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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3190 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (244 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 244 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Amylase     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DNA and RNA Nanotechnology     Open Access  
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Biotechnology Advances
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.006
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 34  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0734-9750
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3155 journals]
  • Bioactivity of soy-based fermented foods: A review
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Zhen-Hui Cao, Julia M. Green-Johnson, Nicole D. Buckley, Qiu-Ye Lin For centuries, fermented soy foods have been dietary staples in Asia and, now, in response to consumer demand, they are available throughout the world. Fermentation bestows unique flavors, boosts nutritional values and increases or adds new functional properties. In this review, we describe the functional properties and underlying action mechanisms of soy-based fermented foods such as Natto, fermented soy milk, Tempeh and soy sauce. When possible, the contribution of specific bioactive components is highlighted. While numerous studies with in vitro and animal models have hinted at the functionality of fermented soy foods, ascribing health benefits requires well-designed, often complex human studies with analysis of diet, lifestyle, family and medical history combined with long-term follow-ups for each subject. In addition, the contribution of the microbiome to the bioactivities of fermented soy foods, possibly mediated through direct action or bioactive metabolites, needs to be studied. Potential synergy or other interactions among the microorganisms carrying out the fermentation and the host's microbial community may also contribute to food functionality, but the details still require elucidation. Finally, safety evaluation of fermented soy foods has been limited, but is essential in order to provide guidelines for consumption and confirm lack of toxicity.
       
  • Tools and strategies for constructing cell-free enzyme pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 December 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Kerstin Petroll, Dominik Kopp, Andrew Care, Peter L. Bergquist, Anwar Sunna Single enzyme systems or engineered microbial hosts have been used for decades but the notion of assembling multiple enzymes into cell-free synthetic pathways is a relatively new development. The extensive possibilities that stem from this synthetic concept makes it a fast growing and potentially high impact field for biomanufacturing fine and platform chemicals, pharmaceuticals and biofuels. However, the translation of individual single enzymatic reactions into cell-free multi-enzyme pathways is not trivial. In reality, the kinetics of an enzyme pathway can be very inadequate and the production of multiple enzymes can impose a great burden on the economics of the process. We examine here strategies for designing synthetic pathways and draw attention to the requirements of substrates, enzymes and cofactor regeneration systems for improving the effectiveness and sustainability of cell-free biocatalysis. In addition, we comment on methods for the immobilisation of members of a multi-enzyme pathway to enhance the viability of the system. Finally, we focus on the recent development of integrative tools such as in silico pathway modelling and high throughput flux analysis with the aim of reinforcing their indispensable role in the future of cell-free biocatalytic pathways for biomanufacturing.
       
  • Tracking antigen specific T-cells: Technological advancement and
           limitations
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Shuvashis Dey, K. Kamil Reza, Alain Wuethrich, Darren Korbie, Abu Ali Ibn Sina, Matt Trau Assessing T-cell mediated immune status can help to understand the body's response to disease and also provide essential diagnostic information. However, detection and characterization of immune response are challenging due to the rarity of signature biomolecules in biological fluid and require highly sensitive and specific assay technique for the analysis. Until now, several techniques spanning from flow cytometry to microsensors have been developed or under investigation for T-cell mediated immune response monitoring. Most of the current assays are designed to estimate average immune responses, i.e., total functional protein analysis and detection of total T-cells irrespective of their antigen specificity. Although potential, immune response analysis without detecting and characterizing the rare subset of T-cell population could lead to over or underestimation of patient's immune status. Addressing this limitation, recently a number of technological advancements in biosensing have been developed for this. The potential of simple and precise micro-technologies including microarray and microfluidic platforms for assessing antigen-specific T-cells will be highlighted in this review, together with a discussion on existing challenges and future aspects of immune-sensor development.
       
  • New horizons in culture and valorization of red microalgae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Clement Gaignard, Nesrine Gargouch, Pascal Dubessay, Cedric Delattre, Guillaume Pierre, Celine Laroche, Imen Fendri, Slim Abdelkafi, Philippe Michaud Research on marine microalgae has been abundantly published and patented these last years leading to the production and/or the characterization of some biomolecules such as pigments, proteins, enzymes, biofuels, polyunsaturated fatty acids, enzymes and hydrocolloids. This literature focusing on metabolic pathways, structural characterization of biomolecules, taxonomy, optimization of culture conditions, biorefinery and downstream process is often optimistic considering the valorization of these biocompounds. However, the accumulation of knowledge associated with the development of processes and technologies for biomass production and its treatment has sometimes led to success in the commercial arena. In the history of the microalgae market, red marine microalgae are well positioned particularly for applications in the field of high value pigment and hydrocolloid productions. This review aims to establish the state of the art of the diversity of red marine microalgae, the advances in characterization of their metabolites and the developments of bioprocesses to produce this biomass.
       
  • Antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: mechanisms and
           alternative therapeutic strategies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Zheng Pang, Renee Raudonis, Bernard R. Glick, Tong-Jun Lin, Zhenyu Cheng Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients and immunocompromised individuals. Eradication of P. aeruginosa has become increasingly difficult due to its remarkable capacity to resist antibiotics. Strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are known to utilize their high levels of intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms to counter most antibiotics. In addition, adaptive antibiotic resistance of P. aeruginosa is a recently characterized mechanism, which includes biofilm-mediated resistance and formation of multidrug-tolerant persister cells, and is responsible for recalcitrance and relapse of infections. The discovery and development of alternative therapeutic strategies that present novel avenues against P. aeruginosa infections are increasingly demanded and gaining more and more attention. Although mostly at the preclinical stages, many recent studies have reported several innovative therapeutic technologies that have demonstrated pronounced effectiveness in fighting against drug-resistant P. aeruginosa strains. This review highlights the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa and discusses the current state of some novel therapeutic approaches for treatment of P. aeruginosa infections that can be further explored in clinical practice.
       
  • From biotechnology principles to functional and low-cost metallic
           bionanocatalysts
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Gabriela Kratošová, Veronika Holišová, Zuzana Konvičková, Avinash P. Ingle, Swapnil Gaikwad, Kateřina Škrlová, Aleš Prokop, Mahendra Rai, Daniela Plachá Chemical, physical and mechanical methods of nanomaterial preparation are still regarded as mainstream methods, and the scientific community continues to search for new ways of nanomaterial preparation. The major objective of this review is to highlight the advantages of using green chemistry and bionanotechnology in the preparation of functional low-cost catalysts. Bionanotechnology employs biological principles and processes connected with bio-phase participation in both design and development of nano-structures and nano-materials, and the biosynthesis of metallic nanoparticles is becoming even more popular due to; (i) economic and ecologic effectiveness, (ii) simple one-step nanoparticle formation, stabilisation and biomass support and (iii) the possibility of bio-waste valorisation. Although it is quite difficult to determine the precise mechanisms in particular biosynthesis and research is performed with some risk in all trial and error experiments, there is also the incentive of understanding the exact mechanisms involved. This enables further optimisation of bionanoparticle preparation and increases their application potential. Moreover, it is very important in bionanotechnological procedures to ensure repeatability of the methods related to the recognised reaction mechanisms. This review, therefore, summarises the current state of nanoparticle biosynthesis. It then demonstrates the application of biosynthesised metallic nanoparticles in heterogeneous catalysis by identifying the many examples where bionanocatalysts have been successfully applied in model reactions. These describe the degradation of organic dyes, the reduction of aromatic nitro compounds, dehalogenation of chlorinated aromatic compounds, reduction of Cr(VI) and the synthesis of important commercial chemicals. To ensure sustainability, it is important to focus on nanomaterials that are capable of maintaining the important green chemistry principles directly from design inception to ultimate application.
       
  • Dietary phytochemicals in colorectal cancer prevention and treatment: A
           focus on the molecular mechanisms involved
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Sadia Afrin, Francesca Giampieri, Massimiliano Gasparrini, Tamara Y. Forbes-Hernández, Danila Cianciosi, Patricia Reboredo-Rodriguez, Jiaojiao Zhang, Piera Pia Manna, Maria Daglia, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Maurizio Battino Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a major cancer type and leading cause of death. Unfortunately, current medical treatments are not sufficient due to lack of effective therapy, adverse side effects, chemoresistance and disease recurrence. In recent decades, epidemiologic observations have highlighted the association between the ingestion of several phytochemical-enriched foods and nutrients and the lower risk of CRC. According to preclinical studies, dietary phytochemicals exert chemopreventive effects on CRC by regulating different markers and signaling pathways; additionally, the gut microbiota plays a role as vital effector in CRC onset and progression, therefore, any dietary alterations in it may affect CRC occurrence. A high number of studies have displayed a key role of growth factors and their signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of CRC. Indeed, the efficiency of dietary phytochemicals to modulate carcinogenic processes through the alteration of different molecular targets, such as Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt/mTOR, MAPK (p38, JNK and Erk1/2), EGFR/Kras/Braf, TGF-β/Smad2/3, STAT1-STAT3, NF-кB, Nrf2 and cyclin-CDK complexes, has been proven, whereby many of these targets also represent the backbone of modern drug discovery programs. Furthermore, epigenetic analysis showed modified or reversed aberrant epigenetic changes exerted by dietary phytochemicals that led to possible CRC prevention or treatment. Therefore, our aim is to discuss the effects of some common dietary phytochemicals that might be useful in CRC as preventive or therapeutic agents. This review will provide new guidance for research, in order to identify the most studied phytochemicals, their occurrence in foods and to evaluate the therapeutic potential of dietary phytochemicals for the prevention or treatment of CRC by targeting several genes and signaling pathways, as well as epigenetic modifications. In addition, the results obtained by recent investigations aimed at improving the production of these phytochemicals in genetically modified plants have been reported. Overall, clinical data on phytochemicals against CRC are still not sufficient and therefore the preventive impacts of dietary phytochemicals on CRC development deserve further research so as to provide additional insights for human prospective studies.
       
  • A comprehensive review on histone-mediated transfection for gene therapy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Haobo Han, Jiebing Yang, Wenqi Chen, Qing Li, Yan Yang, Quanshun Li Histone has been considered to be an effective carrier in non-viral gene delivery due to its unique properties such as efficient DNA binding ability, direct translocation to cytoplasm and favorable nuclear localization ability. Meanwhile, the rapid development of genetic engineering techniques could facilitate the construction of multifunctional fusion proteins based on histone molecules to further improve the transfection efficiency. Remarkably, histone has been demonstrated to achieve gene transfection in a synergistic manner with cationic polymers, affording to a significant improvement of transfection efficiency. In the review, we highlighted the recent developments and future trends in gene delivery mediated by histones or histone-based fusion proteins/peptides. This review also discussed the mechanism of histone-mediated gene transfection and provided an outlook for future therapeutic opportunities in the viewpoint of transfection efficacy and biosafety.
       
  • Biomaterials of PVA and PVP in medical and pharmaceutical applications:
           Perspectives and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Mirela Teodorescu, Maria Bercea, Simona Morariu Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has attracted considerable research interest and is recognized among the largest volume of synthetic polymers that have been produced worldwide for almost one century. This is due to its exceptional properties which dictated its extensive use in a wide variety of applications, especially in medical and pharmaceutical fields. However, studies revealed that PVA-based biomaterials present some limitations that can restrict their use or performances. To overcome these limitations, various methods have been reported, among which blending with poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) showed promising results. Thus, our aim was to offer a systematic overview on the current state concerning the preparation, properties and various applications of biomaterials based on synergistic effect of mixtures between PVA and PVP. Future trends towards where the biomaterials research is headed were discussed, showing the promising opportunities that PVA and PVP can offer.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Quorum sensing inhibitors as antipathogens: biotechnological applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Vipin Chandra Kalia, Sanjay K.S. Patel, Yun Chan Kang, Jung-Kul Lee The mechanisms through which microbes communicate using signal molecules has inspired a great deal of research. Microbes use this exchange of information, known as quorum sensing (QS), to initiate and perpetuate infectious diseases in eukaryotic organisms, evading the eukaryotic defense system by multiplying and expressing their pathogenicity through QS regulation. The major issue to arise from such networks is increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics, resulting from QS-dependent mediation of the formation of biofilm, the induction of efflux pumps, and the production of antibiotics. QS inhibitors (QSIs) of diverse origins have been shown to act as potential antipathogens. In this review, we focus on the use of QSIs to counter diseases in humans as well as plants and animals of economic importance. We also discuss the challenges encountered in the potential applications of QSIs.
       
  • Flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in plants: Versatile targets for metabolic
           engineering
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Dunja Šamec, Michał Tomczyk, Luigi Milella, Daniela Russo, Solomon Habtemariam, Ipek Suntar, Luca Rastrelli, Maria Daglia, Jianbo Xiao, Francesca Giampieri, Maurizio Battino, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sanchez, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Bahman Yousefi, Philippe Jeandet, Suowen Xu, Samira Shirooie Plants, fungi, and microorganisms are equipped with biosynthesis machinery for producing thousands of secondary metabolites. These compounds have important functions in nature as a defence against predators or competitors as well as other ecological significances. The full utilization of these compounds for food, medicine, and other purposes requires a thorough understanding of their structures and the distinct biochemical pathways of their production in cellular systems. In this review, flavonoids as classical examples of secondary metabolites are employed to highlight recent advances in understanding how valuable compounds can be regulated at various levels. With extensive diversity in their chemistry and pharmacology, understanding the metabolic engineering of flavonoids now allows us to fine-tune the eliciting of their production, accumulation, and extraction from living systems. More specifically, recent advances in the shikimic acid and acetate biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids production from metabolic engineering point of view, from genes expression to multiple principles of regulation, are addressed. Specific examples of plants and microorganisms as the sources of flavonoids-based compounds with particular emphasis on therapeutic applications are also discussed.
       
  • Anhydrobiosis: Inside yeast cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Alexander Rapoport, Elena A. Golovina, Patrick Gervais, Sebastien Dupont, Laurent Beney Under natural conditions yeast cells as well as other microorganisms are regularly subjected to the influence of severe drought, which leads to their serious dehydration. The dry seasons are then changed by rains and there is a restoration of normal water potential inside the cells. To survive such seasonal changes a lot of vegetative microbial cells, which belong to various genera and species, may be able to enter into a state of anhydrobiosis, in which their metabolism is temporarily and reversibly suspended or delayed. This evolutionarily developed adaptation to extreme conditions of the environment is widely used for practical goals – for conservation of microorganisms in collections, for maintenance and long storage of different important strain-producers and for other various biotechnological purposes. This current review presents the most important data obtained mainly in the studies of the structural and functional changes in yeast cells during dehydration. It describes the changes of the main organelles of eukaryotic cells and their role in cell survival in a dry state. The review provides information regarding the role of water in the structure and functions of biological macromolecules and membranes. Some important intracellular protective reactions of eukaryotic organisms, which were revealed in these studies and may have more general importance, are also discussed. The results of the studies of yeast anhydrobiosis summarized in the review show the possibilities of improving the conservation and long-term storage of various microorganisms and of increasing the quality of industrially produced dry microbial preparations.
       
  • Advances in thermochemical conversion of woody biomass to energy, fuels
           and chemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Shusheng Pang Biomass has been recognised as a promising resource for future energy and fuels. The biomass, originated from plants, is renewable and application of its derived energy and fuels is close to carbon-neutral by considering that the growing plants absorb CO2 for photosynthesis. However, the complex physical structure and chemical composition of the biomass significantly hinder its conversion to gaseous and liquid fuels.This paper reviews recent advances in biomass thermochemical conversion technologies for energy, liquid fuels and chemicals. Combustion process produces heat or heat and power from the biomass through oxidation reactions; however, this is a mature technology and has been successfully applied in industry. Therefore, this review will focus on the remaining three thermochemical processes, namely biomass pyrolysis, biomass thermal liquefaction and biomass gasification. For biomass pyrolysis, biomass pretreatment and application of catalysts can simplify the bio-oil composition and retain high yield. In biomass liquefaction, application of appropriate solvents and catalysts improves the liquid product quality and yield. Gaseous product from biomass gasification is relatively simple and can be further processed for useful products. Dual fluidised bed (DFB) gasification technology using steam as gasification agent provides an opportunity for achieving high hydrogen content and CO2 capture with application of appropriate catalytic bed materials. In addition, multi-staged gasification technology, and integrated biomass pyrolysis and gasification as well as gasification for poly-generation have attracted increasing attention.
       
  • Engineering stilbene metabolic pathways in microbial cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Philippe Jeandet, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Christophe Clément, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Sylvain Cordelier Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on biological activities of phytostilbenes have brought to the fore the remarkable properties of these compounds and their derivatives, making them a top storyline in natural product research fields. However, getting stilbenes in sufficient amounts for routine biological activity studies and make them available for pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical industry applications, is hampered by the difficulty to source them through synthetic chemistry-based pathways or extraction from the native plants. Hence, microbial cell cultures have rapidly became potent workhorse factories for stilbene production. In this review, we present the combined efforts made during the past 15 years to engineer stilbene metabolic pathways in microbial cells, mainly the Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker yeast, the Escherichia coli and the Corynebacterium glutamicum bacteria. Rationalized approaches to the heterologous expression of the partial or the entire stilbene biosynthetic routes are presented to allow the identification and/or bypassing of the major bottlenecks in the endogenous microbial cell metabolism as well as potential regulations of the genes involved in these metabolic pathways. The contributions of bioinformatics to synthetic biology are developed to highlight their tremendous help in predicting which target genes are likely to be up-regulated or deleted for controlling the dynamics of precursor flows in the tailored microbial cells. Further insight is given to the metabolic engineering of microbial cells with “decorating” enzymes, such as methyl and glycosyltransferases or hydroxylases, which can act sequentially on the stilbene core structure. Altogether, the cellular optimization of stilbene biosynthetic pathways integrating more and more complex constructs up to twelve genetic modifications has led to stilbene titers ranging from hundreds of milligrams to the gram-scale yields from various carbon sources. Through this review, the microbial production of stilbenes is analyzed, stressing both the engineering dynamic regulation of biosynthetic pathways and the endogenous control of stilbene precursors.
       
  • Three decades of nucleic acid aptamer technologies: Lessons learned,
           progress and opportunities on aptamer development
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Tao Wang, Changying Chen, Leon Larcher, Roberto A. Barrero, Rakesh N. Veedu Aptamers are short single-stranded nucleic acid sequences capable of binding to target molecules in a way similar to antibodies. Due to various advantages such as prolonged shelf life, low batch to batch variation, low/no immunogenicity, freedom to incorporate chemical modification for enhanced stability and targeting capacity, aptamers quickly found their potential in diverse applications ranging from therapy, drug delivery, diagnosis, and functional genomics to bio-sensing. Aptamers are generated by a process called SELEX. However, the current overall success rate of SELEX is far from being satisfactory, and still presents a major obstacle for aptamer-based research and application. The need for an efficient selection strategy consisting of defined procedures to deal with a wide variety of targets is significantly important. In this work, by analyzing key aspects of SELEX including initial library design, target preparation, PCR optimization, and single strand DNA separation, we provide a comprehensive analysis of individual steps to facilitate researchers intending to develop personalized protocols to address many of the obstacles in SELEX. In addition, this review provides suggestions and opinions for future aptamer development procedures to address the concerns on key SELEX steps, and post-SELEX modifications.
       
  • CRISPR-Cpf1-mediated genome editing and gene regulation in human cells
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 November 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Tianwen Li, Linwen Zhu, Bingxiu Xiao, Zhaohui Gong, Qi Liao, Junming Guo Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system is being championed as a robust and flexible tool for genome editing. Compared with CRISPR associated protein 9 (Cas9), the CRISPR from Prevotella and Francisella 1 (Cpf1) protein has some distinct characteristics, including RNase activity, T-rich protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) preference and generation of sticky cutting ends. The extremely low propensity of off-target effects and relatively high editing efficiency represent prominent advantages of Cpf1 over Cas9. CRISPR-Cpf1, alone or fused with function domains, has broadly expanded the applications such as multiplex gene knockout, transcriptional repression or activation and epigenome editing in a drug controlled way. Meanwhile, the modification of CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs) with aptamer RNA achieves great promotion on genome editing. Moreover, disease-associated gene manipulation in mice, tumor mutation detection in patients with cancers, and more yet to come, represent growing demands of CRISPR-Cpf1 in clinical genome therapy. In this review, we summarized the unique properties of Cpf1 and the molecular mechanisms underlying CRISPR-Cpf1 on gene editing and regulation in human cells.
       
  • Biobased adipic acid – The challenge of developing the production
           host
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Emma Karlsson, Jae Ho Shin, Veronica Saez-Jimenez, Valeria Mapelli, Lisbeth Olsson Adipic acid is a platform chemical, and is the most important commercial dicarboxylic acid. It has been targeted for biochemical conversion as an alternative to present chemical production routes. From the perspective of bioeconomy, several kinds of raw material are of interest including the sugar platform (derived from starch, cellulose or hemicellulose), the lignin platform (aromatics) and the fatty acid platform (lipid derived). Two main biochemical-based production schemes may be employed: (i) direct fermentation to adipic acid, or (ii) fermentation to muconic or glucaric acid, followed by chemical hydrogenation (indirect fermentation). This review presents a comprehensive description of the metabolic pathways that could be constructed and analyzes their respective theoretical yields and metabolic constraints. The experimental yields and titers obtained so far are low, with the exception of processes based on palm oil and glycerol, which have been reported to yield up to 50 g and 68 g adipic acid/L, respectively. The challenges that remain to be addressed in order to achieve industrially relevant production levels include solving redox constraints, and identifying and/or engineering enzymes for parts of the metabolic pathways that have yet to be metabolically demonstrated. This review provides new insights into ways in which metabolic pathways can be constructed to achieve efficient adipic acid production. The production host provides the chassis to be engineered via an appropriate metabolic pathway, and should also have properties suitable for the industrial production of adipic acid. An acidic process pH is attractive to reduce the cost of downstream processing. The production host should exhibit high tolerance to complex raw material streams and high adipic acid concentrations at acidic pH.
       
  • Microbial production of bacteriocins: Latest research development and
           applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Veeresh Juturu, Jin Chuan Wu Bacteriocins are low molecular weight peptides secreted by the predator bacterial cells to kill sensitive cells present in the same ecosystem competing for food and other nutrients. Exceptionally few bacteriocins along with their native antibacterial property also exhibit additional anti-viral and anti-fungal properties. Bacteriocins are generally produced by Gm+, Gm– and archaea bacteria. Bacteriocins from Gm + bacteria especially from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been thoroughly investigated considering their great biosafety and broad industrial applications. LAB expressing bacteriocins were isolated from fermented milk and milk products, rumen of animals and soil using deferred antagonism assay. Nisin is the only bacteriocin that has got FDA approval for application as a food preservative, which is produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. Lactis. Its crystal structure explains that its antimicrobial properties are due to the binding of NH2 terminal to lipid II molecule inhibiting the peptidoglycan synthesis and carboxy terminal forming pores in bacterial cell membrane leading to cell lysis. The hinge region connecting NH2 and carboxy terminus has been mutated to generate mutant variants with higher antimicrobial activity. In a 50 ton fermentation of the mutant strain 3807 derived from L. lactis subsp. lactis ATCC 11454, 9,960 IU/mL of nisin was produced. Currently, high purity of nisin (>99%) is very expensive and hardly commercially available. Development of more advanced tools for cost-effective separation and purification of nisin would be commercially attractive. Chemical synthesis and heterologous expression of bacteriocins ended in low yields of pure proteins. At present, bacteriocins are almost solely applied in food industries, but they have a great potential to be used in other fields such as feeds, organic fertilizers, environmental protection and personal care products. The future of bacteriocins is largely dependent on getting FDA approval for use of other bacteriocins in addition to nisin to promote the research and applications.
       
  • Microbial production of small medicinal molecules and biologics: From
           nature to synthetic pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Ruihua Zhang, Chenyi Li, Jian Wang, Yaping Yang, Yajun Yan Natural products are promising chemicals due to their structural diversity and bioactivities. Over the decades, a vast variety of gene clusters encoding natural products have been identified and overexpressed in microbes. Recently, the development of metabolic engineering, synthetic biology and bioinformatics strategies have facilitated target discovery and design. Microbial cells have been therefore constantly engineered for product accumulation. This review summarizes approaches of domesticating microbial hosts in producing major classes of natural products, with an emphasis on recent advances.
       
  • The state-of-the-art strategies of protein engineering for enzyme
           stabilization
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Qian Liu, Guanhua Xun, Yan Feng Enzymes generated by natural recruitment and protein engineering have greatly contribute in various sets of applications. However, their insufficient stability is a bottleneck that limit the rapid development of biocatalysis. Novel approaches based on precise and global structural dissection, advanced gene manipulation, and combination with the multidisciplinary techniques open a new horizon to generate stable enzymes efficiently. Here, we comprehensively introduced emerging advances of protein engineering strategies for enzyme stabilization. Then, we highlighted practical cases to show importance of enzyme stabilization in pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Combining computational enzyme design with molecular evolution will hold considerable promise in this field.
       
  • Hidden antibiotics: Where to uncover'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Maarten L. De Mol, Nico Snoeck, Sofie L. De Maeseneire, Wim K. Soetaert The struggle of humans versus pathogens is a never ending battle. Since the discovery of antibiotics humans have tipped the scales in their favour, but today bacteria are nullifying this advantage by developing resistance mechanisms against these molecules. The plethora of different antibiotics active against pathogens is shrinking while the discovery of new molecules is arduous. Especially the development of drugs active against Gram− pathogens continues slowly. New strategies to discover novel, potent antibiotics are hence needed. Adopting the optimistic view of technological singularity, innovative and disruptive approaches are required and hence proposed to lift the current conundrum. In this review, questions are answered on where and how to look for new natural product hit molecules with antibacterial activity, on how the field of synthetic biology can aid the contemporary pharmaceutical challenge and whether we are ready to make the transition towards other approaches, such as narrow-spectrum antibiotics and phage therapy.
       
  • The Yin and Yang of carbon nanomaterials in atherosclerosis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Mehdi Rezaee, Behzad Behnam, Maciej Banach, Amirhossein Sahebkar With unique characteristics such as high surface area, capacity of various functionalization, low weight, high conductivity, thermal and chemical stability, and free radical scavenging, carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), fullerene, graphene (oxide), carbon nanohorns (CNHs), and their derivatives have increasingly been utilized in nanomedicine and biomedicine. On the one hand, owing to ever-increasing applications of CNMs in technological and industrial fields as well as presence of combustion-derived CNMs in the ambient air, the skepticism has risen over the adverse effects of CNMs on human being. The influences of CNMs on cardiovascular system and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as atherosclerosis, of which consequences are ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke, as the main causes of death, is of paramount importance. In this regard, several studies have been devoted to specify the biomedical applications and cardiovascular toxicity of CNMs. Therefore, the aim of this review is to specify the roles and applications of various CNMs in atherosclerosis, and also identify the key role playing parameters in cardiovascular toxicity of CNMs so as to be a clue for prospective deployment of CNMs.
       
  • Strain engineering for microbial production of value-added chemicals and
           fuels from glycerol
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Adam W. Westbrook, Dragan Miscevic, Shane Kilpatrick, Mark R. Bruder, Murray Moo-Young, C. Perry Chou While the widespread reliance on fossil fuels is driven by their low cost and relative abundance, this fossil-based economy has been deemed unsustainable and, therefore, the adoption of sustainable and environmentally compatible energy sources is on the horizon. Biorefinery is an emerging approach that integrates metabolic engineering, synthetic biology, and systems biology principles for the development of whole-cell catalytic platforms for biomanufacturing. Due to the high degree of reduction and low cost, glycerol, either refined or crude, has been recognized as an ideal feedstock for the production of value-added biologicals, though microbial dissimilation of glycerol sometimes can be difficult particularly under anaerobic conditions. While strain development for glycerol biorefinery is widely reported in the literature, few, if any, commercialized bioprocesses have been developed as a result, such that engineering of glycerol metabolism in microbial hosts remains an untapped opportunity in biomanufacturing. Here we review the recent progress made in engineering microbial hosts for the production of biofuels, diols, organic acids, biopolymers, and specialty chemicals from glycerol. We begin with a broad outline of the major pathways for fermentative and respiratory glycerol dissimilation and key end metabolites, and then focus our analysis on four key genera of bacteria known to naturally dissimilate glycerol, i.e. Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Clostridium, and Lactobacillus, in addition to Escherichia coli, and systematically review the progress made toward engineering these microorganisms for glycerol biorefinery. We also identify the major biotechnological and bioprocessing advantages and disadvantages of each genus, and bottlenecks limiting the production of target metabolites from glycerol in engineered strains. Our analysis culminates in the development of potential strategies to overcome the current technical limitations identified for commonly employed strains, with an outlook on the suitability of different hosts for the production of key metabolites and avenues for their future development into biomanufacturing platforms.
       
  • The physiology and biotechnology of dark fermentative biohydrogen
           production
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): İpek Ergal, Werner Fuchs, Benedikt Hasibar, Barbara Thallinger, Günther Bochmann, Simon K.-M.R. Rittmann A CO2-neutral energy production alternative compared to conventional fossil fuel utilization is biohydrogen (H2) production. Three basic mechanisms for microbial H2 production exist: photosynthetic H2 production, photo-fermentative H2 production, and dark fermentative H2 production (DFHP). Despite surmounting reports in literature on the characterization and optimization of DFHP systems, H2 production has not yet reached an industrial scale.Here, DFHP characteristics of pure culture of microorganisms from more than one century were reviewed and analysed. Analysing pure culture DFHP has the advantage that the physiology and the biotechnological potential of a specific organism can be exploited with the aim to optimize and establish a straightforward H2 production bioprocess. Essential to this effort is the analysis of reported values across phylogenetically distinct groups of microorganisms. Therefore, an extensive review and subsequent in-depth meta-data analysis of DFHP from pure cultures was performed with the goals of providing: a comprehensive overview to their physiology, reviewing closed batch, batch, and continuous culture DFHP from an energy production perspective, and to integrate physiology and biotechnology through comprehensive meta-data analyses, statistics, and modelling.We revealed that a comparison of H2 productivity and H2 yield (Y(H2/S)) could unambiguously be performed on a carbon molar level. Clear dependencies between Y(H2/S) and the metabolic pathways of specific phylogenetic DFHP groups were found. With respect to specific H2 productivity and Y(H2/S) the superior phylogenetic group for DFHP was Thermococcaceae. Moreover, a distinct correlation between high Y(H2/S) and high H2 productivity was identified. The best substrate for H2 production was found to be formate. Statistical analysis and modelling provided the input parameter sets that could be used to optimize of H2 production of Clostridiaceae and Enterobacteriaceae.With respect to the overall goal to improve H2 production beyond reported values, we suggest to utilize Thermococcaceae, and to integrate these organisms into a H2 production set-up encompassing a cell retention system that would allow the accumulation of a high biomass density. Then both, high H2 production and Y(H2/S) might be achieved at the same time. Such an integrated system could finally render DFHP a biotechnologically useful process.
       
  • Synthetic biology tools for engineering Yarrowia lipolytica
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): M. Larroude, T. Rossignol, J.-M. Nicaud, R. Ledesma-Amaro The non-conventional oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica shows great industrial promise. It naturally produces certain compounds of interest but can also artificially generate non-native metabolites, thanks to an engineering process made possible by the significant expansion of a dedicated genetic toolbox. In this review, we present recently developed synthetic biology tools that facilitate the manipulation of Y. lipolytica, including 1) DNA assembly techniques, 2) DNA parts for constructing expression cassettes, 3) genome-editing techniques, and 4) computational tools.
       
  • Streptomycetes: Surrogate hosts for the genetic manipulation of
           biosynthetic gene clusters and production of natural products
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Keshav K. Nepal, Guojun Wang Due to the worldwide prevalence of multidrug-resistant pathogens and high incidence of diseases such as cancer, there is an urgent need for the discovery and development of new drugs. Nearly half of the FDA-approved drugs are derived from natural products that are produced by living organisms, mainly bacteria, fungi, and plants. Commercial development is often limited by the low yield of the desired compounds expressed by the native producers. In addition, recent advances in whole genome sequencing and bioinformatics have revealed an abundance of cryptic biosynthetic gene clusters within microbial genomes. Genetic manipulation of clusters in the native host is commonly used to awaken poorly expressed or silent gene clusters, however, the lack of feasible genetic manipulation systems in many strains often hinders our ability to engineer the native producers. The transfer of gene clusters into heterologous hosts for expression of partial or entire biosynthetic pathways is an approach that can be used to overcome this limitation. Heterologous expression also facilitates the chimeric fusion of different biosynthetic pathways, leading to the generation of “unnatural” natural products. The genus Streptomyces is especially known to be a prolific source of drugs/antibiotics, its members are often used as heterologous expression hosts. In this review, we summarize recent applications of Streptomyces species, S. coelicolor, S. lividans, S. albus, S. venezuelae and S. avermitilis, as heterologous expression systems.
       
  • Fate of degraded pollutants in waste gas biofiltration: An overview of
           carbon end-points
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Achinta Bordoloi, Peter A. Gostomski The fate of the carbon from degraded pollutants in biofiltration is not well understood. The issue of missing carbon needs to be addressed quantitatively to better understand and model biofilter performance. Elucidating the various carbon end-points in various phases should contribute to the fundamental understanding of the degradation kinetics and metabolic pathways as a function of various environmental parameters. This article reviews the implications of key environmental parameters on the carbon end-points. Various studies are evaluated reporting carbon recovery over a multitude of parameters and operational conditions with respect to the analytical measurements and reported distribution of the carbon end-points.
       
  • Multiscale heterogeneity in filamentous microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Boris Zacchetti, Han A.B. Wösten, Dennis Claessen Microbial cells within clonal populations can display different morphologies or carry out different tasks. This heterogeneity is beneficial at the population level and allows microbes to spread risk or separate incompatible activities. Heterogeneity is also evident in filamentous bacteria and fungi, which form mycelial networks consisting of interconnected hyphae. Here, heterogeneity is observed between clonal mycelial particles, between different zones of colonies, between adjacent hyphae and even between adjacent compartments of individual hyphae. In this review, we compare this multiscale heterogeneity in filamentous bacteria and fungi and discuss the underlying mechanisms. These mechanisms might provide targets to improve the exploitability of these organisms as cell factories in the biotech sector.
       
  • Bacteriophage T7 transcription system: an enabling tool in synthetic
           biology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Wenya Wang, Yuwenbin Li, Yaqiong Wang, Chen Shi, Chenmeng Li, Qiang Li, Robert J. Linhardt Since its discovery in the 1970s, the T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP) transcription system has been applied extensively as an effective tool in molecular biology because of its robust function in various hosts, including prokaryotic, eukaryotic and cell free systems. Recently, the T7 RNAP transcription system has emerged as a critical component for synthetic biology. The present paper summarizes the advances of the T7 RNAP transcription system in synthetic biology, including the recent progress of T7 RNAP structure and its cognate promoter and terminator and its application in cell free systems, logic gates and orthogonal genetic circuits.
       
  • Review: In vitro generation of red blood cells for transfusion medicine:
           Progress, prospects and challenges
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Esmond Lee, Jaichandran Sivalingam, Zhong Ri Lim, Gloryn Chia, Low Gin Shi, Mackenna Roberts, Yuin-Han Loh, Shaul Reuveny, Steve Kah-Weng Oh In vitro generation of red blood cells (RBCs) has the potential to circumvent the shortfalls in global demand for blood for transfusion applications. The conventional approach for RBC generation has been from differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) derived from cord blood, adult bone marrow or peripheral blood. More recently, RBCs have been generated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) as well as from immortalized adult erythroid progenitors. In this review, we highlight the recent advances to RBC generation from these different approaches and discuss the challenges and new strategies that can potentially make large-scale in vitro generation of RBCs a feasible approach.
       
  • How to select a probiotic' A review and update of methods and criteria
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Gilberto Vinícius de Melo Pereira, Bruna de Oliveira Coelho, Antonio Irineudo Magalhães Júnior, Vanete Thomaz-Soccol, Carlos Ricardo Soccol International competition within the dairy market and increasing public awareness about the importance of functional food consumption are providing new challenges for innovation in the probiotic sector. In this context, countless references are currently dedicated to the selection and characterization of new species and more specific strains of probiotic bacteria. In general, these studies adopt basic selection criteria established by the World Health Organization (WHO), including host-associated stress resistance, epithelium adhesion ability, and antimicrobial activity. These aspects are applied to ensure that the candidate probiotic could withstand the stressful conditions of the human digestive system and exert functional proprieties. However, it cannot be assumed that these novel microbial strains are capable of offering several biological benefits attributed to probiotics. Additionally, safety-associated selection criteria, such as plasmid-associated antibiotic resistance spreading and enterotoxin production, are often neglected. This article reviews the recent developments in the processes, strategies, and methods, such as anticarcinogenic, antidepression, antianxiety, antiobesity, antidiabetic, immunostimulatory, and cholesterol-lowering assessments, to select probiotic strains with the ultimate objective of assisting future probiotic microbe evaluation studies.
       
  • Butyric acid: Applications and recent advances in its bioproduction
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Ling Jiang, Hongxin Fu, Hopen K. Yang, Wei Xu, Jufang Wang, Shang-Tian Yang Butyric acid is an important C4 organic acid with broad applications. It is currently produced by chemosynthesis from petroleum-based feedstocks. However, the fermentative production of butyric acid from renewable feedstocks has received growing attention because of consumer demand for green products and natural ingredients in foods, pharmaceuticals, animal feed supplements, and cosmetics. In this review, strategies for improving microbial butyric acid production, including strain engineering and novel fermentation process development are discussed and compared regarding product yield, titer, purity and productivity. Future perspectives on strain and process improvements for butyric acid production are also discussed.
       
  • Discovering novel hydrolases from hot environments
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Roland Wohlgemuth, Jennifer Littlechild, Daniela Monti, Kirk Schnorr, Teunke van Rossum, Bettina Siebers, Peter Menzel, Ilya V. Kublanov, Anne Gunn Rike, Georgios Skretas, Zalan Szabo, Xu Peng, Mark J. Young Novel hydrolases from hot and other extreme environments showing appropriate performance and/or novel functionalities, and new approaches for their systematic screening are of great interest for developing new processes, for improving safety, health and environment issues. Existing processes could benefit as well from their properties. The workflow, based on the HotZyme project, describes a multitude of technologies and their integration from discovery to application, providing new tools for discovering, identifying and characterizing more novel thermostable hydrolases with desired functions from hot terrestrial and marine environments. To this end, hot springs worldwide were mined, resulting in hundreds of environmental samples and thousands of enrichment cultures growing on polymeric substrates of industrial interest. Using high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics, 15 hot spring metagenomes, as well as several sequenced isolate genomes and transcriptomes were obtained. To facilitate the discovery of novel hydrolases, the annotation platform Anastasia and a whole-cell bioreporter-based functional screening method were developed. Sequence-based screening and functional screening together resulted in about 100 potentially new hydrolases of which more than a dozen have been characterized comprehensively from a biochemical and structural perspective. The characterized hydrolases include thermostable carboxylesterases, enol lactonases, quorum sensing lactonases, gluconolactonases, epoxide hydrolases, and cellulases. Apart from these novel thermostable hydrolases, the project generated an enormous amount of samples and data, thereby allowing the future discovery of even more novel enzymes.
       
  • Towards rationally designed biomanufacturing of therapeutic extracellular
           vesicles: impact of the bioproduction microenvironment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Divya B. Patel, Marco Santoro, Louis J. Born, John P. Fisher, Steven M. Jay Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and others, have emerged as potential therapeutics for a variety of applications. Pre-clinical reports of EV efficacy in treatment of non-healing wounds, myocardial infarction, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and many other injuries and diseases demonstrate the versatility of this nascent therapeutic modality. EVs have also been demonstrated to be effective in humans, and clinical trials are underway to further explore their potential. However, for EVs to become a new class of clinical therapeutics, issues related to translation must be addressed. For example, approaches originally developed for cell biomanufacturing, such as hollow fiber bioreactor culture, have been adapted for EV production, but limited knowledge of how the cell culture microenvironment specifically impacts EVs restricts the possibility for rational design and optimization of EV production and potency. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of this issue and delineate potential focus areas for future research towards enabling translation and widespread application of EV-based therapeutics.
       
  • Natural deep eutectic solvents for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment:
           Recent developments, challenges and novel opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Alok Satlewal, Ruchi Agrawal, Samarthya Bhagia, Joshua Sangoro, Arthur J. Ragauskas Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals has attracted immense research and development around the world. Lowering recalcitrance of biomass in a cost-effective manner is a challenge to commercialize biomass-based technologies. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are new ‘green' solvents that have a high potential for biomass processing because of their low cost, low toxicity, biodegradability, easy recycling and reuse. This article discusses the properties of DESs and recent advances in their application for lignocellulosic biomass processing. The effectiveness of DESs in hydrolyzing lignin-carbohydrate complexes, removing lignin/hemicellulose from biomass as well as their effect on biomass deconstruction, crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility have been discussed. Moreover, this review presents recent findings on the compatibility of natural DESs with enzymes and microorganisms.
       
  • Tree gum-based renewable materials: Sustainable applications in
           nanotechnology, biomedical and environmental fields
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Vinod V.T. Padil, Stanisław Wacławek, Miroslav Černík, Rajender S. Varma The prospective uses of tree gum polysaccharides and their nanostructures in various aspects of food, water, energy, biotechnology, environment and medicine industries, have garnered a great deal of attention recently. In addition to extensive applications of tree gums in food, there are substantial non-food applications of these commercial gums, which have gained widespread attention due to their availability, structural diversity and remarkable properties as ‘green’ bio-based renewable materials. Tree gums are obtainable as natural polysaccharides from various tree genera possessing exceptional properties, including their renewable, biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic nature and their ability to undergo easy chemical modifications. This review focuses on non-food applications of several important commercially available gums (arabic, karaya, tragacanth, ghatti and kondagogu) for the greener synthesis and stabilization of metal/metal oxide NPs, production of electrospun fibers, environmental bioremediation, bio-catalysis, biosensors, coordination complexes of metal–hydrogels, and for antimicrobial and biomedical applications. Furthermore, polysaccharides acquired from botanical, seaweed, animal, and microbial origins are briefly compared with the characteristics of tree gum exudates.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Engineering Principles in Biotechnology, Wei-Shou Hu. Wiley, Hoboken
           (2018), ISBN: 9781119159032 [xix + 480 pp.]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Yusuf Chisti
       
  • A little breath of fresh air into an anaerobic system: How microaeration
           facilitates anaerobic digestion process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Duc Nguyen, Samir Kumar Khanal Exposure of a small amount of oxygen/air (microaeration) has been reported to benefit the anaerobic digestion (AD) process in enhancing hydrolysis, improving methane yield, stabilizing the process and scavenging hydrogen sulfide among others. The underlying mechanism of enhancing AD process via microaeration is the augmentation of activity and diversity of the microbial consortia that promotes syntrophic interactions among different microbial groups, thereby creating a more stable process. To design and implement a microaeration-based AD process, fundamental insights about the mechanism of the AD system at process, microbial and molecular levels must be fully explored. This review critically examines microaeration-based AD processes through our recent understandings of the effect of oxygen on microbial community structure, enzymatic, energetic, physiological, and biochemical aspects of the microbial-mediated process. Syntrophic interactions between hydrolytic, fermentative, sulfate reducing, syntrophic bacteria and methanogens under microaerobic conditions are examined to reveal putative mechanism and factors that need to be considered when implementing microaeration in AD process. Further studies are needed to better understand the microbial pathways and bioenergetics of the microaerobic AD process by adopting advanced molecular techniques such as metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.
       
  • Breaking the frontiers of cosmetology with antimicrobial peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Thuany de Alencare Silva, Mariana Carolina Braga, Gustavo Oliveira Silva Santana, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo, Robert Pogue, Simoni Campos Dias, Octavio Luiz Franco, Juliana Lott de Carvalho Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are mostly endogenous, cationic, amphipathic polypeptides, produced by many natural sources. Recently, many biological functions beyond antimicrobial activity have been attributed to AMPs, and some of these have attracted the attention of the cosmetics industry. AMPs have revealed antioxidant, self-renewal and pro-collagen effects, which are desirable in anti-aging cosmetics. Additionally, AMPs may also be customized to act on specific cellular targets. Here, we review the recent literature that highlights the many possibilities presented by AMPs, focusing on the relevance and impact that this potentially novel class of active cosmetic ingredients might have in the near future, creating new market outlooks for the cosmetic industry with these molecules as a viable alternative to conventional cosmetics.
       
  • Advances in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems for increasing
           the dispersibility, stability, and bioactivity of phytochemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): David Julian McClements Application of bioactive phytochemicals in foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals is often limited because of their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytochemical oral delivery systems (PODS), consisting of phytochemical-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles, can overcome these challenges. PODS can be produced in liquid, gel, paste, or solid forms. They must be carefully formulated to be compatible with the product matrix, economical, robust, and maintain phytochemical bioactivity. This review evaluates recent advances in the development of PODS, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and biopolymer microgels. Properly designed PODS will increase phytochemical applications in commercial products.
       
  • Neural stem cell differentiation to mature neurons: Mechanisms of
           regulation and biotechnological applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Mariana S. Vieira, Anderson K. Santos, Rebecca Vasconcellos, Vânia A.M. Goulart, Ricardo C. Parreira, Alexandre H. Kihara, Henning Ulrich, Rodrigo R. Resende The abilities of stem cells to self-renew and form different mature cells expand the possibilities of applications in cell-based therapies such as tissue recomposition in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to stem cells found in the embryo, various adult organs and tissues have niches of stem cells in an undifferentiated state. In the central nervous system of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in two regions: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The generation of the different neural lines originates in adult neural stem cells that can self-renew or differentiate into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons in response to specific stimuli. The regulation of the fate of neural stem cells is a finely controlled process that relies on a complex regulatory network that extends from the epigenetic to the translational level and involves extracellular matrix components. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying how the process of neurogenesis is induced, regulated, and maintained will provide information that will make it possible to develop new neurobiological strategies for neurodegenerative therapies. In this review, we focus on describing the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the neuronal differentiation process by transcription factors, microRNAs, and extracellular matrix components.
       
  • Cancer hallmarks and malignancy features: Gateway for improved targeted
           drug delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Tiatou Souho, Lallepak Lamboni, Lin Xiao, Guang Yang Cancer chemotherapy is mainly based on the use of cytotoxic compounds that often affect other tissues, generating serious side effects which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Recent advancements in targeted drug delivery systems offer opportunities to improve the efficiency of chemotherapy, by the use of smaller drug doses with reduced side effects. In the gene therapy approach, this consists in improving the transformation potential of the gene delivery system. Interestingly, these systems further provide good platforms for the delivery of hydrophobic and low-bioavailability compounds, while facilitating the penetration of the blood-brain barrier. The present report provides an overview of biologically relevant cancer hallmarks that can be exploited to design effective delivery vehicles that release cytotoxic compounds specifically in cancer tissues, in a targeted manner. The relevance of each cancer marker is presented, with particular emphasis on the generation of these hallmarks and their importance in cancer cell biology.
       
  • Biosynthesis and biotechnological application of non-canonical amino
           acids: Complex and unclear
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Huibin Zou, Lei Li, Tongtong Zhang, Mengxun Shi, Nan Zhang, Jingling Huang, Mo Xian Compared with the better-studied canonical amino acids, the distribution, metabolism and functions of natural non-canonical amino acids remain relatively obscure. Natural non-canonical amino acids have been mainly discovered in plants as secondary metabolites that perform diversified physiological functions. Due to their specific characteristics, a broader range of natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids have recently been applied in the development of functional materials and pharmaceutical products. With the rapid development of advanced methods in biotechnology, non-canonical amino acids can be incorporated into peptides, proteins and enzymes to improve the function and performance relative to their natural counterparts. Therefore, biotechnological application of non-canonical amino acids in artificial bio-macromolecules follows the central goal of synthetic biology to: create novel life forms and functions. However, many of the non-canonical amino acids are synthesized via chemo- or semi-synthetic methods, and few non-canonical amino acids can be synthesized using natural in vivo pathways. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify the metabolic pathways and key enzymes of the non-canonical amino acids. This will lead to the discovery of more candidate non-canonical amino acids, especially for those that are derived from microorganisms and are naturally bio-compatible with chassis strains for in vivo biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize representative natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids, their known information regarding associated metabolic pathways, their characteristics and their practical applications. Moreover, this review summarizes current barriers in developing in vivo pathways for the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids, as well as other considerations, future trends and potential applications of non-canonical amino acids in advanced biotechnology.
       
  • Bacteria and archaea as the sources of traits for enhanced plant
           phenotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Caroline M. Smith-Moore, Amy M. Grunden Rising global demand for food and population increases are driving the need for improved crop productivity over the next 30 years. Plants have inherent metabolic limitations on productivity such as inefficiencies in carbon fixation and sensitivity to environmental conditions. Bacteria and archaea inhabit some of the most inhospitable environments on the planet and possess unique metabolic pathways and genes to cope with these conditions. Microbial genes involved in carbon fixation, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient acquisition have been utilized in plants to enhance plant phenotypes by increasing yield, photosynthesis, and abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic plants expressing bacterial and archaeal genes will be discussed along with emerging strategies and tools to increase plant growth and yield.
       
  • State of art and limitations in genetic engineering to induce stable
           chondrogenic phenotype
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Valeria Graceffa, Claire Vinatier, Jerome Guicheux, Christopher H. Evans, Martin Stoddart, Mauro Alini, Dimitrios I. Zeugolis Current protocols for chondrocyte expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells fail to reduce phenotypic loss and to mitigate hypertrophic tendency. To this end, cell genetic manipulation is gaining pace as a means of generating cells with stable chondrocyte phenotype. Herein, we provide an overview of candidate genes that either induce cartilage regeneration or inhibit cartilage degeneration. We further discuss in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo viral transduction and non-viral transfection strategies for targeted cells (chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and synovial cells), along with the most representative results obtained in pre-clinical models and in clinical trials. We highlight current challenges and associated risks that slowdown clinical acceptance and commercialisation of gene transfer technologies.
       
  • l-ascorbic+acid&rft.title=Biotechnology+Advances&rft.issn=0734-9750&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Current challenges facing one-step production of        class="small-caps">l-ascorbic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Panpan Wang, Weizhu Zeng, Sha Xu, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen l-ascorbic acid (L-AA, vitamin C) is an essential vitamin that is widely used as a nutrient or medicine in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, beverage and feed additive industries, and accounts for the largest share of the global vitamins market. L-AA is mainly produced by a classic two-step fermentation process that suffers from the use of a multi-step mixed culture system and two rounds of sterilisation, which significantly increases the cost of the final product. One-step fermentation has been attempted, but a method rivalling the efficiency of the two-step process has not yet been achieved on an industrial scale. In this review, based on the current classical two-step fermentation processes and other potential routes for L-AA production, the challenges and pitfalls of a one-step fermentation process are summarised. The prospects for one-step fermentation production of L-AA and how this might be achieved are also discussed.
       
  • Synthetic biology toolkits and applications in Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Binbin Chen, Hui Ling Lee, Yu Chyuan Heng, Niying Chua, Wei Suong Teo, Won Jae Choi, Susanna Su Jan Leong, Jee Loon Foo, Matthew Wook Chang Synthetic biologists construct biological components and systems to look into biological phenomena and drive a myriad of practical applications that aim to tackle current global challenges in energy, healthcare and the environment. While most tools have been established in bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, recent years have seen parallel developments in the model yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most well understood eukaryotic biological system. Here, we outline the latest advances in yeast synthetic biology tools based on a framework of abstraction hierarchies of parts, circuits and genomes. In brief, the creation and characterization of biological parts are explored at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Using characterized parts as building block units, the designing of functional circuits is elaborated with examples. In addition, the status and potential applications of synthetic genomes as a genome level platform for biological system construction are also discussed. In addition to the development of a toolkit, we describe how those tools have been applied in the areas of drug production and screening, study of disease mechanisms, pollutant sensing and bioremediation. Finally, we provide a future outlook of yeast as a workhorse of eukaryotic genetics and a chosen chassis in this field.
       
  • Phage display: an important tool in the discovery of peptides with
           anti-HIV activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Ronaldo Souza Lopes, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Ricardo Ishak Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide health problem despite huge investments and research breakthroughs, and no single drug is effective in killing the virus yet. Among new strategies to control HIV infection, the phage display (PD) technology has become a promising tool in the discovery of peptides that can be used as new drugs, or also as possible vaccine candidates. This review discusses basic aspects of PD and its use to advance two main objectives related to combating HIV-1 infection: the identification of peptides that inhibit virus replication and the identification of peptides that induce the production of neutralizing antibodies. We will cover the different approaches used for mapping and selection of mimotopes, and discuss the promising results of these biologicals as antiviral agents.
       
  • Responses exhibited by various microbial groups relevant to uranium
           exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Nilesh Kolhe, Smita Zinjarde, Celin Acharya There is a strong interest in knowing how various microbial systems respond to the presence of uranium (U), largely in the context of bioremediation. There is no known biological role for uranium so far. Uranium is naturally present in rocks and minerals. The insoluble nature of the U(IV) minerals keeps uranium firmly bound in the earth’s crust minimizing its bioavailability. However, anthropogenic nuclear reaction processes over the last few decades have resulted in introduction of uranium into the environment in soluble and toxic forms. Microbes adsorb, accumulate, reduce, oxidize, possibly respire, mineralize and precipitate uranium. This review focuses on the microbial responses to uranium exposure which allows the alteration of the forms and concentrations of uranium within the cell and in the local environment. Detailed information on the three major bioprocesses namely, biosorption, bioprecipitation and bioreduction exhibited by the microbes belonging to various groups and subgroups of bacteria, fungi and algae is provided in this review elucidating their intrinsic and engineered abilities for uranium removal. The survey also highlights the instances of the field trials undertaken for in situ uranium bioremediation. Advances in genomics and proteomics approaches providing the information on the regulatory and physiologically important determinants in the microbes in response to uranium challenge have been catalogued here. Recent developments in metagenomics and metaproteomics indicating the ecologically relevant traits required for the adaptation and survival of environmental microbes residing in uranium contaminated sites are also included. A comprehensive understanding of the microbial responses to uranium can facilitate the development of in situ U bioremediation strategies.
       
  • Microbial electrocatalysis: Redox mediators responsible for extracellular
           electron transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Xiaobo Liu, Liang Shi, Ji-Dong Gu Redox mediator plays an important role in extracellular electron transfer (EET) in many environments wherein microbial electrocatalysis occurs actively. Because of the block of cell envelope and the low difference of redox potential between the intracellular and extracellular surroundings, the proceeding of EET depends mainly on the help of a variety of mediators that function as an electron carrier or bridge. In this Review, we will summarize a wide range of redox mediators and further discuss their functional mechanisms in EET that drives a series of microbial electrocatalytic reactions. Studying these mediators adds to our knowledge of how charge transport and electrochemical reactions occur at the microorganism-electrode interface. This understanding would promote the widespread applications of microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells, bioremediation, bioelectrosynthesis, biomining, nanomaterial productions, etc. These improved applications will greatly benefit the sustainable development of the environmental-friendly biochemical industries.
       
  • Screening of organic solvents for bioprocesses using aqueous-organic
           two-phase systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Inês P. Rosinha Grundtvig, Søren Heintz, Ulrich Krühne, Krist V. Gernaey, Patrick Adlercreutz, John D. Hayler, Andy S. Wells, John M. Woodley The application of conventional organic solvents has been essential in several steps of bioprocesses in order to achieve sufficient economic efficiency. The use of organic solvents is frequently used either to partly or fully replace water in the reaction medium or as a process aid for downstream separation.Nowadays, manufacturers are increasingly requested to avoid and substitute solvents with hazardous potential. Therefore, the solvent selection must account for potential environmental hazards, health and safety problems, in addition to fulfilling the ideal characteristics for application in a process.For the first time, criteria including Environment, Health and Safety (EHS), as well as the technical requirements for reaction and separation have been reviewed, collected and integrated in a single organic solvent screening strategy to be used as a guideline for narrowing down the list of solvents to test experimentally. Additionally, we have also included a solvent selection guide based on the methodology developed in the Innovative Medicines Initiative CHEM21 (IMI CHEM21) project and applied specifically to water-immiscible solvents commonly used in bioprocesses.
       
  • Recent advances on production of 2, 3-butanediol using engineered microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang As a significant platform chemical, 2, 3-butanediol (2, 3-BD) has found wide applications in industry. The success of microbial 2, 3-BD production was limited by the use of pathogenic microorganisms and low titer in engineered hosts. The utilization of cheaply available feedstock such as lignocellulose was another major challenge to achieve economic production of 2, 3-BD. To address those issues, engineering strategies including both genetic modifications and process optimization have been employed. In this review, we summarized the state-of-the-art progress in the biotechnological production of 2, 3-BD. Metabolic engineering and process engineering strategies were discussed.
       
 
 
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