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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Biotechnology Advances
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.006
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 33  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0734-9750
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Towards rationally designed biomanufacturing of therapeutic extracellular
           vesicles: impact of the bioproduction microenvironment
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Divya B. Patel, Marco Santoro, Louis J. Born, John P. Fisher, Steven M. Jay Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, microvesicles, and others, have emerged as potential therapeutics for a variety of applications. Pre-clinical reports of EV efficacy in treatment of non-healing wounds, myocardial infarction, osteoarthritis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, and many other injuries and diseases demonstrate the versatility of this nascent therapeutic modality. EVs have also been demonstrated to be effective in humans, and clinical trials are underway to further explore their potential. However, for EVs to become a new class of clinical therapeutics, issues related to translation must be addressed. For example, approaches originally developed for cell biomanufacturing, such as hollow fiber bioreactor culture, have been adapted for EV production, but limited knowledge of how the cell culture microenvironment specifically impacts EVs restricts the possibility for rational design and optimization of EV production and potency. In this review, we discuss current knowledge of this issue and delineate potential focus areas for future research towards enabling translation and widespread application of EV-based therapeutics.
       
  • Natural deep eutectic solvents for lignocellulosic biomass pretreatment:
           Recent developments, challenges and novel opportunities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Alok Satlewal, Ruchi Agrawal, Samarthya Bhagia, Joshua Sangoro, Arthur J. Ragauskas Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels and chemicals has attracted immense research and development around the world. Lowering recalcitrance of biomass in a cost-effective manner is a challenge to commercialize biomass-based technologies. Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are new ‘green' solvents that have a high potential for biomass processing because of their low cost, low toxicity, biodegradability, easy recycling and reuse. This article discusses the properties of DESs and recent advances in their application for lignocellulosic biomass processing. The effectiveness of DESs in hydrolyzing lignin-carbohydrate complexes, removing lignin/hemicellulose from biomass as well as their effect on biomass deconstruction, crystallinity and enzymatic digestibility have been discussed. Moreover, this review presents recent findings on the compatibility of natural DESs with enzymes and microorganisms.
       
  • Tree gum-based renewable materials: Sustainable applications in
           nanotechnology, biomedical and environmental fields
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Vinod V.T. Padil, Stanisław Wacławek, Miroslav Černík, Rajender S. Varma The prospective uses of tree gum polysaccharides and their nanostructures in various aspects of food, water, energy, biotechnology, environment and medicine industries, have garnered a great deal of attention recently. In addition to extensive applications of tree gums in food, there are substantial non-food applications of these commercial gums, which have gained widespread attention due to their availability, structural diversity and remarkable properties as ‘green’ bio-based renewable materials. Tree gums are obtainable as natural polysaccharides from various tree genera possessing exceptional properties, including their renewable, biocompatible, biodegradable, and non-toxic nature and their ability to undergo easy chemical modifications. This review focuses on non-food applications of several important commercially available gums (arabic, karaya, tragacanth, ghatti and kondagogu) for the greener synthesis and stabilization of metal/metal oxide NPs, production of electrospun fibers, environmental bioremediation, bio-catalysis, biosensors, coordination complexes of metal–hydrogels, and for antimicrobial and biomedical applications. Furthermore, polysaccharides acquired from botanical, seaweed, animal, and microbial origins are briefly compared with the characteristics of tree gum exudates.Graphical abstractUnlabelled Image
       
  • Engineering Principles in Biotechnology, Wei-Shou Hu. Wiley, Hoboken
           (2018), ISBN: 9781119159032 [xix + 480 pp.]
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Yusuf Chisti
       
  • A little breath of fresh air into an anaerobic system: How microaeration
           facilitates anaerobic digestion process
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Duc Nguyen, Samir Kumar Khanal Exposure of a small amount of oxygen/air (microaeration) has been reported to benefit the anaerobic digestion (AD) process in enhancing hydrolysis, improving methane yield, stabilizing the process and scavenging hydrogen sulfide among others. The underlying mechanism of enhancing AD process via microaeration is the augmentation of activity and diversity of the microbial consortia that promotes syntrophic interactions among different microbial groups, thereby creating a more stable process. To design and implement a microaeration-based AD process, fundamental insights about the mechanism of the AD system at process, microbial and molecular levels must be fully explored. This review critically examines microaeration-based AD processes through our recent understandings of the effect of oxygen on microbial community structure, enzymatic, energetic, physiological, and biochemical aspects of the microbial-mediated process. Syntrophic interactions between hydrolytic, fermentative, sulfate reducing, syntrophic bacteria and methanogens under microaerobic conditions are examined to reveal putative mechanism and factors that need to be considered when implementing microaeration in AD process. Further studies are needed to better understand the microbial pathways and bioenergetics of the microaerobic AD process by adopting advanced molecular techniques such as metagenomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics.
       
  • Targeting ncRNAs by plant secondary metabolites: The ncRNAs game in the
           balance towards malignancy inhibition
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Diana Gulei, Nikolay Mehterov, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Atanas Georgiev Atanasov, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe The current trend of combining state of the art technologies with quondam treatments in order to overcome existing gaps in the clinical area determined an increased interest into polyphenols, common dietary phytochemicals, for the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases, especially cancer. The reemergence of polyphenols in the cancer field is sustained by advanced-omics technologies able to identify coding and non-coding genes and their related signaling pathways modulated by natural compounds. Identification of the structural correspondence between interacting molecules will allow the development of more targeted and informed therapeutic strategies for cancer management.
       
  • Activation of Nrf2 signaling by natural products-can it alleviate
           diabetes'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Manuel Matzinger, Katrin Fischhuber, Elke H. Heiss Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) has reached pandemic proportions and effective prevention strategies are wanted. Its onset is accompanied by cellular distress, the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor boosting cytoprotective responses, and many phytochemicals activate Nrf2 signaling. Thus, Nrf2 activation by natural products could presumably alleviate DM. We summarize function, regulation and exogenous activation of Nrf2, as well as diabetes-linked and Nrf2-susceptible forms of cellular stress. The reported amelioration of insulin resistance, β-cell dysfunction and diabetic complications by activated Nrf2 as well as the status quo of Nrf2 in precision medicine for DM are reviewed.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Regulation of autophagy by polyphenols: Paving the road for treatment of
           neurodegeneration
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 November 2018Source: Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 6Author(s): Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Ahmad Reza Dehpour, Samira Shirooie, Ana Sanches Silva, Kasi Pandima Devi, Touqeer Ahmed, Nafeesa Ishaq, Rabia Hashim, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Maria Daglia, Nady Braidy, Mariateresa Volpicella, Rosa Anna Vacca, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi In the present paper, we will discuss on the importance of autophagy in the central nervous system, and outline the relation between autophagic pathways and the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. The potential therapeutic benefits of naturally occurring phytochemicals as pharmacological modulators of autophagy will also be addressed. Our findings provide renewed insight on the molecular modes of protection by polyphenols, which is likely to be at least in part mediated not only by their potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, but also through modulation of autophagic processes to remove the aberrant protein aggregates.
       
  • Breaking the frontiers of cosmetology with antimicrobial peptides
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Thuany de Alencare Silva, Mariana Carolina Braga, Gustavo Oliveira Silva Santana, Felipe Saldanha-Araujo, Robert Pogue, Simoni Campos Dias, Octavio Luiz Franco, Juliana Lott de Carvalho Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are mostly endogenous, cationic, amphipathic polypeptides, produced by many natural sources. Recently, many biological functions beyond antimicrobial activity have been attributed to AMPs, and some of these have attracted the attention of the cosmetics industry. AMPs have revealed antioxidant, self-renewal and pro-collagen effects, which are desirable in anti-aging cosmetics. Additionally, AMPs may also be customized to act on specific cellular targets. Here, we review the recent literature that highlights the many possibilities presented by AMPs, focusing on the relevance and impact that this potentially novel class of active cosmetic ingredients might have in the near future, creating new market outlooks for the cosmetic industry with these molecules as a viable alternative to conventional cosmetics.
       
  • Advances in nanoparticle and microparticle delivery systems for increasing
           the dispersibility, stability, and bioactivity of phytochemicals
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): David Julian McClements Application of bioactive phytochemicals in foods, supplements, and pharmaceuticals is often limited because of their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability. Phytochemical oral delivery systems (PODS), consisting of phytochemical-loaded nanoparticles or microparticles, can overcome these challenges. PODS can be produced in liquid, gel, paste, or solid forms. They must be carefully formulated to be compatible with the product matrix, economical, robust, and maintain phytochemical bioactivity. This review evaluates recent advances in the development of PODS, including microemulsions, nanoemulsions, emulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, and biopolymer microgels. Properly designed PODS will increase phytochemical applications in commercial products.
       
  • Natural products for targeted therapy in precision medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Atanas G. Atanasov, Andy Wai Kan Yeung, Maciej Banach
       
  • Neural stem cell differentiation to mature neurons: Mechanisms of
           regulation and biotechnological applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Mariana S. Vieira, Anderson K. Santos, Rebecca Vasconcellos, Vânia A.M. Goulart, Ricardo C. Parreira, Alexandre H. Kihara, Henning Ulrich, Rodrigo R. Resende The abilities of stem cells to self-renew and form different mature cells expand the possibilities of applications in cell-based therapies such as tissue recomposition in regenerative medicine, drug screening, and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to stem cells found in the embryo, various adult organs and tissues have niches of stem cells in an undifferentiated state. In the central nervous system of adult mammals, neurogenesis occurs in two regions: the subventricular zone and the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. The generation of the different neural lines originates in adult neural stem cells that can self-renew or differentiate into astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons in response to specific stimuli. The regulation of the fate of neural stem cells is a finely controlled process that relies on a complex regulatory network that extends from the epigenetic to the translational level and involves extracellular matrix components. Thus, a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying how the process of neurogenesis is induced, regulated, and maintained will provide information that will make it possible to develop new neurobiological strategies for neurodegenerative therapies. In this review, we focus on describing the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the neuronal differentiation process by transcription factors, microRNAs, and extracellular matrix components.
       
  • Cancer hallmarks and malignancy features: Gateway for improved targeted
           drug delivery
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Tiatou Souho, Lallepak Lamboni, Lin Xiao, Guang Yang Cancer chemotherapy is mainly based on the use of cytotoxic compounds that often affect other tissues, generating serious side effects which deteriorate the quality of life of patients. Recent advancements in targeted drug delivery systems offer opportunities to improve the efficiency of chemotherapy, by the use of smaller drug doses with reduced side effects. In the gene therapy approach, this consists in improving the transformation potential of the gene delivery system. Interestingly, these systems further provide good platforms for the delivery of hydrophobic and low-bioavailability compounds, while facilitating the penetration of the blood-brain barrier. The present report provides an overview of biologically relevant cancer hallmarks that can be exploited to design effective delivery vehicles that release cytotoxic compounds specifically in cancer tissues, in a targeted manner. The relevance of each cancer marker is presented, with particular emphasis on the generation of these hallmarks and their importance in cancer cell biology.
       
  • Biosynthesis and biotechnological application of non-canonical amino
           acids: Complex and unclear
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Huibin Zou, Lei Li, Tongtong Zhang, Mengxun Shi, Nan Zhang, Jingling Huang, Mo Xian Compared with the better-studied canonical amino acids, the distribution, metabolism and functions of natural non-canonical amino acids remain relatively obscure. Natural non-canonical amino acids have been mainly discovered in plants as secondary metabolites that perform diversified physiological functions. Due to their specific characteristics, a broader range of natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids have recently been applied in the development of functional materials and pharmaceutical products. With the rapid development of advanced methods in biotechnology, non-canonical amino acids can be incorporated into peptides, proteins and enzymes to improve the function and performance relative to their natural counterparts. Therefore, biotechnological application of non-canonical amino acids in artificial bio-macromolecules follows the central goal of synthetic biology to: create novel life forms and functions. However, many of the non-canonical amino acids are synthesized via chemo- or semi-synthetic methods, and few non-canonical amino acids can be synthesized using natural in vivo pathways. Therefore, further research is needed to clarify the metabolic pathways and key enzymes of the non-canonical amino acids. This will lead to the discovery of more candidate non-canonical amino acids, especially for those that are derived from microorganisms and are naturally bio-compatible with chassis strains for in vivo biosynthesis. In this review, we summarize representative natural and artificial non-canonical amino acids, their known information regarding associated metabolic pathways, their characteristics and their practical applications. Moreover, this review summarizes current barriers in developing in vivo pathways for the synthesis of non-canonical amino acids, as well as other considerations, future trends and potential applications of non-canonical amino acids in advanced biotechnology.
       
  • Bacteria and archaea as the sources of traits for enhanced plant
           phenotypes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Caroline M. Smith-Moore, Amy M. Grunden Rising global demand for food and population increases are driving the need for improved crop productivity over the next 30 years. Plants have inherent metabolic limitations on productivity such as inefficiencies in carbon fixation and sensitivity to environmental conditions. Bacteria and archaea inhabit some of the most inhospitable environments on the planet and possess unique metabolic pathways and genes to cope with these conditions. Microbial genes involved in carbon fixation, abiotic stress tolerance, and nutrient acquisition have been utilized in plants to enhance plant phenotypes by increasing yield, photosynthesis, and abiotic stress tolerance. Transgenic plants expressing bacterial and archaeal genes will be discussed along with emerging strategies and tools to increase plant growth and yield.
       
  • State of art and limitations in genetic engineering to induce stable
           chondrogenic phenotype
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Valeria Graceffa, Claire Vinatier, Jerome Guicheux, Christopher H. Evans, Martin Stoddart, Mauro Alini, Dimitrios I. Zeugolis Current protocols for chondrocyte expansion and chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells fail to reduce phenotypic loss and to mitigate hypertrophic tendency. To this end, cell genetic manipulation is gaining pace as a means of generating cells with stable chondrocyte phenotype. Herein, we provide an overview of candidate genes that either induce cartilage regeneration or inhibit cartilage degeneration. We further discuss in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo viral transduction and non-viral transfection strategies for targeted cells (chondrocytes, mesenchymal stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells and synovial cells), along with the most representative results obtained in pre-clinical models and in clinical trials. We highlight current challenges and associated risks that slowdown clinical acceptance and commercialisation of gene transfer technologies.
       
  • l-ascorbic+acid&rft.title=Biotechnology+Advances&rft.issn=0734-9750&rft.date=&rft.volume=">Current challenges facing one-step production of        class="small-caps">l-ascorbic acid
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Panpan Wang, Weizhu Zeng, Sha Xu, Guocheng Du, Jingwen Zhou, Jian Chen l-ascorbic acid (L-AA, vitamin C) is an essential vitamin that is widely used as a nutrient or medicine in the pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, beverage and feed additive industries, and accounts for the largest share of the global vitamins market. L-AA is mainly produced by a classic two-step fermentation process that suffers from the use of a multi-step mixed culture system and two rounds of sterilisation, which significantly increases the cost of the final product. One-step fermentation has been attempted, but a method rivalling the efficiency of the two-step process has not yet been achieved on an industrial scale. In this review, based on the current classical two-step fermentation processes and other potential routes for L-AA production, the challenges and pitfalls of a one-step fermentation process are summarised. The prospects for one-step fermentation production of L-AA and how this might be achieved are also discussed.
       
  • Synthetic biology toolkits and applications in Saccharomyces
           cerevisiae
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Binbin Chen, Hui Ling Lee, Yu Chyuan Heng, Niying Chua, Wei Suong Teo, Won Jae Choi, Susanna Su Jan Leong, Jee Loon Foo, Matthew Wook Chang Synthetic biologists construct biological components and systems to look into biological phenomena and drive a myriad of practical applications that aim to tackle current global challenges in energy, healthcare and the environment. While most tools have been established in bacteria, particularly Escherichia coli, recent years have seen parallel developments in the model yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the most well understood eukaryotic biological system. Here, we outline the latest advances in yeast synthetic biology tools based on a framework of abstraction hierarchies of parts, circuits and genomes. In brief, the creation and characterization of biological parts are explored at the transcriptional, translational and post-translational levels. Using characterized parts as building block units, the designing of functional circuits is elaborated with examples. In addition, the status and potential applications of synthetic genomes as a genome level platform for biological system construction are also discussed. In addition to the development of a toolkit, we describe how those tools have been applied in the areas of drug production and screening, study of disease mechanisms, pollutant sensing and bioremediation. Finally, we provide a future outlook of yeast as a workhorse of eukaryotic genetics and a chosen chassis in this field.
       
  • Phage display: an important tool in the discovery of peptides with
           anti-HIV activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Ronaldo Souza Lopes, Maria Alice Freitas Queiroz, Samara Tatielle Monteiro Gomes, Antonio Carlos Rosário Vallinoto, Luiz Ricardo Goulart, Ricardo Ishak Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remains a worldwide health problem despite huge investments and research breakthroughs, and no single drug is effective in killing the virus yet. Among new strategies to control HIV infection, the phage display (PD) technology has become a promising tool in the discovery of peptides that can be used as new drugs, or also as possible vaccine candidates. This review discusses basic aspects of PD and its use to advance two main objectives related to combating HIV-1 infection: the identification of peptides that inhibit virus replication and the identification of peptides that induce the production of neutralizing antibodies. We will cover the different approaches used for mapping and selection of mimotopes, and discuss the promising results of these biologicals as antiviral agents.
       
  • Responses exhibited by various microbial groups relevant to uranium
           exposure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Nilesh Kolhe, Smita Zinjarde, Celin Acharya There is a strong interest in knowing how various microbial systems respond to the presence of uranium (U), largely in the context of bioremediation. There is no known biological role for uranium so far. Uranium is naturally present in rocks and minerals. The insoluble nature of the U(IV) minerals keeps uranium firmly bound in the earth’s crust minimizing its bioavailability. However, anthropogenic nuclear reaction processes over the last few decades have resulted in introduction of uranium into the environment in soluble and toxic forms. Microbes adsorb, accumulate, reduce, oxidize, possibly respire, mineralize and precipitate uranium. This review focuses on the microbial responses to uranium exposure which allows the alteration of the forms and concentrations of uranium within the cell and in the local environment. Detailed information on the three major bioprocesses namely, biosorption, bioprecipitation and bioreduction exhibited by the microbes belonging to various groups and subgroups of bacteria, fungi and algae is provided in this review elucidating their intrinsic and engineered abilities for uranium removal. The survey also highlights the instances of the field trials undertaken for in situ uranium bioremediation. Advances in genomics and proteomics approaches providing the information on the regulatory and physiologically important determinants in the microbes in response to uranium challenge have been catalogued here. Recent developments in metagenomics and metaproteomics indicating the ecologically relevant traits required for the adaptation and survival of environmental microbes residing in uranium contaminated sites are also included. A comprehensive understanding of the microbial responses to uranium can facilitate the development of in situ U bioremediation strategies.
       
  • Microbial electrocatalysis: Redox mediators responsible for extracellular
           electron transfer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 July 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Xiaobo Liu, Liang Shi, Ji-Dong Gu Redox mediator plays an important role in extracellular electron transfer (EET) in many environments wherein microbial electrocatalysis occurs actively. Because of the block of cell envelope and the low difference of redox potential between the intracellular and extracellular surroundings, the proceeding of EET depends mainly on the help of a variety of mediators that function as an electron carrier or bridge. In this Review, we will summarize a wide range of redox mediators and further discuss their functional mechanisms in EET that drives a series of microbial electrocatalytic reactions. Studying these mediators adds to our knowledge of how charge transport and electrochemical reactions occur at the microorganism-electrode interface. This understanding would promote the widespread applications of microbial electrocatalysis in microbial fuel cells, bioremediation, bioelectrosynthesis, biomining, nanomaterial productions, etc. These improved applications will greatly benefit the sustainable development of the environmental-friendly biochemical industries.
       
  • Screening of organic solvents for bioprocesses using aqueous-organic
           two-phase systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Inês P. Rosinha Grundtvig, Søren Heintz, Ulrich Krühne, Krist V. Gernaey, Patrick Adlercreutz, John D. Hayler, Andy S. Wells, John M. Woodley The application of conventional organic solvents has been essential in several steps of bioprocesses in order to achieve sufficient economic efficiency. The use of organic solvents is frequently used either to partly or fully replace water in the reaction medium or as a process aid for downstream separation.Nowadays, manufacturers are increasingly requested to avoid and substitute solvents with hazardous potential. Therefore, the solvent selection must account for potential environmental hazards, health and safety problems, in addition to fulfilling the ideal characteristics for application in a process.For the first time, criteria including Environment, Health and Safety (EHS), as well as the technical requirements for reaction and separation have been reviewed, collected and integrated in a single organic solvent screening strategy to be used as a guideline for narrowing down the list of solvents to test experimentally. Additionally, we have also included a solvent selection guide based on the methodology developed in the Innovative Medicines Initiative CHEM21 (IMI CHEM21) project and applied specifically to water-immiscible solvents commonly used in bioprocesses.
       
  • Natural scaffolds in anticancer therapy and precision medicine
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Aloran Mazumder, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich The diversity of natural compounds is essential for their mechanism of action. The source, structures and structure activity relationship of natural compounds contributed to the development of new classes of chemotherapy agents for over 40 years. The availability of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening has fueled the challenge to identify novel compounds that mimic nature's chemistry and to predict their macromolecular targets. Combining conventional and targeted therapies helped to successfully overcome drug resistance and prolong disease-free survival. Here, we aim to provide an overview of preclinical investigated natural compounds alone and in combination to further improve personalization of cancer treatment.
       
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation as a therapeutic target. Part 1:
           molecular targets and pathways
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Dongdong Wang, Pavel Uhrin, Andrei Mocan, Birgit Waltenberger, Johannes M. Breuss, Devesh Tewari, Judit Mihaly-Bison, Łukasz Huminiecki, Rafał R. Starzyński, Nikolay T. Tzvetkov, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G. Atanasov Cardiovascular diseases are a major cause of human death worldwide. Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells contributes to the etiology of such diseases, including atherosclerosis, restenosis, and pulmonary hypertension. The control of vascular cell proliferation is complex and encompasses interactions of many regulatory molecules and signaling pathways. Herein, we recapitulated the importance of signaling cascades relevant for the regulation of vascular cell proliferation. Detailed understanding of the mechanism underlying this process is essential for the identification of new lead compounds (e.g., natural products) for vascular therapies.
       
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation as a therapeutic target. Part 2:
           Natural products inhibiting proliferation
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Pavel Uhrin, Dongdong Wang, Andrei Mocan, Birgit Waltenberger, Johannes M. Breuss, Devesh Tewari, Judit Mihaly-Bison, Łukasz Huminiecki, Rafał R. Starzyński, Nikolay T. Tzvetkov, Jarosław Horbańczuk, Atanas G. Atanasov Many natural products have been so far tested regarding their potency to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, a process involved in atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension and restenosis. Compounds studied in vitro and in vivo as VSMC proliferation inhibitors include, for example indirubin-3′-monoxime, resveratrol, hyperoside, plumericin, pelargonidin, zerumbone and apamin. Moreover, taxol and rapamycin, the most prominent compounds applied in drug-eluting stents to counteract restenosis, are natural products. Numerous studies show that natural products have proven to yield effective inhibitors of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and ongoing research effort might result in the discovery of further clinically relevant compounds.
       
  • Naturally occurring compounds in differentiation based therapy of cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Sanja Mijatović, Alessia Bramanti, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Paolo Fagone, Goran N. Kaluđerović, Danijela Maksimović-Ivanić Differentiation of cancer cells entails the reversion of phenotype from malignant to the original. The conversion to cell type characteristic for another tissue is named transdifferentiation. Differentiation/transdifferentiation of malignant cells in high grade tumor mass could serve as a nonaggressive approach that potentially limits tumor progression and augments chemosensitivity. While this therapeutic strategy is already being used for treatment of hematological cancers, its feasibility for solid malignancies is still debated. We will presently discuss the natural compounds that show these properties, with focus on anthraquinones from Aloe vera, Senna, Rheum sp. and hop derived prenylflavonoids.
       
  • Recent advances on production of 2, 3-butanediol using engineered microbes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Zhiliang Yang, Zisheng Zhang As a significant platform chemical, 2, 3-butanediol (2, 3-BD) has found wide applications in industry. The success of microbial 2, 3-BD production was limited by the use of pathogenic microorganisms and low titer in engineered hosts. The utilization of cheaply available feedstock such as lignocellulose was another major challenge to achieve economic production of 2, 3-BD. To address those issues, engineering strategies including both genetic modifications and process optimization have been employed. In this review, we summarized the state-of-the-art progress in the biotechnological production of 2, 3-BD. Metabolic engineering and process engineering strategies were discussed.
       
  • Natural products with anti-aging potential: Affected targets and molecular
           mechanisms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Cristina-Sorina Cătană, Atanas G. Atanasov, Ioana Berindan-Neagoe In recent years, there has been a great deal of attention toward the molecular machinery relevant to age-related progression controlled through the external intervention of polyphenols- an epigenetic-modulating diet. Natural products modulate cellular longevity through histone post-translational modification and can also induce the upregulation of autophagy, thus reducing the level of acetyl coenzyme A (AcCoA). In addition, the effect of caloric restriction (CR) on cancer-related chronic inflammation is of great significance in aging. In line with this, SIRT1 protein levels are expanded in response to calorie restriction mimetics (CRM), in this way acting as autophagy inducers relevant to cancer prevention.
       
  • Dietary nutraceuticals as backbone for bone health
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Manoj K. Pandey, Subash C. Gupta, Deepkamal Karelia, Patrick J. Gilhooley, Mehdi Shakibaei, Bharat B. Aggarwal Bone loss or osteoporosis, is a slow-progressing disease that results from dysregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The FDA has approved number of drugs for bone loss prevention, nonetheless all are expensive and have multiple side effects. The nutraceuticals identified from dietary agents such as butein, cardamonin, coronarin D curcumin, diosgenin, embelin, gambogic acid, genistein, plumbagin, quercetin, reseveratrol, zerumbone and more, can modulate cell signaling pathways and reverse/slow down osteoporosis. Most of these nutraceuticals are inexpensive; show no side effect while still possessing anti-inflammatory properties. This review provides various mechanisms of osteoporosis and how nutraceuticals can potentially prevent the bone loss.
       
  • Natural products as modulators of the nuclear receptors and metabolic
           sensors LXR, FXR and RXR
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 March 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Verena Hiebl, Angela Ladurner, Simone Latkolik, Verena M. Dirsch Nuclear receptors (NRs) represent attractive targets for the treatment of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. In addition, natural products are an interesting pool of potential ligands since they have been refined under evolutionary pressure to interact with proteins or other biological targets.This review aims to briefly summarize current basic knowledge regarding the liver X (LXR) and farnesoid X receptors (FXR) that form permissive heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXR). Natural product-based ligands for these receptors are summarized and the potential of LXR, FXR and RXR as targets in precision medicine is discussed.
       
  • The functional genomic studies of resveratrol in respect to its
           anti-cancer effects
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Lukasz Huminiecki, Jarosław Horbańczuk Resveratrol has anti-cancer effects in vitro, and hypothetical chemopreventive effects in vivo. Effects are pleiotropic, mediated by changes in expression of many genes and epigenetic reprogramming. Thus, they are well suited for functional genomic studies. We carried out systematic review of such studies (reflecting also on technological progress). Differentially expressed genes commonly linked to resveratrol treatment were linked to cell cycle, proliferation, and apoptosis. However, it is unclear if these are primary and specific targets of resveratrol. We conclude by discussing areas where additional functional genomic studies are desirable, including experiments that better model in vivo effects of dietary intake.
       
  • Natural products as inhibitors of prostaglandin E2 and pro-inflammatory
           5-lipoxygenase-derived lipid mediator biosynthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Andreas Koeberle, Oliver Werz Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) inhibit prostanoid formation and represent prevalent therapeutics for treatment of inflammatory disorders. However, NSAIDs are afflicted with severe side effects, which might be circumvented by more selective suppression of pro-inflammatory eicosanoid biosynthesis. This concept led to dual inhibitors of microsomal prostaglandin E2 synthase (mPGES)-1 and 5-lipoxygenase that are crucial enzymes in the biosynthesis of pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E2 and leukotrienes. The potential of their dual inhibition in light of superior efficacy and safety is discussed. Focus is placed on natural products, for which direct inhibition of mPGES-1 and leukotriene biosynthesis has been confirmed.
       
  • Chemical genetics in tumor lipogenesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 February 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Simone Braig Since cancer cells depend on de novo lipogenesis for energy supply, highly active membrane biosynthesis and signaling, enhanced fatty acid synthesis is a crucial characteristic of cancer cells. Hence, targeting lipogenic enzymes and signaling cascades is a very promising approach in developing innovative therapeutic agents for the fight against cancer. This review summarizes main aspects of altered fatty acid synthesis in cancer cells and emphasizes the power of chemical genetic approaches in identifying and analyzing novel anti-cancer drug candidates interfering with lipid metabolism.
       
  • Beyond malaria: The inhibition of viruses by artemisinin-type compounds
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018Source: Biotechnology AdvancesAuthor(s): Thomas Efferth Natural products represent valuable chemical scaffolds for drug development. A recent success story in this context was artemisinin, which is not only active against malaria but also to other diseases. This raised the interest of artemisinin's potential for drug repurposing. On the present review, we give an overview on artemisinin's antiviral activity. There is good in vitro and in vivo evidence for the activity of artemisinin and its derivatives against DNA viruses of the Herpesviridae and Hepadnaviridae families such as cytomegaloviruses, human herpesvirus 6, herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus and Hepatitis B virus. The evidence is weaker for Polyomaviruses and papilloma viruses. Weaker or no inhibitory activity in vitro has been reported for RNA viruses such as human immunodeficiency viruses 1 and 2, hepatitis C virus, influenza virus and others. Interestingly, the artemisinin derivative artesunate did not exert cross-resistance to ganciclovir-resistant HCMV and exerted synergistic inhibition in combination with several clinically established antiviral standard drugs. The antiviral activity of first generation artemisinin derivatives (e.g. artesunate, artemether, etc.) was enhanced by novel derivatives, including dimer and trimer molecules. First results on patients indicating activity in a subset of HCMV patients. Novel developments in the field of nanotechnology and synthetic biology to bioengineer microorganisms for artemisinin production may pave the way for novel drugs to fight viral infections with artemisinin-based drugs.
       
 
 
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