia kururiensis and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, respectively. The three bacteria nodulated all the cultivars of chickpea well, amplified nifH gene and fixed nitrogen. Under greenhouse conditions at 30 and 45 days after sowing, treatment of five cultivars of chickpea with bacterial cultures IC-59, IC-76A and IC-2002, enhanced the nodule number (up to 45%, 38% and 43%), nodule weight (up to 31%, 15% and 39%), shoot weight (11%, 16% and 14%) and root weight (37%, 48% and 62%), respectively, over the un-inoculated control. At crop maturity, IC-59, IC-76A and IC-2002 were found to enhance the shoot weight (16%, 40% and 26%), pod number (37%, 69% and 81%), pod weight (17%, 45% and 49%), seed number (21%, 31% and 39%) and seed weight (14%, 56% and 65%), respectively, over the un-inoculated control. Among the five cultivars, Subhra was found to enhance most of the PGP traits when treated with the three diazotrophic bacteria. It is concluded that the three diazotrophic bacteria could be potentially exploited for improving nodulation, nitrogen fixation, PGP and yields of chickpea.
       
  • Collagen and collagenolytic proteases: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Prashant K. Bhagwat, Padma B. Dandge Despite of having enormous applications, the use of collagen is predominantly limited because of its high cost. Most of the mammalian sources used for its production have major drawbacks. However, compared to mammalian sources, fish waste can be utilized as cost-effective alternative to produce collagen. Around 75% part of fish is discarded as a waste which contains high concentration of collagen. Fish collagen has multiple advantages over mammalian collagen and hence can be a promising alternative for it. Proteases with collagenolytic activities are also of immense importance because of their industrial as well as biological applications. Microbial collagenolytic proteases are gaining huge attention in these days because of their lower requirements and higher productivity. They perform important role in global recycling of collagenous waste. This review gives recent information on collagen and collagenolytic proteases. Here, utilization of seafood by-products is discussed to recover the collagen and its recent applications are summarized. In addition to this, current review also highlights the recent status of collagenases in which present strategies and new technology used for the isolation, screening, production optimization, purification, characterization and applications of microbial collagenases are discussed.
       
  • Identification of a novel hydrogen producing bacteria from sugarcane
           bagasse waste
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): R. Dhanasekar, S. Jonesh A new hydrogen producing strain with potent cellulose degrading ability was isolated from soil sample collected from sugarcane bagasse (SCB) storage yard. Among the colonies screened, the newly identified strain, Bacillus subtilis AuChE413 has shown better performance in terms of hydrogen yield and cellulose degradation. Morphological, physiological, and biochemical traits of the isolated strain were studied. And its molecular characterization was studied by analyzing the sequence of 16S rRNA gene. The sequence of Bacillus subtilis AuChE413 was compared with other GenBank sequences using BLASTn to study its homology with other species. Phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor joining method. The hydrogen production capacity of Bacillus subtilis AUChE413 was tested by employing the pretreated SCB and sweet sorghum stalk biomass (SSB) as substrates. In comparison, the substrate sorghum stalk has produced the highest hydrogen yield of 55.2 l H2 /kg SSB at pH 7 and 37 °C.
       
  • An evaluation of in vitro and in vivo free radical scavenging and
           antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Pergularia daemia
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): G. Sridevi, S. Srividya, K. Sembulingam, Prema Sembulingam Oxidative stress plays a major role in developing chronic, degenerative, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases caused by excessive production of reactive oxygen species. To combat against this oxidative induced free radical generation, many antioxidant compounds have been explored. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of traditional herb, Pergularia daemia (PD) was explored by invitro and invivo methods. The invitro analysis was done by determining the total antioxidant capacity, DPPH, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity and ferric reducing antioxidant capacity using spectrophotometry. Invivo study was done by pre-treating wistar strain albino rats with ethanolic extract of PD and exposing them to acute noise stress using a pure tone noise from a function generator for 45 min for 1 day. The discrete brain regions were dissected and the brain enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, vitamin C and lipid peroxidation were analyzed. Results of invitro analysis revealed that PD extract exhibited a potent antioxidant capacity, scavenged the DPPH, superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and reduced the ferric ions to ferrous form in a dose dependent manner. Animals exposed to acute noise stress for 45 min showed a significant increase in plasma corticosterone and significantly increased the superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase activity and lipid peroxidation in cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and hypothalamus and decreased the reduced glutathione and vitamin C levels in all the four discrete regions of the brain. PD treatment significantly prevented those acute noise stress induced changes and restored it to normal.
       
  • Phytochemical screening, free radical scavenging and antimicrobial
           potential of Chromolaena odorata leaf extracts against pathogenic
           bacterium in wound infections– a multispectrum perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Kavitha Vijayaraghavan, Johanna Rajkumar, Mohamed Ali Seyed The chronic bed ridden patients acquire infections are the main source of alarming morbidity and mortality as their correlation with fomites. Fomites are reservoirs of drug-resistant pathogens found in the unhygienic clinical environment, which can infect patients and leading to high nosocomial infection rates and use of antimicrobial drugs. The use of and search for drugs and dietary supplements derived from plants have accelerated various therapeutic applications and obtaining new antimicrobial agents from natural resources is necessary to develop alternative drugs for safe and cost-effective health care. Hence, the objective of this research was to perform a phytochemical analysis on Chromolaena odorata and to study the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the ethanolic and aqueous extracts of its leaves. In this regard, phytochemicals obtained from C.odorata was investigated for their radical scavenging activity using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of active ingredients such as glycosides, steroids, saponins, phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and tannins were categorized either as primary metabolites, such as chlorophyll, proteins, and amino acids, or as secondary metabolites, which include terpenoids and alkaloids. The ethanolic leaf extract showed a higher antioxidant activity and antibacterial properties than the aqueous extract exhibited. C. odorata leaf extracts of both ethanoloic and aqueous were subjected to an antibacterial study using the agar diffusion method. Our antibacterial results showed that the ethanolic extract could inhibit to a certain extent the growth of various human pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, and Escherichia coli. In summary, the present study highlights the significance of C. odorata leaf extracts for their antioxidant and antibacterial potentials, which explain the traditional use of the plant in animal and human medicine and cost-effective health care.
       
  • Fabrication, characterization and osseointegration of bonegraft
           incorporated with leaf extracts of Ormocarpum Sennoides and biocompatible
           polymers
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): S. Srividya, G. Sridevi, B. Santhosh Kumar, T.P. Sastry Allogenous grafts with excellent biocompatibility and immuno-compatibility play a major role in most of the biomedical applications. In this regard, the present study focuses on fabricating a novel bone graft material containing biopolymers and phytochemicals which can replace the use of autogenous graft with high biocompatibility and osteogenecity. Based on this, a bone graft material was synthesized using biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP), casein (CA), hen egg yolk (EY) and leaf extracts of Ormocarpum sennoides (Os). Two types of bone grafts namely group I (BCP-EY) and II (BCP-CA-Os-EY) were prepared and processed. The processed grafts were subjected to various characterizations like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, and mechanical strength to show its chemical composition, stability and porosity. Further, the osteogenecity of the grafts were analyzed by performing invivo studies using wistar male albino rats. Samples were subjected to biochemical, radiological and histopathological analyses. Among the two grafts, graft II containing Ormocarpum sennoides extract showed excellent osteogenicity both invitro and invivo and hence it can be utilized in various biomedical applications like orthopedics, dental fillings, bone tissue engineering and in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
       
  • Experimental investigation of the suitability of 1-butanol blended with
           biodiesel as an alternative biofuel in diesel engines
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Jeya Jeevahan, G. Sriramanjaneyulu, R.B. Durairaj, G. Mageshwaran Vegetable oils, biodiesels, bio-alcohols and bio-gas are some of the popular biofuels evaluated for their suitability in compression-ignition (CI) engines. Among these, bio-alcohols can be produced from any kinds of biomass through fermentation and biosynthesis and they do not require extra land for cultivation. Therefore, bio-alcohols can be considered as the next generation alternative fuels for automobiles. Investigations have been already initiated to determine the effects of bioalcohols, such as methanol and ethanol, in automobiles as fuel. However, they pose some problems like miscibility, phase separation, low cetane number and low calorific value. On the other side, the effects of higher alcohols, such as butanol, pentanol, octanol, are investigated very rarely. In this work, the effects of higher alcohol addition on the engine performance and emissions characteristics are investigated on a single cylinder diesel engine. Conventional diesel and biodiesel are taken as the reference fuels. 1-Butanol of blends (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50%) was mixed with the remaining biodiesel as the testing fuel blends. Experiments were conducted on a single cylinder compression ignition diesel engine for four load conditions (5 kg, 10 kg, 15 kg and 20 kg) at a constant speed of 1500 rpm. Brake thermal efficiency and emissions of CO, NOx and HC were recorded and discussed. From the experimental results, it is evident that the addition of butanol with biodiesel seems to an alternative fuel that can replace conventional diesel fuel in terms of both engine emissions and performance.
       
  • Comment on “In vivo assessment of possible probiotic properties of
           Bacillus subtilis and prebiotic properties of levan”
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Fereshteh Ansari, Hadi Pourjafar
       
  • Production and purification of xylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus
           licheniformis and its pretreatment of eucalyptus kraft pulp
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Abhay Raj, Sharad Kumar, Sudheer Kumar Singh, Jyoti Prakash Xylanases from bacterial sources have potential applications in various industrial processes. In the present study, the effect of enzymatic pre-treatment on pulp bleaching has been investigated using purified xylanase from alkaliphilic Bacillus licheniformis strain Alk-1. The xylanase produced by present isolate while growing on wheat bran was purified to homogeneity by 5.84-fold purification with ~15.97% recovery by anion exchange chromatography using DEAE-cellulose. The estimated molecular weight of the xylanase was ~46 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for xylanase activity were pH 9.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The enzyme showed good activity retention (80%) after 1 h incubation at 60 °C and pH 9.0. Enzyme activity was stimulated by Ca2+, Fe2+ and Mg2+ and inhibited by Cd2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+ at 2 mM and 10 mM conc. For xylan, the enzyme gave a Km value of 5.26 mg/mL and Vmax value of 433 μM/min/mg proteins when the reaction was carried out at 60 °Cand pH 9.0. Pre-treatment of kraft pulp with xylanase showed 19% reduction in kappa number, compared to control pulp, after 2 h treatment. The SEM and FTIR analysis of xylanase-treated pulp revealed significant morphological and structural changes on pulp fibres. GC-MS analysis of filtrates from control and xylanase-treated pulps showed variation in the presence of different plant-derived organic compounds. The present work finds potential application in paper production by making it cleaner and ecofriendly process.
       
  • Biomethanation efficiency of para-grass in piggery wastewater in single
           stage and temperature phased anaerobic systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Kanyarat Saritpongteeraka, Sumeth Dechrugsa, Duangporn Kantachote, Wen-Hsing Chen, Sumate Chaiprapat Effects of para-grass (PG) addition to pig manure (PM) digester were evaluated at organic loadings 0.10–3.76 gVS/L.d by different PG mixing ratios 0–8% in mesophilic single-stage (MS) and temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD, comprising T1 and M2 reactors) systems. Results showed equivalent methane production between MS and TPAD until 4%PG mix. Highest biogas yields obtained were 271.7 and 264.0 m3/tondry for MS and TPAD, respectively. Even with intense VFAs accumulation, the acidification yield in T1 was less than M2 because of continuous conversion of VFAs to CH4. Only at higher loading (8%PG), reactor staging by temperature was justified for this co-digestion as TPAD exhibited a superior performance and lesser mass transfer impediment. Para-grass addition to PM digester shifted the domination of bacterial strains whereas achaea were steady. Higher microbial diversity and some evolving hydrolytic bacteria observed in T1 could contribute to greater system stability at high solid loading. An addition of small front-end thermophilic tank should be considered when expansion of the existing MS system is planned to process higher solid.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Decolorization of synthetic dyes by free and immobilized laccases from
           newly isolated strain Brevibacterium halotolerans N11 (KY883983)
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Fifi M. Reda, Noha S. Hassan, Abdel-Nasser El-Moghazy Extracellular laccase produced from a novel soil bacterium Brevibacterium halotolerans N11 (KY883983) was purified with molecular weight of 55 kDa. Different carriers such as Ca-alginate, agarose-agar, agar-agar, alginate-gelatin mixed gel and polyacrylamide gel were utilized for laccase immobilization through this study. Kinetic properties of immobilized laccase showed that, Km value was slightly increased while Vmax was decreased compared to free counterpart. The optimum pH and temperature values were increased from 5 and 35 °C to 6 and 40 °C of free and immobilized laccases, respectively. Also, the thermal stability of immobilized laccase is more than the free one with Tm values of 58 °C and 26 °C, respectively. The immobilized laccase could be reused for seven continuous cycles with retained 65% of its initial activity. Thus, the immobilization process improved the enzyme thermal stability, reusability and reduced the enzyme cost. Due to synthetic dyes released to the environments and their low biodegradability, this study focused on the potential role of free and immobilized laccases as agents for biodegradation of synthetic dyes, especially: azo, triarylmethane and anthraquinone dyes under different conditions. Therefore, the biodegradation of different synthetic dyes by free and immobilized laccases was also studied. Both the free and the immobilized laccases exhibited high decolorization efficiency to congo red dye (50 mg L−1) at 40 °C for free enzyme and 50 °C for immobilized laccase after 24 h and pH 5.5. Our results confirm the role of B. halotolerans N11 laccase in dye decolorization and wastewater detoxification.
       
  • Solid-state cultivation of recombinant Aspergillus nidulans to co-produce
           xylanase, arabinofuranosidase, and xylooligosaccharides from soybean fibre
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): Gabriela Feix Pereira, Daniela de Bastiani, Sabrina Gabardo, Fabio Squina, Marco Antônio Záchia Ayub Solid-state cultivations of genetically modified strains of Aspergillus nidulans A773, using soybean fibre as substrate, were carried out to produce xylanase and arabinofuranosidase, and these enzymes were subsequently used to obtain xylooligosaccharides using the same agro-residue. First, the best fungi cultivation conditions (moisture content, pH, temperature and addition of maltose) were optimized one-by-one for obtain the crude enzyme extracts. Subsequently, the application of xylanase on soybean fibre to obtain xylooligosaccharides was optimized by central composite design, defining best enzyme concentration and reaction temperature. The best condition obtained (50 °C and 117 U g−1 of soybean fibre) was used to evaluate the co-production of xylooligosaccharides by the addition of different concentrations of arabinofuranosidase. The highest yield of xylooligosaccharides obtained was 28% (mass fraction of xylan), showing final concentrations (in mg g−1 arabino-xylan) of 138.36 xylobiose (X2), 96.96 xylotriose (X3), and 53.04 xylotetraose (X4), in 9 h enzymatic reactions. The conversion of arabino-xylans into different xylooligosaccharides suggests the potential to use recombinant A. nidulans A773 enzymes to obtain prebiotics using a sugar-rich, low-cost soybean residue.
       
  • Enhancement of biocontrol potential of biocompatible bovine serum albumin
           (BSA) based protein nanoparticles loaded bacterial chitinase against major
           plant pathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 15Author(s): G. Narendrakumar, S. Karthick Raja Namasivayam, M. Manikanta, Mishal Saha, Tirana Dasgupta, N. Divyasri, Ch. Anusha, B. Arunkumar, T.V. Preethi Recently, principles of nanoscience and nanotechnology has being embraced in the field of agriculture rather than medicine and health care which has the potential to revolutionize modern day agriculture by effectively controlling insect pests and disease causing phytopathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, biocontrol potential of bovine serum albumin nanoparticles (BSA Nps) loaded extra cellular chitinase (BSA Np-CHS) produced by Serratia marcescens SU05 was studied against phytopathogenic fungi Alternaria alternata. Chitinase was extracted from the chitinase production medium that produced by optimizing various nutrient and process conditions adopting Taguchi method (37 °C temperature, 7 pH, 50 rpm and 1.5 inoculum) shows a extended production of enzyme. Extracted enzyme was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and column chromatography separation. Purified enzyme thus obtained was loaded with BSA Nps by cocoeravation method. The method for the preparation of BSA Np-CHS conjugate was optimized by various parameters. Nano enzyme conjugate thus prepared using optimal condition reveals spherical nanosphere with the size range of 110–120 nm and changes in the functional group that was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. Biocontrol efficacy of the prepared BSA Np-CHS nano enzyme conjugate against tested fungal strain was studied by determination of fungal biomass and fungal hyphal fragments damage under in vitro condition. BSA Np-CHS nano enzyme conjugate brought about effective reduction of fungal biomass and high rate of fungal hyphae fragments damage in all the tested concentration. Further study will helpful to formulate, apply the nanoformulation under field trails for effective control of phytopathogenic fungi.
       
  • Optimization of Enterococcus faecalis Esawy KR758759 dextransucrase and
           evaluation of some dextran bioactivities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Amal M. Hashem, Amira A. Gamal, Nahla M. Mansour, Bassem M Salama, Naziha M. Hassanein, Ghada E.A. Awad, Mona A. Esawy Twelve bacterial strains were isolated from beehives of Yemen, Nigerian and Libyan honey bee. All the isolates showed dextransucrase activity with degrees of variation. Esawy-1 recorded the highest activity (10.53) and was identified morphologically and based on 16S rRNA as Enterococcus faecalis. Some isolate safety was assessed such as hemolytic activity and resistance to antibiotic. The isolate showed sensitivity to most tested antibiotic such as levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and vancomycin. Also, the hemolytic activity was negative. A 2- level Plackett–Burman design was used to determine the bioprocess parameters that affected dextransucrase productivity. Central composite design was consequently showed 6.70 -fold improvement in dextransucrase productivity in compared to the basal medium. Also, the results showed a 96% correlation between sucrose concentration and the amount of dextran yield. FTIR and 1HNMR spectrum confirmed that the formed polysaccharide was dextran comparing to a standard dextran. Enterococcus faecalis Esawy KR758759 dextran showed a fibrinolytic activity matching the standard Hemoclar preparation (40%) while the anticoagulation activity was negative. Also, it recorded a promising prebiotic against Lactobacillus casie (1.82). All previous results recommended the Enterococcus faecalis dextran to be used in food and pharmaceutical fields and paid attention to the honey as a source of potential bacterial dextransucrase.
       
  • Difference research of pectins extracted from tobacco waste by heat reflux
           extraction and microwave-assisted extraction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Maolan Zhang, Guoming Zeng, Yuzhu Pan, Na Qi Pectin was extracted from tobacco waste using two different extraction methods of conventional heat reflux extraction(HRE) and microwave-assisted extraction(MAE) respectively. The yield of pectin extracted by the two methods were studied rightfully. Then, the differences in the physicochemical properties of the pectins obtained by the two methods mentioned above were investigated. The results showed that, the two methods may result in different pectin structures, and which will further affect the properties of the pectin. Among them, the influence of microwave frequency on the structure and properties of pectin was particularly significant, excessive frequency always leads to a decrease in pectin properties.
       
  • A study on pectinases from Aspergillus tamarii: toward greener approach
           for cotton bioscouring and phytopigments processing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Muthiah Shanmugavel, Seerangaraj Vasantharaj, A. Yazhmozhi, Prashil Bhavsar, Pandian Aswin, Chris Felshia, Uthirappan Mani, Balu Ranganathan, Arumugam Gnanamani Pectinolytic enzymes, a family of glycosyl hydrolases comprising of endo-rhamnogalacturonase, exo-polygalacturonase, endo-polygalacturonase and endo-xylogalacturonase play a significant role in food processing industries for the increase of shelf life of the food products containing pectin. This study was carried out for the production and activity of each enzyme member of the pectinase classification. Solid state fermentation process was utilized for the production of pectinase from Aspergillus tamarii using various pectin rich agro-industrial wastes like banana peel, sugarcane bagasse, lemon peel, coffee pulp and orange peel which were used for the fungal growth and wheat bran was used as the major nitrogen source. Fermentation parameters mainly pH, temperature, time, substrate concentration and moisture were optimized for maximum pectinase production. Production yield was measured using endo-polygalacturonase, exo–polygalacturonase, pectin lyase and pectin esterase assay. Results revealed that wheat bran and sugarcane bagasse at the ratio of 3:1 demonstrates appreciable Exo-pectinases production in 30 °C for 96 h at 70% moisture among the four enzymes. Characterization studies indicated the maximum activity (101.05 U/mL) and stability of Exo-PG at pH 6.0 and 55 °C. Thin layer Chromatography (TLC) was used for the identification of the hydrolysed products. Application studies were carried out for bioscouring of cotton fibers and extraction of lycopene and anthocyanin. Results suggested that use of pectinases substantially replaces the chemicals usage and will be considered as a suitable bio-agent in the current scenario on green process technology development.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Chemical induced fabrication of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) as
           nanocatalyst with alpha amylase enzyme for enhanced breakdown of starch
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): S. Krishnakumar, P. Janani, S. Mugilarasi, Ganita Kumari Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) have been used as promising catalytic materials for various applications. The objective of the present study is the fabrication of silver nanoparticles by chemical method for nanocatalytic degradation of starch using alpha amylase enzyme. The present study demonstrates sodium borohydride is used for the fabrication of silver nanoparticles. The fabrication of the silver nanoparticles was monitored visually and using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy. Silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FTIR, Zeta sizer, Zeta potential and antimicrobial efficacy. Silver nanoparticle with amylase enzyme is utilized for enhanced degradation of starch in a catalyzed reaction of starch hydrolysis by DNS assay method. UV-Vis spectroscopy revealed the fabrication of silver nanopartícles exhibiting the typical surface plasmon absorption at 430 nm. The three major functional moieties are proteins, aromatic groups and hydroxyl groups. These are responsible for the instant reduction of silver salts into silver ions recorded in FTIR spectra. The zeta potential of nanoparticle was found to be sharp peaked at −31.7 mV. Antimicrobial activity of nanoprticles revealed more susceptible against Gram positive bacteria than Gram negative bacteria and Candida albicans. An increased formation of reducing sugar around 40 fold confirmed the catalytic activity of purified bacterial amylase enzyme mixed with Ag-NPs as nanocatalyst. The present study suggests that immobilization of amylase enzyme onto the surface of Ag-NPs as nanocatalyst can be a useful approach for increased degradation of complex starch molecules into simple sugars, which can be utilized for diverse industrial applications.
       
  • Corrigendum to “In vitro propagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum
           L. variety C86–165 through apical meristem” [Bicatal. Agric.
           Biotechnol. 14 (2018) 228–234]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Mulugeta Hailu Redae, Meseret Chimdessa Egigu, Teklit Gebregiorgis Ambaye, Manikandan Muthswamy
       
  • Antioxidant and anticancer activities of enzymatic eel (monopterus sp)
           protein hydrolysate as influenced by different molecular weight
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Nura Ruhaya Abdul Halim, Azrina Azlan, Hayati Mohd Yusof, Norizah Mhd Sarbon This study aims to investigate the antioxidant and anticancer properties of fractionated eel protein hydrolysate (EPH) as well as qualitatively determine its free fatty acids. The eel flesh was enzymatically hydrolyzed and fractionated through membrane filter (10 kDa, 5 kDa and 3 kDa). The lipid peroxidation assays and mechanisms of antioxidant activity (reducing power, ferrous ion chelating activity and 1, 1-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity) of fractionated EPH were determined. The anticancer activity was determined by 3–4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay using MCF-7 cell lines. Free fatty acids in eel flesh and EPH were determined using gas chromatography. The results obtained showed that 3 kDa EPH possessed the highest inhibition of lipid peroxidation, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity and anticancer activity. Moreover, the changes of unsaturated fatty acids during hydrolysis process resulting in more stable hydrolysate towards oxidation. Based on the mechanisms of antioxidant activity conducted, this study found that the EPH had more ability as primary antioxidant than secondary antioxidant.
       
  • Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) from Cinnamon against Bacterial
           Pathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): J. Premkumar, T. Sudhakar, Abhishek Dhakal, Jeshan Babu Shrestha, S. Krishnakumar, P. Balashanmugam Nanotechnology can be useful in diagnostic techniques, drug delivery, sunscreens, antimicrobial sanitizer and a friendly manufacturing process that reduce waste products. Development of Green Nanotechnology is generating interest of researchers towards eco-friendly biosynthesis of nanoparticles. In the research study silver nanoparticles were synthesized from aqueous silver nitrate (1 mM) through a simple and eco-friendly method using Cinnamon as reductant and stabilizer. The aqueous silver ions when exposed to leaf broth were reduced and resulted in the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles ranges from 20 nm – 30 nm. The bio reduced silver nanoparticles were characterized by UV –Vis spectrophotometer, X ray diffraction, FESEM with EDAX and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR) spectroscopy. The FTIR study was carried out to recognize the possible biomolecules responsible for proficient stabilization of silver nanoparticles and their antimicrobial activity was screened against both gram positive, gram-negative microorganisms. The method can be used for rapid and eco-friendly biosynthesis of stable silver nanoparticles of size range from 20 – 30 nm possessing antimicrobial activity suggesting their possible application in the field of medicine.
       
  • Fabrication and validation of silver nanoparticles from cocoon extract of
           silk worm Bombyx mori. L
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 June 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Jeyaraj Pandiarajan, Sundaramahalingam Balaji, Kannan Revathy, Selvam Palanikumar Silver nanoparticles pave the attention of researchers for the last two decades due its wide applications. At the same time silk cocoon is renewed for its defense role, hence the present investigation was coined with silk cocoon extract as the source for deriving silver nanoparticles. The silver nanoparticles obtained from cocoon extract of silk worm Bombyx mori was faster synthesis and also it was safer and eco friendly. Thus obtained nanostructures were subjected to UV–Vis, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, EDX, DLS, particle size analysis and XRD to confirm the fine circular particles synthesis at nano-scale level. The obtained silver nanoparticles from cocoon extract of silk worm Bombyx mori showed potential anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activities against virulent strains. The same has elucidated the better anti-oxidant role by DPPH and Hydrogen peroxide assay. The cytotoxic potential of silver nanoparticles from cocoon extract against human breast adenocarinoma cancer cell line (MCF7) proved it as an abled drug for future research.
       
  • Four novel strains of cellulolytic symbiotic bacteria isolated and
           characterized from GI tract of marine fishes of various feeding habits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 May 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Asha Augustine, Imelda Joseph Selected marine fishes with different feeding habits were screened for the presence of symbiotic cellulolytic bacteria in their gut. Four cellulolytic species of symbiotic bacteria were isolated from GI tract of marine fishes namely Carangoides praeustus, Filimanus similis, Sardinella longiceps and Sillago sihama. The strains were identified after polyphasic phenotypic and genotypic (16S rRNA gene) characterization as Bacillus subtilis strain TCPC1, Vibrio alginolyticus strain CFSS2C2, Pseudomonas stutzeri strain KSLS4C3 and Klebsiella oxytoca strain MSSC4. (Genbank Accession nos.: JN710380, JN710378, JN710377, JN712301).The results indicated the presence of cellulolytic bacteria in GI tract of marine fishes of carnivorous, phytoplanktivorous and omnivorous feeding habits. Cellulolytic activity was the maximum for B. subtilis strain TCPC1 (0.45 mg glucose ml−1) and V. alginolyticus strain CFSS2C2 (0.24 mg glucose ml−1) at 234 h. While P. stutzeri strain KSLS4C3 showed the maximum utilization (0.22 mg glucose ml−1) from 240 to 258 h. K. oxytoca strain MSSC4 (0.47 mg glucose ml−1) showed three peaks during the study. The maximum rate of cellulose utilization was shown by P. stutzeri strain KSLS4C3 (0.05 mg glucose ml−1 medium h−1) followed by K. oxytoca strain MSSC4 (0.03 mg glucose ml−1 medium h−1).
       
  • Biotechnological valorization of pineapple stem for pectinase production
           by Bacillus subtilis BKDS1: Media formulation and statistical optimization
           for submerged fermentation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Bijesh Kavuthodi, Denoj Sebastian Agro-residues are mainly comprised of complex polysaccharides that might serve as nutrients for microbial growth and production of enzymes. India is one of the largest producers of pineapple and along with the expanding pineapple production, associated agro-wastes are also increasing proportionally. In this background, the present study has been endeavored to accomplish valorization of pineapple stem for the economical production of the enzyme, pectinase by Bacillus subtilis BKDS1 using pineapple stem extract (PSE) medium. The results revealed that, the effective concentration of the extract towards producing maximum pectinase enzyme was found to be 12.5% in distilled water. Enhancement of pectinase production in terms of media optimization has been attempted using Plackett-Burman design (PBD) and response surface methodology (RSM). Out of nine variables screened by PBD, only four variables; yeast extract, CaCl2, CaCO3 and inoculum have been selected to affect the pectinase production significantly. The single and interactive effects of all the selected variables have been analyzed using Central composite design (CCD) of RSM. The data revealed that, optimized medium produces a higher concentration of enzyme than unoptimized medium. Further, the efficiency of modified PSE medium for the production of pectinase by submerged fermentation (Smf) has confirmed in laboratory scale fermenter. It has also been found that, enzyme production is achieved at a faster rate in fermenter compared to shaker flasks. Thus, the study as whole highlights the fact that, pineapple stems can be successfully employed in the production of the industrially important enzyme, pectinase using B. subtilis BKDS1. This will in turn, can deliver a lot towards the proper management of agro-wastes and also ensure a better cleaner environment.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • N- and C-terminal regions of carrot heat shock protein 17.7 can confer
           abiotic stress tolerance to transformed Escherichia coli
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Eunhye Ko, Yeh-Jin Ahn Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) are ubiquitous molecular chaperones that consist of divergent N-terminal and conserved C-terminal regions containing an α-crystallin domain. We introduced the full-length and truncated N- or C-terminal polypeptides of carrot sHsp 17.7 (DcHsp17.7) into Escherichia coli and examined their possible functions in abiotic stress. All three polypeptides increased soluble protein levels and cell viability compared to those of the vector control in stressed E. coli. The heterologous expression of the truncated N-terminal region resulted in the highest levels of stress tolerance under heat, salt, osmotic pressure, and nanomaterial conditions, followed by the full-length DcHsp17.7 and C-terminal region of the protein. When exposed to cold stress, the transformed cell line expressing the full-length DcHsp17.7 showed the highest tolerance levels, followed by the truncated N- and C-terminal regions. Our results suggest that the N- and C-terminal regions of DcHsp17.7 can function independently to increase stress tolerance and that their functional mechanism may be complex, depending on the type of stress presented.
       
  • Antitumor and prebiotic activities of novel sulfated acidic polysaccharide
           from ginseng
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Al Shimaa Gamal Shalaby, Tamer I.M. Ragab, Ahmed Belal M. Mehany, Mohamed M.I. Helal, Wafaa A. Helmy There is a great deal of interest in the use of ginseng in traditional medicine. Polysaccharides acidic and alkaline extracts were extracted using different methods from Panax ginseng. In an attempt to enhance the biological activities of the presently prepared ginseng extracts, they were subjected to structural modification by sulfation process. Ginseng polysaccharides extracts were used for evaluation of different biomedical activity such as prebiotic, fibrinolytic, anticoagulant, antioxidant, antitumor activity and total phenolic content. Polysaccharides acidic and alkaline extracts polysaccharides and their sulfated polysaccharides derivatives were evaluated against human colon cancer cell (HCT-116), human liver cancer cell (HepG-2) and human breast cancer cell (MCF-7). The novel sulfated polysaccharide showed the best cytotoxic activity on all the tested cell lines compared to doxorubicin (as positive control material). The result revealed that novel sulfated polysaccharide has a potent activity on the colon (HCT-116), liver (HepG-2) and breast cancer cell (MCF-7). With IC50 value (< 20 µg/mL) were found 3.23 µg/mL, 1.24 µg/mL and 2.46 µg/mL, respectively. While doxorubicin has activity with IC50 values were found 4.52 µg/mL, 3.07 µg/mL, and 4.51 µg/mL, respectively.
       
  • The composition, antibiofilm and antimicrobial activities of essential oil
           of Ferula assa-foetida oleo-gum-resin
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Kamiar Zomorodian, Jamal Saharkhiz, Keyvan Pakshir, Zohreh Immeripour, Arman Sadatsharifi Ferula assa-foetida is an Iranian endemic plant with various medicinal properties. The chemical composition of the essential oil (EO) distilled from oleo-gum-resin of the plant was characterized by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antimicrobial activity of the EO against the standard and clinical strains of bacteria and fungi was determined by broth microdilution methods as recommended by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). The antibiofilm activity of the EO was evaluated by using XTT reduction assay. Based on GC/MS analysis, (E)− 1-Propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (21.65%) was identified as the major constituent of the essential oil followed by 10-epi-γ-Eudesmol (19.21%) and (Z)− 1-Propenyl sec-butyl disulfide (10.20%). The EO inhibited the growth and killed all tested yeasts at concentrations ranging from 0.03 µL/mL to 1 µL/mL. Moreover, the EO exhibited antifungal activity against the clinical and standard strains of filamentous fungi at the concentration range of 0.06–2 µL/mL. The EO was active against all Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria at the concentration range of 0.5–8 µL/mL and 16–128 µL/mL, respectively. In addition, the biofilm formation of C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei was almost completely inhibited by the EO at concentration of 4 µL/mL. Regarding the remarkable antifungal and antibacterial activities of F. assa-foetida EO, it can be considered as a potential source for developing novel antimicrobial agents in order to control fungal and bacterial infections or to improve the quality and shelf life of food products.
       
  • Humic acid and vermicompost increased bioactive components, antioxidant
           activity and herb yield of Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Hossein Gholami, Mohammad Jamal Saharkhiz, Fatemeh Raouf Fard, Askar Ghani, Fatemeh Nadaf Chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) is one of the most important plants in the medicinal, nutritional and cosmetic industry. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of humic acid (HA) and vermicompost on the herb yield and phenolic components of chicory aerial parts. Plants were grown under 4 humic acid treatments (0, 0.3, 0.6 and 0.9 kg/ hectare) and 4 vermicompost levels (0, 5, 7.5 and 10 t/ hectare) with three replications. Measurement of traits included fresh and dry yields of aerial parts, the IC50 and inhibition percentage of free radicals, the total and individual amounts of phenolics and flavonoids (caffeic, gallic, ellagic and p- coumaric acid, catechin, flavones and flavonols). Results show that humic acid and vermicompost improve the chicory yield and phytochemical properties such as the total contents of phenolics and flavonoids. The highest yield of dry aerial parts (20.29 g per plant) was achieved by 0.9 kg per hectare humic acid in combination with 10 t per hectare vermicompost. The highest total contents of phenolics and flavonoids were achieved when humic acid was applied at 0.9 kg/hectare in addition to vermicompost at 7.5 t/ hectare. The content of caffeic acid was highest among other phenolic components. The highest caffeic acid was achieved by treatments of 0.3 kg per hectare humic acid combined with 5 t per hectare vermicompost. The content of ellagic acid in shoots was highest when vermicompost was applied alone, by 5 t per hectare, with an average yield of 262.51 mg/100 g DW.
       
  • Optimization of extraction conditions and assessment of antioxidant,
           α-glucosidase inhibitory and antimicrobial activities of Xanthium
           strumarium L. fruits
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Amol Subhash Ingawale, Muhammad Bilal Sadiq, Loc Thai Nguyen, Tu Bao Ngan In this study, Xanthium strumarium L. fruit was extracted and the product obtained was analyzed for its antioxidant, antimicrobial and antidiabetic activities. The effects of solvent (methanol), extraction time and solid/solvent ratios on total phenolic content (TPC), 1,1-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) were investigated. The results indicated that optimal methanol concentration, extraction time and solid to solvent ratio were 60%, 30 min and 1:5, respectively. Corresponding TPC, DPPH and FRAP values were 12.1 mg of GAE/g of sample, 72.5% and 92.6 μM of Fe (II)/g of sample, respectively. Methanol concentration and solid to solvent ratio were found to have significant effects on TPC, DPPH and FRAP values. On the other hand, the fruit extracts demonstrated antibacterial activity against Staphyloccocus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae. When tested for antidiabetic potential, the extract exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibitory effect with IC50 value of 15.25 µg/ml. Electrochemical measurements were found to be helpful for determining the content as well as redox properties of the extracted compounds. The results could be of significant importance for industrial applications of the extract in novel plant-derived drugs or functional foods.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Evaluation of the saccharification and fermentation process of two
           different seaweeds for an ecofriendly bioethanol production
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Karunakaran Saravanan, Senbagam Duraisamy, Gurusamy Ramasamy, Anbarasu Kumarasamy, Senthilkumar Balakrishnan The study is aimed to produce bioethanol and more specifically to provide a process for producing ethanol by the fermentation of macroalgal biomass. The seaweeds were evaluated for their hydrolysis process (acid and enzyme treatment). The hydrolysates obtained from acid and enzyme saccharification process were analysed for ethanol production to show the efficiency of hydrolysis processes. The content of reducing sugar after acid hydrolysis was found to be 60.6 ± 1.7 and 71 ± 1.6 mg/g biomass for Sargassum sp. and Gracilaria sp. respectively. Likewise, the biomass obtained from two stage hydrolysis, showed 110 ± 1.6 and 140.6 ± 1.7 mg/g biomass reducing sugar for the above mentioned two seaweeds. The yeast used for fermentation of ethanol was isolated from grape juice and identified by sequencing of large subunit (LSU) ribosomal DNA D1/D2 region of the yeast isolate. Maximum ethanol production (19.9 ± 0.3 and 28.7 ± 0.4 gL−1 for Sargassum sp. and Gracilaria sp. respectively) was significantly observed after two stage hydrolysis using Saccharomyces cerevisiae rather than Hanseniaspora opuntiae GK01 (18.37 ± 0.3 and 27.0 ± 0.6 gL−1 for Sargassum sp. and Gracilaria sp. respectively). This study is obviously proved that S. cerevisiae MTCC174 was found to be a better strain for ethanol production in both the seaweeds than the yeast strain isolated from grape juice H. opuntiae GK01.
       
  • In vitro evaluation of lignocellulolytic activity of thermophilic bacteria
           isolated from different composts and soils of Iran
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Arash Hemati, Nasser Aliasgharzad, Reza Khakvar Microorganisms with cellulolytic and ligninolytic activities have important roles in the composting process but they may not tolerate thermophilic phase. Using thermophilic microbes possessing lignocellulolytic activity could facilitate the composting process. In this study, soil and compost samples were collected from different regions of Iran. The sample dilutions were cultured on nutrient agar at 58 ± 2 °C for five days for isolating thermophiles. They were then screened according to their qualitative ligninolytic and cellulolytic activities at 25 °C and 58 °C. The superior isolates were then quantitatively assayed for cellulase, ligninase, amylase, β-glucosidase, xylanase and mannanase activities in crude enzyme extracts. The efficient isolates were identified by molecular methods. Among 327 thermophilic isolates, 118 and 137 isolates were lacking ligninase and cellulase activity, respectively. The isolates 1 vermicompost (VC), 12 compost (C), 47 Yazd soils (YZ) and 13 compost (C) had the highest ligninase activity and the highest cellulase activity was observed in isolates 194 Tabriz soils (TB), 104C and 12C. With increasing temperature from 25 °C to 58 °C, both enzymatic activities increased in all thermophilic isolates. The isolates 1VC, 12C, 13C, 47YZ, 151VC and 104 C were thermophilic bacteria possessing both the highest ligninase and cellulase activities. They were identified as Paenibacillus validus, Paenibacillus koreensis, Paenibacillus thailandensis, Paenibacillus cellulositrophicus, Paenibacillus lautus, Bacillus nealsonii, respectively.
       
  • Rapid degradative effect of microbially synthesized silver nanoparticles
           on textile dye in presence of sunlight
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): P. Jishma, Rakhie Narayanan, S. Snigdha, Roshmi Thomas, E.K. Radhakrishnan In the study, the dye collected from industry was identified as methyl violet by LC-MS/MS analysis. The biosynthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used were characterized by UV–visible spectrophotometry, HR-TEM and FT-IR analysis. Further, the AgNPs were used to evaluate the photocatalytic degradation of methyl violet. The results showed rapid degradation (85.56%) of methyl violet within a period of 20 min in presence of AgNPs and sunlight. The superior photocatalytic activity of AgNPs observed in the study indicates its application for dye degradation.
       
  • Characterization and application of fungal chlorogenate hydrolase to
           enzymatic breaking down of chlorogenate from yerba mate
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Ana P. Butiuk, Silvana A. Maidana, María A. Martos, Yoshihiko Akakabe, Osao Adachi, Roque A. Hours The aim of this work was to study the physicochemical and kinetic properties of chlorogenate hydrolase (CHase) (EC 3.1.1.42) of Aspergillus niger AKU 3302 by induction in the presence of yerba mate extract. The data obtained could be applicable directly to mass processing for a plant scale production of quinic acid (QA) and caffeic acid (CA) with koji CHase. It is fundamentally significant to accumulate catalytic properties of CHase as much as possible with crude CHase, when koji CHase is directed to practical industrial processing of breakdown of chlorogenate (CGA). CHase exhibited a high thermal stability without appreciable loss after standing for 6 h at 50 °C and was stable in wide pH ranges from 2.0 to 9.0. The optimum pH and temperature of CHase activity were found at 6.5–7.0 and 45 °C, respectively. The Vmax and Km values for CGA hydrolysis were 1.996 unit mg−1 and 0.72 mM, respectively. The activation energy of CHase was estimated to be 26 kJ mol−1. Thus, CHase induced with CGA revealed successful for the production of CA and QA, fine chemicals of high interest and commercial values, from natural plant resources rich in CGA such as yerba mate. Several advantageous merits obtained with a crude CHase for the practical formation of QA and CA from yerba mate or yerba mate extract are discussed.
       
  • Possible correlation among osmophilic bacteria, levan yield, and the
           probiotic activity of three bacterial honey isolates
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Walaa A. Abdel Wahab, Shireen A.A. Saleh, Eman A. Karam, Nahla M. Mansour, Mona A. Esawy Three bacterial strains were isolated from different honey sources. They were identified based on 16S rRNA as Bacillus endophyticus SH, Bacillus subtilis WA and Bacillus subtilis MO. All the isolates had the ability to yield levan in the presence of 80 g/L sucrose with a degree of variation. The osmotic tolerance capacity of the three honey isolates was examined on sucrose, NaCl, sea water, NaCl/ sucrose. The results categorized the isolates as moderate halophiles where they reported their maximum growth between (4–8%) NaCl or (20–50%) sea water, also their highest growth was obtained at 4% sucrose and they were tolerant to sucrose stress till 20%. The probiotic studies revealed that the vegetative cells of the three isolates were highly resistant to severe acidic and alkaline pHs and to different concentrations of bile salt and pancreatic enzymes with variant degrees. Isolates safety was proved by negative blood hemolysis, an absence of hemolytic cytotoxin K (cytK) and non-hemolytic enterotoxin (nheA, nheB, and nheC) genes. In addition, the isolates were sensitive to the tested antibiotics including streptomycin, ampicillin, novobiocin, nalidixic acid, vancomycin, kanamycin, ciprofloxacin, and oxytetracyclin. Finally, they reported varying antimicrobial activities against different pathogens causing human problems. This study suggested B. endophyticus SH for the first time as a safe probiotic bacterium, also recommended the three isolates for using in different aspects such as food supplement.
       
  • Whey protein isolate for the preparation of covalent immobilization beads
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Marwa I. Wahba, Tarik N. Soliman Whey protein isolate (WPI) was employed, for the first time, to activate carrageenan (Car) beads for the covalent immobilization of the Aspergillus oryzae β-D-galactosidase (β-gal). These Car beads were subjected to a WPI treatment step followed by a glutaraldehyde (GA) treatment step in order to enable such covalent immobilization. The WPI treatment was optimized via the Box-Behnken Design (BBD). The BBD anticipated that treating the Car beads with a 2.36% WPI solution of pH 5.25 for 7.04 h would allow for the attainment of an immobilized β-gal's activity recovery percent of 34.43%. A verification experiment was accomplished while employing the abovementioned conditions and an immobilized β-gal's activity recovery percent of 34.80 ± 1.11% was attained. It was also shown that the immobilization of β-gal onto the GA-WPI treated Car beads did not alter the enzyme's optimum temperature or optimum pH. Moreover, a reusability study was conducted and 93.84 ± 0.72% of the immobilized β-gal's initial observed activity was preserved during the 13th reusability cycle.
       
  • Fusarium fujikuroi: A novel source of metabolites with herbicidal
           activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Jair J. Daniel, Giovani L. Zabot, Marcus V. Tres, Ricardo Harakava, Raquel C. Kuhn, Marcio A. Mazutti This study presents the isolation and identification of a fungus (Fusarium fujikuroi) from the Brazilian Pampa biome that is able to produce phytotoxic secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity. Before selecting such promising fungus, 132 microorganisms were isolated from weed plants with infections symptoms. Each sample of isolated material was used in submerged fermentation to produce a fermented broth. Thereafter, the cells were separated by centrifugation and the supernatant was filtered. Each filtered sample (culture filtrate) was used to evaluate the herbicidal activity in the bioassays with two target plants: Cucumis sativus and Sorghum bicolor. The selection criteria consisted of analyzing germination in pre-emergence, phytotoxicity, plant height and root length in post-emergence, and lesions in detached leaf-punctured assay. The pre-emergence was the primary screening, where 11 samples of culture filtrate provided 100% inhibition of germination of both plants. These samples underwent a secondary screening, which the sample SO210 presented 25% phytotoxicity, 40% reduction of plant height, 28% reduction of root length, and necrosis and chlorosis in 70% of foliar area. The microorganism coded as SO210 was identified as a strain of Fusarium fujikuroi. Up to now, studies that attribute herbicidal activity to this fungus are scarce in the literature. Therefore, this work shows a potential activity of metabolites produced by this fungus toward the inhibition of germination and development of plant weeds.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Fermentative production, purification of inulinase from Aspergillus
           terreus MTCC 6324 and its application for hydrolysis of sucrose
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Deepali B. Magadum, Ganapati D. Yadav The production of inulinase was carried out with Aspergillus terreus MTCC 6324. To enhance the production of inulinase, fermentation media was optimized by one factor at a time and response surface methodology (RSM), which increases the activity of inulinase by 3 folds. Inulinase was partially purified with ultrafiltration method with 67.7% yield. The purified inulinase was then immobilized by entrapment method in calcium alginate beads with retention of 42% of original activity and employed for hydrolysis of sucrose. After optimization of reaction conditions such as speed of agitation, catalyst loading and temperature, the conversion of sucrose hydrolysis reaction was increased up to 91.57%.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Processed gellan gum beads as covalent immobilization carriers
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Marwa I. Wahba With the aim of employing gellan gum (GG) beads as covalent immobilization carriers, these beads were subjected to two different activation processes. These activation processes differed from one another with respect to the employed polyamine compound as either polyethyleneimine (PEI) or chitosan (CS) was employed. The polyamine treatment step was optimized with the central composite design, and it was shown that the recommended settings for the PEI concentration and the PEI solution pH were 6.15% (w/v) and 8.30, respectively. On the other hand, the optimum CS solution was shown to be a 2.20% (w/v) solution with a pH value of 2.77. The PEI processed GG beads caused the immobilized β-D-galactosidase (β-gal) to exhibit a more acidic pH optimum than that offered when the CS processed beads were employed. Nevertheless, the two immobilized β-gal samples offered similar temperature profiles. They also exhibited comparable operational stabilities where 81.22 ± 2.63% and 85.17 ± 1.78% of their initial activities were preserved throughout the 14th reusability run of the PEI and the CS processed GG beads, respectively.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Microwave assisted solvent-free synthesis of n-butyl propionate by
           immobilized lipase as catalyst
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Kalpesh V. Bhavsar, Ganapati D. Yadav Operational simplicity, solvent free media, potential reusability of catalyst and wide functional group tolerance are the advantages for solvent free synthesis under microwave irradiation technique. In the current work, n-butyl propionate was synthesized by esterification of propionic acid with n-butanol using different immobilized enzymes under microwave irradiation vis-à-vis conventional heating. Commercially available lipases such as Lypozyme RM IM, Lypozyme TLIM and Novozym 435 (Candida antarctica lipase B) were screened for n-butyl propionate synthesis from propionic acid and n-butanol for which Novozym 435 showed the best catalytic activity. n-Butyl propionate is widely used in flavour, painting, enamels, appliance coating and similar processes. In 8 h 92% conversion was achieved at 60 °C with 1:12 mol ratio of propionic acid to n-butanol under microwave irradiation. Systematic studies were done to understand mechanism and kinetics of reaction. By studying the Lineweaver-Burk plots it was found that the lines were intersecting at a point, showing that the reaction follows ternary complex mechanism with inhibition by n-butanol.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Mathematical modeling of lactic acid fermentation in bioreactor with carob
           extract
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Mustafa Germec, Mustafa Karhan, Katherine L. Bialka, Ali Demirci, Irfan Turhan In this study, nonlinear sixteen mathematical models including Gompertz (G), generalized Gompertz (GG), modified Gompertz (MG), re-modified Gompertz (RMG), logistic (L), generalized logistic (GL), modified logistic (ML), re-modified logistic (RML), Richards (R), generalized Richards (GR), modified Richards (MR), re-modified Richards (RMR), Stannard (S), Baranyi (B), Weibull (W), and Morgan-Mercer-Flodin (MMF) were applied to fit cell growth, product formation, and sugar consumption of batch lactic acid (LA) fermentation in stirred tank bioreactor with carob extract. To determine the modeling success, root-mean-square-error (RMSE), mean-absolute-error (MAE), R2, slope, bias factor (BF), and accuracy factor (AF) were used. Results indicated that the best model for cell growth was MMF model (RMSE=0.24 g/L, MAE=0.16 g/L, R2=1.00, Slope=1.06, BF=1.04 and AF=1.16). For product formation, the best models selected were RMG (RMSE=1.33 g/L, MAE=1.00 g/L, R2=0.99, Slope=0.95, BF=0.94 and AF=1.11) and RMR (RMSE=1.33 g/L, MAE=1.01 g/L, R2=0.99, Slope=0.96, BF=0.94 and AF=1.12) models. As for sugar consumption, B model was the best model for estimation of experimental data (RMSE=0.88 g/L, MAE=0.52 g/L, R2=1.00, Slope=1.00, BF=1.00 and AF=1.01). Additionally, the most successful models that predict experimental kinetic data were GG, GL, S, and W models. Consequently, the best models selected could be used for more progress of LA production process in bioreactor with carob extract.
       
  • Deposition of manure nutrients in a novel mycoalgae biofilm for Nutrient
           management
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Aravindan Rajendran, Tyler Fox, Cristiano Rodrigues Reis, Bruce Wilson, Bo Hu With the increase in intensive crop and livestock production, excess application of P as fertilizer and manure contributes to the build-up of soil P levels causing eutrophication. A novel biofilm-based technology was developed to recover and reposition the nutrients in manure, producing biofilm fertilizer and the treated water with better nutrient composition. Anaerobically digested and pretreated manure was used as a medium to grow the surface-attached composite biofilm, which constitutes the selected polyphosphate accumulating fungi and nitrogen accumulating fresh water microalgae for efficient recovery of nutrients on a matrix for better biomass harvesting. Under the tested conditions in lab-scale with the pretreated digested manure, the removal efficiency of the nutrients by attached mycoalgae biofilm was 76.74% P and 76.40% N with COD removal of 65.75%. To increase the nutrient content of the biomass and for enhancing the cell growth the wastewater generated in corn ethanol process (thin stillage) was added as an external nutrient at different ratios in the digested manure. The cell growth, nutrient removal efficiency, lipid content of the biomass, COD removal and reducing sugar content at different medium conditions were evaluated. The nutrient-rich solid biofilm can be harvested by scraping off the biofilm from the matrix and the nutrient lean liquid can be discharged or further used for agriculture. The microbial biofilm assimilates the organic and inorganic components in manure and converts them into cellular constituents together with N-P-K resulting in deposition of manure nutrients in biofilm, which can be directly used as a bio-fertilizer.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Immobilization of the green microalga Botryococcus braunii in polyester
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Néstor D. Giraldo Calderón, Kenny C. Díaz Bayona, Lucía Atehortúa Garcés Botryococcus braunii is a renowned source of biomass, lipids and hydrocarbons for biofuel production. However, this microalga also produces exopolysaccharides (EPS) which might be used industrially. The artificial immobilization of B. braunii has proven to influence its growth and metabolite yield. In this work, B. braunii was immobilized using 3 g/L of polyester wadding, a recyclable material no reported before as fixing matrix for this microalga. This inexpensive polymer was non-toxic to the cells and allowed their fixing during 2 months. After 24 days, the final biomass yield (g/L) was statistically higher (P < 0.05) in immobilized (1.05 ± 0.05) than in suspended cultures (0.734 ± 0.003). The final EPS yield (g/L) was also higher in immobilized (0.094 ± 0.008) than in the suspended cultures (0.077 ± 0.004). In both cases, the sugar composition of the EPS (mainly 71.73 mol% galactose) and the profile of fatty acids were the same.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Preparation of chiral phenylethanols using various vegetables grown in
           Algeria
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Manhel Bennamane, Samra Razi, Saoussen Zeror, Louisa Aribi-Zouioueche Ginger root, strawberry tree and mandarin growing in Algeria were evaluated for their ability to stereoselective reduction of prochiral ketones. The reactivity and the enantioselectivity are strongly dependent on the biocatalyst used, and the structure of ketone. High enantioselectivities were observed for some substrates (70–99% ee) especially for the bioreduction of acetophenone 1, p-chloroacetophenone 2, tetralone 5, thiochromanone 6 and chromanone 7. Using two different batchs of Citrus reticulata from two regions of our country Annaba and Skikda, the corresponding optically active alcohols were obtained with high enantioselectivity and Skikda's variety was the best biocatalyst. The results reveal that these plants species can be a promising biocatalysts for the production of key intermediates.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Process optimization for production of a fibrinolytic enzyme from newly
           isolated marine bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa KU1
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Swaroop S. Kumar, Madhathilkovilakathu Haridas, Abdulhameed Sabu A potent fibrinolytic enzyme producing bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KU1 was isolated from marine sediments of Ezhara beach, Kannur, Kerala. Enzyme production was optimized using statistical approach. Placket-Burman factorial design was used in picking key factors (Tryptone, skimmed milk and inoculum size) that influence fibrinolytic enzyme production of the isolate and further optimized using Box-Benhken design. Optimal concentrations for the selected independent variables in the medium were identified to be 0.72% w/v tryptone, 0.09% w/v skimmed milk and 3.95% v/v inoculum size. Peak production was achieved empirically in shake flask culture and it was very close to the projected activity by the response surface model. The Peak production showed 3.25 fold increase over the activity prior to any optimization and a maximum of 1.32 fold increase of one factor at a time optimization. Though many reports are available on fibrinolytic enzyme production from Pseudomonas sp. media optimization studies for enhancement of fibrinolytic enzyme production has not been performed so far. This may be the first report on statistical optimization of production of a fibrinolytic enzyme from marine Pseudomonas sp.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Effects of macro/micronutrients on green and brown microalgal cell growth
           and fatty acids in photobioreactor and open-tank systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Syed Muhammad Usman Shah, Mohd Azmuddin Abdullah This study described the optimization of growth parameters that affected locally-isolated green Nannochloropsis oculata and Tetraselmis suecica and brown Isochrysis galbana and Pavlova lutheri microalgae using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Under deficiency conditions of 10–65 g L−1 KNO3, 3–7.5 g L−1 Na2HPO4 and 2.5 g L−1 FeCl3, the highest lipid accumulation of 37.3%, 23.6%, 28.3% and 37.2%, with slightly reduced cell growth of 0.64, 0.49, 0.54 and 0.38 g L−1 were achieved for N. oculata, T. suecica, I. galbana and P. lutheri, respectively. The macronutrients significantly influenced the biomass and lipid content positively. However, the interaction of phosphate-phosphate for N. oculata, and nitrate-nitrate for I. galbana may affect cell growth negatively. The highest biomass of 0.62–0.96 g L−1 and lipid content of 31.6–42.2% in 5 L PBR and the highest biomass of 0.45–0.72 g L−1 and lipid content of 24.4–38.5 in 300 L open tank were achieved for all the four species. The total saturated fatty acids (44.3–63.8% and 30.4–55.03%); monounsaturated fatty acids (6.1–37.0% and 4.2–13.1%); and polyunsaturated fatty acids (8.3–22.3% and 1.02–15.2%) were obtained, respectively, with pentadecanoic (C15:0), palmitic (C16:0), palmitoleic (C16:1), heptadecanoic (C17:0), oleic (C18:1), eicosanoic (C20:0), eicosapentaenoic (C20:5) and docosahexaenoic (C22:6) as predominant fatty acids.
       
  • Comparative pot studies of chitosan and chitosan-metal nanocomposites as
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Pawan Kaur, Joginder Singh Duhan, Rajesh Thakur Fusarium wilt is a seed borne and soil borne disease of chickpea caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri (FOC). In this work, chitosan and their nanocomposites were evaluated as antifungal agents against FOC, in vitro as well as in vivo. Among these, chitosan copper oxide nanocomposites (Ch-CuO) and chitosan-zinc oxides nanocomposites (Ch-ZnO) were found to be the most effective against FOC at all recommended concentrations i.e. 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml. Chitosan nanoparticles (Ch) and chitosan-silver nanocomposites (Ch-Ag) were found to be moderately effective but more efficient than standard fungicide i.e. copper-oxy-chloride (CuOCl). Based on in vitro results, 100 µg/ml concentration of all nanoformulations (NFs) was selected for in vivo studies in potted plants. The highest wilt disease reduction was observed in Ch-CuO (46.67%) followed by plants treated with Ch-ZnO (40%) as moderately effective, while Ch-Ag and Ch caused only 33.33% reduction in wilt incidence as less effective. All nanoformulations showed good antifungal efficacy and inhibited the pathogen as well as found to promote the growth of chickpea plants as compared to untreated plants.
       
  • Stress tolerance and plant growth promotion potential of Enterobacter
           ludwigii PS1 isolated from Seabuckthorn rhizosphere
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Diskit Dolkar, Phuntsog Dolkar, Stanzin Angmo, O.P. Chaurasia, Tsering Stobdan Plant growth promotion by microbial inoculants is affected by environmental factors. The study was therefore aimed at developing microbial inoculants for promoting tomato growth in regions experiencing temperature, pH and salt stressed conditions. Enterobacter ludwigii PS1 capable of solubilizing insoluble inorganic phosphate was isolated from Seabuckthorn rhizosphere growing in the Indian trans-Himalaya. PS1 showed ability to solubilize insoluble phosphate under different stress conditions viz. 4–44 °C temperature, 1–5% salt concentration and 4–12 pH range. The isolate exhibited multiple plant growth promoting traits viz. auxin (24.3 mg L−1), siderophore (79%) and hydrogen cyanide (0.21 O.D at 625 nm) production. Tomato seed bacterization resulted in 25% and 37% increase in shoot and root length. Inoculation of tomato seedling with PS1 promoted plant growth in pot trial experiments in trans-Himalayan (34°08′0.2″ N, 77°34′0.3″ E, 3340 m asl) condition. Increase in fruit yield was 15% in open and 27% in shade net condition. E. ludwigii PS1 with phosphate-solubilizing ability under stress conditions appears to be attractive for exploring its plant growth-promoting activities towards development of microbial inoculants in stressed regions.
       
  • Tissue-specific heat-induced changes in the expression of ncRNA fragments
           in Brassica rapa plants
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Boseon Byeon, Andriy Bilichak, Igor Kovalchuk Non-coding RNA fragments (ncRFs) represent a large spectrum of short ncRNAs processed from precursor ncRNAs such as tRNA, rRNA, snoRNA and several others. Several recent papers suggest that ncRFs are processed in a specific manner in different tissues or in response to stress. Here, we analyzed alterations in the expression of ncRFs in different Brassica rapa tissues in response to heat stress. Specifically, we analyzed the abundance of tRNA fragments (tRFs), rRNA fragments (rRFs), snoRNA fragments (snoRFs) and snRNA fragments (snRFs). The most significant changes in response to heat stress were observed in tRNAGlu and tRNAAsp. Whereas the number of reads mapping to the former one dropped drastically in all tissues but the apical meristem and pollen, the number of reads mapping to the latter significantly increased. Analysis of tRFs showed that three isoacceptors, tRF5′Asp(GUC), tRFGly(UCC) and tRFPseudo(UCC) were severely underrepresented in heat-stressed tissues. Heat also induced changes in the processing of ncRFs from precursor molecules; a bias towards the processing of ncRFs from the 3′ end was even more prominent after the heat stress application. The analysis of predicted targets of ncRFs revealed an enrichment in several groups of genes involved in the response to various stresses. To conclude, our work showed that heat stress results in tissue-specific changes in the expression of ncRFs in Brassica rapa and suggested a tissue-specific regulation of various mRNAs and pathways in response to heat.
       
  • Purification and characterization of xylanase isoenzymes from red palm
           weevil Rhynchophorus ferrugineus
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Magda A. Mohamed, Manal M.E. Ghanem, Ahmed M. Abd-Elaziz, Ibrahim M. Shams-Eldin Xylanase activity in the guts of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus during larval development had been investigated. The activity in the guts from the 5th to the 12th instars ranged from 12.5 to 67 U/gut with specific activity ranged from 50 to 124 U/mg protein. The 10th instars larvae had the highest enzyme activity. Purification of two predominant xylanase isoenzymes was performed by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-200 and chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. XyI and XyII had specific activities of 468.6 and 402 U/mg proteins, native molecular weights of 25 and 42 kDa, respectively. They had monomeric forms, showed identical optimum activity at pH 5.5 and 40 °C. XyII exhibited higher thermal stability and activation energy than XyI. Inhibition by Hg2+, Cu2+, EDTA and stimulation by dithiol-reducing agents revealed the presence of at least one sulfhydryl group in the active site of the enzyme and they were metalloenzyme. They exhibited high specificity towards natural xylans. They produced xylotriose, xylotetraose and xylopentaose as the main hydrolysis products of beechwood xylan. The results were compared with those previously recorded for different insect species.
       
  • In Vitro propagation of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) variety
           C86-165 through apical meristem
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Mulugeta Hailu Redae, Teklit Gebregiorgis Ambaye Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is monocotyledonous crop plant that mostly propagates through conventional methods. However, conventional propagation lacks rapid multiplication procedures to commercialize newly released varieties within a short period of time. Hence, the objective of this work was to optimize in vitro micropropagation protocol for sugarcane variety (C86-165) through apical meristem. The variety was cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators on shoot initiation, multiplication, rooting and acclimatization stages. The results showed that significant difference in response to the various hormonal treatments with regard to the parameters measured. For initiation stage, the best performance was observed on MS medium supplemented 1.0 mg/l of BAP. On the other hand, multiplication stage was best on MS media enriched with 2.0 mg/l BAP + 1.0 mg/l NAA as manifested in terms of a mean number of shoots and mean shoot length. With regard to root induction, the best-rooting response in terms of mean root number and mean root length was achieved best on 1/2 MS media enriched with 2.0 mg/l NAA + 0.5 mg/l BAP. Survival rate during acclimatization was best on coco peat media at a rate of 98%.
       
  • Root colonization by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica improves
           growth, yield and piperine content in black pepper (Piper nigurm L.)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): K.N. Anith, S. Aswini, Shilpa Varkey, N.V. Radhakrishnan, Deepa S. Nair Plant growth and yield characteristics of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on inoculation with the root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica are reported. Experiments were carried out using plants raised from the lateral branches of black pepper which develop into miniature plants known as “bush pepper” that bear fruits in the same year of planting. P. indica (Pi) inoculated plants put forth more number of leaves and leaf area per plant compared to the control plants throughout the period of the experiment. There was significant difference between the inoculated and uninoculated plants with respect to the chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll content of leaf tissues. Early flowering and spike setting was observed in plants inoculated with Pi. The total fresh and dry weights of berries harvested from the Pi inoculated plants were significantly higher than that from the control plants. Inoculation with the fungus also increased the total oleoresin and piperine content in the berries.
       
  • Particle bombardment-mediated co-transformation of the Cht-2 gene in wheat
           and the associated changes in defense mechanisms in transgenic plants
           infected with Fusarium graminearum
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Hanan A. Hashem, Raifa A. Hassanein, Ashraf H. Fahmy, Ahmed S. Ibrahim, Osama M. El Shihyh, Ebtesam A. Qaid Fusarium graminearum is a major global pathogen of cereals and is considered the main causal agent of Fusarium head blight disease in wheat. Infection with F. graminearum causes a significant reduction in crop yield and quality; therefore, it is very important to improve wheat pathogen resistance. In the present study, the plasmid pAHCht-2 harboring the rice chitinase (Cht-2) gene for pathogen resistance and the plasmid pAB6 containing the gus reporter and bar selectable marker genes were used for genetic transformation of immature embryo-derived calli of the Egyptian wheat cultivar Giza 164 using particle bombardment. The presence and integration of transgenes were assessed by PCR analysis using specific primers for the Cht-2, bar and gus genes. The incorporation of the Cht-2 gene into the genome of the transformants was confirmed by dot-blot analyses. The transformation efficiency (number of transgenic plants/number of embryos) was 6.01%. Additionally, associated changes in defense mechanisms in the transgenic plants were investigated. The results showed variations in biochemical characteristics between transgenic and non-transgenic wheat lines (cv. Giza 164). The transgenic plants had significantly decreased total protein content, phenolic compounds and antioxidant enzyme activities (peroxidase and catalase), and significantly increased phenylalanine ammonia lyase and chitinase activities compared with non-transgenic plants under biotic stress conditions caused by F. graminearum infection. Our results show that activating a specific program of gene expression related to particular environmental stress conditions can reduce the cost of the stress on plant metabolism.
       
  • Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Streptomyces
           griseoplanus SAI-25 and its antifungal activity against Macrophomina
           phaseolina, the charcoal rot pathogen of sorghum
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Rajendran Vijayabharathi, Arumugam Sathya, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan Streptomyces griseoplanus SAI-25 isolated from rice rhizospheric soils with previously demonstrated insecticidal activity is currently characterized for silver nanoparticle synthesis using its extracellular extract. The synthesized particles showed the characteristic absorption spectra of silver nanoparticles at 413–417 nm. Spectral analysis by FTIR confirmed the presence of alcohols, amines, phenols and protein in the cell-free extracellular extract of SAI-25. These functional groups could have served dual roles in silver nanoparticle synthesis like reducing and stabilizing agents. Microscopic and spectroscopic analysis such as SEM, TEM, EDAX and XRD has provided the size, shape and composition of the synthesized nanoparticles. DLS and Zeta potential further confirms the size and characteristic negative charges of AgNPs respectively. The observed antifungal activity against charcoal rot pathogen Macrophomina phaseolina shows a base for the development of Streptomyces mediated nanoparticles in controlling this polyphagus pathogen and key role of biopesticides in improving agricultural economy.
       
  • Extraction and purification of polyphenol oxidase: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Dhanashree Panadare, Virendra K. Rathod Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) is a copper containing enzyme widely occurred in many plants, animals, bacteria and some fungi. Polyphenol oxidase has wide applications in the field of biosensor formation, food industry, medicine and waste water treatment. Extraction and purification of PPO was studied by many researchers from wide variety of plants and fermentation process using various methods such as salt precipitation, three phase partitioning (TPP), aqueous two phase extraction (ATPE), reverse micellar extraction (RME) and chromatographic techniques. Physio-chemical characterization of the same was performed by the researchers using different techniques. Diversity in the resources of the enzyme also made scientist to study its substrate specificity, optimized activity conditions and inhibitors in detail. Aim of this review is to summarize the detail study regarding extraction and purification of polyphenol oxidase performed by researchers from wide variety of sources.
       
  • The potential of selected purple nonsulfur bacteria with ability to
           produce proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds for using in shrimp
           cultivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Natchapat Seangtumnor, Duangporn Kantachote, Phitthaya Nookongbut, Ampaitip Sukhoom This study was aimed to screen 22 purple nonsulfur bacteria (PNSB) isolates with the ability to secrete proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds, including affecting factors on proteolytic enzyme production of the selected PNSB. Use of overlay diffusion method under aerobic dark conditions found that only 12 PNSB isolates (54.55%) were able to inhibit shrimp pathogenic Vibrio spp.; while 18 isolates (81.82%) could liquefy gelatin under conditions of aerobic dark and microaerobic light. Twenty-time freeze-dried culture supernatant concentrates collected from 12 PNSB grown under the microaerobic light conditions, with the use of agar well diffusion found that only strain PS342 was capable to inhibit all 6 tested shrimp pathogenic vibrios. Among 18 proteolytic PNSB, only 5 strains showed high activity of gelatin liquefaction and this included strain PS342. The strain PS342 was identified using 16 S rRNA gene as Rhodovulum sulfidophilum. Glutamate-malate (GM) medium supplemented with 1.5% NaCl was the most suitable medium by giving µmax as 0.336 h−1. Use of central composite design, the maximal proteolytic activity was an average of 14.52 unit/ml in the suitable medium containing 1% gelatin under aerobic-dark conditions with the optimal speed at 150 rpm. The results of the verify test showed that optimum conditions (pH 7.90, 1.30% NaCl and 29.50 °C) for the proteolytic activity (15.40 unit/ml) were very close to real conditions for shrimp cultivation. R. sulfidophilum PS342 has the potential to be used in shrimp cultivation for its activities as a good producer of both proteolytic enzymes and antivibrio compounds.
       
  • Effect of ginger endophyte Rhizopycnis vagum on rhizome bud formation and
           protection from phytopathogens
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): C. Anisha, P. Jishma, V. Sasi Bilzamol, E.K. Radhakrishnan Most of the microorganisms residing within the plants are likely to be beneficial to the host plants as they either inhibit phytopathogens or promote plant growth. In the current study, endophytic fungal isolate from Zingiber officinale Rosc. with antagonism to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum was investigated for its broad antiphytopathogenic properties. The crude extract prepared from the organism was found to have activity against various phytopathogens which was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic analysis. The isolate was identified as Rhizopycnis vagum by ITS sequencing. Remarkably, during the rhizome protection studies, the organism was found to prevent P. myriotylum infection in ginger with associated enhancement in germination and bud development. Hence the result is indication of role of endophytic fungi as highly promising and broad spectrum plant probiotic agent.
       
  • Screening of a biological control bacterium to fight avocado diseases:
           From agroecosystem to bioreactor
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Sinar David Granada, Sara Ramírez-Restrepo, Lorena López-Luján, Carlos Alberto Peláez-Jaramillo, Juan Carlos Bedoya-Pérez Avocado diseases remain to be a major constraint for the development of this agribusiness, which is largely led by Latin American countries. In this study, a collection of 667 native avocado bacterial isolates was established and screened for antagonistic activity and bioactive secondary metabolite production against two important avocado pathogens (Phytophthora cinnamomi and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides). The isolate ARP5.1 demonstrated the highest potential for in vitro control of the phytopathogens and was identified as Serratia sp. To enhance bioactive metabolite production by ARP5.1, different combinations of agitation speeds and aeration rates were evaluated on a stirred tank bioreactor. The activity of the crude extracts was tested and cell growth kinetics, oxygen and glucose consumption, and production of secondary metabolites were determined at the fermentation conditions of higher inhibitory activity. Results evidenced oxygen as critical factor for the biosynthesis of metabolites of interest. In addition, shear stress and glucose were limiting factors in metabolite production. Prodigiosin, serratamolide and haterumalide NC were identified in the extracts by Liquid Chromatography coupled to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. However, the presence of haterumalide NC might explain the high activity of the crude extract against P. cinnamomi. We concluded that this bacterium might be a promising candidate for the control of avocado pathogens in field and a good source of bioactive metabolites.Graphical abstractHealthy avocado trees are a good source of microbes and bioactive compounds for the biological control of pathogens affecting cropsfx1
       
  • Expression profile of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and phenolic
           content during early stages of graft development in bud grafted Hevea
           brasiliensis
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Auraiporn Prabpree, Porntip Sangsil, Charassri Nualsri, Korakot Nakkanong Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme in the phenylpropanoid pathway responsible for the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites, such as anthocyanins, flavanols, and lignins. This study investigated the effect of grafting on vegetative growth, PAL expression and phenolic content of RRIM 600 and RRIT 251 bud grafted on different rubber rootstocks: for homografts (RRIM 600/RRIM 600 and RRIT 251/RRIT 251) and heterografts (RRIM 600/RRIM 623, RRIM 600/Clone#1, RRIM 600/Clone#2) (RRIT 251/RRIM 623, RRIT 251/Clone#1, RRIT 251/Clone#2) at 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after bud grafting. For the RRIM 600 scion, the rootstock that provided the highest growth rate was Clone#1 while RRIT 251 showed uniform growth on different graft combinations. The results indicate that grafting alters PAL gene expression. PAL transcripts at higher levels during the early stages of grafting development especially 7 days after grafting. However, no significant differences were detected in the phenolic content at different post-grafting times. These findings suggest that the expression of the PAL gene is related to grafting compatibility in grafted H. brasiliensis.
       
  • An approach to enhance nutritive quality of groundnut (Arachis hypogaea
           L.) seed oil through endo mycorrhizal fertigation
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Prerna B. Pawar, Jayshri P. Khadilkar, Mohan V. Kulkarni, Jose S. Melo Groundnut is the sixth most important oilseed crop in the world and India is the second largest groundnut producing country. There is a need of increasing the production of groundnut and stabilizing its yield by using proper agricultural practices. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) has been considered as an important strategy for sustainable agricultural practices. Approach of the present study was to evaluate effectiveness of ten different indigenous mycorrhizal species viz. Glomus mosseae, Glomus clarum, Glomus fasciculatum, Glomus intraradices, Glomus ambisporum, Gigaspora gigantea, Acaulospora denticulata, Glomus globiferum, Gigaspora albida and Glomus pansiholus on oil content, acid value, fatty acid profile and elemental status of groundnut oil. All the mycorrhizal treatments showed significant results as compared to the control (non mycorrhizal plants), but Glomus mosseae was found to be the most superior of all the ten mycorrhizal species. Oil percentage, extracted from Glomus mosseae (41.66%) treated groundnut oil was higher as compared to control (28.50%). Oleic acid, linoleic acid, palmitic acid content from groundnut oil of mycorrhiza treated plants varied in range of 36–45%, 16–22%, 13–18% respectively. Oil from Glomus mosseae treated groundnut plant showed increase in zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese content than other mycorrhiza treated groundnut seed oil and control. Oil extracted from mycorrhiza treated groundnut oil showed decrease in acid value (AV) than control, which indicates higher stability of oil and longer shelf life. Therefore, it is very important to select the correct and specific species of AMF for improving the oil profile of Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.)
       
  • Screening and production of lipase from fungal organisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Kiptoo Geoffry, Rajeshwara N. Achur Lipases (triacylglycerol acylhydrolases, (E.C. 3.1.1.3)) are a class of enzymes endowed with an ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of triglycerides to glycerol and free fatty acids. These are industrially significant, particularly microbial lipases. Among several diverse sources, lipases from fungal origin are much embraced owing to their high stability. These lipases are directly screened majorly by the plate assay technique involving various preferred and specific substrates and indirectly by appropriately growing the strains in liquid medium followed by analysing the activity of the filtrates. Production of fungal lipase is majorly by using solid state and submerged fermentation processes with considerable variation in their operational conditions, that are influenced by physico-chemical factors and which plays a major role in the optimum lipase production. Further, the immobilized fungal cells have also been employed for lipase production using various support materials. Keeping in view of all these aspects, this review focuses on the screening, production and utility of lipases obtained from prominent fungal organisms.
       
  • Selenorhizobacteria: As biofortification tool in sustainable
           agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Priyanka J. Patel, Goral R. Trivedi, Rupal K. Shah, Meenu Saraf Selenium biofortification in crops aims to either increase the accumulation of selenium in edible plants or to increase their bioavailability. It is one of the solutions for globally increasing hidden hunger for essential micronutrients. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are advantageous soil bacteria that inhabit plant roots and increase plant growth through various mechanisms in different ways. The motion of selenium across soil, crop and environment interfaces is thus of crucial importance for gain in human selenium status. This review gives an overview of microbial enhancement of selenium as beneficial element for plants, significance of selenium to human health, selenium response in soil crop system, selenium as plant protector against abiotic stresses and the possible approaches to enhancing selenium concentration through use of microorganisms (selenorhizobacteria) as biotechnological tools for increasing plant nutrition and quality.
       
  • Biofuels: Production of fungal-mediated ligninolytic enzymes and the modes
           of bioprocesses utilizing agro-based residues
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Saroj Paramjeet, P. Manasa, Narasimhulu Korrapati The depletion of fossil fuels and rise in their global energy consumption and demand have had a major impact on the stability of the ecosystem and highlighted the need for efficient, sustainable, and renewable alternative sources of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass-based biofuels are highly advantageous due to their enormous supply in nature. Enzymatic bioconversion of lignocellulose polysaccharides into monomeric sugars has a higher efficiency than traditional chemical modes of action. Fungal-mediated ligninolytic enzymes offer even greater advantages in the bioconversion of lignocelluloses into simple sugars due to their thermostability, activity across a wide range of pH values, high specificity, and minimal by-products. This review, based on recent developments in the field of fungal-derived ligninolytic enzymes, discusses their mechanisms of action along with their production and the modes of bioprocesses involved as well as different techniques, such as heterologous gene expression, mutagenesis, and co-culturing, that enhance production and improve catalytic and stability properties.
       
  • Biosurfactants: Production and potential applications in microbial
           enhanced oil recovery (MEOR)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Geetha S.J., Ibrahim M. Banat, Sanket J. Joshi Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a type of enhanced oil recovery (EOR) technology, generally employed as a tertiary stage where oil recovery using primary and secondary traditional methods is not feasible anymore. Amongst several potential biological agents useful for MEOR, biosurfactants (biologically produced amphiphilic surfactants) play key roles. They are mostly equivalent to or better than their chemical counterparts in several aspects including; better environmental compatibility, production from renewable waste substrates, maintaining activity at harsh environmental conditions, lower or no environmental toxicity. Biosurfactants are still not cost-competitive when compared to chemical surfactants. Different strategies like the use of cheaper raw materials, optimization of media components, fermentation processes and downstream processes, use of hyperproducers are currently explored to improve biosurfactant production economics. Biosurfactant mediated MEOR (BS-MEOR) could be applied by either in-situ or ex-situ techniques. In-situ BS-MEOR could be applied by injecting biosurfactant producing microorganisms in the oil well with or without additional nutrients. Generally followed by shut-in phase and subsequently monitoring microbial activities, metabolites production and oil recovery from the producer wells. Whereas for ex-situ BS-MEOR applications, the biosurfactant is produced outside the oil well and injected directly for enhancing oil recovery. This review highlights the biosurfactant production and economics, general protocols for applications from lab-to-field scale, different successful trials along with pros and cons of both in-situ and ex-situ BS-MEOR applications.
       
  • Biochemical properties of peroxidase from white and red cultivars of
           kolanut (Cola nitida)
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Isaac Olusanjo Adewale, Adeola Tomilola Adekunle We report the properties of peroxidase from red and white cultivars of kolanut, Cola nitida, for the purpose of providing information on suitability or otherwise of the enzyme for different biotechnological applications. Peroxidase is present in the crude extract of both cultivars with a specific activity of 52 ± 4 and 50 ± 7 units/mg protein for red and white nuts respectively. During purification the enzyme was separated into two isoforms with native molecular weight of 38.2 ± 1.8 kDa for white kolanut; 43.3 ± 1.5 kDa and 26 ± 1.8 kDa respectively for isoenzymes A and B of the red cultivar. Optimum temperature of all the isoforms of peroxidase from the two cultivars was 35 °C. Optimum pH for white cultivar enzyme was 4.5 and red cultivars had 5.0. All the isoforms were quite stable in 5 mM H2O2 concentrations or below. The catalytic efficiencies (kcat/Km) of all the purified proteins were between 105–107 M−1 s−1. Some of the isoforms were activated in water-miscible organic solvents. Kolanut peroxidase could be bonded to bovine serum albumin forming a higher molecular weight adduct. The study concluded that kolanut peroxidase possesses many physicochemical properties that make it suitable for application in biotechnology.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Thermodynamics characterization and potential textile applications of
           Trichoderma longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Abeer A. Abd El Aty, Shireen A.A. Saleh, Basma M. Eid, Nabil A. Ibrahim, Faten A. Mostafa Our study was a trial to participate in solving two main problems namely, environmental pollution resulting from accumulation and bad disposal of agro-industrial wastes, and high cost of industrial xylanase enzyme production. This was achieved through successful xylanase production by solid-state fermentation of low cost disposable agricultural wastes by marine fungal isolate Trichoderma longibrachiatum KT693225. The highest xylanase production 7.13 ± 0.11 U ml−1 was obtained utilizing rice straw (RS) waste after 7days of fermentation. Xylanase was purified by fractional precipitation with ethanol causing 4.24-fold purification. The 75% ethanol fraction was rich in cellulase, pectinase and α-amylase enzymes beside xylanase. The maximal xylanase activity was obtained at 60 °C, pH 5% and 2.5% xylan concentration. The Km and Vmax were calculated to be 20 mg ml−1 and 20 µmol min−1 ml−1, respectively. The thermostability of T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase was indicated by low Ea (activation energy)and high Ed (energy of denaturation). High T1/2 (half life), D-value (decimal reduction time), ΔH° (enthalpy), ΔG° (free energy) and low Kd (denaturation rate constant), ΔS° (entropy) values at 70 °C emphasized high T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase stability. T.longibrachiatum KT693225 xylanase showed high effectiveness at several textile wet-processing stages including desizing, bioscouring and biofinishing of cellulosic fabrics without adding any additives. These findings in this study have great implications for the future applications of xylanases.
       
  • A novel Trichoderma harzianum strain from the Amazon Forest with
           high cellulolytic capacity
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Marcella Fernandes de Souza, Ayla Sant’Ana da Silva, Elba P.S. Bon This work evaluated the production of cellulases and accessory enzymes by nine Trichoderma strains from the Brazilian Amazon Forest in comparison to the reference strain Trichoderma reesei RUT C-30. A selected T. harzianum strain showed total cellulase activity of 1.63 FPU/mL, which was higher than that measured for T. reesei RUT C-30. T. harzianum also produced high β-glucosidase levels, reaching 3.55 BGU/mL. The cellulolytic efficiency of T. harzianum and T. reesei Rut C-30 supernatants supplemented with Aspergillus awamori supernatant as a source of β-glucosidase and accessory enzymes were evaluated under comparative conditions using ball-milled and hydrothermally treated sugarcane bagasse. Both enzyme preparations showed comparable glucose yields of 72% for the low crystalline ball-milled material. However, T. harzianum enzymes were 25% less efficient than those of T. reesei-A. awamori for the hydrolysis of hydrothermally treated bagasse, which presents a higher crystallinity. Nevertheless, the association of a high cellulolytic activity and a high β-glucosidase activity in the same microorganism indicates the industrial potential of this new wild type T. harzianum strain.Graphical abstractfx1
       
  • Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) based validation of
           laccase production using RSM model
    • Abstract: Publication date: April 2018Source: Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, Volume 14Author(s): Mukesh Kumar, Gursharan Singh, Shailendra Kumar Arya, Jasvinder Singh Bhatti, Prince Sharma Numerous reports exist in recent literature where the One Variable at Time (OVAT) based optimization of medium components achieved for the laccase production enhancement by fungi and bacteria. OVAT strategy is not a suitable for the cost-effective production of enzymes in lieu of modern statistical and mathematical techniques like Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Artificial Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) and Response Surface Methodology (RSM).By using RSM maximum laccase yield was achieved 7.4 × 104 nkat L−1 from γ-proteobacterium JB in best combination of the factors, pH 8.0, 210 rpm, 100 µM, CuSO4 after 60 h of incubation time. In this paper an ANFIS was designed and trained by inputting 75% of the total combinations of factors (pH, rpm, CuSO4 and incubation time) along with their respective laccase yield as produced by the conventional system of experimentation. The trained system was tested on 25% of the total combinations of factors (pH, rpm, CuSO4 and incubation time) along with their respective laccase yield as produced by the conventional system of experimentation. The training phase and testing phase error reported by the ANFIS is 0.084573 and 0.12647 respectively which are quite tolerable while dealing with the limited actual experiment results. The ANFIS laccase yield prediction results are in consonance with those produced by the RSM system and in fact are closer to the actual laccase yield.
       
 
 
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