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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.172
Number of Followers: 67  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Mining, Isolation and Identification of Siderophore Synthesis Gene from
           Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3

    • Abstract: Objective of this paper is to excavate the siderophore synthesis gene from Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 and verify its type and antibacterial effects. The method is using genome mining technology to analyze the siderophore synthesis genes and the phylogenetic tree of each synthesis gene was constructed separately. Iron free medium was utilized to induce the synthesis of siderophore and CAS liquid detection method was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis on siderophore. The type of siderophore was preliminaries identified by Arnow and its antibacterial effects were analyzed according to the agar punching method. The results show that a siderophore synthesis gene cluster with 83% similarity to Petrobactin was found in Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 genome. Iron free medium could induce siderophore synthesis and the optimal incubation time cultured in iron free medium was 30 h and 48 h. Antagonistic strain GZDF3 had the capacity to synthesize catechol-type siderophore. Also, GZDF3 had a powerful antibacterial effect on pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum of rotted root on Pinellia ternata. Therefore, Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 can produce catechol-type siderophore in an iron-deficient culture medium, which was also a main antifungal active substance.
       
  • Design of Intelligent Household Fruit Vinegar Fermentation Device and
           Optimization of Key Parameters

    • Abstract: Compared with carbonated beverages, fruit vinegar was gradually becoming more favored by consumers, because of their higher nutritional functions. But its popularization was limited by higher selling price. This article described a fruit vinegar fermentation device that can be used at home and also introduced the design principles, composition and operation methods. Furthermore, taking apple vinegar as an example, the key parameters of fermentation were determined by single-factor and orthogonal tests. In alcohol fermentation, the fermentation time, fermentation temperature and inoculation amount were 72 h, 30°C and 0.07%, respectively. In acetic acid fermentation, the fermentation temperature, ventilation and bacteria amount were 32°C, 4 L/min and 0.18%, respectively. The refreshing and fermented apple vinegar could be obtained with the total acid content of 3.6 g/100 mL. The kinetic formula between the content of acetic acid and fermentation time was calculated and acetic acid content of fruit vinegar could be determined by controlling fermentation time according to the formula. So, the device could produce different content of acetic acid of fruit vinegar automatically, without manual operation. The study was sufficient to provide reference and experience for further popularization of fruit vinegar.
       
  • High Level of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) and Natural Resistance
           Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) Gene Transcription Induced by
           Potassium Nitrate in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    • Abstract: Changes in gene transcription in response to excess metal concentrations have been reported in many organisms, including yeast, microorganisms and plants. Most investigations on the effects of nickel toxicity in plants use commercial salts whose effects have not been analyzed in detail. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different doses of nickel nitrate and potassium nitrates on gene transcription in Populus tremuloides. Four month-old P. tremuloides seedlings were treated with different doses of nitrate salts including 150 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1, 600 mg/kg. A significant increase of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) gene transcription was induced by the 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of nickel nitrate doses compared to water. This upregulation was driven by nitrate rather than nickel. Likewise, the 800 mg/kg and 1,600 mg/kg doses of potassium nitrate resulted in significant increase in the transcription of Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) gene compared to water control and the 150 mg/kg dose. This differential transcription of this gene was caused by potassium. Our results also confirmed that the low level of bioavailable nickel in metal–contaminated soils (<150 mg/kg) cannot induce differential transcription of NAS3 and NRAMP4. The use of nitrate without nickel should be required as additional controls in any study assessing effects of Ni using nickel nitrate salts.
       
  • Production of Selenium-Enriched Yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus) Biomass in
           a whey-based Culture Medium

    • Abstract: Two important aspects of agriculture intensification are the reduction in the concentration of specific soil minerals that affects livestock production and the increase of agricultural by-products, which produce environmental pollution. In this regard, whey - a cheese by-product-often is considered a wasted-product. Due to its lactose concentration, (4.5%), when whey is discarded without treatment generates a high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Taking into account these two issues, we developed a whey-based culture medium to produce selenium-enriched Kluyveromyces biomass. Then, we evaluated the effect of its supplementation on calves blood selenium concentration. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 11954 and Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 3795 strains were used in this study. Different culture media were prepared using whey as a main component and supplemented with peptone, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 as appropriate. In the selected whey culture medium, three sodium selenite concentrations between 10-30 μg/mL were tested to produce selenium-enriched biomass. After that, a scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank bioreactor was carried out to increase final yeast biomass levels. Finally, dietary supplementation experiments with selenium-enriched yeast were conducted to increase selenium content in calves. K. marxianus DSM 11954 showed a better growth performance than K. lactis DSM 3795 in a medium composed by whey, (NH4)2SO4 5 g/L, K2HPO4 1 g/L (pH 6.5) so, this strain was chosen to continue the experiments. The results showed that sodium selenite addition at 20 μg/mL was adequate to generate selenium-enriched biomass. Our study demonstrated that whey is an optimal and economical culture medium to produce selenium-enriched- yeast biomass. Also, we proved that 10 days of yeast-biomass supplementation raised blood-selenium level in calves.
       
  • The Influence of Partial Substitution of Potassium by Sodium on the Growth
           Effect of Sugarcane

    • Abstract: The effects of different potassium and sodium levels on the growth of Taisugar No. 22 (ROC22) were studied by potted nutrient solution-sand culture experiment in this paper. The results showed that under low potassium stress (0 mmol/L) supply, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote photosynthesis of sugarcane and dry matter accumulation, reduce root shoot ratio and promote shoot growth. When low potassium (0.2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could reduce the root shoot ratio of sugarcane. When high potassium (2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote the growth of sugarcane root and increase root shoot ratio. In the case of low potassium or high potassium, the rational application of sodium can promote photosynthesis of sugarcane, while excessive sodium can inhibit photosynthesis. Thereby, sodium can be used as a substitute for partial potassium to promote the growth of sugarcane in the soil with low available potassium and water-soluble sodium.
       
  • Improvement on Extracellular Production of Recombinant Burkholderia
           cepacia Lu10-1 Lipase by Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate several strategies on enhancing extracellular production of recombinant lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). In the present study, a fed-batch fermentation strategy for the excellular production of lipase by E. coli has been established. First of all, different induction methods (including selection of inducers, inducer concentration, induction temperature and induction time) were investigated and the results indicated that these factors played an important role in lipase production. When induced by 0.8 g L-1 h-1 lactose at 30°C and at a OD600 of 30, the lipase activity in the culture medium could achieve 58 U mL-1. Moreover, addition of glycine and calcium ions can increase the extracellular yield of lipase. With supplementation of the culture with 0.5% (w/v) glycine and 2.5 mM Ca2+, the maximum extracellular activity of lipase could reach 85 U mL-1, which was 2.1 fold higher than that of the control. This study might provide fermentation strategy for the extracellular production of other heterogonous proteins expressed in E. coli.
       
  • The Contamination Degree of Characteristic Fungi in Jet Fuel Detected by
           ATP Bioluminescence

    • Abstract: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) lysate of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel was screened and three fluorescein-luciferase systems were compared in the paper. The correlation between ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate count for measuring the number of microorganism was also investigated and then a method of detecting the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi of jet fuel by ATP bioluminescence were initially established. The results show that the effect of ATP extraction taking surfactant Benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BAC) as the microbial lysate was optimal and the optimal concentration and the action time were 0.15% and 30s respectively; The fluorescein-luciferase system after screening has a good detection limit, up to 10-15mol ATP; using ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate method to measure the microbial quantity, they have good correlation. Utilizing ATP bioluminescence to detect the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel can shorten the test time to 10min, which is suitable for rapid detection and has good application prospects.
       
  • The Evolution Force of Genome Reduction in Carnivorous Plants

    • Abstract: The introns are widely present in the genome of eukaryotes and the distribution of intron varies greatly among different organisms or different genes. Generally, introns loss is an important way for uneven distribution of intron during genome evolution. In this study, two closely related carnivorous plants (Genlisea aurea and Utricularia gibba) were chosen, their genome were relatively integrity and high quality, especially, the large difference in genome size between them. We detected intron loss events, then investigated the relationship between the genome size, intron density, intron loss and the mutation rate in the carnivorous plants. Finally, a total of 752 and 124 intron loss positions were identified in G. aurea and U. gibba, respectively. In carnivorous plants, we found that the region around lost site had high mutation rate, the genes of intron loss had high mutation rate. Besides, for the species with more intron losses, the genome size was smaller and the mutation rate was higher. Thus, we propose that the mutation rate was positively correlated with intron losses, but negatively correlated with intron number and genome size. These could be explained by the selection to minimize mutational hazards.
       
  • Construction of Recombinant Bioleaching Bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
           with Fluoride-Resistant Activity

    • Abstract: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an important bioleaching bacterium, widely used in leaching, recovery of low-grade metals and environmental bioremediation. In bio-metallurgy industry, fluoride existing in some hard rock uranium deposits in south China severely affects the bacteria viability and inhibit leaching reproduction. In this study, the flr-4 gene that has strong resistance to fluorine ion in Caenorhabditis elegans, was cloned into pET30a vector and expressed in E. coli BL21. the ability of fluoride resistance in E. coli was increased obviously. To increase the fluoride-resistance of bioleaching bacterium T. ferrooxidans strain 1 (T.f1), the flr-4 shuttle recombinant plasmid pJRD215-flr-4 was constructed and transferred into T.f1 by conjugation. pJRD215-flr-4 was stable in T.f1 with more than 70% retention after 50 generations. Recombinant T.f1 was tolerant to fluorine ions and grew well under fluoride (F-) stress especially at F- concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 60 mg/L.
       
  • Space Distribution of Highland Barley GNS and its Relationship with
           Environmental Factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    • Abstract: In order to study the space distribution of Grain Number per spike (GNS) and its relationship with the environmental factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 83 data samples from different ecological areas were selected for GNS inverstigation. Meanwhile, the seeds of highland barley were harvested and planted in the farm of Xizang Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College; the varieties without genetic differences were selected and their GNS was analyzed with the local geography and climate factors. The results shows that: (1) In the horizontal direction, GNS forms the high value area of Central and South Tibetan taking Qiongjie and Longzi as the center; (2) In the vertical direction, GNS appears with double high value areas at the altitude of 3900m-4200m and above 4500m respectively and the corresponding GNS is 52.9±17.6 and 57.2±0.2 respectively; (3) the environmental factors influencing GNS are in the order that soil total nitrogen>soil available nitrogen>the average precipitation at heading-filling stage>altitude>soil organic matter>soil total phosphorus>the average rainfall at jointing-heading stage>soil available potassium>the average rainfall at tillering-jointing stage.
       
  • Statistical Improvement of Batch Culture with Immobilized Pichia pastoris
           Cells for rPOXA 1B Laccase Production

    • Abstract: Immobilized Pichia pastoris X33/pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop in Ca2+ alginate beads was employed for Pleurotus ostreatus rPOXA 1B laccase batch production. Sequential statistical improvement was achieved through Plackett-Burman (PBED), (PBED-T11, 29.5±0.8 UL-1), which allowed to increase activity by 2.36-fold (12.5±2.6 UL-1) obtained in a preliminary study. Following, Box-Behnken Experimental Design (BBED) was implemented and obtained enzymatic activity in PBED-T11 was further increased by 33.5-fold (BBED-T12 989.31±187.45 UL-1). After BBED-T12 extrapolation to column, cell release remained high. To demonstrate laccase was not acting on Ca2+ alginate polymer, it was shown that both untransformed P. pastoris and S. cervisiae were able to be released from the alginate matrix and proliferate. Molecular docking evaluating interaction between rPOXA 1B and Ca2+ alginate, exhibited weak interactions between the active center and Ca2+ alginate polymer. Moreover, the active center conformation was not appropriate for ligand transformation. Immobilization conditions decreasing cell release (17.01±0.12 gL-1) allowed for high enzymatic activity (1,453.93±0.43 UL-1) with greater specific activity (18.33 Umg-1). These conditions were: 4% Na2+ alginate (w/v) and 0.3 M CaCl2, suggesting that Na2+ alginate and CaCl2 concentrations can control cell release from this matrix.
       
  • Improvements on Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent Extraction of Biocrude Oil
           from Spirogyra. sp Macro Algae

    • Abstract: Here, we report on an improved chemical method to extract hydrocarbons (CH) and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) from wild green macro algae, which is higher than that carried out with conventional Soxhlet (Sx) and similar to that of Subcritical (SbC) or supercritical fluid (SCE) extraction methods. Crude oil plus residual biomass gave combined calorific values of 49.05 MJ/kg in agreement with its high-detected hydrocarbons (C, 72.56%; H, 10.59%) as desired for high quality liquid fuels. Oil extraction from macro algae was improved from 13.2% (Sx) to 34.8 % under Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent (SmCA-Sol) conditions. The extraction improvements are associated with an upgraded glassware design that works than in continuous or step-by-step operation under mild or high temperatures (<40, >500°C) as well as under moderate vacuum to above 1.0 atmosphere of pressure. The SmCA-Sol method creates a dynamic steam/solvent phase which exposes algae cell matrices to percolation in two opposite pathways leading to high yields of biomass extraction whether compared with traditional methods. Factors governing cell wall activation under SmCA-Sol conditions are discussed and compared with those carried out using advanced technologies and make recommendations towards future research regardless of macro algae chemical extraction of hydrocarbon and lipids.
       
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Jet Fuel by
           Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Dipstick
           

    • Abstract: The existence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is one of the significant reasons for the Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of jet fuel. Especially for the jet fuel stored by military, since jet fuel is stored in the tank for a long time, some oxygen-consuming bacteria such as Amorphotheca resinae and Bacillus Cohn can consume oxygen and generate organic acids at the oil-water interface of the tank bottom. This causes anaerobic SRB flourish in fuel tanks. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD) assay was established to detect the SRB. Four groups of LAMP primers were designed and synthesized to target dsrB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase β-subunit) genes in SRB.LAMP-LFD can detect 121 fg/μL of SRB DNA within 35 min. The detection limit of this method is 1000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR and shortens the detection time greatly. This method is negative for other eight common bacteria species in jet fuel, indicating that the method has high specificity. In summary, this method can be used to detect the presence of SRB in jet fuel.
       
  • Current Laboratory Biosecurity for Handling Pathogenic Viruses

    • Abstract: The recent emergence of lethal viruses such as Ebola raises some concern about the possibility of the viruses being used as biological weapons. The application of pathogenic viruses as biothreat agents in the past is well documented. Although their use in warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention, their potential use in bioterrorism is a global concern. One of the requirements for conducting biological attack using viruses is successful aquisition of particular viruses for that action. Apart from natural sources, the laboratory can potentially be the source of viral biothreat agents. An effective strategy to avoid bioterrorism is to prevent bioterrorist action. Therefore, it is important in the laboratory handling of pathogenic viruses to implement biosecurity systems in order to prevent loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release that could lead dangerous viruses falling into unsafe hands. Viruses of biosecurity concern are those which particularly have an ability to cause large-scaled casualties and are easy disseminated. The level of biosecurity risk posed by the viruses being handled in the laboratory needs to be assessed in order to establish program at an appropriate level of laboratory biosecurity. A laboratory biosecurity system should include physical security, viruses control and accountability, personnel security, transport security and information security. In the laboratory, the implementation of a biosecurity system can be integrated to the biosafety plan. This review focuses on viruses of biosecurity concern, the principles of laboratory biosecurity, the assessment of laboratory biosecurity risk and how to render the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level. The review is intended to raise awareness among scientists and laboratory workers on the potency of the pathogenic viruses which can be misused and to develop secure and responsible scientific conduct involving pathogenic viruses.
       
  • Low-Homology Protein Structural Class Prediction from Secondary Structure
           Based on Visibility and Horizontal Visibility Network

    • Abstract: In this study, based on the predicted secondary structures of proteins, we propose a new approach to predict protein structural classes (α,β,α/β,α+β) for three widely used low-homology data sets. Fist, we obtain two time siries from the chaos game representation of each predicted secondary structure; second, based on two time series, we construct visibility and horizontal visibility network, respectively and generate a set of features using 17 network features; finaly, we predict each protein structure class using support vector machine and Fisher’s linear discriminant algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate our method, the leave one out cross-validating test is employed on three data sets. Results show that our approach has been provided as a effective tool for the prediction of low-homology protein structural classes.
       
  • Antifungal Potential of Leptadenia Hastata Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the plant extract could provide antifungal potential against some pathogenic fungi. Extract of Dichloromethane solvents was used for disc diffusion assay. The inhibitory concentration of the extract was performed by broth dilution method and zone of inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000ppm in DMSO. Fluconazole was used as the reference control for antifungal study. The extract showed maximum inhibition potential of zone of inhibition against most of the pathogen (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium oxysporium) used at concentration 25ppm to 250ppm with zone of inhibition (3.45±0, 3.33±0.12, 3.07±0.05 and 2.97±0.10mm respectively). The extract showed minimum inhibition potential against Fusarium oxysporium in all the concentration when compared with the control as well as to the other pathogens. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be more sensitive to Dichloromethane leaf extract followed by Candida tropical and lastly fusarium oxyspurium. The Present study indicates the potential usefulness of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata as antifungal agent.
       
  • Forensic Evidence for Cytochrome b Gene SNPs in Obese and Non Obese Saudi
           Arabians

    • Abstract: Oral swabs from obese and non obese Saudi Arabians from both sexes with an average age of 35 years old were collected and their DNAs were extracted. PCR for 1000 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene was conducted and the amplified products were sequenced in order to determine the possible forensic or obesity-related SNPs. Alignment of the obtained sequences with its counterparts of 100 healthy Afro-Asians deposited in the Genbank was undertaken and the polymorphic sites were compared. Sixteen Single Nucleotide Polymorphic sites (SNPs) and 26 variations were noted. From the 26 variations, sixteen were synonymous and the other 10 were non-synonymous. Four common haplogroups were determined using Mitomaster software (H2a, JT, U5a and R0a). Most of SNPs were related to tribes more than to obesity and the major SNP (C15452A) was recorded in both obese and non obese haplotypes. Two non-synonymous amino acid changes were found in 2 obese males (H15 and H27; A15043G) and 2 obese females (H48 and H51; C15677A) indicating that both SNPs could be obesity markers. In conclusion, cytb gene is reasonably applicable in forensic purpose while it was unclear to be used as an obesity marker. It needs to be examined for hundreds of unrelated obese and non obese people.
       
  • Molecular Analysis of KRAS Mutation Associated with Colorectal Cancer in
           Iraqi Patients

    • Abstract: The role of KRAS gene was investigated in manifestation of colorectal cancer in Iraqi patients. A total 40 blood samples were collected during October 2016 to January 2017 from AL-Amal Hospital in Baghdad and 20 blood samples from healthy subjects served as control. Blood samples were collected from subjects of 40-70 years old for both patients and control. The study found that age group 61-70 years old were more susceptible to colorectal cancer with ratio of 40% more than younger individuals involved in this study with higher frequency in males with 75.5% than females who show 49.5% (p>0.01) when both compared to the same gender. DNA extracted from positive cancer samples and control were subjected to specific PCR amplification using 10 specifically designed primers for this study to amplify KRAS gene exons. DNA sequencing for the resulting amplicons showed the presence of significant genetic change that included substitution and insertion, causing 15% frame shift and 85% missense changes at positions 5920, consequently led to sever disruption in KRAS function.
       
  • Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Alloplasmic
           Sunflower (Helianthus L.) Lines with Various CMS Types

    • Abstract: The complete chloroplast genomes of sunflower fertile line HA89 and isonuclear CMS lines with four different cytoplasmic backgrounds (PET1, PET2, ANN2 and MAX) were sequenced. A total of 451 polymorphic sites, with including 58 SSRs, 317 SNPs and 76 microindels were revealed between the fertile and CMS cytotypes. Among the alloplasmic male-sterile lines, cpDNA of CMS-MAX had the largest number of polymorphisms. The lowest number of polymorphic sites was revealed in CMS-PET1. Like as CMS-PET1, CMS-PET2 was obtained as a result of interspecific crossing between H. petiolaris and cultivated sunflower H. annuus. Nevertheless, the number of INDELs and SNPs in CMS-PET2 chloroplast genome was more than 4-fold and 6.5-fold higher than that in cpDNA of CMS-PET1. The average frequency of SNPs and INDELs in the non-genic regions and genic regions were 0.0062 and 0.0046, respectively. Increased mutation rates were found in the psbM-rpoB, rps16 intron, atpA-psbD, rps4-ndhJ and ndhc-atpE non-coding regions, as well as in the rpoC2, atpA, rbcL, ndhF and ycf1 genes. In addition to short insertions and deletions ranging from 1 to 5 bp, the relatively long INDELs (14-24 bp) unique for each CMS line were found. These insertions and deletions may be of use for PCR differentiation of the CMS lines due to differences in the amplicons length.
       
  • Lumbricus rubellus Protein Fraction DLBS1033N Increases Nerve Growth
           Factor Expression via Tyrosine Kinase Activation

    • Abstract: Nerve injury occurred due to mechanical, thermal, chemical, or ischemic factors. Nerve regeneration is needed for recovery. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation are important factors in the nerve regeneration process. Schwann cells release neurotrophins in the nerve regeneration process. In this study, Lumbricus rubellus protein fraction DLBS1033N was used as therapeutic protein candidate for nerve regeneration treatments. DLBS1033N treatments promoted the growth and survival of Schwann cell in free serum and free serum plus minimum O2 conditions. Real-time PCR and ELISA methods revealed that DLBS1033N induced NGF expressions. The growth and survival of Schwann cells were related to NGF expressions in a specific inhibitor TrkA study. Furthermore, in real-time PCR study, DLBS1033N was able to activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study showed that L. rubellus protein fraction DLS1033N can promote the growth and survival of Schwann cells by inducing NGF expressions. Cells growth and survival activities are likely achieved via PI3K pathway.
       
  • Impact of Ultra Violet Radiation on Polyethylene Packaged Water Exposed at
           Varying Conditions: Are we Drinking Micro-Plastics'

    • Abstract: The public is worried about how their health is impacted by microplastics in sachet water. This awareness has repercussion for water producing factories and public health organization in managing health hazard associated with microplastic ingestion. Many countries in Africa, with concern to Nigeria, the act of packaging water in polyethylene materials by water producing factories has become accustomed. These packaged products are popularly called pure water or sachets water. The packaged materials are made of antioxidants, stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, antimicrobials, anti-static and anti-blocking agents. Heat hindrance agents are usually incorporated to improve functionality of polyethylene. It was conceived that the polyethylene material if exposed to sun light radiation over a period of time, its components may leach into the potable water due to photolytic, photo-oxidative and thermo-oxidative reactions caused by fragmentation of the polyethylene material. This research was designed to evaluate the water quality/safety of polyethylene sachet-packaged exposed to direct sunlight at different days. Eighteen polyethylene packaged water were sampled from three different factories - Lion water, Galaxy and Ashor water in Nsukka area of Enugu State. They were exposed to sunlight at 31 to 33°C for (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h), respectively. Agilent gas chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy was used to analyze the exposed and unexposed (control) packaged water. Organic compounds such as low molecular weight substituted hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trichloromethane, benzene, limonene, xylene, toluene and 2-hexanone were detected in all the exposed samples. These micoplastics which leached into water has been listed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry as potential human carcinogens. The concern now is whether we are drinking micoplastics. The only way out of this perceived health risk is to change the packaging material to prevent ingestion of microplastics in water.
       
  • Gelatin Extraction of Alaska Pollock (Theragra
           chalcogramma
    ) Dry Skin

    • Abstract: Alaska Pollock is rich in resource. And during its processing, skin is peeled as byproducts. The skin of Alaska Pollock contains lots of collagen or gelatin, promising materials, which can be used in food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Extracting collagen from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock is studied in this study to provide a better basement for fully using this renewable resource. Three kinds of gelatin were extracted by using acid, pepsin-assisted acid and hot water, respectively. The productivity of Acid Soluble Gelatin (ASG), Pepsin Soluble Gelatin (PSG) and hot Water Soluble Gelatin (WSG) were 7.33, 30.89 and 12.67%, respectively. Their UV absorption spectrum were similar and match with the absorption of dilute protein solution. The protein contents of ASG, PSG and WSG were 84-90%, with no significantly difference between them. The characters of SDS-PAGE and the circular dichroism spectrum shown that the PSG is broken into small fragment and has less secondary structure. In conclusion, the hot water extraction is the best way to extract the gelatin from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock.
       
  • Conservation of Binding of Llama and Other Animals’ Hemoglobins to
           Haptoglobins Across Species

    • Abstract: The plasma protein haptoglobin binds hemoglobin released from lysed erythrocytes. It causes removal of the free hemoglobin, thus preventing pathological oxidation of cells. Hemoglobin higher level structures are well conserved across animal species but primary structures can be as little as 50% homologous. Because of these differences, the question arose as to what extent hemoglobins can bind to haptoglobins from different species. The charge properties and binding to three genetic variants of human haptoglobin were compared by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, with llama, human, dog, pig, horse and goat hemoglobins. In this study, it was reported for the first time that llama and alpaca hemoglobins differed in electrophoretic mobility from hemoglobins from several animal species and humans. Llama hemoglobin was more positively charged than the other mammalian hemoglobins. Electrophoretic mobility changes of the animal hemoglobins in the presence of human plasma and two different purified human haptoglobin genetic variants suggested that hemoglobins from all animals in this study could bind all three genetic variants of human haptoglobin. In all cases, the llama hemoglobin-haptoglobin samples had lesser mobility than those of the other mammals. This study showed that the binding sites on hemoglobin and haptoglobin for each other have been evolutionarily conserved despite differences in primary structure and marked difference in the charge of llama hemoglobin from the other animal species and humans.
       
  • Essential Proteins Discovery Methods based on the Protein-Protein
           Interaction Networks

    • Abstract: Essential proteins are closely related to biological survival or reproduction and have important application value in respect of the location of disease genes, disease diagnosis and treatment, drug design. In order to discovery essential proteins, the researchers have proposed experimental approaches, but these methods require laborious and time consuming. With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, plenty of computational methods based on the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks have been put forward to identify essential proteins. In this study, we firstly have introduced the basic characteristics and data set of essential proteins and essential proteins discovery method in the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. Following that, we have analyzed and compared the difference of various existing strategies and then have pointed out the merits and demerits of them in detailed. At last, we give several important problems and development trend about essential proteins discovery methods, which provide a strong foundation for the further research.
       
  • Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Lipase from
           Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1

    • Abstract: Even though lipase genes from a variety of microorganism have been cloned and over-expressed, the prospective lipase resources for commercial production and industry application are still limited. In the present study, a lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 is heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the recombinant lipase from B. cepacia Lu10-1 (abbreviated as lipase Lu10-1) is estimated to be about 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lipase Lu10-1 has a priority for the long- chain length substrates. The optimal temperature of lipase Lu10-1 is 60°C and it preserves high thermostability with residual activities of over 80% after 100 h at 60°C or over 60% after 30 h at 70°C. The optimal pH of lipase Lu10-1 is 9.0 and it has broad pH adaptability over a range of 5.0-10.0 retaining 80% activity between pH 6.0 and 9.0 after incubation at 37°C for 24 h. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of lipase Lu10-1 is not obviously affected by several metal ions and it exhibites solid tolerance and stability towards various surfactants and organic solvents. The present study provides the basis for the potential applications of lipase Lu10-1 in related industries.
       
 
 
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