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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 519)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Biotechnology Advances
  [SJR: 2.921]   [H-I: 121]   [33 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0734-9750
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Growth media in anaerobic fermentative processes: The underestimated
           potential of thermophilic fermentation and anaerobic digestion
    • Authors: A.T.W.M. Hendriks; J.B. van Lier; M.K. de Kreuk
      Pages: 1 - 13
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): A.T.W.M. Hendriks, J.B. van Lier, M.K. de Kreuk
      Fermentation and anaerobic digestion of organic waste and wastewater is broadly studied and applied. Despite widely available results and data for these processes, comparison of the generated results in literature is difficult. Not only due to the used variety of process conditions, but also because of the many different growth media that are used. Composition of growth media can influence biogas production (rates) and lead to process instability during anaerobic digestion. To be able to compare results of the different studies reported, and to ensure nutrient limitation is not influencing observations ascribed to process dynamics and/or reaction kinetics, a standard protocol for creating a defined growth medium for anaerobic digestion and mixed culture fermentation is proposed. This paper explains the role(s) of the different macro- and micronutrients, as well as the choices for a growth medium formulation strategy. In addition, the differences in nutrient requirements between mesophilic and thermophilic systems are discussed as well as the importance of specific trace metals regarding specific conversion routes and the possible supplementary requirement of vitamins. The paper will also give some insight into the bio-availability and toxicity of trace metals. A remarkable finding is that mesophilic and thermophilic enzymes are quite comparable at their optimum temperatures. This has consequences for the trace metal requirements of thermophiles under certain conditions. Under non-limiting conditions, the trace metal requirement of thermophilic systems is about 3 times higher than for mesophilic systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.08.004
  • Amino acids production focusing on fermentation technologies – A
    • Authors: Martina D'Este; Merlin Alvarado-Morales; Irini Angelidaki
      Pages: 14 - 25
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Martina D'Este, Merlin Alvarado-Morales, Irini Angelidaki
      Amino acids are attractive and promising biochemicals with market capacity requirements constantly increasing. Their applicability ranges from animal feed additives, flavour enhancers and ingredients in cosmetic to specialty nutrients in pharmaceutical and medical fields. This review gives an overview of the processes applied for amino acids production and points out the main advantages and disadvantages of each. Due to the advances made in the genetic engineering techniques, the biotechnological processes, and in particular the fermentation with the aid of strains such as Corynebacterium glutamicum or Escherichia coli, play a significant role in the industrial production of amino acids. Despite the numerous advantages of the fermentative amino acids production, the process still needs significant improvements leading to increased productivity and reduction of the production costs. Although the production processes of amino acids have been extensively investigated in previous studies, a comprehensive overview of the developments in bioprocess technology has not been reported yet. This review states the importance of the fermentation process for industrial amino acids production, underlining the strengths and the weaknesses of the process. Moreover, the potential of innovative approaches utilizing macro and microalgae or bacteria are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.09.001
  • Taxonomy, ecology and biotechnological applications of thraustochytrids: A
    • Authors: Loris Fossier Marchan; Kim J. Lee Chang; Peter D. Nichols; Wilfrid J. Mitchell; Jane L. Polglase; Tony Gutierrez
      Pages: 26 - 46
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Loris Fossier Marchan, Kim J. Lee Chang, Peter D. Nichols, Wilfrid J. Mitchell, Jane L. Polglase, Tony Gutierrez
      Thraustochytrids were first discovered in 1934, and since the 1960's they have been increasingly studied for their beneficial and deleterious effects. This review aims to provide an enhanced understanding of these protists with a particular emphasis on their taxonomy, ecology and biotechnology applications. Over the years, thraustochytrid taxonomy has improved with the development of modern molecular techniques and new biochemical markers, resulting in the isolation and description of new strains. In the present work, the taxonomic history of thraustochytrids is reviewed, while providing an up-to-date classification of these organisms. It also describes the various biomarkers that may be taken into consideration to support taxonomic characterization of the thraustochytrids, together with a review of traditional and modern techniques for their isolation and molecular identification. The originality of this review lies in linking taxonomy and ecology of the thraustochytrids and their biotechnological applications as producers of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), carotenoids, exopolysaccharides and other compounds of interest. The paper provides a summary of these aspects while also highlighting some of the most important recent studies in this field, which include the diversity of polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism in thraustochytrids, some novel strategies for biomass production and recovery of compounds of interest. Furthermore, a detailed overview is provided of the direct and current applications of thraustochytrid-derived compounds in the food, fuel, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and aquaculture industries and of some of the commercial products available. This review is intended to be a source of information and references on the thraustochytrids for both experts and those who are new to this field.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.09.003
  • Zika virus structural biology and progress in vaccine development
    • Authors: Hsiao-Han Lin; Bak-Sau Yip; Li-Min Huang; Suh-Chin Wu
      Pages: 47 - 53
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hsiao-Han Lin, Bak-Sau Yip, Li-Min Huang, Suh-Chin Wu
      The growing number of zika virus (ZIKV) infections plus a 20-fold increase in neonatal microcephaly in newborns in Brazil have raised alarms in many countries regarding the threat to pregnant women. Instances of microcephaly and central nervous system malformations continue to increase in ZIKV outbreak regions. ZIKV is a small enveloped positive-strand RNA virus belonging to the Flavivirus genus of the Flaviviridae family. High-resolution ZIKV structures recently identified by cryo-electron microscopy indicate that the overall ZIKV structure is similar to those of other flaviviruses. With its compact surface, ZIKV is more thermally stable than the dengue virus (DENV). ZIKV E proteins have a characteristic “herringbone” structure with a single glycosylation site. The ZIKV E protein, the major protein involved in receptor binding and fusion, is formed as a head-to-tail dimer on the surfaces of viral particles. The E monomer consists of three distinct domains: DI, DII, and DIII. The finger-like DII contains a fusion loop (FL) that is inserted into the host cell endosomal membrane during pH-dependent conformational changes that drive fusion. Quaternary E:E dimer epitopes located at the interaction site of prM and E dimers can be further divided into two dimer epitopes. To date, more than 50 ZIKV vaccine candidates are now in various stages of research and development. Candidate ZIKV vaccines that are currently in phase I/II clinical trials include inactivated whole viruses, recombinant measles viral vector-based vaccines, DNA and mRNA vaccines, and a mosquito salivary peptide vaccine. Stabilized forms of ZIKV E:E dimer proteins have been successfully obtained either by introducing additional inter-subunit disulfide bond(s) in DII or via the direct assembly of E:E dimer proteins by immobilization with monomeric E proteins. The VLP-based approach is another alternative method for presenting native E:E dimer antigens among the vaccine components. Several forms of ZIKV VLPs have been reported featuring the co-expression of the prM-E, prM-E-NS1, C-prM-E, and NS2B/NS3 viral genes in human cells. To minimize the effect of the cross-reactive ADE-facilitating antibodies between ZIKV and DENV, several novel mutations have been reported either in or near the FL of DII or DIII to dampen the production of cross-reactive antibodies. Future ZIKV vaccine design efforts should be focused on eliciting improved neutralizing antibodies with a reduced level of cross-reactivity to confer sterilizing immunity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.09.004
  • Heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae for pigment production: A review
    • Authors: Jianjun Hu; Dillirani Nagarajan; Quanguo Zhang; Jo-Shu Chang; Duu-Jong Lee
      Pages: 54 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jianjun Hu, Dillirani Nagarajan, Quanguo Zhang, Jo-Shu Chang, Duu-Jong Lee
      Pigments (mainly carotenoids) are important nutraceuticals known for their potent anti-oxidant activities and have been used extensively as high end health supplements. Microalgae are the most promising sources of natural carotenoids and are devoid of the toxic effects associated with synthetic derivatives. Compared to photoautotrophic cultivation, heterotrophic cultivation of microalgae in well-controlled bioreactors for pigments production has attracted much attention for commercial applications due to overcoming the difficulties associated with the supply of CO2 and light, as well as avoiding the contamination problems and land requirements in open autotrophic culture systems. In this review, the heterotrophic metabolic potential of microalgae and their uses in pigment production are comprehensively described. Strategies to enhance pigment production under heterotrophic conditions are critically discussed and the challenges faced in heterotrophic pigment production with possible alternative solutions are presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.09.009
  • Silk fibroin/hydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue engineering
    • Authors: Mehdi Farokhi; Fatemeh Mottaghitalab; Saeed Samani; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar; Subhas C. Kundu; Rui L. Reis; Yousef Fatahi; David L. Kaplan
      Pages: 68 - 91
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Mehdi Farokhi, Fatemeh Mottaghitalab, Saeed Samani, Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar, Subhas C. Kundu, Rui L. Reis, Yousef Fatahi, David L. Kaplan
      Silk fibroin (SF) is a natural fibrous polymer with strong potential for many biomedical applications. SF has attracted interest in the field of bone tissue engineering due to its extraordinary characteristics in terms of elasticity, flexibility, biocompatibility and biodegradability. However, low osteogenic capacity has limited applications for SF in the orthopedic arena unless suitably functionalized. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) is a well-established bioceramic with biocompatibility and appropriate for constructing orthopedic and dental substitutes. However, HAp ceramics tend to be brittle which can restrict applications in the repair of load-bearing tissues such as bones. Therefore, blending SF and HAp combines the useful properties of both materials as bone constructs for tissue engineering, the subject of this review.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.001
  • Recent advances in polysaccharide bio-based flocculants
    • Authors: Hossein Salehizadeh; Ning Yan; Ramin Farnood
      Pages: 92 - 119
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Hossein Salehizadeh, Ning Yan, Ramin Farnood
      Natural polysaccharides, derived from biomass feedstocks, marine resources, and microorganisms, have been attracting considerable attention as benign and environmentally friendly substitutes for synthetic polymeric products. Besides many other applications, these biopolymers are rapidly emerging as viable alternatives to harmful synthetic flocculating agents for the removal of contaminants from water and wastewater. In recent years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to improve the production and performance of polysaccharide bio-based flocculants. In this review, current trends in preparation and chemical modification of polysaccharide bio-based flocculants and their flocculation performance are discussed. Aspects including mechanisms of flocculation, biosynthesis, classification, purification and characterization, chemical modification, the effect of physicochemical factors on flocculating activity, and recent applications of polysaccharide bio-based flocculants are summarized and presented.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.002
  • Improved strategies for electrochemical 1,4-NAD(P)H2 regeneration: A new
           era of bioreactors for industrial biocatalysis
    • Authors: Clifford S. Morrison; William B. Armiger; David R. Dodds; Jonathan S. Dordick; Mattheos A.G. Koffas
      Pages: 120 - 131
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Clifford S. Morrison, William B. Armiger, David R. Dodds, Jonathan S. Dordick, Mattheos A.G. Koffas
      Industrial enzymatic reactions requiring 1,4-NAD(P)H2 to perform redox transformations often require convoluted coupled enzyme regeneration systems to regenerate 1,4-NAD(P)H2 from NAD(P) and recycle the cofactor for as many turnovers as possible. Renewed interest in recycling the cofactor via electrochemical means is motivated by the low cost of performing electrochemical reactions, easy monitoring of the reaction progress, and straightforward product recovery. However, electrochemical cofactor regeneration methods invariably produce adventitious reduced cofactor side products which result in unproductive loss of input NAD(P). We review various literature strategies for mitigating adventitious product formation by electrochemical cofactor regeneration systems, and offer insight as to how a successful electrochemical bioreactor system could be constructed to engineer efficient 1,4-NAD(P)H2-dependent enzyme reactions of interest to the industrial biocatalysis community.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.003
  • Next generation organoids for biomedical research and applications
    • Authors: Yan-Ru Lou; Alan W. Leung
      Pages: 132 - 149
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Yan-Ru Lou, Alan W. Leung
      Organoids are in vitro cultures of miniature fetal or adult organ-like structures. Their potentials for use in tissue and organ replacement, disease modeling, toxicology studies, and drug discovery are tremendous. Currently, major challenges facing human organoid technology include (i) improving the range of cellular heterogeneity for a particular organoid system, (ii) mimicking the native micro- and matrix-environment encountered by cells within organoids, and (iii) developing robust protocols for the in vitro maturation of organoids that remain mostly fetal-like in cultures. To tackle these challenges, we advocate the principle of reverse engineering that replicates the inner workings of in vivo systems with the goal of achieving functionality and maturation of the resulting organoid structures with the input of minimal intrinsic (cellular) and environmental (matrix and niche) constituents. Here, we present an overview of organoid technology development in several systems that employ cell materials derived from fetal and adult tissues and pluripotent stem cell cultures. We focus on key studies that exploit the self-organizing property of embryonic progenitors and the role of designer matrices and cell-free scaffolds in assisting organoid formation. We further explore the relationship between adult stem cells, niche factors, and other current developments that aim to enhance robust organoid maturation. From these works, we propose a standardized pipeline for the development of future protocols that would help generate more physiologically relevant human organoids for various biomedical applications.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.005
  • Potential and limitations of Klebsiella pneumoniae as a microbial cell
           factory utilizing glycerol as the carbon source
    • Authors: Vinod Kumar; Sunghoon Park
      Pages: 150 - 167
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Vinod Kumar, Sunghoon Park
      Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative facultative anaerobe that metabolizes glycerol efficiently under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This microbe is considered an outstanding biocatalyst for transforming glycerol into a variety of value-added products. Crude glycerol is a cheap carbon source and can be converted by K. pneumoniae into useful compounds such as lactic acid, 3-hydroxypropionic acid, ethanol, 1,3-propanediol, 2,3-butanediol, and succinic acid. This review summarizes glycerol metabolism in K. pneumoniae and its potential as a microbial cell factory for the production of commercially important acids and alcohols. Although many challenges remain, K. pneumoniae is a promising workhorse when glycerol is used as the carbon source.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.004
  • Amino acid misincorporation in recombinant proteins
    • Authors: H. Edward Wong; Chung-Jr Huang; Zhongqi Zhang
      Pages: 168 - 181
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): H. Edward Wong, Chung-Jr Huang, Zhongqi Zhang
      Proteins provide the molecular basis for cellular structure, catalytic activity, signal transduction, and molecular transport in biological systems. Recombinant protein expression is widely used to prepare and manufacture novel proteins that serve as the foundation of many biopharmaceutical products. However, protein translation bioprocesses are inherently prone to low-level errors. These sequence variants caused by amino acid misincorporation have been observed in both native and recombinant proteins. Protein sequence variants impact product quality, and their presence can be exacerbated through cellular stress, overexpression, and nutrient starvation. Therefore, the cell line selection process, which is used in the biopharmaceutical industry, is not only directed towards maximizing productivity, but also focuses on selecting clones which yield low sequence variant levels, thereby proactively avoiding potentially inauspicious patient safety and efficacy outcomes. Here, we summarize a number of hallmark studies aimed at understanding the mechanisms of amino acid misincorporation, as well as exacerbating factors, and mitigation strategies. We also describe key advances in analytical technologies in the identification and quantification of sequence variants, and some practical considerations when using LC-MS/MS for detecting sequence variants.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.10.006
  • Engineering strategies for enhanced production of protein and bio-products
           in Pichia pastoris: A review
    • Authors: Zhiliang Yang; Zisheng Zhang
      Pages: 182 - 195
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang
      Pichia pastoris has been recognized as one of the most industrially important hosts for heterologous protein production. Despite its high protein productivity, the optimization of P. pastoris cultivation is still imperative due to strain- and product-specific challenges such as promoter strength, methanol utilization type and oxygen demand. To address the issues, strategies involving genetic and process engineering have been employed. Optimization of codon usage and gene dosage, as well as engineering of promoters, protein secretion pathways and methanol metabolic pathways have proved beneficial to innate protein expression levels. Large-scale production of proteins via high cell density fermentation additionally relies on the optimization of process parameters including methanol feed rate, induction temperature and specific growth rate. Recent progress related to the enhanced production of proteins in P. pastoris via various genetic engineering and cultivation strategies are reviewed. Insight into the regulation of the P. pastoris alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter and the development of methanol-free systems are highlighted. Novel cultivation strategies such as mixed substrate feeding are discussed. Recent advances regarding substrate and product monitoring techniques are also summarized. Application of P. pastoris to the production of biodiesel and other value-added products via metabolic engineering are also reviewed. P. pastoris is becoming an indispensable platform through the use of these combined engineering strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.002
  • Biotechnological potential of novel glycoside hydrolase family 70 enzymes
           synthesizing α-glucans from starch and sucrose
    • Authors: Joana Gangoiti; Tjaard Pijning; Lubbert Dijkhuizen
      Pages: 196 - 207
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Joana Gangoiti, Tjaard Pijning, Lubbert Dijkhuizen
      Transglucosidases belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 70 are promising enzymatic tools for the synthesis of α-glucans with defined structures from renewable sucrose and starch substrates. Depending on the GH70 enzyme specificity, α-glucans with different structures and physicochemical properties are produced, which have found diverse (potential) commercial applications, e.g. in food, health and as biomaterials. Originally, the GH70 family was established only for glucansucrase enzymes of lactic acid bacteria that catalyze the synthesis of α-glucan polymers from sucrose. In recent years, we have identified 3 novel subfamilies of GH70 enzymes (designated GtfB, GtfC and GtfD), inactive on sucrose but converting starch/maltodextrin substrates into novel α-glucans. These novel starch-acting enzymes considerably enlarge the panel of α-glucans that can be produced. They also represent very interesting evolutionary intermediates between sucrose-acting GH70 glucansucrases and starch-acting GH13 α-amylases. Here we provide an overview of the repertoire of GH70 enzymes currently available with focus on these novel starch-acting GH70 enzymes and their biotechnological potential. Moreover, we discuss key developments in the understanding of structure-function relationships of GH70 enzymes in the light of available three-dimensional structures, and the protein engineering strategies that were recently applied to expand their natural product specificities.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.001
  • αvβ3 and α5β1 integrin-specific ligands: From tumor angiogenesis
           inhibitors to vascularization promoters in regenerative medicine'
    • Authors: Luís A. Rocha; David A. Learmonth; Rui A. Sousa; António J. Salgado
      Pages: 208 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Luís A. Rocha, David A. Learmonth, Rui A. Sousa, António J. Salgado
      Integrins are cell adhesion receptors predominantly important during normal and tumor angiogenesis. A sequence present on several extracellular matrix proteins composed of Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) has attracted attention due to its role in cell adhesion mediated by integrins. The development of ligands that can bind to integrins involved in tumor angiogenesis and brake disease progression has resulted in new investigational drug entities reaching the clinical trial phase in humans. The use of integrin-specific ligands can be useful for the vascularization of regenerative medicine constructs, which remains a major limitation for translation into clinical practice. In order to enhance vascularization, immobilization of integrin-specific RGD peptidomimetics within constructs is a recommended approach, due to their high specificity and selectivity towards certain desired integrins. This review endeavours to address the potential of peptidomimetic-coated biomaterials as vascular network promoters for regenerative medicine purposes. Clinical studies involving molecules tracking active integrins in cancer angiogenesis and reasons for their failure are also addressed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.004
  • Stability of aerobic granules during long-term bioreactor operation
    • Authors: Rita D.G. Franca; Helena M. Pinheiro; Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht; Nídia D. Lourenço
      Pages: 228 - 246
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rita D.G. Franca, Helena M. Pinheiro, Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht, Nídia D. Lourenço
      Aerobic granular sludge technology has been extensively studied over the past 20 years and is regarded as the upcoming new standard for biological treatment of domestic and industrial wastewaters. Aerobic granules (AG) are dense, compact, self-immobilized microbial aggregates that allow better sludge-water separation and thereby higher biomass concentrations in the bioreactor than conventional activated sludge aggregates. This brings potential practical advantages in terms of investment cost, energy consumption and footprint. Yet, despite the relevant advances regarding the process of AG formation, instability of AG during long-term operation is still seen as a major barrier for a broad practical application of this technology. This paper presents an up-to-date review of the literature focusing on AG stability, aiming to contribute to the identification of key factors for promoting long-term stability of AG and to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. Operational conditions leading to AG disintegration are described, including high organic loads, particulate substrates in the influent, toxic feed components, aerobic feeding and too short famine periods. These operational and influent wastewater composition conditions were shown to influence the micro-environment of AG, consequently affecting their stability. Granule stability is generally favored by the presence of a dense core, with microbial growth throughout the AG depth being a crucial intrinsic factor determining its structural integrity. Accordingly, possible practical solutions to improve granule long-term stability are described, namely through the promotion of minimal substrate concentration gradients and control of microbial growth rates within AG, including anaerobic, plug-flow feeding and specific sludge removal strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.005
  • Hot spots for the protein engineering of Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases
    • Authors: Kathleen Balke; Andy Beier; Uwe T. Bornscheuer
      Pages: 247 - 263
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Kathleen Balke, Andy Beier, Uwe T. Bornscheuer
      Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenases (BVMOs) are versatile biocatalysts for the conversion of ketones to lactones or esters while also being able to efficiently oxidize sulfides to sulfoxides. However, there are limitations for the application of BVMOs in synthesis. In this review we provide an overview of the protein engineering studies aiming at optimizing different properties of BVMOs. We describe hot spots in the active sites of certain BVMOs that have been successfully targeted for changing the substrate scope, as well as the possibility to influence this property by allosteric effects. The identified hot spots in the active sites for controlling enantio- and regioselectivity are shown to be transferable to other BVMOs and we describe concepts to influence heteroatom oxidation, improve protein stability and change the cofactor dependency of BVMOs. Summarizing all these different studies enabled the identification of BVMO- or property-dependent as well as universal hot spots.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.007
  • Harnessing CRISPR/Cas systems for programmable transcriptional and
           post-transcriptional regulation
    • Authors: Ahmed Mahas; C. Neal Stewart; Magdy M. Mahfouz
      Pages: 295 - 310
      Abstract: Publication date: January–February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 1
      Author(s): Ahmed Mahas, C. Neal Stewart, Magdy M. Mahfouz
      Genome editing has enabled broad advances and novel approaches in studies of gene function and structure; now, emerging methods aim to precisely engineer post-transcriptional processes. Developing precise, efficient molecular tools to alter the transcriptome holds great promise for biotechnology and synthetic biology applications. Different approaches have been employed for targeted degradation of RNA species in eukaryotes, but they lack programmability and versatility, thereby limiting their utility for diverse applications. The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been harnessed for genome editing in many eukaryotic species and, using a catalytically inactive Cas9 variant, the CRISPR/dCas9 system has been repurposed for transcriptional regulation. Recent studies have used other CRISPR/Cas systems for targeted RNA degradation and RNA-based manipulations. For example, Cas13a, a Type VI-A endonuclease, has been identified as an RNA-guided RNA ribonuclease and used for manipulation of RNA. Here, we discuss different modalities for targeted RNA interference with an emphasis on the potential applications of CRISPR/Cas systems as programmable transcriptional regulators for broad uses, including functional biology, biotechnology, and synthetic biology applications.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.008
  • Translational models of tumor angiogenesis: A nexus of in silico and in
           vitro models
    • Authors: Shirin Soleimani; Milad Shamsi; Mehran Akbarpour Ghazani; Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres; Karolina Papera Valente; Mohsen Saghafian; Mehdi Mohammadi Ashani; Mohsen Akbari; Amir Sanati-Nezhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Shirin Soleimani, Milad Shamsi, Mehran Akbarpour Ghazani, Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres, Karolina Papera Valente, Mohsen Saghafian, Mehdi Mohammadi Ashani, Mohsen Akbari, Amir Sanati-Nezhad
      Emerging evidence shows that endothelial cells are not only the building blocks of vascular networks that enable oxygen and nutrient delivery throughout a tissue but also serve as a rich resource of angiocrine factors. Endothelial cells play key roles in determining cancer progression and response to anti-cancer drugs. Furthermore, the endothelium-specific deposition of extracellular matrix is a key modulator of the availability of angiocrine factors to both stromal and cancer cells. Considering tumor vascular network as a decisive factor in cancer pathogenesis and treatment response, these networks need to be an inseparable component of cancer models. Both computational and in vitro experimental models have been extensively developed to model tumor-endothelium interactions. While informative, they have been developed in different communities and do not yet represent a comprehensive platform. In this review, we overview the necessity of incorporating vascular networks for both in vitro and in silico cancer models and discuss recent progresses and challenges of in vitro experimental microfluidic cancer vasculature-on-chip systems and their in silico counterparts. We further highlight how these two approaches can merge together with the aim of presenting a predictive combinatorial platform for studying cancer pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of single or multi-drug therapeutics for cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.013
  • Paradigm shift – Metabolic transformation of docosahexaenoic and
           eicosapentaenoic acids to bioactives exemplify the promise of fatty acid
           drug discovery
    • Authors: Ganesh V. Halade; Laurence M. Black; Mahendra Kumar Verma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Ganesh V. Halade, Laurence M. Black, Mahendra Kumar Verma
      Fatty acid drug discovery (FADD) is defined as the identification of novel, specialized bioactive mediators that are derived from fatty acids and have precise pharmacological/therapeutic potential. A number of reports indicate that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and limited intake of omega-6 promotes overall health benefits. In 1929, Burr and Burr indicated the significant role of essential fatty acids for survival and functional health of many organs. In reference to specific dietary benefits of differential omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA and EPA) are transformed to monohydroxy, dihydroxy, trihydroxy, and other complex mediators during infection, injury, and exercise to resolve inflammation. The presented FADD approach describes the metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA in response to injury, infection, and exercise to govern uncontrolled inflammation. Metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA into a number of pro-resolving molecules exemplifies a novel, inexpensive approach compared to traditional, expensive drug discovery. DHA and EPA have been recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease since 1970. Therefore, the FADD approach is relevant to cardiovascular disease and resolution of inflammation in many injury models. Future research demands identification of novel action targets, receptors for biomolecules, mechanism(s), and drug-interactions with resolvins in order to maintain homeostasis.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.014
  • Molecular aspects of sucrose transport and its metabolism to starch during
           seed development in wheat: A comprehensive review
    • Authors: Rohit Kumar; Shalini Mukherjee; Belay T. Ayele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Rohit Kumar, Shalini Mukherjee, Belay T. Ayele
      Wheat is one of the most important crops globally, and its grain is mainly used for human food, accounting for 20% of the total dietary calories. It is also used as animal feed and as a raw material for a variety of non-food and non-feed industrial products such as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Starch is the major constituent of a wheat grain, as a result, it is considered as a critical determinant of wheat yield and quality. The amount and composition of starch deposited in wheat grains is controlled primarily by sucrose transport from source tissues to the grain and its conversion to starch. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating these physiological processes provides important opportunities to improve wheat starch yield and quality through biotechnological approaches. This review comprehensively discusses the current understanding of the molecular aspects of sucrose transport and sucrose-to-starch metabolism in wheat grains. It also highlights the advances and prospects of starch biotechnology in wheat.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.015
  • Bacterial components as naturally inspired nano-carriers for drug/gene
           delivery and immunization: Set the bugs to work'
    • Authors: Fatemeh Farjadian; Mohsen Moghoofei; Soroush Mirkiani; Amir Ghasemi; Navid Rabiee; Shima Hadifar; Ali Beyzavi; Mahdi Karimi; Michael R. Hamblin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Fatemeh Farjadian, Mohsen Moghoofei, Soroush Mirkiani, Amir Ghasemi, Navid Rabiee, Shima Hadifar, Ali Beyzavi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R. Hamblin
      Drug delivery is a rapidly growing area of research motivated by the nanotechnology revolution, the ideal of personalized medicine, and the desire to reduce the side effects of toxic anti-cancer drugs. Amongst a bewildering array of different nanostructures and nanocarriers, those examples that are fundamentally bio-inspired and derived from natural sources are particularly preferred. Delivery of vaccines is also an active area of research in this field. Bacterial cells and their components that have been used for drug delivery, include the crystalline cell-surface layer known as “S-layer”, bacterial ghosts, bacterial outer membrane vesicles, and bacterial products or derivatives (e.g. spores, polymers, and magnetic nanoparticles). Considering the origin of these components from potentially pathogenic microorganisms, it is not surprising that they have been applied for vaccines and immunization. The present review critically summarizes their applications focusing on their advantages for delivery of drugs, genes, and vaccines.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.016
  • The functional genomic studies of resveratrol in respect to its
           anti-cancer effects
    • Authors: Lukasz Huminieck; Jarosław Horbańczuk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Lukasz Huminieck, Jarosław Horbańczuk
      Resveratrol has anti-cancer effects in vitro, and hypothetical chemopreventive effects in vivo. Effects are pleiotropic, mediated by changes in expression of many genes and epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, they are well suited for functional genomic studies. We carried out systematic review of such studies (reflecting also on technological progress). Differentially expressed genes commonly linked to resveratrol treatment were linked to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, it is unclear if these are primary and specific targets of resveratrol. We conclude by discussing areas where additional functional genomic studies are desirable, including experiments that better model in vivo effects of dietary intake.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.011
  • Metabolic regulation in solventogenic clostridia: regulators, mechanisms
           and engineering
    • Authors: Yunpeng Yang; Xiaoqun Nie; Yuqian Jiang; Chen Yang; Yang Gu; Weihong Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yunpeng Yang, Xiaoqun Nie, Yuqian Jiang, Chen Yang, Yang Gu, Weihong Jiang
      Solventogenic clostridia, a group of important industrial microorganisms, have exceptional substrate and product diversity, capable of producing a series of two-carbon and even long-chain chemicals and fuels by using various substrates, including sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose, and C1 gases. For the sake of in-depth understanding and engineering these anaerobic microorganisms for broader applications, studies on metabolic regulation of solventogenic clostridia had been extensively carried out during the past ten years, based on the rapid development of various genetic tools. To date, a number of regulators that are essential for cell physiological and metabolic processes have been identified in clostridia, and the relevant mechanisms have also been dissected, providing a wealth of valuable information for metabolic engineering. Here, we reviewed the latest research progress on the metabolic regulation for chemical production and carbohydrate utilization in solventogenic clostridia, by focusing on three typical Clostridium species, the saccharolytic C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, as well as the gas-fermenting C. ljungdahlii. On this basis, future directions in the study and remodeling of clostridial regulation systems, were proposed for effective modification of these industrially important anaerobes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.012
  • Improved genomic resources and new bioinformatic workflow for the
           carcinogenic parasite Clonorchis sinensis: Biotechnological implications
    • Authors: Daxi Wang; Pasi K. Korhonen; Robin B. Gasser; Neil D. Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Daxi Wang, Pasi K. Korhonen, Robin B. Gasser, Neil D. Young
      Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species, evidence of karyotypic variation within C. sinensis and cryptic species within a related opisthorchiid fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) emphasise the importance of studying and comparing the genes and genomes of geographically distinct isolates of C. sinensis. Recently, we sequenced, assembled and characterised a draft nuclear genome of a C. sinensis isolate from Korea and compared it with a published draft genome of a Chinese isolate of this species using a bioinformatic workflow established for comparing draft genome assemblies and their gene annotations. We identified that 50.6% and 52.1% of the Korean and Chinese C. sinensis genomic scaffolds were syntenic, respectively. Within aligned syntenic blocks, the genomes had a high level of nucleotide identity (99.1%) and encoded 15 variable proteins likely to be involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we review current technical challenges of using draft genome assemblies to undertake comparative genomic analyses to quantify genetic variation between isolates of the same species. Using a workflow that overcomes these challenges, we report on a high-quality draft genome for C. sinensis from Korea and comparative genomic analyses, as a basis for future investigations of the genetic structures of C. sinensis populations, and discuss the biotechnological implications of these explorations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.008
  • Old and new glycopeptide antibiotics: From product to gene and back in the
           post-genomic era
    • Authors: Giorgia Letizia Marcone; Elisa Binda; Francesca Berini; Flavia Marinelli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Giorgia Letizia Marcone, Elisa Binda, Francesca Berini, Flavia Marinelli
      Glycopeptide antibiotics are drugs of last resort for treating severe infections caused by multi-drug resistant Gram-positive pathogens. First-generation glycopeptides (vancomycin and teicoplanin) are produced by soil-dwelling actinomycetes. Second-generation glycopeptides (dalbavancin, oritavancin, and telavancin) are semi-synthetic derivatives of the progenitor natural products. Herein, we cover past and present biotechnological approaches for searching for and producing old and new glycopeptide antibiotics. We review the strategies adopted to increase microbial production (from classical strain improvement to rational genetic engineering), and the recent progress in genome mining, chemoenzymatic derivatization, and combinatorial biosynthesis for expanding glycopeptide chemical diversity and tackling the never-ceasing evolution of antibiotic resistance.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.009
  • Natural products as inhibitors of prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory
           5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediator biosynthesis
    • Authors: Andreas Koeberle; Oliver Werz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz
      Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit prostanoid formation and represent prevalent therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, NSAIDs are afflicted with severe side effects, which might be circumvented by more selective suppression of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis. This concept led to dual inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase that are crucial enzymes in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes. The potential of their dual inhibition in light of superior efficacy and safety is discussed. Focus is placed on natural products, for which direct inhibition of mPGES-1 and leukotriene biosynthesis has been confirmed.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.010
  • Chemical genetics in tumor lipogenesis
    • Authors: Simone Braig
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Simone Braig
      Since cancer cells depend on de novo lipogenesis for energy supply, highly active membrane biosynthesis and signaling, enhanced fatty acid synthesis is a crucial characteristic of cancer cells. Hence, targeting lipogenic enzymes and signaling cascades is a very promising approach in developing innovative therapeutic agents for the fight against cancer. This review summarizes main aspects of altered fatty acid synthesis in cancer cells and emphasizes the power of chemical genetic approaches in identifying and analyzing novel anti-cancer drug candidates interfering with lipid metabolism.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.007
  • Enabling personalized implant and controllable biosystem development
           through 3D printing
    • Authors: Neerajha Nagarajan; Agnes Dupret-Bories; Erdem Karabulut; Pinar Zorlutuna; Nihal Engin Vrana
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Neerajha Nagarajan, Agnes Dupret-Bories, Erdem Karabulut, Pinar Zorlutuna, Nihal Engin Vrana
      The impact of additive manufacturing in our lives has been increasing constantly. One of the frontiers in this change is the medical devices. 3D printing technologies not only enable the personalization of implantable devices with respect to patient-specific anatomy, pathology and biomechanical properties but they also provide new opportunities in related areas such as surgical education, minimally invasive diagnosis, medical research and disease models. In this review, we cover the recent clinical applications of 3D printing with a particular focus on implantable devices. The current technical bottlenecks in 3D printing in view of the needs in clinical applications are explained and recent advances to overcome these challenges are presented. 3D printing with cells (bioprinting); an exciting subfield of 3D printing, is covered in the context of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine and current developments in bioinks are discussed. Also emerging applications of bioprinting beyond health, such as biorobotics and soft robotics, are introduced. As the technical challenges related to printing rate, precision and cost are steadily being solved, it can be envisioned that 3D printers will become common on-site instruments in medical practice with the possibility of custom-made, on-demand implants and, eventually, tissue engineered organs with active parts developed with biorobotics techniques.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.004
  • Marine algal carbohydrates as carbon sources for the production of
           biochemicals and biomaterials
    • Authors: M. Teresa Cesário; M. Manuela R. da Fonseca; Mafalda M. Marques; M. Catarina M.D. de Almeida
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): M.T. Cesário, M.M.R. da Fonseca, M.M. Marques, M.C.M.D. de Almeida
      The high content of lipids in microalgae (>60% w/w in some species) and of carbohydrates in seaweed (up to 75%) have promoted intensive research towards valorisation of algal components for the production of biofuels. However, the exploitation of the carbohydrate fraction to produce a range of chemicals and chemical intermediates with established markets is still limited. These include organic acids (e.g. succinic and lactic acid), alcohols other than bioethanol (e.g. butanol), and biomaterials (e.g. polyhydroxyalkanoates). This review highlights current and potential applications of the marine algal carbohydrate fractions as major C-source for microbial production of biomaterials and building blocks.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.006
  • Intracellular drug delivery: Potential usefulness of engineered Shiga
           toxin subunit B for targeted cancer therapy
    • Authors: Vera Luginbuehl; Nicolas Meier; Karin Kovar; Jack Rohrer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Vera Luginbuehl, Nicolas Meier, Karin Kovar, Jack Rohrer
      A treasure trove of intracellular cancer drug targets remains hidden behind cell membranes. However, engineered pathogen-derived toxins such as Shiga toxins can deliver small or macromolecular drugs to specific intracellular organelles. After binding to ganglioglobotriaosylceramide (Gb3, CD77), the non-toxic subunit B (StxB) of the Shiga-holotoxin is endocytosed and delivers its payload by a unique retrograde trafficking pathway via the endoplasmic reticulum to the cytosol. This review provides an overview of biomedical applications of StxB-based drug delivery systems in targeted cancer diagnosis and therapy. Biotechnological production of the Stx-material is discussed from the perspective of developing efficacious and safe therapeutics.

      PubDate: 2018-02-14T23:47:14Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.005
  • Recent advances in reconstructing microbial secondary metabolites
           biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp.
    • Authors: Yi He; Bin Wang; Wanping Chen; Russell J. Cox; Jingren He; Fusheng Chen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yi He, Bin Wang, Wanping Chen, Russell J. Cox, Jingren He, Fusheng Chen
      High throughput genome sequencing has revealed a multitude of potential secondary metabolites biosynthetic pathways that remain cryptic. Pathway reconstruction coupled with genetic engineering via heterologous expression enables discovery of novel compounds, elucidation of biosynthetic pathways, and optimization of product yields. Apart from Escherichia coli and yeast, fungi, especially Aspergillus spp., are well known and efficient heterologous hosts. This review summarizes recent advances in heterologous expression of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis in Aspergillus spp. We also discuss the technological challenges and successes in regard to heterologous host selection and DNA assembly behind the reconstruction of microbial secondary metabolite biosynthesis.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.001
  • Biogas upgrading and utilization: Current status and perspectives
    • Authors: Irini Angelidaki; Laura Treu; Panagiotis Tsapekos; Gang Luo; Stefano Campanaro; Henrik Wenzel; Panagiotis G. Kougias
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Irini Angelidaki, Laura Treu, Panagiotis Tsapekos, Gang Luo, Stefano Campanaro, Henrik Wenzel, Panagiotis G. Kougias
      Biogas production is an established sustainable process for simultaneous generation of renewable energy and treatment of organic wastes. The increasing interest of utilizing biogas as substitute to natural gas or its exploitation as transport fuel opened new avenues in the development of biogas upgrading techniques. The present work is a critical review that summarizes state-of-the-art technologies for biogas upgrading and enhancement with particular attention to the emerging biological methanation processes. The review includes comprehensive description of the main principles of various biogas upgrading methodologies, scientific and technical outcomes related to their biomethanation efficiency, challenges that have to be addressed for further development and incentives and feasibility of the upgrading concepts.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.011
  • Biological activities of (−)-epicatechin and
           (−)-epicatechin-containing foods: Focus on cardiovascular and
           neuropsychological health
    • Authors: Iveta Bernatova
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Iveta Bernatova
      Recent studies have suggested that certain (−)-epicatechin-containing foods have a blood pressure-lowering capacity. The mechanisms underlying (−)-epicatechin action may help prevent oxidative damage and endothelial dysfunction, which have both been associated with hypertension and certain brain disorders. Moreover, (−)-epicatechin has been shown to modify metabolic profile, blood's rheological properties, and to cross the blood-brain barrier. Thus, (−)-epicatechin causes multiple actions that may provide unique synergy beneficial for cardiovascular and neuropsychological health. This review summarises the current knowledge on the biological actions of (−)-epicatechin, related to cardiovascular and brain functions, which may play a remarkable role in human health and longevity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.009
  • Bacterial type III secretion system as a protein delivery tool for a broad
           range of biomedical applications
    • Authors: Fang Bai; Zhenpeng Li; Akihiro Umezawa; Naohiro Terada; Shouguang Jin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Fang Bai, Zhenpeng Li, Akihiro Umezawa, Naohiro Terada, Shouguang Jin
      A protein delivery tool based on bacterial type III secretion system (T3SS) has been broadly applied in biomedical researches. In this review, we summarize various applications of the T3SS-mediate protein delivery which enables translocation of proteins directly into mammalian cells without protein purification. Some of the remarkable advancements include delivery of antigens for therapeutic vaccines, nucleases for genome editing, transcription factors for cellular reprogramming and stem cells differentiation, and signaling molecules for post-translational proteomics studies. With continued improvement of the T3SS-mediated protein delivery tools, even wider application of the technology is anticipated.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.016
  • RNA interference technology to improve the baculovirus-insect cell
           expression system
    • Authors: Cuitlahuac Chavez-Pena; Amine A. Kamen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Cuitlahuac Chavez-Pena, Amine A. Kamen
      The baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) is a popular manufacturing platform for the production of recombinant proteins, antiviral vaccines, gene therapy vectors, and biopesticides. Besides its successful applications in the industrial sector, the system has also played a significant role within the academic community given its extensive use in the production of hard-to-express eukaryotic multiprotein complexes for structural characterization for example. However, as other expression platforms, BEVS has to be continually improved to overcome its limitation and adapt to the constant demand for manufacturing processes that provide recombinant products with improved quality at higher yields and lower production cost. RNA interference, or RNAi, is a relatively recent technology that has revolutionized how scientist study gene function. Originally introduced as a tool to study biological and disease-related processes it has recently been applied to improve the yield and quality of recombinant proteins produced in several expression systems. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of the impact that RNAi-mediated silencing of cellular or viral genes in the BEVS has on the production of recombinant products. We also propose a critical analysis of several aspects of the methodologies described in the literature for the use of RNAi technology in the BEVS with the intent to provide the reader with eventually useful guidance for designing experiments.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.008
  • Multigene delivery in mammalian cells: Recent advances and applications
    • Authors: Maysam Mansouri; Philipp Berger
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Maysam Mansouri, Philipp Berger
      Systems for multigene delivery in mammalian cells, particularly in the context of genome engineering, have gained a lot of attention in biomolecular research and medicine. Initially these methods were based on RNA polymerase II promoters and were used for the production of protein complexes and for applications in cell biology such as reprogramming of somatic cells to stem cells. Emerging technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering, which enable any alteration at the genomic level of an organism, require additional elements including U6-driven expression cassettes for RNA expression and homology constructs for designed genome modifications. For these applications, systems with high DNA capacity, flexibility and transfer rates are needed. In this article, we briefly give an update on some of recent strategies that facilitate multigene assembly and delivery into mammalian cells. Also, we review applications in various fields of biology that rely on multigene delivery systems.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.012
  • Biomolecule-embedded metal-organic frameworks as an innovative sensing
    • Authors: Sureshkumar Kempahanumakkagari; Vanish Kumar; Pallabi Samaddar; Pawan Kumar; Thippeswamy Ramakrishnappa; Ki-Hyun Kim
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Sureshkumar Kempahanumakkagari, Vanish Kumar, Pallabi Samaddar, Pawan Kumar, Thippeswamy Ramakrishnappa, Ki-Hyun Kim
      Technological advancements combined with materials research have led to the generation of enormous types of novel substrates and materials for use in various biological/medical, energy, and environmental applications. Lately, the embedding of biomolecules in novel and/or advanced materials (e.g., metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), nanoparticles, hydrogels, graphene, and their hybrid composites) has become a vital research area in the construction of an innovative platform for various applications including sensors (or biosensors), biofuel cells, and bioelectronic devices. Due to the intriguing properties of MOFs (e.g., framework architecture, topology, and optical properties), they have contributed considerably to recent progresses in enzymatic catalysis, antibody-antigen interactions, or many other related approaches. Here, we aim to describe the different strategies for the design and synthesis of diverse biomolecule-embedded MOFs for various sensing (e.g., optical, electrochemical, biological, and miscellaneous) techniques. Additionally, the benefits and future prospective of MOFs-based biomolecular immobilization as an innovative sensing platform are discussed along with the evaluation on their performance to seek for further development in this emerging research area.

      PubDate: 2018-02-05T08:51:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.014
  • Stable isotope compounds - production, detection, and application
    • Authors: Vilém Zachleder; Milada Vítová; Monika Hlavová; Šárka Moudříková; Peter Mojzeš; Hermann Heumann; Johannes R. Becher; Kateřina Bišová
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Vilém Zachleder, Milada Vítová, Monika Hlavová, Šárka Moudříková, Peter Mojzeš, Hermann Heumann, Johannes R. Becher, Kateřina Bišová
      Stable isotopes are used in wide fields of application from natural tracers in biology, geology and archeology through studies of metabolic fluxes to their application as tracers in quantitative proteomics and structural biology. We review the use of stable isotopes of biogenic elements (H, C, N, O, S, Mg, Se) with the emphasis on hydrogen and its heavy isotope deuterium. We will discuss the limitations of enriching various compounds in stable isotopes when produced in living organisms. Finally, we overview methods for measuring stable isotopes, focusing on methods for detection in single cells in situ and their exploitation in modern biotechnologies.

      PubDate: 2018-01-26T08:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.010
  • Targeting of stress response pathways in the prevention and treatment of
    • Authors: Jaroslav Zelenka; Martina Koncošová; Tomáš Ruml
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Jaroslav Zelenka, Martina Koncošová, Tomáš Ruml
      The hallmarks of tumor tissue are not only genetic aberrations but also the presence of metabolic and oxidative stress as a result of hypoxia and lactic acidosis. The stress activates several prosurvival pathways including metabolic remodeling, autophagy, antioxidant response, mitohormesis, and glutaminolysis, whose upregulation in tumors is associated with a poor survival of patients, while their activation in healthy tissue with statins, metformin, physical activity, and natural compounds prevents carcinogenesis. This review emphasizes the dual role of stress response pathways in cancer and suggests the integrative understanding as a basis for the development of rational therapy targeting the stress response.

      PubDate: 2018-01-26T08:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.007
  • Tailoring cyanobacterial cell factory for improved industrial properties
    • Authors: Guodong Luan; Xuefeng Lu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Guodong Luan, Xuefeng Lu
      Photosynthetic biomanufacturing provides a promising solution for sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals. Cyanobacteria are among the most promising microbial platforms for the construction of photosynthetic cell factories. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria has enabled effective photosynthetic synthesis of diverse natural or non-natural metabolites, while commercialization of photosynthetic biomanufacturing is usually restricted by process and economic feasibilities. In actual outdoor conditions, active cell growth and product synthesis is restricted to narrow light exposure windows of the day-night cycles and is threatened by diverse physical, chemical, and biological environmental stresses. For biomass harvesting and bioproduct recovery, energy and cost consuming processing and equipment is required, which further decreases the economic and environmental competitiveness of the entire process. To facilitate scaled photosynthetic biomanufacturing, lots of efforts have been made to engineer cyanobacterial cell properties required by robust & continual cultivation and convenient & efficient recovery. In this review, we specifically summarized recently reported engineering strategies on optimizing industrial properties of cyanobacterial cells. Through systematically re-editing the metabolism, morphology, mutualism interaction of cyanobacterial chassis cells, the adaptabilities and compatibilities of the cyanobacterial cell factories to the industrial process could be significantly improved. Cell growth and product synthesis of the tailored cyanobacterial cells could be expanded and maintained at night and in stressful environments, while convenient biomass harvesting could also be expected. For developing more feasible cyanobacterial photosynthetic biomanufacturing in large scale, we here propose the importance of tailoring industrial properties of cyanobacteria and outline the directions that should be exploited in the future.

      PubDate: 2018-01-26T08:38:01Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.005
  • Implementing CRISPR-Cas technologies in conventional and non-conventional
           yeasts: Current state and future prospects
    • Authors: Hana Raschmanova; Astrid Weninger; Anton Glieder; Karin Kovar; Thomas Vogl
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Hana Raschmanova, Astrid Weninger, Anton Glieder, Karin Kovar, Thomas Vogl
      Within five years, the CRISPR-Cas system has emerged as the dominating tool for genome engineering, while also changing the speed and efficiency of metabolic engineering in conventional (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe) and non-conventional (Yarrowia lipolytica, Pichia pastoris syn. Komagataella phaffii, Kluyveromyces lactis, Candida albicans and C. glabrata) yeasts. Especially in S. cerevisiae, an extensive toolbox of advanced CRISPR-related applications has been established, including crisprTFs and gene drives. The comparison of innovative CRISPR-Cas expression strategies in yeasts presented here may also serve as guideline to implement and refine CRISPR-Cas systems for highly efficient genome editing in other eukaryotic organisms.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.006
  • Designing improved active peptides for therapeutic approaches against
           infectious diseases
    • Authors: Bárbara Gomes; Marcelo T. Augusto; Mário R. Felício; Axel Hollmann; Octávio L. Franco; Sónia Gonçalves; Nuno C. Santos
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Bárbara Gomes, Marcelo T. Augusto, Mário R. Felício, Axel Hollmann, Octávio L. Franco, Sónia Gonçalves, Nuno C. Santos
      Infectious diseases are one of the main causes of human morbidity and mortality. In the last few decades, pathogenic microorganisms' resistance to conventional drugs has been increasing, and it is now pinpointed as a major worldwide health concern. The need to search for new therapeutic options, as well as improved treatment outcomes, has therefore increased significantly, with biologically active peptides representing a new alternative. A substantial research effort is being dedicated towards their development, especially due to improved biocompatibility and target selectivity. However, the inherent limitations of peptide drugs are restricting their application. In this review, we summarize the current status of peptide drug development, focusing on antiviral and antimicrobial peptide activities, highlighting the design improvements needed, and those already being used, to overcome the drawbacks of the therapeutic application of biologically active peptides.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.004
  • Extracellular fungal polyol lipids: A new class of potential high value
    • Authors: Luis A. Garay; Irnayuli R. Sitepu; Tomas Cajka; Jian Xu; Hui Ean Teh; J. Bruce German; Zhongli Pan; Stephanie R. Dungan; David E. Block; Kyria L. Boundy-Mills
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Luis A. Garay, Irnayuli R. Sitepu, Tomas Cajka, Jian Xu, Hui Ean Teh, J. Bruce German, Zhongli Pan, Stephanie R. Dungan, David E. Block, Kyria L. Boundy-Mills
      Extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have attracted attention because productivities can be high, cheap substrates can be used, the molecules are secreted into the medium and the downstream processing is relatively simple. Three classes of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants have provided most of the scientific advances in this area, namely sophorolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids and cellobioselipids. Polyol lipids, a fourth class of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants, comprise two groups of molecules: liamocins produced by the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans, and polyol esters of fatty acids, produced by some Rhodotorula yeast species. Both are amphiphilic, surface active molecules with potential for commercial development as surfactants for industrial and household applications. The current knowledge of polyol lipids highlights an emerging group of extracellular fungal glycolipid biosurfactants and provides a perspective of what next steps are needed to harness the benefits and applications of this novel group of molecules.

      PubDate: 2018-01-10T11:30:47Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.003
  • Microbial and viral chitinases: Attractive biopesticides for integrated
           pest management
    • Authors: Francesca Berini; Chen Katz; Nady Gruzdev; Morena Casartelli; Gianluca Tettamanti; Flavia Marinelli
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Francesca Berini, Chen Katz, Nady Gruzdev, Morena Casartelli, Gianluca Tettamanti, Flavia Marinelli
      The negative impact of the massive use of synthetic pesticides on the environment and on human health has stimulated the search for environment-friendly practices for controlling plant diseases and pests. Among them, biocontrol, which relies on using beneficial organisms or their products (bioactive molecules and/or hydrolytic enzymes), holds the greatest promise and is considered a pillar of integrated pest management. Chitinases are particularly attractive to this purpose since they have fungicidal, insecticidal, and nematicidal activities. Here, current knowledge on the biopesticidal action of microbial and viral chitinases is reviewed, together with a critical analysis of their future development as biopesticides.

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T12:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.002
  • Beyond malaria: The inhibition of viruses by artemisinin-type compounds
    • Authors: Thomas Efferth
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Thomas Efferth

      PubDate: 2018-01-04T12:11:44Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.001
  • Exosome biogenesis, bioactivities and functions as new delivery systems of
           natural compounds
    • Authors: Ammad Ahmad Farooqi; Nishil N. Desai; Muhammad Zahid Qureshi; Daniele Rubert Nogueira Librelotto; Maria Luisa Gasparri; Anupam Bishayee; Seyed Mohammad Nabavi; Valeria Curti; Maria Daglia
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Ammad Ahmad Farooqi, Nishil N. Desai, Muhammad Zahid Qureshi, Daniele Rubert Nogueira Librelotto, Maria Luisa Gasparri, Anupam Bishayee, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Valeria Curti, Maria Daglia
      A rapidly growing body of experimental evidence has begun to shed light on the wide ranging molecular mechanisms which modulate intra- and inter-cellular communications. A substantial quantity of the available knowledge has only been uncovered in recent years, and we are learning that donor cells release nanovesicles, known as exosomes, which regulate the cellular behavior of recipient cells following uptake. Based on the impressive capacity of exosomes in delivering their “payload”, different therapeutic agents, are currently being tested using this delivery method for more effective therapy. This review summarizes the most recent developments in exosome bioactivities and discusses the biochemical nature of exosomes and their biogenesis. It also summarizes the use of exosomes as delivery vehicles for drugs and natural compounds to the targeted site.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.12.010
  • Augmented reality for personalized nanomedicines
    • Authors: Yugyung Lee; Chi H. Lee
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yugyung Lee, Chi H. Lee
      As our understanding of onset and progress of diseases at the genetic and molecular level rapidly progresses, the potential of advanced technologies, such as 3D-printing, Socially-Assistive Robots (SARs) or augmented reality (AR), that are applied to personalized nanomedicines (PNMs) to alleviate pathological conditions, has become more prominent. Among advanced technologies, AR in particular has the greatest potential to address those challenges and facilitate the translation of PNMs into formidable clinical application of personalized therapy. As AR is about to adapt additional new methods, such as speech, voice recognition, eye tracing and motion tracking, to enable interaction with host response or biological systems in 3-D space, a combination of multiple approaches to accommodate varying environmental conditions, such as public noise and atmosphere brightness, will be explored to improve its therapeutic outcomes in clinical applications. For instance, AR glasses still being developed by Facebook or Microsoft will serve as new platform that can provide people with the health information they are interested in or various measures through which they can interact with medical services. This review has addressed the current progress and impact of AR on PNMs and its application to the biomedical field. Special emphasis is placed on the application of AR based PNMs to the treatment strategies against senior care, drug addiction and medication adherence.

      PubDate: 2017-12-24T11:43:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.12.008
  • Bisphenol A (BPA) and cell signaling pathways
    • Authors: Masaharu Murata; Jeong-Hun Kang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Masaharu Murata, Jeong-Hun Kang
      Bisphenol A (BPA; 4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol) is an endocrine disruptor that is used as a material for the production of phenol resins, polyacrylates, polyesters, epoxy resins, and polycarbonate plastics. Endocrine-disruptive or toxic effects of BPA on living organisms through a number of cell signaling pathways have been reported. BPA induces carcinogenesis, reproductive toxicity, abnormal inflammatory or immune response, and developmental disorders of brain or nervous system through various cell signaling pathways. This review considers the literature concerning BPA and its association with cancer-related cell signaling pathways, reproductive toxicity-related cell signaling pathways, inflammatory or immune response-related cell signaling pathways, and brain and nervous system-related cell signaling pathways.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T13:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.12.002
  • The importance of fungal pathogens and antifungal coatings in medical
           device infections
    • Authors: Carla Giles; Stephanie J. Lamont-Friedrich; Thomas D. Michl; Hans J. Griesser; Bryan R. Coad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Carla Giles, Stephanie J. Lamont-Friedrich, Thomas D. Michl, Hans J. Griesser, Bryan R. Coad
      In recent years, increasing evidence has been collated on the contributions of fungal species, particularly Candida, to medical device infections. Fungal species can form biofilms by themselves or by participating in polymicrobial biofilms with bacteria. Thus, there is a clear need for effective preventative measures, such as thin coatings that can be applied onto medical devices to stop the attachment, proliferation, and formation of device-associated biofilms. However, fungi being eukaryotes, the challenge is greater than for bacterial infections because antifungal agents are often toxic towards eukaryotic host cells. Whilst there is extensive literature on antibacterial coatings, a far lesser body of literature exists on surfaces or coatings that prevent attachment and biofilm formation on medical devices by fungal pathogens. Here we review strategies for the design and fabrication of medical devices with antifungal surfaces. We also survey the microbiology literature on fundamental mechanisms by which fungi attach and spread on natural and synthetic surfaces. Research in this field requires close collaboration between biomaterials scientists, microbiologists and clinicians; we consider progress in the molecular understanding of fungal recognition of, and attachment to, suitable surfaces, and of ensuing metabolic changes, to be essential for designing rational approaches towards effective antifungal coatings, rather than empirical trial of coatings.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T13:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.010
  • Innovative strategies for intervertebral disc regenerative medicine: From
           cell therapies to multiscale delivery systems
    • Authors: Nina Henry; Johann Clouet; Jean Le Bideau; Catherine Le Visage; Jérôme Guicheux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 December 2017
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Nina Henry, Johann Clouet, Jean Le Bideau, Catherine Le Visage, Jérôme Guicheux
      As our understanding of the physiopathology of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration has improved, novel therapeutic strategies have emerged, based on the local injection of cells, bioactive molecules, and nucleic acids. However, with regard to the harsh environment constituted by degenerated IVDs, protecting biologics from in situ degradation while allowing their long-term delivery is a major challenge. Yet, the design of the optimal approach for IVD regeneration is still under debate and only a few papers provide a critical assessment of IVD-specific carriers for local and sustained delivery of biologics. In this review, we highlight the IVD-relevant polymers as well as their design as macro-, micro-, and nano-sized particles to promote endogenous repair. Finally, we illustrate how multiscale systems, combining in situ-forming hydrogels with ready-to-use particles, might drive IVD regenerative medicine strategies toward innovation.

      PubDate: 2017-12-11T13:23:09Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.11.009
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