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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3190 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (244 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 244 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Amylase     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DNA and RNA Nanotechnology     Open Access  
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.172
Number of Followers: 69  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1553-3468
Published by Science Publications Homepage  [31 journals]
  • Novel D-Galactose Isomerases from Lactobacillus Strains Isolated from the
           Sweet Sap of Agave atrovirens

    • Abstract: D-tagatose is a natural monosaccharide used as a low-calorie sugar substitute in food, beverage and pharmaceutical products. Although it is a rare sugar, it can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization of Dgalactose Isomerase (D-GI). In this study, a screening was carried out to search microorganism producing D-GI in aguamiel. A rich selective medium was used in arabinose extracted from gum arabic. From 98 isolates obtained aguamiel of agave pulquero (Agave atrovirens), it was obtained 4 strains of Lactobacillus that producing D-GI and 2 strains of Bacillus sp. The Podi-20 strains were identified as Lactobacillusdiolivorans based on 16S rRNA analysis, biological and biochemical characteristics. Furthermore, the gene encoding D-GI from L. Diolivorans Podi-20 strains. Analysis of sequence revealed that the Open Reading Frame (ORF) of the araA gene consist of 1,428 pb that encodes a protein of 476 amino acid residues. The bioconversion yield of D-galactose to D-tagatose by the purified D-GI after 14 h at 60°C was 31.4%. D-tagatose can manufacture by enzymatic isomerization. This study contributes to new knowledge on D-GI from Lactobacillus strains, in particular those isolated from artisanal functional foods from Agave.
       
  • Products of Solid-Phase Probiotic Bacilli Fermentation Increase Food
           Conversion Efficiency and Stimulate Chicken Growth

    • Abstract: Poultry farming is one of the major directions in agriculture. Agricultural poultry has high growth speed, productivity and is resistant to the industrial environment. Our group carried out a study of probiotic preparations of Bacillus subtilis KATMIRA1933 and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens B-1895 strains. These preparations were made by solid-phase fermentation and tested for dynamical germination of rearing flock (Highsex brown). The research was conducted at SD “Svetliy”, structure department of PC “Agrofirm Vostok” (Volgograd region). Soybeans were used as the substrate for preparations. We investigated the influence of monocultural preparation and mixed bioadditives. The duration of the experiment was 120 days. It was shown that addition of the drugs to the poultry food leads to it’s live weight gain (max 19%) and decrease of food conversion factor (min 1.98). The increase of erythrocyte (max 6%), leukocyte (max 2%) and hemoglobin (max 13%) content and the concentration protein fractions in poultry blood (max 14%) was also noted. Simultaneous use of two strains decreases their physiological effects. Bacterial components of preparations did not disturb the natural intestinal microbiota of the fowl. The abundance of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus strains was constant. Since preparations based on soybeans are cheap and straightforward to produce, using them can be highly efficient in modern poultry and livestock farming.
       
  • Carica papaya Fruit Attenuates Apoptotic Degeneration After Permanent
           Cerebral Ischemia Rat

    • Abstract: Apoptotic neurodegeneration is a phenomenon following cerebral ischemia. Both the increased caspase-3 and decreased Bcl-2 expression are reported to play crucial role on apoptosis in neuron. In addition, phytonutrient can successfully increase the endogenous antioxidant and lower the apoptotic responses. Therefore, anti-apoptotic effect of Carica papaya fruits was examined. To the best of our knowledge, no scientific effect was available. Therefore this study aimed to determine the effect of Carica papaya on neuron density and the densities of both caspase-3 and Bcl-2 immunopositive neuron in hippocampus. Adult male Wistar rats, weighing 280-320 g, were orally given Carica papaya fruits extract at doses of 50, 150 and 450 mg/kg at a period of 14 days before and 14 days after the occlusion of right Middle Cerebral Artery (Rt.MCAO). The results showed that Carica papaya fruits at high doses used in this study significantly attenuated the decreased neuron density in hippocampus. In addition, the high doses of Carica papaya could decrease caspase-3 immunopositive neuron density but increased density of Bcl-2 immunopositive neurons in hippocampus. The decreased caspase-3 immunopositive neuron density and the increased Bcl-2- immunopositive neurons might be partly responsible for neuroprotective effect of Carica papaya. Therefore, Carica papaya is the potential fruit to protect against apoptotic neurodegeneration following cerebral ischemia. However, further researches are essential to elucidate the possible mechanism.
       
  • Efficient Production of Glycosylated and Non-Glycosylated Mycobacterium
           tuberculosis Antigen 85B Fused to PVX Coat Protein in Nicotiana
           benthamiana Plants

    • Abstract: The development of alternative subunit based-vaccines against tuberculosis is necessary due to variable efficiency and some security concerns of the BCG vaccine. The aim of this work was evaluate the production of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Ag85B antigen fused to Potato Virus X Coat Protein (PVX-CP) by transient expression in Nicotiana benthamiana for subunit-based tuberculosis vaccine formulation. A codon-optimized M. tuberculosis Ag85B gene was fused to PVX-CP and expressed both as a full length precursor and as a mature version lacking the leader peptide. Signal peptides of N. tabacum genes were added to precursor and mature Ag85B-CP to compare the efficiency of cytoplasmic and apoplastic expression. Constructs were agroinfiltrated into N. benthamiana leaves and the yield and integrity of recombinant proteins were analysed. Glycosylation status was determined by treatment with peptide N-glycosidase F. The highest amounts of fusion protein were obtained by expressing mature Ag85B lacking its leader sequence directed to the apoplast, which reached a yield of 100 mg of antigen per kg of fresh leaf. Glycosylated and non-glycosylated fusion proteins were obtained in the apoplastic and cytoplasmic space, respectively. We showed the feasibility of producing Ag85B-CP protein in N. benthamiana leaves for application as a subunit vaccine and demonstrated the importance of expressing mature Ag85B to increase yield and to avoid the production of degraded protein fragments unsuitable for a pharmaceutical product.
       
  • Protection of Human Albumin against UV-C Irradiation by Natural
           Antioxidants

    • Abstract: The use of UV-C light as a means to inactivate pathogens in biological media containing blood components or plasma derivatives has recently been rediscovered. Although highly effective, these treatments may have deleterious effects on plasma proteins such as albumin, fibrinogen and immunoglobulins. Here we investigate the use of three natural antioxidants, gallic acid, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid, as potential stabilizers of human albumin (HA) during irradiation by UV at 254 nm. The effects of UV-C on HA were monitored by measuring the absorbance changes in the protein spectrum at 320 nm. Experiments carried out at irradiance levels of 3.5–15 W m–2 and application times of up to 40 min showed that albumin undergoes rapid aggregation and that this process is dose-dependent. When added at 0.2 mM to the protein solution, all of the antioxidants inhibited HA aggregation, with ascorbic acid being the most effective. To quantitatively describe the observed effects, a fluence-based model was developed. The model predicted a quadratic dependence of the spectral changes of HA on the radiation dose and was validated by experiments performed under different exposure conditions.
       
  • Production of Immunologically Active Untagged Recombinant DENV-2 NS1 in
           Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: Dengue is an infectious disease affecting 390 millions people in tropical and subtropical region annually. Dengue virus NS1 protein plays an important role in viral replication in the host cell and it is detected in high level in the infected patient serum. A synthetic gene of untagged DENV-2 NS1 with codons optimization for expression in Escherichia coli has been generated and then inserted into an expression vector pET16b. As a hydrophobic protein with aliphatic index of 71.21%, DENV-2 NS1 was produced as inclusion bodies in E. coli BL21(DE3). The DENV-2 NS1 aggregate was unfolded in 8 M urea and then refolded by reverse dilution method. The refolded DENV-2 NS1 has immunologically active structure as it is capable to interact with anti-NS1 antibody, hence making it as a potential vaccine candidate.
       
  • Screening and Characterization of Sponge-Associated Bacteria Producing
           Bioactive Compounds Anti-Vibrio sp.

    • Abstract: In Indonesia, vibriosis is the main disease in shrimp. This disease is caused by Vibrio sp that may decrease the productivity of shrimp cultivation. Thus, exploration for new bioactive compounds as vibriosis biocontrol agent is necessary. Marine sponge-associated bacteria is one of many sources for bioactive compounds. The aim of this study was to screen marine sponge-associated bacteria producing anti-Vibrio sp’s bioactive compounds. Total 12 bacterial isolates (15%) of 80 isolates was isolated from marine sponges Hyrtios sp, Verongula sp. and Smenospongia sp. had anti-Vibrio sp activity in different spectra. The hemolytic assay showed that these 12 bacteria were not pathogen. Interestingly, 3 out of 4 potential isolates with the best anti-Vibrio activity have been confirmed to have genes involved in the synthesis of bioactive compounds, mainly Polyketide Synthase (PKS) and Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetase (NRPS) based on the occurrence of Ketosynthase (KS) and Adenilase (A) domain, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA gene, those four isolates were highly homolog to the Bacillus sp in different species and strains. Isolate coded as P2.24 was the only bacterium that had the widest spectrum of anti-Vibrio bioactive compounds against three Vibrio sp used i.e., Vibrio harveyi, V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus. Consistently, an anti- Vibrio sp. activity of the P2.24 was also shown by antagonism assay using culture, supernatant and crude extract of the isolate. Our study indicates this bacterial isolate potentially to be further exploited for controlling vibriosis biologically and important for elucidation of bioactive compounds synthesized by this bacterium.
       
  • Chemical Composition, Antibacterial and in vitro Anti-Inflammatory
           Potentials of Essential Oils from Different Plant Parts of Moringa
           oleifera Lam

    • Abstract: The chemical constituents, antibacterial, protection against protein denaturation and membrane stabilization activities of essential oils from flowers, leaves, seeds, bark and roots of M. oleifera were investigated. Of the eight bacterial strains tested, only the growths of four strains were inhibited by the essential oils. The oils from the flowers and seeds were the most active with MIC: 1.25 mg/mL each against P. vulgaris and K. pneumoniae respectively. All tested concentrations of M. oleifera essential oils showed high inhibition of protein denaturation (IC50 0.2 mg/mL) and high membrane stability (IC50: < 0.1 mg/mL) compared to Diclofenac. The essential oils were dominated by eicosane (20.93%, 17.12% and 21.59%) in flowers, leaves and seeds respectively; naphthalene (18.40%) in bark and benzene isothiocyanato methyl (35.83%) in the roots. The results revealed that essential oils from different plant parts of M. oleifera could be explored as potential candidates with alternative or complementary potentials for combating drug resistant bacteria and inflammation.
       
  • Mining, Isolation and Identification of Siderophore Synthesis Gene from
           Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3

    • Abstract: Objective of this paper is to excavate the siderophore synthesis gene from Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 and verify its type and antibacterial effects. The method is using genome mining technology to analyze the siderophore synthesis genes and the phylogenetic tree of each synthesis gene was constructed separately. Iron free medium was utilized to induce the synthesis of siderophore and CAS liquid detection method was used for qualitative and quantitative analysis on siderophore. The type of siderophore was preliminaries identified by Arnow and its antibacterial effects were analyzed according to the agar punching method. The results show that a siderophore synthesis gene cluster with 83% similarity to Petrobactin was found in Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 genome. Iron free medium could induce siderophore synthesis and the optimal incubation time cultured in iron free medium was 30 h and 48 h. Antagonistic strain GZDF3 had the capacity to synthesize catechol-type siderophore. Also, GZDF3 had a powerful antibacterial effect on pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum of rotted root on Pinellia ternata. Therefore, Brevibacillus brevis GZDF3 can produce catechol-type siderophore in an iron-deficient culture medium, which was also a main antifungal active substance.
       
  • Design of Intelligent Household Fruit Vinegar Fermentation Device and
           Optimization of Key Parameters

    • Abstract: Compared with carbonated beverages, fruit vinegar was gradually becoming more favored by consumers, because of their higher nutritional functions. But its popularization was limited by higher selling price. This article described a fruit vinegar fermentation device that can be used at home and also introduced the design principles, composition and operation methods. Furthermore, taking apple vinegar as an example, the key parameters of fermentation were determined by single-factor and orthogonal tests. In alcohol fermentation, the fermentation time, fermentation temperature and inoculation amount were 72 h, 30°C and 0.07%, respectively. In acetic acid fermentation, the fermentation temperature, ventilation and bacteria amount were 32°C, 4 L/min and 0.18%, respectively. The refreshing and fermented apple vinegar could be obtained with the total acid content of 3.6 g/100 mL. The kinetic formula between the content of acetic acid and fermentation time was calculated and acetic acid content of fruit vinegar could be determined by controlling fermentation time according to the formula. So, the device could produce different content of acetic acid of fruit vinegar automatically, without manual operation. The study was sufficient to provide reference and experience for further popularization of fruit vinegar.
       
  • High Level of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) and Natural Resistance
           Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) Gene Transcription Induced by
           Potassium Nitrate in Trembling Aspen (Populus tremuloides)

    • Abstract: Changes in gene transcription in response to excess metal concentrations have been reported in many organisms, including yeast, microorganisms and plants. Most investigations on the effects of nickel toxicity in plants use commercial salts whose effects have not been analyzed in detail. The main objective of the present study was to determine the effects of different doses of nickel nitrate and potassium nitrates on gene transcription in Populus tremuloides. Four month-old P. tremuloides seedlings were treated with different doses of nitrate salts including 150 mg/kg, 500 mg/kg, 800 mg/kg and 1, 600 mg/kg. A significant increase of Nicotianamine Synthase (NAS3) gene transcription was induced by the 400 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of nickel nitrate doses compared to water. This upregulation was driven by nitrate rather than nickel. Likewise, the 800 mg/kg and 1,600 mg/kg doses of potassium nitrate resulted in significant increase in the transcription of Natural Resistance Associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP4) gene compared to water control and the 150 mg/kg dose. This differential transcription of this gene was caused by potassium. Our results also confirmed that the low level of bioavailable nickel in metal–contaminated soils (<150 mg/kg) cannot induce differential transcription of NAS3 and NRAMP4. The use of nitrate without nickel should be required as additional controls in any study assessing effects of Ni using nickel nitrate salts.
       
  • Production of Selenium-Enriched Yeast (Kluyveromyces marxianus) Biomass in
           a whey-based Culture Medium

    • Abstract: Two important aspects of agriculture intensification are the reduction in the concentration of specific soil minerals that affects livestock production and the increase of agricultural by-products, which produce environmental pollution. In this regard, whey - a cheese by-product-often is considered a wasted-product. Due to its lactose concentration, (4.5%), when whey is discarded without treatment generates a high Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) and a high Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD). Taking into account these two issues, we developed a whey-based culture medium to produce selenium-enriched Kluyveromyces biomass. Then, we evaluated the effect of its supplementation on calves blood selenium concentration. Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 11954 and Kluyveromyces lactis DSM 3795 strains were used in this study. Different culture media were prepared using whey as a main component and supplemented with peptone, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4 and K2HPO4 as appropriate. In the selected whey culture medium, three sodium selenite concentrations between 10-30 μg/mL were tested to produce selenium-enriched biomass. After that, a scaled up to 5 L stirred-tank bioreactor was carried out to increase final yeast biomass levels. Finally, dietary supplementation experiments with selenium-enriched yeast were conducted to increase selenium content in calves. K. marxianus DSM 11954 showed a better growth performance than K. lactis DSM 3795 in a medium composed by whey, (NH4)2SO4 5 g/L, K2HPO4 1 g/L (pH 6.5) so, this strain was chosen to continue the experiments. The results showed that sodium selenite addition at 20 μg/mL was adequate to generate selenium-enriched biomass. Our study demonstrated that whey is an optimal and economical culture medium to produce selenium-enriched- yeast biomass. Also, we proved that 10 days of yeast-biomass supplementation raised blood-selenium level in calves.
       
  • The Influence of Partial Substitution of Potassium by Sodium on the Growth
           Effect of Sugarcane

    • Abstract: The effects of different potassium and sodium levels on the growth of Taisugar No. 22 (ROC22) were studied by potted nutrient solution-sand culture experiment in this paper. The results showed that under low potassium stress (0 mmol/L) supply, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote photosynthesis of sugarcane and dry matter accumulation, reduce root shoot ratio and promote shoot growth. When low potassium (0.2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could reduce the root shoot ratio of sugarcane. When high potassium (2 mmol/L) was applied, the proper application of sodium could significantly promote the growth of sugarcane root and increase root shoot ratio. In the case of low potassium or high potassium, the rational application of sodium can promote photosynthesis of sugarcane, while excessive sodium can inhibit photosynthesis. Thereby, sodium can be used as a substitute for partial potassium to promote the growth of sugarcane in the soil with low available potassium and water-soluble sodium.
       
  • Improvement on Extracellular Production of Recombinant Burkholderia
           cepacia Lu10-1 Lipase by Escherichia coli

    • Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate several strategies on enhancing extracellular production of recombinant lipase from Burkholderia cepacia Lu10-1 in recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). In the present study, a fed-batch fermentation strategy for the excellular production of lipase by E. coli has been established. First of all, different induction methods (including selection of inducers, inducer concentration, induction temperature and induction time) were investigated and the results indicated that these factors played an important role in lipase production. When induced by 0.8 g L-1 h-1 lactose at 30°C and at a OD600 of 30, the lipase activity in the culture medium could achieve 58 U mL-1. Moreover, addition of glycine and calcium ions can increase the extracellular yield of lipase. With supplementation of the culture with 0.5% (w/v) glycine and 2.5 mM Ca2+, the maximum extracellular activity of lipase could reach 85 U mL-1, which was 2.1 fold higher than that of the control. This study might provide fermentation strategy for the extracellular production of other heterogonous proteins expressed in E. coli.
       
  • The Contamination Degree of Characteristic Fungi in Jet Fuel Detected by
           ATP Bioluminescence

    • Abstract: Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) lysate of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel was screened and three fluorescein-luciferase systems were compared in the paper. The correlation between ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate count for measuring the number of microorganism was also investigated and then a method of detecting the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi of jet fuel by ATP bioluminescence were initially established. The results show that the effect of ATP extraction taking surfactant Benzyldimethylhexadecylammonium chloride (BAC) as the microbial lysate was optimal and the optimal concentration and the action time were 0.15% and 30s respectively; The fluorescein-luciferase system after screening has a good detection limit, up to 10-15mol ATP; using ATP bioluminescence and traditional plate method to measure the microbial quantity, they have good correlation. Utilizing ATP bioluminescence to detect the contamination degree of the characteristic fungi in jet fuel can shorten the test time to 10min, which is suitable for rapid detection and has good application prospects.
       
  • The Evolution Force of Genome Reduction in Carnivorous Plants

    • Abstract: The introns are widely present in the genome of eukaryotes and the distribution of intron varies greatly among different organisms or different genes. Generally, introns loss is an important way for uneven distribution of intron during genome evolution. In this study, two closely related carnivorous plants (Genlisea aurea and Utricularia gibba) were chosen, their genome were relatively integrity and high quality, especially, the large difference in genome size between them. We detected intron loss events, then investigated the relationship between the genome size, intron density, intron loss and the mutation rate in the carnivorous plants. Finally, a total of 752 and 124 intron loss positions were identified in G. aurea and U. gibba, respectively. In carnivorous plants, we found that the region around lost site had high mutation rate, the genes of intron loss had high mutation rate. Besides, for the species with more intron losses, the genome size was smaller and the mutation rate was higher. Thus, we propose that the mutation rate was positively correlated with intron losses, but negatively correlated with intron number and genome size. These could be explained by the selection to minimize mutational hazards.
       
  • Construction of Recombinant Bioleaching Bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans
           with Fluoride-Resistant Activity

    • Abstract: Thiobacillus ferrooxidans is an important bioleaching bacterium, widely used in leaching, recovery of low-grade metals and environmental bioremediation. In bio-metallurgy industry, fluoride existing in some hard rock uranium deposits in south China severely affects the bacteria viability and inhibit leaching reproduction. In this study, the flr-4 gene that has strong resistance to fluorine ion in Caenorhabditis elegans, was cloned into pET30a vector and expressed in E. coli BL21. the ability of fluoride resistance in E. coli was increased obviously. To increase the fluoride-resistance of bioleaching bacterium T. ferrooxidans strain 1 (T.f1), the flr-4 shuttle recombinant plasmid pJRD215-flr-4 was constructed and transferred into T.f1 by conjugation. pJRD215-flr-4 was stable in T.f1 with more than 70% retention after 50 generations. Recombinant T.f1 was tolerant to fluorine ions and grew well under fluoride (F-) stress especially at F- concentrations ranging from 10 mg/L to 60 mg/L.
       
  • Space Distribution of Highland Barley GNS and its Relationship with
           Environmental Factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    • Abstract: In order to study the space distribution of Grain Number per spike (GNS) and its relationship with the environmental factors in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, 83 data samples from different ecological areas were selected for GNS inverstigation. Meanwhile, the seeds of highland barley were harvested and planted in the farm of Xizang Agriculture and Animal Husbandry College; the varieties without genetic differences were selected and their GNS was analyzed with the local geography and climate factors. The results shows that: (1) In the horizontal direction, GNS forms the high value area of Central and South Tibetan taking Qiongjie and Longzi as the center; (2) In the vertical direction, GNS appears with double high value areas at the altitude of 3900m-4200m and above 4500m respectively and the corresponding GNS is 52.9±17.6 and 57.2±0.2 respectively; (3) the environmental factors influencing GNS are in the order that soil total nitrogen>soil available nitrogen>the average precipitation at heading-filling stage>altitude>soil organic matter>soil total phosphorus>the average rainfall at jointing-heading stage>soil available potassium>the average rainfall at tillering-jointing stage.
       
  • Statistical Improvement of Batch Culture with Immobilized Pichia pastoris
           Cells for rPOXA 1B Laccase Production

    • Abstract: Immobilized Pichia pastoris X33/pGAPZαA-LaccPost-Stop in Ca2+ alginate beads was employed for Pleurotus ostreatus rPOXA 1B laccase batch production. Sequential statistical improvement was achieved through Plackett-Burman (PBED), (PBED-T11, 29.5±0.8 UL-1), which allowed to increase activity by 2.36-fold (12.5±2.6 UL-1) obtained in a preliminary study. Following, Box-Behnken Experimental Design (BBED) was implemented and obtained enzymatic activity in PBED-T11 was further increased by 33.5-fold (BBED-T12 989.31±187.45 UL-1). After BBED-T12 extrapolation to column, cell release remained high. To demonstrate laccase was not acting on Ca2+ alginate polymer, it was shown that both untransformed P. pastoris and S. cervisiae were able to be released from the alginate matrix and proliferate. Molecular docking evaluating interaction between rPOXA 1B and Ca2+ alginate, exhibited weak interactions between the active center and Ca2+ alginate polymer. Moreover, the active center conformation was not appropriate for ligand transformation. Immobilization conditions decreasing cell release (17.01±0.12 gL-1) allowed for high enzymatic activity (1,453.93±0.43 UL-1) with greater specific activity (18.33 Umg-1). These conditions were: 4% Na2+ alginate (w/v) and 0.3 M CaCl2, suggesting that Na2+ alginate and CaCl2 concentrations can control cell release from this matrix.
       
  • Improvements on Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent Extraction of Biocrude Oil
           from Spirogyra. sp Macro Algae

    • Abstract: Here, we report on an improved chemical method to extract hydrocarbons (CH) and Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) from wild green macro algae, which is higher than that carried out with conventional Soxhlet (Sx) and similar to that of Subcritical (SbC) or supercritical fluid (SCE) extraction methods. Crude oil plus residual biomass gave combined calorific values of 49.05 MJ/kg in agreement with its high-detected hydrocarbons (C, 72.56%; H, 10.59%) as desired for high quality liquid fuels. Oil extraction from macro algae was improved from 13.2% (Sx) to 34.8 % under Semi Critical Assisted-Solvent (SmCA-Sol) conditions. The extraction improvements are associated with an upgraded glassware design that works than in continuous or step-by-step operation under mild or high temperatures (<40, >500°C) as well as under moderate vacuum to above 1.0 atmosphere of pressure. The SmCA-Sol method creates a dynamic steam/solvent phase which exposes algae cell matrices to percolation in two opposite pathways leading to high yields of biomass extraction whether compared with traditional methods. Factors governing cell wall activation under SmCA-Sol conditions are discussed and compared with those carried out using advanced technologies and make recommendations towards future research regardless of macro algae chemical extraction of hydrocarbon and lipids.
       
  • Sensitive and Rapid Detection of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Jet Fuel by
           Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Combined with Lateral Flow Dipstick
           

    • Abstract: The existence of Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria (SRB) is one of the significant reasons for the Microbially Influenced Corrosion (MIC) of jet fuel. Especially for the jet fuel stored by military, since jet fuel is stored in the tank for a long time, some oxygen-consuming bacteria such as Amorphotheca resinae and Bacillus Cohn can consume oxygen and generate organic acids at the oil-water interface of the tank bottom. This causes anaerobic SRB flourish in fuel tanks. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) combined with a chromatographic Lateral Flow Dipstick (LFD) assay was established to detect the SRB. Four groups of LAMP primers were designed and synthesized to target dsrB (dissimilatory sulfite reductase β-subunit) genes in SRB.LAMP-LFD can detect 121 fg/μL of SRB DNA within 35 min. The detection limit of this method is 1000 times more sensitive than the conventional PCR and shortens the detection time greatly. This method is negative for other eight common bacteria species in jet fuel, indicating that the method has high specificity. In summary, this method can be used to detect the presence of SRB in jet fuel.
       
  • Current Laboratory Biosecurity for Handling Pathogenic Viruses

    • Abstract: The recent emergence of lethal viruses such as Ebola raises some concern about the possibility of the viruses being used as biological weapons. The application of pathogenic viruses as biothreat agents in the past is well documented. Although their use in warfare is currently prohibited by the Biological and Toxin Weapon Convention, their potential use in bioterrorism is a global concern. One of the requirements for conducting biological attack using viruses is successful aquisition of particular viruses for that action. Apart from natural sources, the laboratory can potentially be the source of viral biothreat agents. An effective strategy to avoid bioterrorism is to prevent bioterrorist action. Therefore, it is important in the laboratory handling of pathogenic viruses to implement biosecurity systems in order to prevent loss, theft, misuse, diversion, or intentional release that could lead dangerous viruses falling into unsafe hands. Viruses of biosecurity concern are those which particularly have an ability to cause large-scaled casualties and are easy disseminated. The level of biosecurity risk posed by the viruses being handled in the laboratory needs to be assessed in order to establish program at an appropriate level of laboratory biosecurity. A laboratory biosecurity system should include physical security, viruses control and accountability, personnel security, transport security and information security. In the laboratory, the implementation of a biosecurity system can be integrated to the biosafety plan. This review focuses on viruses of biosecurity concern, the principles of laboratory biosecurity, the assessment of laboratory biosecurity risk and how to render the biosecurity risk to an acceptable level. The review is intended to raise awareness among scientists and laboratory workers on the potency of the pathogenic viruses which can be misused and to develop secure and responsible scientific conduct involving pathogenic viruses.
       
  • Low-Homology Protein Structural Class Prediction from Secondary Structure
           Based on Visibility and Horizontal Visibility Network

    • Abstract: In this study, based on the predicted secondary structures of proteins, we propose a new approach to predict protein structural classes (α,β,α/β,α+β) for three widely used low-homology data sets. Fist, we obtain two time siries from the chaos game representation of each predicted secondary structure; second, based on two time series, we construct visibility and horizontal visibility network, respectively and generate a set of features using 17 network features; finaly, we predict each protein structure class using support vector machine and Fisher’s linear discriminant algorithm, respectively. In order to evaluate our method, the leave one out cross-validating test is employed on three data sets. Results show that our approach has been provided as a effective tool for the prediction of low-homology protein structural classes.
       
  • Antifungal Potential of Leptadenia Hastata Against Some Pathogenic Fungi

    • Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate if the plant extract could provide antifungal potential against some pathogenic fungi. Extract of Dichloromethane solvents was used for disc diffusion assay. The inhibitory concentration of the extract was performed by broth dilution method and zone of inhibition was studied by disc diffusion method at the concentration of 25, 50, 100, 250, 500 and 1000ppm in DMSO. Fluconazole was used as the reference control for antifungal study. The extract showed maximum inhibition potential of zone of inhibition against most of the pathogen (Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Candida tropicalis and Fusarium oxysporium) used at concentration 25ppm to 250ppm with zone of inhibition (3.45±0, 3.33±0.12, 3.07±0.05 and 2.97±0.10mm respectively). The extract showed minimum inhibition potential against Fusarium oxysporium in all the concentration when compared with the control as well as to the other pathogens. Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus was found to be more sensitive to Dichloromethane leaf extract followed by Candida tropical and lastly fusarium oxyspurium. The Present study indicates the potential usefulness of Dichloromethane leaf extract of Leptadenia hastata as antifungal agent.
       
  • Forensic Evidence for Cytochrome b Gene SNPs in Obese and Non Obese Saudi
           Arabians

    • Abstract: Oral swabs from obese and non obese Saudi Arabians from both sexes with an average age of 35 years old were collected and their DNAs were extracted. PCR for 1000 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene was conducted and the amplified products were sequenced in order to determine the possible forensic or obesity-related SNPs. Alignment of the obtained sequences with its counterparts of 100 healthy Afro-Asians deposited in the Genbank was undertaken and the polymorphic sites were compared. Sixteen Single Nucleotide Polymorphic sites (SNPs) and 26 variations were noted. From the 26 variations, sixteen were synonymous and the other 10 were non-synonymous. Four common haplogroups were determined using Mitomaster software (H2a, JT, U5a and R0a). Most of SNPs were related to tribes more than to obesity and the major SNP (C15452A) was recorded in both obese and non obese haplotypes. Two non-synonymous amino acid changes were found in 2 obese males (H15 and H27; A15043G) and 2 obese females (H48 and H51; C15677A) indicating that both SNPs could be obesity markers. In conclusion, cytb gene is reasonably applicable in forensic purpose while it was unclear to be used as an obesity marker. It needs to be examined for hundreds of unrelated obese and non obese people.
       
 
 
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