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BIOTECHNOLOGY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 64)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 31)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 155)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 535)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Biotechnology Advances
Journal Prestige (SJR): 3.006
Citation Impact (citeScore): 12
Number of Followers: 33  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0734-9750
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3163 journals]
  • Multigene delivery in mammalian cells: Recent advances and applications
    • Authors: Maysam Mansouri; Philipp Berger
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Maysam Mansouri, Philipp Berger
      Systems for multigene delivery in mammalian cells, particularly in the context of genome engineering, have gained a lot of attention in biomolecular research and medicine. Initially these methods were based on RNA polymerase II promoters and were used for the production of protein complexes and for applications in cell biology such as reprogramming of somatic cells to stem cells. Emerging technologies such as CRISPR/Cas9-based genome engineering, which enable any alteration at the genomic level of an organism, require additional elements including U6-driven expression cassettes for RNA expression and homology constructs for designed genome modifications. For these applications, systems with high DNA capacity, flexibility and transfer rates are needed. In this article, we briefly give an update on some of recent strategies that facilitate multigene assembly and delivery into mammalian cells. Also, we review applications in various fields of biology that rely on multigene delivery systems.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.012
  • Toolboxes for cyanobacteria: Recent advances and future direction
    • Authors: Tao Sun; Shubin Li; Xinyu Song; Jinjin Diao; Lei Chen; Weiwen Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tao Sun, Shubin Li, Xinyu Song, Jinjin Diao, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
      Photosynthetic cyanobacteria are important primary producers and model organisms for studying photosynthesis and elements cycling on earth. Due to the ability to absorb sunlight and utilize carbon dioxide, cyanobacteria have also been proposed as renewable chassis for carbon-neutral “microbial cell factories”. Recent progresses on cyanobacterial synthetic biology have led to the successful production of more than two dozen of fuels and fine chemicals directly from CO2, demonstrating their potential for scale-up application in the future. However, compared with popular heterotrophic chassis like Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where abundant genetic tools are available for manipulations at levels from single gene, pathway to whole genome, limited genetic tools are accessible to cyanobacteria. Consequently, this significant technical hurdle restricts both the basic biological researches and further development and application of these renewable systems. Though still lagging the heterotrophic chassis, the vital roles of genetic tools in tuning of gene expression, carbon flux re-direction as well as genome-wide manipulations have been increasingly recognized in cyanobacteria. In recent years, significant progresses on developing and introducing new and efficient genetic tools have been made for cyanobacteria, including promoters, riboswitches, ribosome binding site engineering, clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated nuclease (CRISPR/Cas) systems, small RNA regulatory tools and genome-scale modeling strategies. In this review, we critically summarize recent advances on development and applications as well as technical limitations and future directions of the genetic tools in cyanobacteria. In addition, toolboxes feasible for using in large-scale cultivation are also briefly discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.007
  • Leveraging knowledge engineering and machine learning for microbial
    • Authors: Tolutola Oyetunde; Forrest Sheng Bao; Jiung-Wen Chen; Hector Garcia Martin; Yinjie J. Tang
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Tolutola Oyetunde, Forrest Sheng Bao, Jiung-Wen Chen, Hector Garcia Martin, Yinjie J. Tang
      Genome scale modeling (GSM) predicts the performance of microbial workhorses and helps identify beneficial gene targets. GSM integrated with intracellular flux dynamics, omics, and thermodynamics have shown remarkable progress in both elucidating complex cellular phenomena and computational strain design (CSD). Nonetheless, these models still show high uncertainty due to a poor understanding of innate pathway regulations, metabolic burdens, and other factors (such as stress tolerance and metabolite channeling). Besides, the engineered hosts may have genetic mutations or non-genetic variations in bioreactor conditions and thus CSD rarely foresees fermentation rate and titer. Metabolic models play important role in design-build-test-learn cycles for strain improvement, and machine learning (ML) may provide a viable complementary approach for driving strain design and deciphering cellular processes. In order to develop quality ML models, knowledge engineering leverages and standardizes the wealth of information in literature (e.g., genomic/phenomic data, synthetic biology strategies, and bioprocess variables). Data driven frameworks can offer new constraints for mechanistic models to describe cellular regulations, to design pathways, to search gene targets, and to estimate fermentation titer/rate/yield under specified growth conditions (e.g., mixing, nutrients, and O2). This review highlights the scope of information collections, database constructions, and machine learning techniques (such as deep learning and transfer learning), which may facilitate “Learn and Design” for strain development.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.008
  • Microbial fuel cell (MFC) power performance improvement through enhanced
           microbial electrogenicity
    • Authors: Ming Li; Minghua Zhou; Xiaoyu Tian; Chaolin Tan; Cameron T. McDaniel; Daniel J. Hassett; Tingyue Gu
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ming Li, Minghua Zhou, Xiaoyu Tian, Chaolin Tan, Cameron T. McDaniel, Daniel J. Hassett, Tingyue Gu
      Within the past 5 years, tremendous advances have been made to maximize the performance of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for both “clean” bioenergy production and bioremediation. Most research efforts have focused on parameters including (i) optimizing reactor configuration, (ii) electrode construction, (iii) addition of redox-active, electron donating mediators, (iv) biofilm acclimation and feed nutrient adjustment, as well as (v) other parameters that contribute to enhanced MFC performance. To date, tremendous advances have been made, but further improvements are needed for MFCs to be economically practical. In this review, the diversity of electrogenic microorganisms and microbial community changes in mixed cultures are discussed. More importantly, different approaches including chemical/genetic modifications and gene regulation of exoelectrogens, synthetic biology approaches and bacterial community cooperation are reviewed. Advances in recent years in metagenomics and microbiomes have allowed researchers to improve bacterial electrogenicity of robust biofilms in MFCs using novel, unconventional approaches. Taken together, this review provides some important and timely information to researchers who are examining additional means to enhance power production of MFCs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.010
  • Perfusion mammalian cell culture for recombinant protein manufacturing
           – A critical review
    • Authors: Jean-Marc Bielser; Moritz Wolf; Jonathan Souquet; Hervé Broly; Massimo Morbidelli
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Jean-Marc Bielser, Moritz Wolf, Jonathan Souquet, Hervé Broly, Massimo Morbidelli
      The manufacturing of recombinant protein is traditionally divided in two main steps: upstream (cell culture and synthesis of the target protein) and downstream (purification and formulation of the protein into a drug substance or drug product). Today, cost pressure, market uncertainty and market growth, challenge the existing manufacturing technologies. Leaders in the field are active in designing the process of the future and continuous manufacturing is recurrently mentioned as a potential solution to address some of the current limitations. This review focuses on the application of continuous processing to the first step of the manufacturing process. Enabling technologies and operation modes are described in the first part. In the second part, recent advances in the field that have the potential to support its successful future development are critically discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.011
  • “Connecting worlds – a view on microfluidics for a wider
    • Authors: Ana C. Fernandes; Krist V. Gernaey; Ulrich Krühne
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Ana C. Fernandes, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
      From its birth, microfluidics has been referenced as a revolutionary technology and the solution to long standing technological and sociological issues, such as detection of dilute compounds and personalized healthcare. Microfluidics has for example been envisioned as: (1) being capable of miniaturizing industrial production plants, thereby increasing their automation and operational safety at low cost; (2) being able to identify rare diseases by running bioanalytics directly on the patient’s skin; (3) allowing health diagnostics in point-of-care sites through cheap lab-on-a-chip devices. However, the current state of microfluidics, although technologically advanced, has so far failed to reach the originally promised widespread use. In this paper, some of the aspects are identified and discussed that have prevented microfluidics from reaching its full potential, especially in the chemical engineering and biotechnology fields, focusing mainly on the specialization on a single target of most microfluidic devices and offering a perspective on the alternate, multi-use, “plug and play” approach. Increasing the flexibility of microfluidic platforms, by increasing their compatibility with different substrates, reactions and operation conditions, and other microfluidic systems is indeed of surmount importance and current academic and industrial approaches to modular microfluidics are presented. Furthermore, two views on the commercialization of plug-and-play microfluidics systems, leading towards improved acceptance and more widespread use, are introduced. A brief review of the main materials and fabrication strategies used in these fields, is also presented. Finally, a step-wise guide towards the development of microfluidic systems is introduced with special focus on the integration of sensors in microfluidics. The proposed guidelines are then applied for the development of two different example platforms, and to three examples taken from literature. With this work, we aim to provide an interesting perspective on the field of microfluidics when applied to chemical engineering and biotechnology studies, as well as to contribute with potential solutions to some of its current challenges.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.05.001
  • Circulating tumor microemboli: Progress in molecular understanding and
           enrichment technologies
    • Authors: Muhammad Umer; Ramanathan Vaidyanathan; Nam-Trung Nguyen; Muhammad J.A. Shiddiky
      Abstract: Publication date: July–August 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 4
      Author(s): Muhammad Umer, Ramanathan Vaidyanathan, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Muhammad J.A. Shiddiky
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and their clusters, also known as circulating tumor microemboli (CTM), have emerged as valuable tool that can provide mechanistic insights into the tumor heterogeneity, clonal evolution, and stochastic events within the metastatic cascade. However, recent investigations have hinted that CTM may not be mere aggregates of tumor cells but cells comprising CTM exhibit distinct phenotypic and molecular characteristics in comparison to single CTCs. Moreover, in many cases CTM demonstrated higher metastatic potential and resistance to apoptosis as compared to their single cell counterparts. Thus, their evaluation and enumeration may provide a new dimension to our understanding of cancer biology and metastatic cancer spread as well as offer novel theranostic biomarkers. Most of the existing technologies for isolation of hematogenous tumor cells largely favor single CTCs, hence there is a need to devise new approaches, or re-configure the existing ones, for specific and efficient CTM isolation. Here we review existing knowledge and insights on CTM biology. Furthermore, a critical commentary on current and emerging trends in CTM enrichment and characterization along with recently developed ex-vivo CTC expansion methodologies is presented with the aim to facilitate researchers to identify further avenues of research and development.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.05.002
  • Guest Editorial Prospects in Biotechnology
    • Authors: Jan Kas; Yusuf Chisti
      Pages: 555 - 556
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 3
      Author(s): Jan Kas, Yusuf Chisti

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.010
  • In vitro methods for testing antiviral drugs
    • Authors: Michaela Rumlová; Tomáš Ruml
      Pages: 557 - 576
      Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 3
      Author(s): Michaela Rumlová, Tomáš Ruml
      Despite successful vaccination programs and effective treatments for some viral infections, humans are still losing the battle with viruses. Persisting human pandemics, emerging and re-emerging viruses, and evolution of drug-resistant strains impose continuous search for new antiviral drugs. A combination of detailed information about the molecular organization of viruses and progress in molecular biology and computer technologies has enabled rational antivirals design. Initial step in establishing efficacy of new antivirals is based on simple methods assessing inhibition of the intended target. We provide here an overview of biochemical and cell-based assays evaluating the activity of inhibitors of clinically important viruses.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2017.12.016
  • Fructans of the saline world
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Onur Kırtel, Maxime Versluys, Wim Van den Ende, Ebru Toksoy Öner
      Saline and hypersaline environments make up the largest ecosystem on earth and the organisms living in such water-restricted environments have developed unique ways to cope with high salinity. As such these organisms not only carry significant industrial potential in a world where freshwater supplies are rapidly diminishing, but they also shed light upon the origins and extremes of life. One largely overlooked and potentially important feature of many salt-loving organisms is their ability to produce fructans, fructose polymers widely found in various mesophilic Eubacteria and plants, with potential functions as storage carbohydrates, aiding stress tolerance, and acting as virulence factors or signaling molecules. Intriguingly, within the whole archaeal domain of life, Archaea possessing putative fructan biosynthetic enzymes were found to belong to the extremely halophilic class of Halobacteria only, indicating a strong, yet unexplored link between the fructan syndrome and salinity. In fact, this link may indeed lead to novel strategies in fighting the global salinization problem. Hence this review explores the unknown world of fructanogenic salt-loving organisms, where water scarcity is the main stress factor for life. Within this scope, prokaryotes and plants of the saline world are discussed in detail, with special emphasis on their salt adaptation mechanisms, the potential roles of fructans and fructosyltransferase enzymes in adaptation and survival as well as future aspects for all fructanogenic salt-loving domains of life.

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Amylosucrase as a transglucosylation tool: From molecular features to
           bioengineering applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yuqing Tian, Wei Xu, Wenli Zhang, Tao Zhang, Cuie Guang, Wanmeng Mu
      Amylosucrase (EC, ASase), an outstanding sucrose-utilizing transglucosylase in the glycoside hydrolase family 13, can produce glucans with only α-1,4 linkages. Generally, on account of a double-displacement mechanism, ASase can catalyze polymerization, isomerization, and hydrolysis reactions with sucrose as the sole substrate, and has transglycosylation capacity to attach glucose molecules from sucrose to extra glycosyl acceptors. Based on extensive enzymology research, this review presents the characteristics of various ASases, including their microbial metabolism, preparation, and enzymatic properties, and exhibits structure-based strategies in the improvement of activity, specificity, and thermostability. As a vital transglucosylation tool of producing sugars, carbohydrate-based bioactive compounds, and materials, the bioengineering applications of ASases are also systematically summarized.

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Microbial biomass for energy applications...
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yusuf Chisti

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Fermented foods and beverages…
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yusuf Chisti

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Producing safe processed foods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yusuf Chisti

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Supplementing glycosylation: A review of applying nucleotide-sugar
           precursors to growth medium to affect therapeutic recombinant protein
           glycoform distributions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Eric J.M. Blondeel, Marc G. Aucoin
      Glycosylation is a critical quality attribute (CQA) of many therapeutic proteins, particularly monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), and is a major consideration in the approval of biosimilar biologics due to its effects to therapeutic efficacy. Glycosylation generates a distribution of glycoforms, resulting in glycoproteins with inherent molecule-to-molecule heterogeneity, capable of activating (or failing to activate) different effector functions of the immune system. Glycoforms can be affected by the supplementation of nucleotide-sugar precursors, and related components, to culture growth medium, affecting the metabolism of glycosylation. These supplementations has been demonstrated to increase nucleotide-sugar intracellular pools, and impact glycoform distributions, but with varied results. These variations can be attributed to five key factors: Differences between cell platforms (enzyme/transporter expression levels); differences between recombinant proteins produced (glycan-site accessibility); the fermentation and sampling timeline (glucose availability and exoglycosidase accumulation); glutamine levels (affecting ammonia levels, which impact Golgi pH, as well as UDP-GlcNAc pools); and finally, a lack of standardized metrics for observing shifts in glycoform distributions (glycosylation indices) across different experiments. The purpose of this review is to provide detail and clarity on the state of the art of supplementation strategies for nucleotide-sugar precursors for affecting glycosylation in cell culture processes, and to apply glycosylation indices for standardized comparisons across the field.

      PubDate: 2018-06-20T19:23:46Z
  • Integrating enzyme immobilization and protein engineering: An alternative
           path for the development of novel and improved industrial biocatalysts
    • Authors: Claudia Bernal; Karen Rondriguez; Ronny Martínez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Claudia Bernal, Karen Rondriguez, Ronny Martínez
      Enzyme immobilization often achieves reusable biocatalysts with improved operational stability and solvent resistance. However, these modifications are generally associated with a decrease in activity or detrimental modifications in catalytic properties. On the other hand, protein engineering aims to generate enzymes with increased performance at specific conditions by means of genetic manipulation, directed evolution and rational design. However, the achieved biocatalysts are generally generated as soluble enzymes, −thus not reusable- and their performance under real operational conditions is uncertain. Combined protein engineering and enzyme immobilization approaches have been employed as parallel or consecutive strategies for improving an enzyme of interest. Recent reports show efforts on simultaneously improving both enzymatic and immobilization components through genetic modification of enzymes and optimizing binding chemistry for site-specific and oriented immobilization. Nonetheless, enzyme engineering and immobilization are usually performed as separate workflows to achieve improved biocatalysts. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent research aiming to integrate enzyme immobilization and protein engineering and propose strategies to further converge protein engineering and enzyme immobilization efforts into a novel “immobilized biocatalyst engineering” research field. We believe that through the integration of both enzyme engineering and enzyme immobilization strategies, novel biocatalysts can be obtained, not only as the sum of independently improved intrinsic and operational properties of enzymes, but ultimately tailored specifically for increased performance as immobilized biocatalysts, potentially paving the way for a qualitative jump in the development of efficient, stable biocatalysts with greater real-world potential in challenging bioprocess applications.

      PubDate: 2018-06-11T08:35:10Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.06.002
  • Pre-treatments to enhance the biodegradability of waste activated sludge:
           Elucidating the rate limiting step
    • Authors: A. Gonzalez; A.T.W.M. Hendriks; J.B. van Lier; M. de Kreuk
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): A. Gonzalez, A.T.W.M. Hendriks, J.B. van Lier, M. de Kreuk
      Pre-treatments for waste activated sludge (WAS) are, in most cases, an attempt to increase the biodegradation and/or improve hydrolysis rate of WAS after anaerobic digestion. This review presents an extensive analysis of WAS pre-treatments effectiveness focusing on increasing the biodegradability. In the first part of the review, WAS is considered as a cluster of organic components: proteins, carbohydrates, humic substances and cells. Based on this breakdown into components, the effect of different pre-treatments on each component (and in combination) is described. Also, possible reasons for the contradictory results frequently found among different studies dealing with the same pre-treatment are included. In the second part, the review describes the effects on volatile solids removal by digestion after pre-treatment and on the dewaterability of the final digestate. The energy balance and potential limiting factors for each pre-treatment are also taken into account. From the published works it is concluded that some pre-treatment techniques, such as thermal hydrolysis, thermal phased anaerobic digestion and low-temperature pre-treatment are effective ways to increase energy production and to improve other sludge properties, such as dewatering. However, these techniques are very energy intensive and require a large capital outlay, so research on milder pre-treatment techniques is valuable.

      PubDate: 2018-06-08T08:33:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.06.001
  • The saga of algal energy…
    • Authors: Yusuf Chisti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yusuf Chisti

      PubDate: 2018-06-05T08:31:36Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.05.003
  • Screening of organic solvents for bioprocesses using aqueous-organic
           two-phase systems
    • Authors: Inês P. Rosinha Grundtvig; Søren Heintz; Ulrich Krühne; Krist V. Gernaey; Patrick Adlercreutz; John D. Hayler; Andy S. Wells; John M. Woodley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Inês P. Rosinha Grundtvig, Søren Heintz, Ulrich Krühne, Krist V. Gernaey, Patrick Adlercreutz, John D. Hayler, Andy S. Wells, John M. Woodley
      The application of conventional organic solvents has been essential in several steps of bioprocesses in order to achieve sufficient economic efficiency. The use of organic solvents is frequently essential either to partly or fully replace water in the reaction medium or as a process aid for downstream separation. Nowadays, manufacturers are increasingly requested to avoid and substitute solvents with hazardous potential. Therefore, the solvent selection must account for potential environmental hazards, health and safety problems, in addition to fulfilling the ideal characteristics for application in a process. For the first time, criteria including Environment, Health and Safety (EHS), as well as the technical requirements for reaction and separation have been reviewed, collected and integrated in a single screening strategy to be used as a guideline for narrowing down the list of solvents to test experimentally. Additionally, we have also included a solvent selection guide based on the methodology developed in the Innovative Medicines Initiative CHEM21 (IMI CHEM21) project and applied specifically to water-immiscible solvents commonly used in bioprocesses.

      PubDate: 2018-06-02T08:24:29Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.05.007
  • Application of redox mediators in bioelectrochemical systems
    • Authors: Claudia Martinez; Luis Alvarez
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Claudia M. Martinez, Luis H. Alvarez
      Redox mediators (RM) are natural or artificial compounds used by microorganisms as electron acceptors and electron donors during electron transfer. Evidence collected in the last years indicates that the application of RM in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) enhanced the electron transfer from microorganisms to anodes and from cathodes to microorganisms. This review summarizes the results of using soluble or immobilized RM in BES to produce electricity and for the treatment of contaminants from wastewater effluents. In addition, future research focused on biohydrogen production, recovery or removal metals, and the use of humic substances (HS) extracted from natural environment is proposed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-30T08:20:18Z
  • Genetic and metabolic engineering for microbial production of
           poly-γ-glutamic acid
    • Authors: Mingfeng Cao; Jun Feng; Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul; Cunjiang Song; Yusuf Chisti
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Mingfeng Cao, Jun Feng, Sarote Sirisansaneeyakul, Cunjiang Song, Yusuf Chisti
      Poly-γ-glutamic acid (γ-PGA) is a natural biopolymer of glutamic acid. The repeating units of γ-PGA may be derived exclusively from d-glutamic acid, or l-glutamic acid, or both. The monomer units are linked by amide bonds between the α-amino group and the γ-carboxylic acid group. γ-PGA is biodegradable, edible and water-soluble. It has numerous existing and emerging applications in processing of foods, medicines and cosmetics. This review focuses on microbial production of γ-PGA via genetically and metabolically engineered recombinant bacteria. Strategies for improving production of γ-PGA include modification of its biosynthesis pathway, enhancing the production of its precursor (glutamic acid), and preventing loss of the precursor to competing byproducts. These and other strategies are discussed. Heterologous synthesis of γ-PGA in industrial bacterial hosts that do not naturally produce γ-PGA is discussed. Emerging trends and the challenges affecting the production of γ-PGA are reviewed.

      PubDate: 2018-05-30T08:20:18Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.05.006
  • Silver bullets: A new lustre on an old antimicrobial agent
    • Authors: Jasper Wilson; Sim Mark A.T. Blaskovich Matthew Cooper Zyta Ziora
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Jasper S. Möhler, Wilson Sim, Mark A.T. Blaskovich, Matthew A. Cooper, Zyta M. Ziora
      Silver was widely used in medicine to treat bacterial infections in the 19th and early 20th century, up until the discovery and development of the first modern antibiotics in the 1940s, which were markedly more effective. Since then, every new antibiotic introduced to the clinic has led to an associated development of drug resistance. Today, the threat of extensive bacterial resistance to antibiotics has reignited interest in alternative strategies to treat infectious diseases, with silver regaining well-deserved renewed attention. Silver ions are highly disruptive to bacterial integrity and biochemical function, with comparatively minimal toxicity to mammalian cells. This review focuses on the antimicrobial properties of silver and their use in synergistic combination therapy with traditional antibiotic drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
  • Natural scaffolds in anticancer therapy and precision medicine
    • Authors: Aloran Mazumder; Claudia Cerella; Marc Diederich
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Aloran Mazumder, Claudia Cerella, Marc Diederich
      The diversity of natural compounds is essential for their mechanism of action. The source, structures and structure activity relationship of natural compounds contributed to the development of new classes of chemotherapy agents for over 40 years. The availability of combinatorial chemistry and high-throughput screening has fueled the challenge to identify novel compounds that mimic nature's chemistry and to predict their macromolecular targets. Combining conventional and targeted therapies helped to successfully overcome drug resistance and prolong disease-free survival. Here, we aim to provide an overview of preclinical investigated natural compounds alone and in combination to further improve personalization of cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.009
  • Special Issue Title Page
    • Abstract: Publication date: May–June 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances, Volume 36, Issue 3

      PubDate: 2018-05-28T08:16:24Z
  • Leveraging algal omics to reveal potential targets for augmenting TAG
    • Authors: Neha Arora; Philip T. Pienkos; Vikas Pruthi; Krishna Mohan Poluri; Michael T. Guarnieri
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Neha Arora, Philip T. Pienkos, Vikas Pruthi, Krishna Mohan Poluri, Michael T. Guarnieri
      Ongoing global efforts to commercialize microalgal biofuels have expedited the use of multi-omics techniques to gain insights into lipid biosynthetic pathways. Functional genomics analyses have recently been employed to complement existing sequence-level omics studies, shedding light on the dynamics of lipid synthesis and its interplay with other cellular metabolic pathways, thus revealing possible targets for metabolic engineering. Here, we review the current status of algal omics studies to reveal potential targets to augment TAG accumulation in various microalgae. This review specifically aims to examine and catalog systems level data related to stress-induced TAG accumulation in oleaginous microalgae and inform future metabolic engineering strategies to develop strains with enhanced bioproductivity, which could pave a path for sustainable green energy.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T01:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.005
  • Using agro-industrial wastes for the cultivation of microalgae and
           duckweeds: Contamination risks and biomass safety concerns
    • Authors: Giorgos Markou; Liang Wang; Jianfeng Ye; Adrian Unc
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Giorgos Markou, Liang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Adrian Unc
      Aquatic organisms, such as microalgae (Chlorella, Arthrospira (Spirulina), Tetrasselmis, Dunalliela etc.) and duckweed (Lemna spp., Wolffia spp. etc.) are a potential source for the production of protein-rich biomass and for numerous other high-value compounds (fatty acids, pigments, vitamins etc.). Their cultivation using agro-industrial wastes and wastewater (WaW) is of particular interest in the context of a circular economy, not only for recycling valuable nutrients but also for reducing the requirements for fresh water for the production of biomass. Recovery and recycling of nutrients is an unavoidable long-term approach for securing future food and feed production. Agro-industrial WaW are rich in nutrients and have been widely considered as a potential nutrient source for the cultivation of microalgae/duckweed. However, they commonly contain various hazardous contaminants, which could potentially taint the produced biomass, raising various concerns about the safety of their consumption. Herein, an overview of the most important contaminants, including heavy metals and metalloids, pathogens (bacteria, viruses, parasites etc.), and xenobiotics (hormones, antibiotics, parasiticides etc.) is given. It is concluded that pretreatment and processing of WaW is a requisite step for the removal of several contaminants. Among the various technologies, anaerobic digestion (AD) is widely used in practice and offers a technologically mature approach for WaW treatment. During AD, various organic and biological contaminants are significantly removed. Further removal of contaminants could be achieved by post-treatment and processing of digestates (solid/liquid separation, dilution etc.) to further decrease the concentration of contaminants. Moreover, during cultivation an additional removal may occur through various mechanisms, such as precipitation, degradation, and biotransformation. Since many jurisdictions regulate the presence of various contaminants in feed or food setting strict safety monitoring processes, it would be of particular interest to initiate a multi-disciplinary discussion whether agro-industrial WaW ought to be used to cultivate microalgae/duckweed for feed or food production and identify most feasible options for doing this safely. Based on the current body of knowledge it is estimated that AD and post-treatment of WaW can lower significantly the risks associated with heavy metals and pathogens, but it is yet unclear to what extent this is the case for certain persistent xenobiotics.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T01:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.003
  • Microalgae as multi-functional options in modern agriculture: current
           trends, prospects and challenges
    • Authors: Nirmal Renuka; Abhishek Guldhe; Radha Prasanna; Poonam Singh; Faizal Bux
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Nirmal Renuka, Abhishek Guldhe, Radha Prasanna, Poonam Singh, Faizal Bux
      Algae are a group of ubiquitous photosynthetic organisms comprising eukaryotic green algae and Gram-negative prokaryotic cyanobacteria, which have immense potential as a bioresource for various industries related to biofuels, pharmaceuticals, nutraceuticals and feed. This fascinating group of organisms also has applications in modern agriculture through facilitating increased nutrient availability, maintaining the organic carbon and fertility of soil, and enhancing plant growth and crop yields, as a result of stimulation of soil microbial activity. Several cyanobacteria provide nitrogen fertilization through biological nitrogen fixation and through enzymatic activities related to interconversions and mobilization of different forms of nitrogen. Both green algae and cyanobacteria are involved in the production of metabolites such as growth hormones, polysaccharides, antimicrobial compounds, etc., which play an important role in the colonization of plants and proliferation of microbial and eukaryotic communities in soil. Currently, the development of consortia of cyanobacteria with bacteria or fungi or microalgae or their biofilms has widened their scope of utilization. Development of integrated wastewater treatment and biomass production systems is an emerging technology, which exploits the nutrient sequestering potential of microalgae and its valorisation. This review focuses on prospects and challenges of application of microalgae in various areas of agriculture, including crop production, protection and natural resource management. An overview of the recent advances, novel technologies developed, their commercialization status and future directions are also included.

      PubDate: 2018-04-25T01:51:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.04.004
  • Host cell protein removal from biopharmaceutical preparations: Towards the
           implementation of quality by design
    • Authors: Cher Hui Goey; Sakhr Alhuthali; Cleo Kontoravdi
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Cher Hui Goey, Sakhr Alhuthali, Cleo Kontoravdi
      Downstream processing of protein products of mammalian cell culture currently accounts for the largest fraction of the total production cost. A major challenge is the removal of host cell proteins, which are cell-derived impurities. Host cell proteins are potentially immunogenic and can compromise product integrity during processing and hold-up steps. There is an increasing body of evidence that the type of host cell proteins present in recombinant protein preparations is a function of cell culture conditions and handling of the harvest cell culture fluid. This, in turn, can affect the performance of downstream purification steps as certain species are difficult to remove and may require bespoke process solutions. Herein, we review recent research on the interplay between upstream process conditions, host cell protein composition and their downstream removal in antibody production processes, identifying opportunities for increasing process understanding and control. We further highlight advances in analytical and computational techniques that can enable the application of quality by design.

      PubDate: 2018-04-15T07:50:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.021
  • Electron transport chains in organohalide-respiring bacteria and
           bioremediation implications
    • Authors: Shanquan Wang; Lan Qiu; Xiaowei Liu; Guofang Xu; Michael Siegert; Qihong Lu; Philippe Juneau; Ling Yu; Dawei Liang; Zhili He; Rongliang Qiu
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 April 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Shanquan Wang, Lan Qiu, Xiaowei Liu, Guofang Xu, Michael Siegert, Qihong Lu, Philippe Juneau, Ling Yu, Dawei Liang, Zhili He, Rongliang Qiu
      In situ remediation employing organohalide-respiring bacteria represents a promising solution for cleanup of persistent organohalide pollutants. The organohalide-respiring bacteria conserve energy by utilizing H2 or organic compounds as electron donors and organohalides as electron acceptors. Reductive dehalogenase (RDase), a terminal reductase of the electron transport chain in organohalide-respiring bacteria, is the key enzyme that catalyzes halogen removal. Accumulating experimental evidence thus far suggests that there are distinct models for respiratory electron transfer in organohalide-respirers of different lineages, e.g., Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter, Desulfitobacterium and Sulfurospirillum. In this review, to connect the knowledge in organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains to bioremediation applications, we first comprehensively review molecular components and their organization, together with energetics of the organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains, as well as recent elucidation of intramolecular electron shuttling and halogen elimination mechanisms of RDases. We then highlight the implications of organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains in stimulated bioremediation. In addition, major challenges and further developments toward understanding the organohalide-respiratory electron transport chains and their bioremediation applications are identified and discussed.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.018
  • Process engineering for microbial production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid
    • Authors: Florence de Fouchécour; Ana-Karen Sánchez-Castañeda; Claire Saulou-Bérion; Henry Éric Spinnler
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Florence de Fouchécour, Ana-Karen Sánchez-Castañeda, Claire Saulou-Bérion, Henry Éric Spinnler
      Due to concerns about the unsustainability and predictable shortage of fossil feedstocks, research efforts are currently being made to develop new processes for production of commodities using alternative feedstocks. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (CAS 503–66-2) was recognised by the US Department of Energy as one of the most promising value-added chemicals that can be obtained from biomass. This article aims at reviewing the various strategies implemented thus far for 3-hydroxypropionic acid bioproduction. Special attention is given here to process engineering issues. The variety of possible metabolic pathways is also described in order to highlight how process design can be guided by their understanding. The most recent advances are described here in order to draw up a panorama of microbial 3-hydroxypropionic acid production: best performances to date, remaining hurdles and foreseeable developments. Important milestones have been achieved, and process metrics are getting closer to commercial relevance. New strategies are continuously being developed that involve new microbial strains, new technologies, or new carbon sources in order to overcome the various hurdles inherent to the different microbial routes.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.020
  • Aspergillus-specific antibodies – Targets and applications
    • Authors: Max Schubert; Holger Spiegel; Stefan Schillberg; Greta Nölke
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Max Schubert, Holger Spiegel, Stefan Schillberg, Greta Nölke
      Aspergillus is a fungal genus comprising several hundred species, many of which can damage the health of plants, animals and humans by direct infection and/or due to the production of toxic secondary metabolites known as mycotoxins. Aspergillus-specific antibodies have been generated against polypeptides, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites found in the cell wall or secretions, and these can be used to detect and monitor infections or to quantify mycotoxin contamination in food and feed. However, most Aspergillus-specific antibodies are generated against heterogeneous antigen preparations and the specific target remains unknown. Target identification is important because this can help to characterize fungal morphology, confirm host penetration by opportunistic pathogens, detect specific disease-related biomarkers, identify new candidate targets for antifungal drug design, and qualify antibodies for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. In this review, we discuss how antibodies are raised against heterogeneous Aspergillus antigen preparations and how they can be characterized, focusing on strategies to identify their specific antigens and epitopes. We also discuss the therapeutic, diagnostic and biotechnological applications of Aspergillus-specific antibodies.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.016
  • Clinical, technological, and economic issues associated with developing
           new lung surfactant therapeutics
    • Authors: Hyun Chang Kim; You-Yeon Won
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Hyun Chang Kim, You-Yeon Won
      Discovery of lung surfactant deficiency as a main cause of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS) has influenced a steep increase in lung surfactant research. Although this has yielded impactful scientific discoveries, much of the basic research on lung surfactants has failed to translate into clinical practices. This is attributed to insufficient information covering the entire lung surfactant ecosystem, from the basic science to economics surrounding the development and clinical practices. In this manuscript, developments related to improving therapeutic lung surfactant as well as the degree of unmet need are analyzed from both technical and economic perspectives. Two potential opportunities are emphasized: (1) aerosolized lung surfactants to treat NRDS infants, and (2) synthetic lung surfactants for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) patients. Each has a modestly projected US market size of $120 million and $4 billion, well enough to make up for the high development costs associated with investigational drug development. Both opportunities have been pursued in the past, but to date these attempts have met with no success mainly due to technical limitations. With the recent advancements in both fields, technology improvements have created opportunities to solve both decades-old problems.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.017
  • Revisiting glycoside hydrolase family 20 β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidases:
           Crystal structures, physiological substrates and specific inhibitors
    • Authors: Tian Liu; Yanwei Duan; Qing Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Tian Liu, Yanwei Duan, Qing Yang
      Glycoside hydrolase family 20 β-N-acetyl-d-hexosaminidases (GH20s) catalyze the hydrolysis of glycosidic linkages in glycans, glycoproteins and glycolipids. The diverse substrates of GH20s account for their various roles in many important bioprocesses, such as glycoprotein modification, glycoconjugate metabolism, gamete recognition and chitin degradation in fungal cell walls and arthropod exoskeletons. Defects in human GH20s cause lysosomal storage diseases, Alzheimer's disease and osteoarthritis. Similarly, lower levels of GH20s arrest arthropod molting. Although GH20s are promising targets for drug and agrochemical development, designing bioactive molecules to target one specific enzyme is challenging because GH20s share a conserved catalytic mechanism. With the development of structural biology, the last two decades have witnessed a dramatic increase in crystallographic investigations of liganded and unliganded GH20s, providing core information for rational molecular designs. This critical review summarizes recent research advances in GH20s, with a focus on their structural basis of substrate specificity as well as on inhibitor design. As more crystal structures of targeted GH20s are determined and analyzed, dynamics of their catalysis and inhibition will also be elucidated, which will facilitate the development of new drugs, pesticides and agrochemicals.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.013
  • State of the art of aerobic granulation in continuous flow bioreactors
    • Authors: Timothy R. Kent; Charles B. Bott; Zhi-Wu Wang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Timothy R. Kent, Charles B. Bott, Zhi-Wu Wang
      In the wake of the success of aerobic granulation in sequential batch reactors (SBRs) for treating wastewater, attention is beginning to turn to continuous flow applications. This is a necessary step given the advantages of continuous flow treatment processes and the fact that the majority of full-scale wastewater treatment plants across the world are operated with aeration tanks and clarifiers in a continuous flow mode. As in SBRs, applying a selection pressure, based on differences in either settling velocity or the size of the biomass, is essential for successful granulation in continuous flow reactors (CFRs). CFRs employed for aerobic granulation come in multiple configurations, each with their own means of achieving such a selection pressure. Other factors, such as bioaugmentation and hydraulic shear force, also contribute to aerobic granulation to some extent. Besides the formation of aerobic granules, long-term stability of aerobic granules is also a critical issue to be addressed. Inorganic precipitation, special inocula, and various operational optimization strategies have been used to improve granule long-term structural integrity. Accumulated studies reviewed in this work demonstrate that aerobic granulation in CFRs is capable of removing a wide spectrum of contaminants and achieving properties generally comparable to those in SBRs. Despite the notable research progress made toward successful aerobic granulation in lab-scale CFRs, to the best of our knowledge, there are only three full-scale tests of the technique, two being seeded with anammox-supported aerobic granules and the other with conventional aerobic granules; two other process alternatives are currently in development. Application of settling- or size-based selection pressures and feast/famine conditions are especially difficult to implement to these and similar mainstream systems. Future research efforts needs to be focused on the optimization of the granule-to-floc ratio, enhancement of granule activity, improvement of long-term granule stability, and a better understanding of aerobic granulation mechanisms in CFRs, especially in full-scale applications.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.015
  • A state-of-the-art review on nitrous oxide control from waste treatment
           and industrial sources
    • Authors: Osvaldo D. Frutos; Guillermo Quijano; Aitor Aizpuru; Raúl Muñoz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Osvaldo D. Frutos, Guillermo Quijano, Aitor Aizpuru, Raúl Muñoz
      This review aims at holistically analyzing the environmental problems associated with nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions by evaluating the most important sources of N2O and its environmental impacts. Emissions from wastewater treatment processes and the industrial production of nitric and adipic acid represent nowadays the most important anthropogenic point sources of N2O. Therefore, state-of-the-art strategies to mitigate the generation and release to the atmosphere of this greenhouse and O3-depleting gas in the waste treatment and industrial sectors are also reviewed. An updated review of the end-of-the-pipe technologies for N2O abatement, both in the waste treatment and industrial sectors, is herein presented and critically discussed for the first time. Despite the consistent efforts recently conducted in the development of cost-efficient and eco-friendly N2O abatement technologies, physical/chemical technologies still constitute the most popular treatments for the control of industrial N2O emissions at commercial scale. The recent advances achieved on biological N2O abatement based on heterotrophic denitrification have opened new opportunities for the development of eco-friendly alternatives for the treatment of N2O emissions. Finally, the main limitations and challenges faced by these novel N2O abatement biotechnologies are identified in order to pave the way for market implementation.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.004
  • Advances in kinome research of parasitic worms - implications for
           fundamental research and applied biotechnological outcomes
    • Authors: Andreas J. Stroehlein; Neil D. Young; Robin B. Gasser
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Andreas J. Stroehlein, Neil D. Young, Robin B. Gasser
      Protein kinases are enzymes that play essential roles in the regulation of many cellular processes. Despite expansions in the fields of genomics, transcriptomics and bioinformatics, there is limited information on the kinase complements (kinomes) of most eukaryotic organisms, including parasitic worms that cause serious diseases of humans and animals. The biological uniqueness of these worms and the draft status of their genomes pose challenges for the identification and classification of protein kinases using established tools. In this article, we provide an account of kinase biology, the roles of kinases in diseases and their importance as drug targets, and drug discovery efforts in key socioeconomically important parasitic worms. In this context, we summarise methods and resources commonly used for the curation, identification, classification and functional annotation of protein kinase sequences from draft genomes; review recent advances made in the characterisation of the worm kinomes; and discuss the implications of these advances for investigating kinase signalling and developing small-molecule inhibitors as new anti-parasitic drugs.

      PubDate: 2018-04-11T11:15:27Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.013
  • Stem cells: their source, potency and use in regenerative therapies with
           focus on adipose-derived stem cells – a review
    • Authors: Lucie Bacakova; Jana Zarubova; Martina Travnickova; Jana Musilkova; Julia Pajorova; Petr Slepicka; Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova; Vaclav Svorcik; Zdenka Kolska; Hooman Motarjemi; Martin Molitor
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Lucie Bacakova, Jana Zarubova, Martina Travnickova, Jana Musilkova, Julia Pajorova, Petr Slepicka, Nikola Slepickova Kasalkova, Vaclav Svorcik, Zdenka Kolska, Hooman Motarjemi, Martin Molitor
      Stem cells can be defined as units of biological organization that are responsible for the development and the regeneration of organ and tissue systems. They are able to renew their populations and to differentiate into multiple cell lineages. Therefore, these cells have great potential in advanced tissue engineering and cell therapies. When seeded on synthetic or nature-derived scaffolds in vitro, stem cells can be differentiated towards the desired phenotype by an appropriate composition, by an appropriate architecture, and by appropriate physicochemical and mechanical properties of the scaffolds, particularly if the scaffold properties are combined with a suitable composition of cell culture media, and with suitable mechanical, electrical or magnetic stimulation. For cell therapy, stem cells can be injected directly into damaged tissues and organs in vivo. Since the regenerative effect of stem cells is based mainly on the autocrine production of growth factors, immunomodulators and other bioactive molecules stored in extracellular vesicles, these structures can be isolated and used instead of cells for a novel therapeutic approach called “stem cell-based cell-free therapy”. There are four main sources of stem cells, i.e. embryonic tissues, fetal tissues, adult tissues and differentiated somatic cells after they have been genetically reprogrammed, which are referred to as induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Although adult stem cells have lower potency than the other three stem cell types, i.e. they are capable of differentiating into only a limited quantity of specific cell types, these cells are able to overcome the ethical and legal issues accompanying the application of embryonic and fetal stem cells and the mutational effects associated with iPSCs. Moreover, adult stem cells can be used in autogenous form. These cells are present in practically all tissues in the organism. However, adipose tissue seems to be the most advantageous tissue from which to isolate them, because of its abundancy, its subcutaneous location, and the need for less invasive techniques. Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs) are therefore considered highly promising in present-day regenerative medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.011
  • Investigations into the cancer stem cell niche using in-vitro 3-D tumor
           models and microfluidics
    • Authors: M. Sreepadmanabh; Bhushan J. Toley
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): M. Sreepadmanabh, Bhushan J. Toley
      The concept of Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) and the CSC Niche/Tumor Microenvironment (TME) as the central driving force behind tumor progression and maintenance has garnered much attention in recent years. Concomitantly, the widespread adoption of 3D tissue models, organotypic co-cultures, and the revolutionary microfluidic technology has resulted in a plethora of ground-breaking fundamental discoveries and has enabled investigations which were previously unfeasible. A large number of existing review papers concern themselves with either a broad look at the TME and CSC Niche, or on the studies undertaken on a particular niche component alone. In this article, we attempt to bring out a harmonic, expansive look at the concept of CSCs, the TME, and the various advancements in answering key biological queries enabled by these emerging new technologies. Our primary goal is to present a fundamental understanding of CSCs, as well as the CSC niche, and elucidate note-worthy examples of investigations being carried out with regard to each of the major TME components, along with our insights into the potential for further research. We hope that this serves as an impetus to new, as well as existing researchers in this area, to gain fresh perspectives on the CSC niche, as well as provide them with a glimpse at the kind of progress being made using 3D tumor models and microfluidic devices.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.009
  • Circulating tumor cell isolation, culture, and downstream molecular
    • Authors: Sandhya Sharma; Rachel Zhuang; Marisa Long; Mirjana Pavlovic; Yunqing Kang; Azhar Ilyas; Waseem Asghar
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Sandhya Sharma, Rachel Zhuang, Marisa Long, Mirjana Pavlovic, Yunqing Kang, Azhar Ilyas, Waseem Asghar
      Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are a major contributor of cancer metastases and hold a promising prognostic significance in cancer detection. Performing functional and molecular characterization of CTCs provides in-depth knowledge about this lethal disease. Researchers are making efforts to design devices and develop assays for enumeration of CTCs with a high capture and detection efficiency from whole blood of cancer patients. The existing and on-going research on CTC isolation methods has revealed cell characteristics which are helpful in cancer monitoring and designing of targeted cancer treatments. In this review paper, a brief summary of existing CTC isolation methods is presented. We also discuss methods of detaching CTC from functionalized surfaces (functional assays/devices) and their further use for ex-vivo culturing that aid in studies regarding molecular properties that encourage metastatic seeding. In the clinical applications section, we discuss a number of cases that CTCs can play a key role for monitoring metastases, drug treatment response, and heterogeneity profiling regarding biomarkers and gene expression studies that bring treatment design further towards personalized medicine.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.007
  • Biofiltration of volatile organic compounds using fungi and its conceptual
           and mathematical modeling
    • Authors: Alberto Vergara-Fernández; Sergio Revah; Patricio Moreno-Casas; Felipe Scott
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Alberto Vergara-Fernández, Sergio Revah, Patricio Moreno-Casas, Felipe Scott
      Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are ubiquitous contaminants that can be found both in outdoor and indoor air, posing risks to human health and the ecosystems. The treatment of air contaminated with VOCs in low concentrations can be effectively performed using biofiltration, especially when VOCs are hydrophilic. However, the performance of biofilters inoculated with bacteria has been found to be low with sparsely water soluble molecules when compared to biofilters where fungi develop. Using conceptual and mathematical models, this review presents an overview of the physical, chemical and biological mechanisms that explain the differences in the performance of fungal and bacterial biofilters. Moreover, future research needs are proposed, with an emphasis on integrated models describing the biological and chemical reactions with the mass transfer using high-resolution descriptions of the packing material.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.008
  • Bio-recycling of metals: Recycling of technical products using biological
    • Authors: Katrin Pollmann; Sabine Kutschke; Sabine Matys; Johannes Raff; Gregor Hlawacek; Franziska L. Lederer
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Katrin Pollmann, Sabine Kutschke, Sabine Matys, Johannes Raff, Gregor Hlawacek, Franziska L. Lederer
      The increasing demand of different essential metals as a consequence of the development of new technologies, especially in the so called “low carbon technologies” require the development of innovative technologies that enable an economic and environmentally friendly metal recovery from primary and secondary resources. There is serious concern that the demand of some critical elements might exceed the present supply within a few years, thus necessitating the development of novel strategies and technologies to meet the requirements of industry and society. Besides an improvement of exploitation and processing of ores, the more urgent issue of recycling of strategic metals has to be enforced. However, current recycling rates are very low due to the increasing complexity of products and the low content of certain critical elements, thus hindering an economic metal recovery. On the other hand, increasing environmental consciousness as well as limitations of classical methods require innovative recycling methodologies in order to enable a circular economy. Modern biotechnologies can contribute to solve some of the problems related to metal recycling. These approaches use natural properties of organisms, bio-compounds, and biomolecules to interact with minerals, materials, metals, or metal ions such as surface attachment, mineral dissolution, transformation, and metal complexation. Further, modern genetic approaches, e.g. realized by synthetic biology, enable the smart design of new chemicals. The article presents some recent developments in the fields of bioleaching, biosorption, bioreduction, and bioflotation, and their use for metal recovery from different waste materials. Currently only few of these developments are commercialized. Major limitations are high costs in comparison to conventional methods and low element selectivity. The article discusses future trends to overcome these barriers. Especially interdisciplinary approaches, the combination of different technologies, the inclusion of modern genetic methods, as well as the consideration of existing, yet unexplored natural resources will push innovations in these fields.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.006
  • Diversity and assembly patterns of activated sludge microbial communities:
           A review
    • Authors: Yu Xia; Xianghua Wen; Bing Zhang; Yunfeng Yang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Bing Zhang, Yunfeng Yang
      Understanding diversity and assembly patterns of microbial communities in activated sludge (AS) is pivotal for addressing fundamental ecological questions and wastewater treatment engineering. Recent applications of molecular methods especially next generation sequencing (NGS) have led to the explosion of information about AS community diversity, including the identification of uncultured taxa, and characterization of low-abundance but environmentally important populations such as antibiotic resistant bacteria and pathogens. Those progresses have facilitated the leverage of ecological theories in describing AS community assembly. The lognormal species abundance curve has been applied to estimate AS microbial richness. Taxa-area and taxa-time relationships (TAR and TTR) have been observed for AS microbial communities. Core AS microbial communities have been identified. Meanwhile, the roles of both deterministic and stochastic processes in shaping AS community structures have been examined. Nonetheless, it remains challenging to define tempo-spatial scales for reliable identification of community turnover, and find tight links between AS microbial structure and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) functions. To solve those issues, we expect that future research will focus on identifying active functional populations in AS using omics- methods integrated with stable-isotope probing (SIP) with the development of bioinformatics tools. Developing mathematic models to understand AS community structures and utilize information on AS community to predict the performance of WWTPs will also be vital for advancing knowledge of AS microbial ecology and environmental engineering.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.005
  • Microfluidic devices for sample preparation and rapid detection of
           foodborne pathogens
    • Authors: Krishna Kant; Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi; Vivek Priy Dave; Tien Anh Ngo; Vinayaka Aaydha Chidambara; Quyen Than Linh; Dang Duong Bang; Anders Wolff
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Krishna Kant, Mohammad-Ali Shahbazi, Vivek Priy Dave, Tien Anh Ngo, Vinayaka Aaydha Chidambara, Quyen Than Linh, Dang Duong Bang, Anders Wolff
      Rapid detection of foodborne pathogens at an early stage is imperative for preventing the outbreak of foodborne diseases, known as serious threats to human health. Conventional bacterial culturing methods for foodborne pathogen detection are time consuming, laborious, and with poor pathogen diagnosis competences. This has prompted researchers to call the current status of detection approaches into question and leverage new technologies for superior pathogen sensing outcomes. Novel strategies mainly rely on incorporating all the steps from sample preparation to detection in miniaturized devices for online monitoring of pathogens with high accuracy and sensitivity in a time-saving and cost effective manner. Lab on chip is a blooming area in diagnosis, which exploits different mechanical and biological techniques to detect very low concentrations of pathogens in food samples. This is achieved through streamlining the sample handling and concentrating procedures, which will subsequently reduce human errors and enhance the accuracy of the sensing methods. Integration of sample preparation techniques into these devices can effectively minimize the impact of complex food matrix on pathogen diagnosis and improve the limit of detections. Integration of pathogen capturing bio-receptors on microfluidic devices is a crucial step, which can facilitate recognition abilities in harsh chemical and physical conditions, offering a great commercial benefit to the food-manufacturing sector. This article reviews recent advances in current state-of-the-art of sample preparation and concentration from food matrices with focus on bacterial capturing methods and sensing technologies, along with their advantages and limitations when integrated into microfluidic devices for online rapid detection of pathogens in foods and food production line.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.002
  • Effects of shear stress on microalgae – A review
    • Authors: Chinchin Wang; Christopher Q. Lan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Chinchin Wang, Christopher Q. Lan
      Cultivation of microalgae requires consideration of shear stress, which is generated by operations such as mixing, circulation, aeration and pumping that are designed to facilitate mass and heat transfer as well as light distribution in cultures. Excessive shear stress can cause increased cell mortality, decreased growth rate and cell viability, or even cell lysis. This review examines the sources of shear stress in different cultivation systems, shear stress tolerance of different microalgal species and the physiological factors and environmental conditions that may affect shear sensitivity, and potential approaches to mitigate the detrimental effects of shear stress. In general, green algae have the greatest tolerance to shear stress, followed by cyanobacteria, haptophytes, red algae, and diatoms, with dinoflagellates comprising the most shear-sensitive species. The shear-sensitivity of microalgae is determined primarily by cell wall strength, cell morphology and the presence of flagella. Turbulence, eddy size, and viscosity are the most prominent parameters affecting shear stress to microalgal cells during cultivation.

      PubDate: 2018-03-19T09:35:43Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.03.001
  • Translational models of tumor angiogenesis: A nexus of in silico and in
           vitro models
    • Authors: Shirin Soleimani; Milad Shamsi; Mehran Akbarpour Ghazani; Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres; Karolina Papera Valente; Mohsen Saghafian; Mehdi Mohammadi Ashani; Mohsen Akbari; Amir Sanati-Nezhad
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 March 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Shirin Soleimani, Milad Shamsi, Mehran Akbarpour Ghazani, Hassan Pezeshgi Modarres, Karolina Papera Valente, Mohsen Saghafian, Mehdi Mohammadi Ashani, Mohsen Akbari, Amir Sanati-Nezhad
      Emerging evidence shows that endothelial cells are not only the building blocks of vascular networks that enable oxygen and nutrient delivery throughout a tissue but also serve as a rich resource of angiocrine factors. Endothelial cells play key roles in determining cancer progression and response to anti-cancer drugs. Furthermore, the endothelium-specific deposition of extracellular matrix is a key modulator of the availability of angiocrine factors to both stromal and cancer cells. Considering tumor vascular network as a decisive factor in cancer pathogenesis and treatment response, these networks need to be an inseparable component of cancer models. Both computational and in vitro experimental models have been extensively developed to model tumor-endothelium interactions. While informative, they have been developed in different communities and do not yet represent a comprehensive platform. In this review, we overview the necessity of incorporating vascular networks for both in vitro and in silico cancer models and discuss recent progresses and challenges of in vitro experimental microfluidic cancer vasculature-on-chip systems and their in silico counterparts. We further highlight how these two approaches can merge together with the aim of presenting a predictive combinatorial platform for studying cancer pathogenesis and testing the efficacy of single or multi-drug therapeutics for cancer treatment.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.01.013
  • Paradigm shift – Metabolic transformation of docosahexaenoic and
           eicosapentaenoic acids to bioactives exemplify the promise of fatty acid
           drug discovery
    • Authors: Ganesh V. Halade; Laurence M. Black; Mahendra Kumar Verma
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Ganesh V. Halade, Laurence M. Black, Mahendra Kumar Verma
      Fatty acid drug discovery (FADD) is defined as the identification of novel, specialized bioactive mediators that are derived from fatty acids and have precise pharmacological/therapeutic potential. A number of reports indicate that dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids and limited intake of omega-6 promotes overall health benefits. In 1929, Burr and Burr indicated the significant role of essential fatty acids for survival and functional health of many organs. In reference to specific dietary benefits of differential omega-3 fatty acids, docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids (DHA and EPA) are transformed to monohydroxy, dihydroxy, trihydroxy, and other complex mediators during infection, injury, and exercise to resolve inflammation. The presented FADD approach describes the metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA in response to injury, infection, and exercise to govern uncontrolled inflammation. Metabolic transformation of DHA and EPA into a number of pro-resolving molecules exemplifies a novel, inexpensive approach compared to traditional, expensive drug discovery. DHA and EPA have been recommended for prevention of cardiovascular disease since 1970. Therefore, the FADD approach is relevant to cardiovascular disease and resolution of inflammation in many injury models. Future research demands identification of novel action targets, receptors for biomolecules, mechanism(s), and drug-interactions with resolvins in order to maintain homeostasis.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.014
  • Molecular aspects of sucrose transport and its metabolism to starch during
           seed development in wheat: A comprehensive review
    • Authors: Rohit Kumar; Shalini Mukherjee; Belay T. Ayele
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Rohit Kumar, Shalini Mukherjee, Belay T. Ayele
      Wheat is one of the most important crops globally, and its grain is mainly used for human food, accounting for 20% of the total dietary calories. It is also used as animal feed and as a raw material for a variety of non-food and non-feed industrial products such as a feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Starch is the major constituent of a wheat grain, as a result, it is considered as a critical determinant of wheat yield and quality. The amount and composition of starch deposited in wheat grains is controlled primarily by sucrose transport from source tissues to the grain and its conversion to starch. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms regulating these physiological processes provides important opportunities to improve wheat starch yield and quality through biotechnological approaches. This review comprehensively discusses the current understanding of the molecular aspects of sucrose transport and sucrose-to-starch metabolism in wheat grains. It also highlights the advances and prospects of starch biotechnology in wheat.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.015
  • Bacterial components as naturally inspired nano-carriers for drug/gene
           delivery and immunization: Set the bugs to work'
    • Authors: Fatemeh Farjadian; Mohsen Moghoofei; Soroush Mirkiani; Amir Ghasemi; Navid Rabiee; Shima Hadifar; Ali Beyzavi; Mahdi Karimi; Michael R. Hamblin
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Fatemeh Farjadian, Mohsen Moghoofei, Soroush Mirkiani, Amir Ghasemi, Navid Rabiee, Shima Hadifar, Ali Beyzavi, Mahdi Karimi, Michael R. Hamblin
      Drug delivery is a rapidly growing area of research motivated by the nanotechnology revolution, the ideal of personalized medicine, and the desire to reduce the side effects of toxic anti-cancer drugs. Amongst a bewildering array of different nanostructures and nanocarriers, those examples that are fundamentally bio-inspired and derived from natural sources are particularly preferred. Delivery of vaccines is also an active area of research in this field. Bacterial cells and their components that have been used for drug delivery, include the crystalline cell-surface layer known as “S-layer”, bacterial ghosts, bacterial outer membrane vesicles, and bacterial products or derivatives (e.g. spores, polymers, and magnetic nanoparticles). Considering the origin of these components from potentially pathogenic microorganisms, it is not surprising that they have been applied for vaccines and immunization. The present review critically summarizes their applications focusing on their advantages for delivery of drugs, genes, and vaccines.

      PubDate: 2018-03-07T02:38:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.016
  • Metabolic regulation in solventogenic clostridia: regulators, mechanisms
           and engineering
    • Authors: Yunpeng Yang; Xiaoqun Nie; Yuqian Jiang; Chen Yang; Yang Gu; Weihong Jiang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Yunpeng Yang, Xiaoqun Nie, Yuqian Jiang, Chen Yang, Yang Gu, Weihong Jiang
      Solventogenic clostridia, a group of important industrial microorganisms, have exceptional substrate and product diversity, capable of producing a series of two-carbon and even long-chain chemicals and fuels by using various substrates, including sugars, cellulose and hemicellulose, and C1 gases. For the sake of in-depth understanding and engineering these anaerobic microorganisms for broader applications, studies on metabolic regulation of solventogenic clostridia had been extensively carried out during the past ten years, based on the rapid development of various genetic tools. To date, a number of regulators that are essential for cell physiological and metabolic processes have been identified in clostridia, and the relevant mechanisms have also been dissected, providing a wealth of valuable information for metabolic engineering. Here, we reviewed the latest research progress on the metabolic regulation for chemical production and carbohydrate utilization in solventogenic clostridia, by focusing on three typical Clostridium species, the saccharolytic C. acetobutylicum and C. beijerinckii, as well as the gas-fermenting C. ljungdahlii. On this basis, future directions in the study and remodeling of clostridial regulation systems, were proposed for effective modification of these industrially important anaerobes.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.012
  • Improved genomic resources and new bioinformatic workflow for the
           carcinogenic parasite Clonorchis sinensis: Biotechnological implications
    • Authors: Daxi Wang; Pasi K. Korhonen; Robin B. Gasser; Neil D. Young
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:Biotechnology Advances
      Author(s): Daxi Wang, Pasi K. Korhonen, Robin B. Gasser, Neil D. Young
      Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) is an important foodborne parasite that has a major socioeconomic impact on ~35 million people predominantly in China, Vietnam, Korea and the Russian Far East. In humans, infection with C. sinensis causes clonorchiasis, a complex hepatobiliary disease that can induce cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a malignant cancer of the bile ducts. Central to understanding the epidemiology of this disease is knowledge of genetic variation within and among populations of this parasite. Although most published molecular studies seem to suggest that C. sinensis represents a single species, evidence of karyotypic variation within C. sinensis and cryptic species within a related opisthorchiid fluke (Opisthorchis viverrini) emphasise the importance of studying and comparing the genes and genomes of geographically distinct isolates of C. sinensis. Recently, we sequenced, assembled and characterised a draft nuclear genome of a C. sinensis isolate from Korea and compared it with a published draft genome of a Chinese isolate of this species using a bioinformatic workflow established for comparing draft genome assemblies and their gene annotations. We identified that 50.6% and 52.1% of the Korean and Chinese C. sinensis genomic scaffolds were syntenic, respectively. Within aligned syntenic blocks, the genomes had a high level of nucleotide identity (99.1%) and encoded 15 variable proteins likely to be involved in diverse biological processes. Here, we review current technical challenges of using draft genome assemblies to undertake comparative genomic analyses to quantify genetic variation between isolates of the same species. Using a workflow that overcomes these challenges, we report on a high-quality draft genome for C. sinensis from Korea and comparative genomic analyses, as a basis for future investigations of the genetic structures of C. sinensis populations, and discuss the biotechnological implications of these explorations.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T00:07:24Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.biotechadv.2018.02.008
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