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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3149 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.172
Number of Followers: 64  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Jet Fuel by
           Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Dipstick
           

    • Abstract: The existence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is one of the significant reasons for the Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of jet fuel. Especially for the jet fuel stored by military, since jet fuel is stored in the tank for a long time, some oxygen-consuming bacteria such as Amorphotheca resinae and Bacillus Cohn can consume oxygen and generate organic acids at the oil-water interface of the tank bottom. This causes anaerobic SRB flourish in fuel tanks. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD) assay was established to detect the SRB. Four groups of LAMP primers were designed and synthesized to target dsrB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase β-subunit) genes in SRB.LAMP-LFD can detect 121 fg/μL of SRB DNA within 35 min. The detection limit of this method is 1000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR and shortens the detection time greatly. This method is negative for other eight common bacteria species in jet fuel, indicating that the method has high specificity. In summary, this method can be used to detect the presence of SRB in jet fuel.
       
  • Current Laboratory Biosecurity for Handling Pathogenic Viruses

    • Abstract: The recent emergence of lethal viruses such as Ebola raises some concern about the possibility of the viruses being used as biological weapons. The application of pathogenic viruses as biothreat agents in the past is well documented. Although their use in warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention, their potential use in bioterrorism is a global concern. One of the requirements for conducting biological attack using viruses is successful aquisition of particular viruses for that action. Apart from natural sources, the laboratory can potentially be the source of viral biothreat agents. An effective strategy to avoid bioterrorism is to prevent bioterrorist action. Therefore, it is important in the laboratory handling of pathogenic viruses to implement biosecurity systems in order to prevent loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release that could lead dangerous viruses falling into unsafe hands. Viruses of biosecurity concern are those which particularly have an ability to cause large-scaled casualties and are easy disseminated. The level of biosecurity risk posed by the viruses being handled in the laboratory needs to be assessed in order to establish program at an appropriate level of laboratory biosecurity. A laboratory biosecurity system should include physical security, viruses control and accountability, personnel security, transport security and information security. In the laboratory, the implementation of a biosecurity system can be integrated to the biosafety plan. This review focuses on viruses of biosecurity concern, the principles of laboratory biosecurity, the assessment of laboratory biosecurity risk and how to render the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level. The review is intended to raise awareness among scientists and laboratory workers on the potency of the pathogenic viruses which can be misused and to develop secure and responsible scientific conduct involving pathogenic viruses.
       
  • Low-Homology Protein Structural Class Prediction from Secondary Structure
           Based on Visibility and Horizontal Visibility Network

    • Abstract: In this study, based on the predicted secondary structures of proteins, we propose a new approach to predict protein structural classes (α,β,α/β,α+β) for three widely used low-homology data sets. Fist, we obtain two time siries from the chaos game representation of each predicted secondary structure; second, based on two time series, we construct visibility and horizontal visibility network, respectively and generate a set of features using 17 network features; finaly, we predict each protein structure class using support vector machine and Fisher’s linear discriminant algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate our method, the leave one out cross-validating test is employed on three data sets. Results show that our approach has been provided as a effective tool for the prediction of low-homology protein structural classes.
       
  • Antifungal Potential of Leptadenia Hastata Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the plant extract could provide antifungal potential against some pathogenic fungi. Extract of Dichloromethane solvents was used for disc diffusion assay. The inhibitory concentration of the extract was performed by broth dilution method and zone of inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000ppm in DMSO. Fluconazole was used as the reference control for antifungal study. The extract showed maximum inhibition potential of zone of inhibition against most of the pathogen (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium oxysporium) used at concentration 25ppm to 250ppm with zone of inhibition (3.45±0, 3.33±0.12, 3.07±0.05 and 2.97±0.10mm respectively). The extract showed minimum inhibition potential against Fusarium oxysporium in all the concentration when compared with the control as well as to the other pathogens. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be more sensitive to Dichloromethane leaf extract followed by Candida tropical and lastly fusarium oxyspurium. The Present study indicates the potential usefulness of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata as antifungal agent.
       
  • Forensic Evidence for Cytochrome b Gene SNPs in Obese and Non Obese Saudi
           Arabians

    • Abstract: Oral swabs from obese and non obese Saudi Arabians from both sexes with an average age of 35 years old were collected and their DNAs were extracted. PCR for 1000 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene was conducted and the amplified products were sequenced in order to determine the possible forensic or obesity-related SNPs. Alignment of the obtained sequences with its counterparts of 100 healthy Afro-Asians deposited in the Genbank was undertaken and the polymorphic sites were compared. Sixteen Single Nucleotide Polymorphic sites (SNPs) and 26 variations were noted. From the 26 variations, sixteen were synonymous and the other 10 were non-synonymous. Four common haplogroups were determined using Mitomaster software (H2a, JT, U5a and R0a). Most of SNPs were related to tribes more than to obesity and the major SNP (C15452A) was recorded in both obese and non obese haplotypes. Two non-synonymous amino acid changes were found in 2 obese males (H15 and H27; A15043G) and 2 obese females (H48 and H51; C15677A) indicating that both SNPs could be obesity markers. In conclusion, cytb gene is reasonably applicable in forensic purpose while it was unclear to be used as an obesity marker. It needs to be examined for hundreds of unrelated obese and non obese people.
       
  • Molecular Analysis of KRAS Mutation Associated with Colorectal Cancer in
           Iraqi Patients

    • Abstract: The role of KRAS gene was investigated in manifestation of colorectal cancer in Iraqi patients. A total 40 blood samples were collected during October 2016 to January 2017 from AL-Amal Hospital in Baghdad and 20 blood samples from healthy subjects served as control. Blood samples were collected from subjects of 40-70 years old for both patients and control. The study found that age group 61-70 years old were more susceptible to colorectal cancer with ratio of 40% more than younger individuals involved in this study with higher frequency in males with 75.5% than females who show 49.5% (p>0.01) when both compared to the same gender. DNA extracted from positive cancer samples and control were subjected to specific PCR amplification using 10 specifically designed primers for this study to amplify KRAS gene exons. DNA sequencing for the resulting amplicons showed the presence of significant genetic change that included substitution and insertion, causing 15% frame shift and 85% missense changes at positions 5920, consequently led to sever disruption in KRAS function.
       
  • Comparative Analysis of the Complete Chloroplast Genome of the Alloplasmic
           Sunflower (Helianthus L.) Lines with Various CMS Types

    • Abstract: The complete chloroplast genomes of sunflower fertile line HA89 and isonuclear CMS lines with four different cytoplasmic backgrounds (PET1, PET2, ANN2 and MAX) were sequenced. A total of 451 polymorphic sites, with including 58 SSRs, 317 SNPs and 76 microindels were revealed between the fertile and CMS cytotypes. Among the alloplasmic male-sterile lines, cpDNA of CMS-MAX had the largest number of polymorphisms. The lowest number of polymorphic sites was revealed in CMS-PET1. Like as CMS-PET1, CMS-PET2 was obtained as a result of interspecific crossing between H. petiolaris and cultivated sunflower H. annuus. Nevertheless, the number of INDELs and SNPs in CMS-PET2 chloroplast genome was more than 4-fold and 6.5-fold higher than that in cpDNA of CMS-PET1. The average frequency of SNPs and INDELs in the non-genic regions and genic regions were 0.0062 and 0.0046, respectively. Increased mutation rates were found in the psbM-rpoB, rps16 intron, atpA-psbD, rps4-ndhJ and ndhc-atpE non-coding regions, as well as in the rpoC2, atpA, rbcL, ndhF and ycf1 genes. In addition to short insertions and deletions ranging from 1 to 5 bp, the relatively long INDELs (14-24 bp) unique for each CMS line were found. These insertions and deletions may be of use for PCR differentiation of the CMS lines due to differences in the amplicons length.
       
  • Lumbricus rubellus Protein Fraction DLBS1033N Increases Nerve Growth
           Factor Expression via Tyrosine Kinase Activation

    • Abstract: Nerve injury occurred due to mechanical, thermal, chemical, or ischemic factors. Nerve regeneration is needed for recovery. Schwann cell proliferation and differentiation are important factors in the nerve regeneration process. Schwann cells release neurotrophins in the nerve regeneration process. In this study, Lumbricus rubellus protein fraction DLBS1033N was used as therapeutic protein candidate for nerve regeneration treatments. DLBS1033N treatments promoted the growth and survival of Schwann cell in free serum and free serum plus minimum O2 conditions. Real-time PCR and ELISA methods revealed that DLBS1033N induced NGF expressions. The growth and survival of Schwann cells were related to NGF expressions in a specific inhibitor TrkA study. Furthermore, in real-time PCR study, DLBS1033N was able to activate phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. This study showed that L. rubellus protein fraction DLS1033N can promote the growth and survival of Schwann cells by inducing NGF expressions. Cells growth and survival activities are likely achieved via PI3K pathway.
       
  • Impact of Ultra Violet Radiation on Polyethylene Packaged Water Exposed at
           Varying Conditions: Are we Drinking Micro-Plastics'

    • Abstract: The public is worried about how their health is impacted by microplastics in sachet water. This awareness has repercussion for water producing factories and public health organization in managing health hazard associated with microplastic ingestion. Many countries in Africa, with concern to Nigeria, the act of packaging water in polyethylene materials by water producing factories has become accustomed. These packaged products are popularly called pure water or sachets water. The packaged materials are made of antioxidants, stabilizers, plasticizers, lubricants, antimicrobials, anti-static and anti-blocking agents. Heat hindrance agents are usually incorporated to improve functionality of polyethylene. It was conceived that the polyethylene material if exposed to sun light radiation over a period of time, its components may leach into the potable water due to photolytic, photo-oxidative and thermo-oxidative reactions caused by fragmentation of the polyethylene material. This research was designed to evaluate the water quality/safety of polyethylene sachet-packaged exposed to direct sunlight at different days. Eighteen polyethylene packaged water were sampled from three different factories - Lion water, Galaxy and Ashor water in Nsukka area of Enugu State. They were exposed to sunlight at 31 to 33°C for (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h), respectively. Agilent gas chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy was used to analyze the exposed and unexposed (control) packaged water. Organic compounds such as low molecular weight substituted hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, trichloromethane, benzene, limonene, xylene, toluene and 2-hexanone were detected in all the exposed samples. These micoplastics which leached into water has been listed by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry as potential human carcinogens. The concern now is whether we are drinking micoplastics. The only way out of this perceived health risk is to change the packaging material to prevent ingestion of microplastics in water.
       
  • Gelatin Extraction of Alaska Pollock (Theragra
           chalcogramma
    ) Dry Skin

    • Abstract: Alaska Pollock is rich in resource. And during its processing, skin is peeled as byproducts. The skin of Alaska Pollock contains lots of collagen or gelatin, promising materials, which can be used in food, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical industries. Extracting collagen from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock is studied in this study to provide a better basement for fully using this renewable resource. Three kinds of gelatin were extracted by using acid, pepsin-assisted acid and hot water, respectively. The productivity of Acid Soluble Gelatin (ASG), Pepsin Soluble Gelatin (PSG) and hot Water Soluble Gelatin (WSG) were 7.33, 30.89 and 12.67%, respectively. Their UV absorption spectrum were similar and match with the absorption of dilute protein solution. The protein contents of ASG, PSG and WSG were 84-90%, with no significantly difference between them. The characters of SDS-PAGE and the circular dichroism spectrum shown that the PSG is broken into small fragment and has less secondary structure. In conclusion, the hot water extraction is the best way to extract the gelatin from the dry skin of Alaska Pollock.
       
  • Conservation of Binding of Llama and Other Animals’ Hemoglobins to
           Haptoglobins Across Species

    • Abstract: The plasma protein haptoglobin binds hemoglobin released from lysed erythrocytes. It causes removal of the free hemoglobin, thus preventing pathological oxidation of cells. Hemoglobin higher level structures are well conserved across animal species but primary structures can be as little as 50% homologous. Because of these differences, the question arose as to what extent hemoglobins can bind to haptoglobins from different species. The charge properties and binding to three genetic variants of human haptoglobin were compared by non-denaturing agarose gel electrophoresis, with llama, human, dog, pig, horse and goat hemoglobins. In this study, it was reported for the first time that llama and alpaca hemoglobins differed in electrophoretic mobility from hemoglobins from several animal species and humans. Llama hemoglobin was more positively charged than the other mammalian hemoglobins. Electrophoretic mobility changes of the animal hemoglobins in the presence of human plasma and two different purified human haptoglobin genetic variants suggested that hemoglobins from all animals in this study could bind all three genetic variants of human haptoglobin. In all cases, the llama hemoglobin-haptoglobin samples had lesser mobility than those of the other mammals. This study showed that the binding sites on hemoglobin and haptoglobin for each other have been evolutionarily conserved despite differences in primary structure and marked difference in the charge of llama hemoglobin from the other animal species and humans.
       
  • Essential Proteins Discovery Methods based on the Protein-Protein
           Interaction Networks

    • Abstract: Essential proteins are closely related to biological survival or reproduction and have important application value in respect of the location of disease genes, disease diagnosis and treatment, drug design. In order to discovery essential proteins, the researchers have proposed experimental approaches, but these methods require laborious and time consuming. With the development of high-throughput sequencing techniques, plenty of computational methods based on the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks have been put forward to identify essential proteins. In this study, we firstly have introduced the basic characteristics and data set of essential proteins and essential proteins discovery method in the Protein-Protein Interaction Networks. Following that, we have analyzed and compared the difference of various existing strategies and then have pointed out the merits and demerits of them in detailed. At last, we give several important problems and development trend about essential proteins discovery methods, which provide a strong foundation for the further research.
       
  • Heterologous Expression and Biochemical Characterization of Lipase from
           Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1

    • Abstract: Even though lipase genes from a variety of microorganism have been cloned and over-expressed, the prospective lipase resources for commercial production and industry application are still limited. In the present study, a lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 is heterologously over-expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21(DE3) and purified to homogeneity. The molecular weight of the recombinant lipase from B. cepacia Lu10-1 (abbreviated as lipase Lu10-1) is estimated to be about 33 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The lipase Lu10-1 has a priority for the long- chain length substrates. The optimal temperature of lipase Lu10-1 is 60°C and it preserves high thermostability with residual activities of over 80% after 100 h at 60°C or over 60% after 30 h at 70°C. The optimal pH of lipase Lu10-1 is 9.0 and it has broad pH adaptability over a range of 5.0-10.0 retaining 80% activity between pH 6.0 and 9.0 after incubation at 37°C for 24 h. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of lipase Lu10-1 is not obviously affected by several metal ions and it exhibites solid tolerance and stability towards various surfactants and organic solvents. The present study provides the basis for the potential applications of lipase Lu10-1 in related industries.
       
  • Isolation, Identification and Genomic Analysis of Plesiomonas shigelloides
           Isolated from Diseased Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930)

    • Abstract: Recently, the outbreak of a serious infectious disease of unknown etiology was noted in Percocypris pingi (Tchang, 1930) farms in Yunnan province. Due to currently limited information, we aimed to identify the pathogen isolates, determine the susceptibility of the isolates, evaluate the pathogenicity and analyze the genome of the representative strain. Ten strains of Gram-negative rods were isolated from diseased P. pingi and the isolates were identified as Plesiomonas shigelloides based on biochemical characteristics, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and species-specific PCR detection. The results of susceptibility analysis showed that two selected strains LS1 and LL2 were resistant to ampicillin, penicillin G, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, enrofloxacin, nalidixic acid and enoxacin. A virulence assay indicated that the pathogen was virulent to zebrafish. Genomic analysis revealed that the LS1 isolate was closely related to strain GN7, which was isolated from animal farms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of P. shigelloides as a pathogen of P. pingi. This study will provide a rational framework for exploration of epidemiological analysis of P. shigelloides in fish diseases and would further benefit conservation of the species.
       
  • Differential Gene Transcription in Red Oak (Quercus rubra) Genotypes
           Resistant to Copper Toxicity

    • Abstract: Toxicity of metals is a major abiotic stressor of plants. Copper (Cu) is one of the most abundant metals in soils from the Greater Sudbury Region (GSR) due to its mining history. Recent studies have described several transporters and chelating proteins involved in copper resistance. Quercus rubra (Red Oak) is a common species that grows in metal contaminated soils in Northern Ontario (Canada). The main objectives of this study were1) to evaluate the toxicity of copper to Q. rubrum plants and 2) assess the level of transcriptionof genes associated with copper resistance (RAN1, MT2b and MRP4). Q. rubra seedlings were grown in growth chambers and treated with copper at different doses. Total RNA was extracted from leaves and amplified by RT-qPCR. All the plants tested were resistant to Cu even at high concentrations of 1312 mg of Cu per kg of dry soil since no damage associated with Cu toxicity was observed after 14 days of treatment. RAN1 transporter and the chelating protein MT2b were significantly downregulated (p≤0.05) at high doses of 656 mg and 1312 mg of copper per kg of dry soil compared to water control. The transcription of MRP4 was significantly increased in the presence of copper at a concentration of 1312 mg/kg. No gene demonstrated differential transcription in samples treated with a low dose of 130 mg of copper/kg of dry soil that is equivalent to the bioavailable amount of copper under natural conditions in the Greater Sudbury Region.
       
  • A Study on Fabrication and Structural Characterization of PbS Thin Films

    • Abstract: PbS thin films are fabricated from 99.9% PbS powder on glass substrates using the vacuum evaporation method. Some of the samples are then treated in an advanced process called annealing. Samples are annealed in temperatures of 80, 100, 120 and 150°C for two h. Characterization using an X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) resulted in values of lattice constant of the films ranging from (5.782±0,010) Å to (5.919±0,006) Å. These values are quite different from the standard, probably because the films are stressed and strained. The grains have sizes ranging from (266.440±0.001) Å to (694.059±0.002) Å, where the greatest grain size was found as deposited thin film because it was directly condensed from powder vapor during the deposition process and after they are annealed, the grain size becomes smaller. The average internal stress has values ranging from (0.36±0,006) × 109 N/m2 to (3.247±0.010) ×109 N/m2 and microstrain ranging from (2,864±0.006) × 10-3 to (25.94±0,01) ×10-3. It was found that the film which has the greatest stress and microstrain is the film with the annealing temperature of 150°C, showing that the annealing process exerts force on the film following the rising of temperature. Use of a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) shows the surface pictures of the deposited thin film and the film annealed at 120°C. Furthermore, the thickness of the samples is obtained by using the cross section of the films and showed that the thickness of the deposited thin film is between 0.63 and 1.30 microns and the thickness of the film annealed at 120°C is between 3.37 and 4.34 microns. The best quality thin film from this research is that annealed at 120°C, because it showed more peaks than the other samples. It can be concluded that the annealing process had effects on the structures, grain size, strain and stress of the crystals.
       
  • Metabolite Profiles of Arsenic Tolerant Plants Regenerated from Stem Calli
           of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees using HPLC and 1D 1H NMR

    • Abstract: In vitro culture provide a suitable condition for regeneration of arsenic tolerant plants from stem calli of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees. The regenerated plants could be valuable material applicable to soil remediation. In vitro culture of stem explants on MS basal salts, 3.0% sucrose, 0.8% agar medium fortified with various concentrations of As2O3 (0.0-9.0 µM) along with NAA (3.5 mg L-1) and KIN (1.0 mg L-1) influenced resistant callus formation. Growth of callus was slightly inhibited with increased resistance up to 22% (53±0.8 mg fwt and 27±1.5 mg dwt) on 7.0 µM As2O3 selective medium. The resistant callus line inoculated on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of As2O3 along with BA (2.5 mg L-1) and NAA (3.0 mg L-1) induced the development of shoots. Shoot organogenesis was slightly inhibited by arsenic metal stress. However the growth tolerance has increased up to 14.5% on medium with 7.0 µM As2O3. The rate of adventitious rooting of plantlets was gradually decreased with more tolerance (11.1±1.4 rootlets per plantlets) in 7.0 µM As2O3 selected media. After acclimatization, about 40% of plants were survived as arsenic tolerance than control plants in pots containing soil treated with 7.0 µM As2O3 solutions. The level of arsenic detectability was 0.96 ppb and 4.67 ppb in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plants, respectively by AAS analysis. Moreover, the production of Andrographolide was found quite high (4.41 mg/g) in tolerant plants grown at 7.0 µM As2O3 treatment than control by HPLC analysis. 1D 1H NMR profile revealed the metabolic changes significantly in control and 7.0 µM As2O3 treated plant samples. This is the first report confirming the suitability of in vitro selection for obtaining of vigorous and proliferative clones of A. paniculata plants tolerant to elevated arsenic concentration.
       
  • Response Surface Optimized Ultrasonic Assisted Extraction of Total
           Flavonoids from Walnut Leaves and In Vitro Antibacterial Activities

    • Abstract: In this paper, the optimum extraction conditions oftotal flavonoids extracted from walnut leaves subjected to Ultrasonic AssistedExtraction (UAE) were optimized by Response Surface Methodology (RSM). Themathematical model showed the high coefficient of measurement (R2 =0.9938) which indicated that this model could be used to guide the responsesurface methodology. The optimum extraction parameters for extractingflavonoids from walnut leaves determined in this study were extractiontemperature 47.73°C, extraction time 30.79 min, ethanol concentration 72.89% (v/v). Under the optimal extractionconditions, the flavonoids yield was about 3.5315%. Statistical analysis of theresults showed that extraction temperature, extraction time and ethanolconcentration significantly affected the extraction yield of total flavonoids.In addition, the antibacterial activity assays ofthe flavonoids were carried out and it wasdemonstrated that the total flavonoids extracted at the optimum conditions hadpronounced antibacterial effects against the four bacterial species. Therefore,this study suggested that walnut leaves are promisingresourceswith antibacterial properties for the development of phytomedicines.
       
  • The Investigation of Organelle Genomes of Extra Nuclear Sunflower Mutants
           with Variegated Phenotype

    • Abstract: The comparative analysis of complete chloroplast andmitochondrial DNA sequences of the original inbred line 3629 and three extranuclear mutant lines variegated-1, variegated-15, variegated-17,obtained by the N-nitroso-N-methylurea induced mutagenesis, was done. Thestudied mutant lines were presented two different phenotypes with diversechlorophyll content: Pale/green mutant line variegated-17 with 1.8%relative (to 3629 line) chlorophyll content in mutant leaf tissue andyellow/green lines variegated-1, variegated-15 with 6.3% and 4.3%relative chlorophyll content, respectively. Each line had unique variationsites in chloroplast DNA. Among chloroplast SNP there were determined 7nonsynonymous substitutions, which were located in psaA (variegated-1),petD, rpl36, ccsA (variegated-15), rps4, rpoA,rpoC1 (variegated-17). The SNP of variegated-17 line has resultedin the frameshift (rpoC1) andpremature stop codon formations (rpoA, rpoC1). The whole genomesequencing of mitochondrial DNA mutant lines revealed no differences ascompared with original line 3629. Summarizing current data and our previousresearch of variegated mutants we assume that pale/green variegated phenotypeis associated with significant disturbance of RNA polymerase subunits genes,and the lesions in photosynthetic genes lead to yellow/green mutant phenotype.
       
  • Enhanced Fatty Acid Production in Escherichia coli by Over-Expression of
           NADPH Generating Enzymes

    • Abstract: NADPH is an essential factor for Fatty Acid (FA) biosynthesis. The effect of NADPH generating enzymes [NADP+-dependent malic enzyme (NADP-ME), NADP+-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-IDH), Glucose 6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (GPD) and 6-Phosphogluconate Dehydrogenase (PGD)] on FA biosynthesis was investigated in an engineered Escherichia coli BL21 'fadE/pTE. Among NADPH-generating enzymes, GPD and ICD increased total FA production by 60 and 16% respectively. Especially medium-chain FA production was increased up to 4.2 and 2.5 folds respectively. In addition, over-expression of the endogenous Thioesterase (TE) reduced Cyclopropane Fatty Acid (CFA) production by 40% and over-expressing of GPD and ICD further decreased CFA production by 23 and 30%, respectively compared to the TE over-expressed strain. Over-expression of TE appeared to be a good strategy to produce high quality biodiesel with medium-chain FAs as major Component (62%) and with Minimal Amount of CFA (4%). This study reveals that NADPH-generating enzyme GPD is associated with FA biosynthesis in E. coli, but not all reducing power generating enzymes, are involved in FA biosynthesis in bacteria.
       
  • Brevibacillus Thermoruber 9X-GLC, Bacteria Isolated from Hot Compost,
           Producer of a Beta-Glucosidase Resistant to Glucose Inhibition

    • Abstract: The thermotolerant strain Brevibacillus thermoruber 9X-GLC produces large amounts of β-D-glucosidase and cellobiohydrolase when grown on cellobiose and avicel. 9X-GLC was isolated from hot compost of sugarcane bagasse and filter mud and selected for its high enzymatic activity from a Bacilli collection of 77 isolates from soils and compost. Culture supernatants and ultrafiltered concentrates from shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC were tested for their β-D-glucosidase activity and stability under different conditions of temperature, pH and glucose concentration. The concentrated supernatant from 9X-GLC cultures on cellobiose as sole carbon source had its highest β-D-glucosidase activity at 55°C; pH= 6.0 and retained 60% of its activity at a glucose concentration of up to 200 mM. The effect of different carbon sources on growth and β-D-glucosidase activity of concentrated supernatants was tested in 48 h shaken flask cultures of 9X-GLC. Glucose, cellodextrin and cellobiose supported high cell densities (>2×108 CFU/ml), whereas cellobiose and cellodextrin provided the best substrates for β-D-glucosidase production. The putative gene encoding β-D-glucosidase from 9X-GLC was obtained from PCR amplification and sequenced. The sequence of the putative structural gene of 2085 bp reveals 6 catalytic domains with high (>90%) homology to bacterialglycosidases.
       
  • Bioactive Compounds from Sponge Associated Bacteria: Anticancer Activity
           and NRPS-PKS Gene Expression in Different Carbon Sources

    • Abstract: Sponge associated bacteria with diverse NRPS-PKS genes could be the alternative source of bioactive compounds. This study aimed to analyze the activity as well as the regulatory mechanism regarding the anticancer properties derived from these bacteria against cancer cell lines. Extraction of bacterial metabolites using ethyl acetate solvent resulted yield ranging from 0.003 to 0.016% (w/v). Six extracts of bacterial metabolites showed markedly cytotoxic activity against 8 human hematopoietic cancer cell lines, with IC50 value 27.24 to 533.73 μg mL-1 in a dose dependent response, as assessed by MTT test. Supporting those results, reduction of cell density, morphological changes including cell shrinkage and formation of the apoptotic body of cancer cells lines, were found. As it might be due to the inhibitory effect of bacterial extract treatment. Apoptosis assay determined by annexin V-FITC apoptosis analysis showed that apoptotic cells were induced by bacterial extract after 6 h of treatment. Thus suggesting that the extract could be one of the external signals that activate the signal transduction pathway of apoptosis, especially in MOLT4 cells, acute lymphoblastic leukemic cell lines. Cell cycle analysis using propidium iodide revealed that the extract HAA 01 caused cell cycle arrest, since most of the MOLT4 cells were accumulated in Sub-G1 phase after 24 h of extract treatment. Interestingly, glycerol, lactose and amylum were the more preferable carbon source to produce anticancer compounds, than glucose. Our study indicates that anticancer activity of HAA 01 (identified as Bacillus subtilis based on API identification) extract is highly correlated with NRPS-PKS gene expression which is likely regulated by the type of carbon source.
       
  • Sildenafil in the Treatment of Postoperative Hypoxemia with High
           Resistance in Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease

    • Abstract: This study was designed to determine the effect of sildenafil treatment on postoperative hypoxemia with high resistance in cyanotic congenital heart disease. A total of 247 cases of cyanotic congenital heart disease were operated on from May 2006 to August 2014. Only 45 cases exhibited postoperative hypoxemia after symptomatic treatment. Sildenafil at doses of 0.30-5 mg/kg every 6 h was administered in 24 cases while the other 21 were administered a placebo (the control group). The partial pressure of oxygen in arterial blood (PaO2), systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial pressure and positive inotropic drugs score were evaluated at four time points including before (T1), 1 h (T2) and 1 day (T3) after treatment and when the ventilator was disconnected (T4). Furthermore, we compared the mechanical ventilation time between the two groups. Finally, there was one death in the placebo group while the others were cured. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the PaO2 rebounded faster and the pulmonary arterial pressure decreased significantly; furthermore, there were statistically significant differences from time point T2 between both groups (p<0.001). The systolic blood pressure rose slowly and there were statistically significant differences between both groups from time point T3 (p<0.001). The representations of the positive inotropic drug scores were obviously different between the two groups. The sildenafil group scores decreased soon and maintained this trend. The placebo group scores initially increased and then began to decline 1 day after treatment, but the final score was higher than that of the sildenafil group. Compared with the placebo group, in the sildenafil group, the respiratory and heart functions recovered rapidly and the patient’s stay on the mechanical ventilation was shorter (67.52±16.88 Vs. 44.25±13.39 h, p = 0.001). Therefore, sildenafil reduced pulmonary vascular resistance and obviously corrected the postoperative hypoxemia in cyanotic congenital heart disease.
       
  • The Role of Blended Learning on Student Performance in Biotechnology
           Course

    • Abstract: The present work aims for evaluating the role of blended learning on student engagement and performance in bioreactor design component of the biotechnology course. Interactive online module covering the main fundamental aspects of the subject was developed and made available to students prior to the class. Students who accessed the online module found to be more active in classroom response participations (p<0.05) and received higher marks in the examination (p<0.05). These data highlight the key role of blended learning in improving the student learning desire and academic performance
       
  • Antimicrobial Effects of 1-Monocaprylin and 1-Monocaproin Through in vitro
           Growth Inhibition and Molecular Docking Studies

    • Abstract: 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin synthesized through a novel process by the chemical reaction of glycidol and their respective fatty acids with copper acetate as the catalyst possessed the amphiphilic property. 1- monoacyl glycerols synthesized were found to exhibit antibacterial, antifungal, anti parasitic and antiviral properties. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antibacterial effect by inhibiting the growth of the Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis at concentrations of 100–500 ppm. The Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of both 1-monoacyl glycerols were found to be 0.5 ppm. 1-monocaproin and 1-monocaprylin were able to show their antifungal effect by inhibiting the growth of the filamentous fungi Mucor racemosus and Rhizopus stolonifer at the concentration of 1000 ppm. Based on the molecular interaction and common binding interaction study, 1-monocaproin is expected to exhibit a similar antiviral activity as that of Oseltamivir to H5N1 influenza virus hemagglutinin. 1-monocaprylin and 1-monocaproin synthesized using copper acetate could exhibit a broad spectrum antimicrobial effect in combination with other monoacyl glycerols or with other antimicrobial agents.
       
 
 
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