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BIOTECHNOLOGY (227 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 227 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 69)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 29)
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Bioenergy     Open Access  
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal  
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Biomedical glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal  
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal  
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity, Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of International Biotechnology Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microalgae Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomaterials and Tissue Regeneration     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  
Nanotechnology Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Nature Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 519)
Network Modeling and Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
New Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Nigerian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Nova Biotechnologica et Chimica     Open Access  
NPG Asia Materials     Open Access  
npj Biofilms and Microbiomes     Open Access  
OA Biotechnology     Open Access  
Plant Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Plant Biotechnology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover New Biotechnology
  [SJR: 1.092]   [H-I: 63]   [4 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1871-6784
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3177 journals]
  • Economic feasibility and environmental impact of synthetic spider silk
           production from escherichia coli
    • Authors: Alan M. Edlund; Justin Jones; Randolph Lewis; Jason C. Quinn
      Pages: 12 - 18
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Alan M. Edlund, Justin Jones, Randolph Lewis, Jason C. Quinn
      Major ampullate spider silk represents a promising protein-based biomaterial with diverse commercial potential ranging from textiles to medical devices due to its excellent physical and thermal properties. Recent advancements in synthetic biology have facilitated the development of recombinant spider silk proteins from Escherichia coli (E. coli). This study specifically investigates the economic feasibility and environmental impact of synthetic spider silk manufacturing. Pilot scale data was used to validate an engineering process model that includes all of the required sub-processing steps for synthetic fiber manufacture: production, harvesting, purification, drying, and spinning. Modeling was constructed modularly to support assessment of alternative downstream processing technologies. The techno-economic analysis indicates a minimum sale price from pioneer and optimized E. coli plants of $761 kg−1 and $23 kg−1 with greenhouse gas emissions of 572 kg CO2-eq. kg−1 and 55 kg CO2-eq. kg−1, respectively. Elevated costs and emissions from the pioneer plant can be directly tied to the high material consumption and low protein yield. Decreased production costs associated with the optimized plant includes improved protein yield, process optimization, and an Nth plant assumption. Discussion focuses on the commercial potential of spider silk, the production performance requirements for commercialization, and the impact of alternative technologies on the system.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.12.006
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • Scientific underpinnings of biotechnology regulatory frameworks
    • Authors: Savannah Gleim; Stuart J. Smyth
      Pages: 26 - 32
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Savannah Gleim, Stuart J. Smyth
      Part of what is presently missing at domestic regulatory levels (and that is important at the international level as well) is a detailed understanding of what the rules of, and for, regulation should be, who the actors, stakeholders and major decision makers are and finally, how to get agreement about the rules. Greater insights into the system of rules that underpin regulatory frameworks for agri-food and biotechnology products in genetically modified (GM) crop- adopting nations will provide value by clarifying the evidence used to commercialize these technologies. This article examines the public documents available from Canada, the United States, the European Union and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development regarding the development of regulatory risk assessment frameworks for products of biotechnology to determine what science grounds these frameworks. The documentation used to provide the initial structure to the existing regulatory frameworks identifies the linkages, connections and relationships that exist between science, risk assessment and regulatory policy. The relationship between risk and regulation has never been more critical to the commercialization of innovative agricultural products. Documenting the role of science-based risk assessment in regulations and how this has changed over the 20 years of experience in regulating GM crops will identify changes in the risk/regulation relationship.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.004
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • Farmers’ knowledge and opinions towards bollgard II® implementation in
           cotton production in western Burkina Faso
    • Authors: Edouard I.R. Sanou; Godelieve Gheysen; Bazoumana Koulibaly; Caspar Roelofs; Stijn Speelman
      Pages: 33 - 41
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Edouard I.R. Sanou, Godelieve Gheysen, Bazoumana Koulibaly, Caspar Roelofs, Stijn Speelman
      In 2008, the commercial cultivation of Genetically Modified (GM) cotton (Bollgard II®) started in Burkina Faso. The adoption rate increased rapidly in subsequent years to reach around 70% in 2014. Although some criticisms were raised concerning the suitability of the technology for the farming system in Burkina Faso, the introduction of transgenic cotton in the country was generally regarded as a great success. Despite this, during the 2016–2017 agricultural campaign, the government of Burkina Faso decided to suspend the cultivation of Bollgard II®. In this context, this paper investigates farmers’ knowledge, perceptions, opinions and attitudes towards Bollgard II® as well as their views on the recent decision to suspend its cultivation. Data was collected from 324 cotton farmers, both growers of conventional and Bollgard II®. The results showed that the farmers surveyed had a poor knowledge concerning the core concepts of biotechnology and Bollgard II® in particular. Moreover, the regulatory oversight of the implementation of the technology was found insufficient, as illustrated by the lack of compliance with prescriptions concerning refuge areas and pesticide treatments. Nevertheless, overall, the farmers interviewed had a slightly positive opinion about the effects on yield, income and their wellbeing. In particular the reduction in pesticide treatments was perceived very positively by all respondents. Although the study finds that the majority of farmers disagreed with the recent suspension of Bt cotton cultivation by the government, it also makes clear that a thorough debate on the technology and its implementation is necessary.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • Biotechnologically produced chitosan for nanoscale products. A legal
    • Authors: Greet Smets; Patrick Rüdelsheim
      Pages: 42 - 47
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Greet Smets, Patrick Rüdelsheim
      Conventionally, chitosans are derived from shrimp and other crustacean shells. Biotechnology offers an alternative route to produce chitosans and more importantly, specific chitosan structures tailored to the needs of a diversity of industries. However, for biotech chitosans and products thereof to be commercialised, legislation should not create a burden. Here, the requirements of the EU regulatory framework have been analysed for the entire chain from research to development and production of several potential applications including nanomaterials. The animal or biotechnological origin leads to specific requirements in production of the raw material. No EU legislation dedicated to nanomaterials has been adopted. Instead, products are governed under the respective existing product legislation subject to extra requirements for safety assessment. While a knowledge gap exists on hazards related to nanomaterials in general, there is a need to establish realistic regulatory study designs to assess the safety of specific products. Furthermore, as many of the existing chitosan applications are not considered nanomaterials, it would be discriminatory to treat biotechnology derived products differently.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.005
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • One-step integrated clarification and purification of a monoclonal
           antibody using Protein A Mag Sepharose beads and a cGMP-compliant
           high-gradient magnetic separator
    • Authors: Moritz Ebeler; Ola Lind; Nils Norrman; Ronnie Palmgren; Matthias Franzreb
      Pages: 48 - 55
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Moritz Ebeler, Ola Lind, Nils Norrman, Ronnie Palmgren, Matthias Franzreb
      Monoclonal antibodies are a dominant component of today's biopharmaceutical market and are typically purified by classical platform processes. However, high costs and rising demands are drivers for the development of new, efficient and flexible integrated purification processes. Currently, high-gradient magnetic separation as a direct capturing tool for protein purification suffers from the lack of suitable GMP-compliant separation equipment for industrial scale. As a solution for this bottleneck, we present a purification process for a monoclonal antibody directly from CHO cell culture by use of protein A-functionalized magnetic particles together with the first pilot-scale GMP-compliant ‘rotor-stator’ high-gradient magnetic separator. Five consecutive purification cycles were performed, achieving consistent yields of over 85% and purities of over 95%. Stable cell viabilities during the magnetic separation process enable integration of the device as an in situ product removal tool. A comparison with state-of-the-art protein A column-based purification processes reveals a 3-times higher process productivity per mL of applied resin and demonstrates the great potential of magnetic separation in downstream processing.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.007
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • Enhanced bioproduction of 2-phenylethanol in a biphasic system with
           rapeseed oil
    • Authors: Karolina Chreptowicz; Jolanta Mierzejewska
      Pages: 56 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 May 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 42
      Author(s): Karolina Chreptowicz, Jolanta Mierzejewska
      Increasing demand for natural fragrance ingredients and products has led to their global market growth. 2-Phenylethanol (2-PE) is a volatile substance widely used in food and cosmetics manufacturing. It is generally known that yeast can metabolize l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) to produce 2-PE. However, because the product exhibits an inhibitory effect on yeast cells, simple batch cultivation is uneconomic. The aim of this study was to enhance 2-PE productivity using in situ product removal. Here we present a new method of 2-PE production by yeast in a biphasic system with rapeseed oil as the second phase. The chosen solvent is safe, inexpensive and suitable for the extraction of 2-PE. In addition, rapeseed oil appeared to be a valuable source of intermediates for 2-PE synthesis as its presence in the yeast culture significantly enhanced productivity. The process is an environmentally friendly route and gives two final products that can be considered natural: rapeseed oil with a rose odor and pure 2-PE. Both may be subsequently used as food or cosmetics additives. The results obtained are competitive with previously reported values, as it was possible to enhance the overall concentration of 2-PE by 2.7-fold. The total 2-PE concentration in the biphasic system in the 4.5-L biofermentor used was increased to 9.79 g/L, while the 2-PE concentration in the organic phase attained a value of 18.50 g/L.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.009
      Issue No: Vol. 42 (2018)
  • The bioeconomy, the challenge of the century for policy makers
    • Authors: Jim Philp
      Pages: 11 - 19
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Jim Philp
      During the Industrial Revolution, it became clear that wood was unsuited as an energy source for industrial production, especially iron smelting. However, the transition to coal was the effort of decades. Similarly, the transition from coal to oil was neither a smooth nor rapid process. The transition to an energy and materials production regime based on renewable resources can similarly be expected to be fraught with many setbacks and obstacles, technically and politically. Those earlier transitions, however, were not complicated by the so-called grand challenges faced today. Above energy security and food and water security lurks climate change. Some events of 2015 have politically legitimised climate change and its mitigation, and 2016 saw the world finally sworn to action. The bioeconomy holds some of the answers to the economic challenges thrown up by mitigating climate change while maintaining growth and societal wellbeing. For bioeconomy policy makers, the future is complex and multi-faceted. The issues start in regions and extend to global reach. It is hard to quantify what is going to be the most difficult of challenges. However, one of the visions for the bioeconomy, that of distributed manufacturing in small- and medium-scale integrated biorefineries flies in the face of the current reality of massive fossil fuel and petrochemical economies of scale, married to gargantuan fossil fuel consumption subsidies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.04.004
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • The origins of the bioeconomy in the European Union
    • Authors: Christian Patermann; Alfredo Aguilar
      Pages: 20 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Christian Patermann, Alfredo Aguilar
      This article outlines the context and circumstances that favoured the development of a Bioeconomy Strategy in the European Union (EU) and the role played by the different Framework programmes for Research, Technological Development and Demonstration. Particular attention is given to the biotechnology related programmes and more specifically to the “Cell Factory” Key Action in the 5th Framework Programme (1998–2002). This, together with the parallel development of a Strategy on Biotechnology in 2002, served as a solid foundation for the creation of the, at the time, so-called Knowledge-Based Bio-Economy (KBBE). The KBBE concept emerged in 2005, a couple of years before the launch of the 7th Framework Programme (2007–2013). The experience accumulated over the years and the new societal expectations triggered the EU to launch a Strategy on Bioeconomy in 2012. This article concludes with a brief analysis of the two most important impacts of the EU Strategy on Bioeconomy. One is the Bioeconomy dedicated activity within the Programme Horizon 2020 (2014–2020), and the other the creation of a public-private partnership of bio-based industries. Both the impact of Horizon 2020 on the EU Bioeconomy Strategy and the bio-based industries public-private partnership are analysed in depth in two articles elsewhere in this volume.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.04.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking: The catalyst for sustainable
           bio-based economic growth in Europe
    • Authors: Philippe Mengal; Marcel Wubbolts; Eleni Zika; Ana Ruiz; Dieter Brigitta; Agata Pieniadz; Sarah Black
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Philippe Mengal, Marcel Wubbolts, Eleni Zika, Ana Ruiz, Dieter Brigitta, Agata Pieniadz, Sarah Black
      This article discusses the preparation, structure and objectives of the Bio-based Industries Joint Undertaking (BBI JU). BBI JU is a public-private partnership (PPP) between the European Commission (EC) and the Bio-based Industries Consortium (BIC), the industry-led private not-for-profit organisation representing the private sectors across the bio-based industries. The model of the public-private partnership has been successful as a new approach to supporting research and innovation and de-risking investment in Europe. The BBI JU became a reality in 2014 and represents the largest industrial and economic cooperation endeavour financially ever undertaken in Europe in the area of industrial biotechnologies. It is considered to be one of the most forward-looking initiatives under Horizon 2020 and demonstrates the circular economy in action. The BBI JU will be the catalyst for this strategy to mobilise actors across Europe including large industry, small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), all types of research organisations, networks and universities. It will support regions and in doing so, the European Union Member States and associated countries in the implementation of their bioeconomy strategies.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2018)
  • Multi-function microfluidic platform for sensor integration
    • Authors: Ana C. Fernandes; Daria Semenova; Peter Panjan; Adama M. Sesay; Krist V. Gernaey; Ulrich Krühne
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Ana C. Fernandes, Daria Semenova, Peter Panjan, Adama M. Sesay, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne
      The limited availability of metabolite-specific sensors for continuous sampling and monitoring is one of the main bottlenecks contributing to failures in bioprocess development. Furthermore, only a limited number of approaches exist to connect currently available measurement systems with high throughput reactor units. This is especially relevant in the biocatalyst screening and characterization stage of process development. In this work, a strategy for sensor integration in microfluidic platforms is demonstrated, to address the need for rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput screening in bioprocesses. This platform is compatible with different sensor formats by enabling their replacement and was built in order to be highly flexible and therefore suitable for a wide range of applications. Moreover, this re-usable platform can easily be connected to analytical equipment, such as HPLC, lab scale reactors or other microfluidic chips through the use of standardized fittings. Also, the developed platform includes a two-sensor system interspersed with a mixing channel, which allows the detection of samples that might be outside the first sensor’s range of detection, through dilution of the sample solution up to 10 times. In order to highlight the features of the proposed platform, inline monitoring of glucose levels is presented and discussed. Glucose was chosen due to its importance in biotechnology as a relevant substrate. The platform demonstrated continuous measurement of substrate solutions for up to 12 h. Furthermore, the influence of the fluid velocity on substrate diffusion was observed, indicating the need for in-flow calibration to achieve a good quantitative output.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.03.001
  • Migration of blood cells and phospholipid vesicles induced by
           concentration gradients in microcavities
    • Authors: Saša Vrhovec Hartman; Bojan Božič; Jure Derganc
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Saša Vrhovec Hartman, Bojan Božič, Jure Derganc
      Microcavities provide a well-controlled flow-free microenvironment and play an important role in many microfluidic systems, for example as cell-culturing microchambers. Here we show that transient concentration gradients that emerge during diffusive exchange of solutes in microcavities induce passive migration (diffusiophoresis) of blood cells and synthetic phospholipid vesicles. The passive migration is observed in various concentration gradients comprising non-electrolytes and electrolytes, i.e., glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, potassium benzoate, and potassium sulfate. The results complement prior reports, where gradients of non-electrolytes and monovalent salts, produced by micropipette injection, did not induce a noticeable migration of vesicles. The migration distances measured depended on the solution and the cell or vesicle type, and were in the range of several tens of micrometers. The results show that diffusiophoresis of cells and vesicles is a notable phenomenon in a flow-free environment and has to be taken into account when an accurate spatiotemporal control of cells or vesicles in microcavities is required.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.015
  • Relationship between microbial community, operational factors and ammonia
           inhibition resilience in anaerobic digesters at low and moderate ammonia
           background concentrations
    • Authors: Y. Lu; R. Liaquat; S. Astals; P.D. Jensen; D.J. Batstone; S. Tait
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Y. Lu, R. Liaquat, S. Astals, P.D. Jensen, D.J. Batstone, S. Tait
      The relationship between anaerobic digestion operational conditions and (i) microbial community, (ii) acetoclastic methanogenic activity and (iii) free ammonia (NH3) inhibition resilience was investigated. Thirteen inocula were obtained from full and pilot scale digesters fed with different substrates, digester configurations, operating temperatures and NH3 concentrations (0.1–241 mgN·L−1). Substrate type and temperature were the primary factors influencing microbial community composition. Methanogenic activity ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 gCOD-CH4·g−1VS·day−1, and was significantly correlated with archaeal relative abundance and archaeal community PC2. The variability of NH3 resilience among inocula was moderate, with inhibition threshold values (KI50) ranging between 32 and 175 mgNH3-N·L−1. No microbial or operational factors correlated with NH3 resilience. However, the slopes of inhibition threshold curves were influenced by some environmental factors, namely substrate type, digester temperature and NH3 concentration. Overall, these results indicate that low and moderate background NH3 concentrations is not a key determinant of microbial community nor NH3 resilience.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.013
  • Potential use of methane fermentation digested slurry as a low-cost,
           environmentally-friendly nutrient for bioethanol production from crude
           glycerol by Klebsiella variicola TB-83D
    • Authors: Kohei Seta; Toshihiro Suzuki; Keiji Kiyoshi; Toshiya Shigeno; Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kohei Seta, Toshihiro Suzuki, Keiji Kiyoshi, Toshiya Shigeno, Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe
      A methane fermentation digested slurry (MFDS) was evaluated as a substitute for the commercial nutrient, yeast extract (YE), in ethanol production from glycerol by Klebsiella variicola strain TB-83D. In pH-controlled fed-batch cultures, partial replacement of YE by MFDS did not reduce ethanol productivity significantly. However, non-sterilized MFDS had negative effects on glycerol fermentation by this strain. Although ethanol production decreased when YE was completely replaced by sterilized MFDS, the use of crude glycerol and sterilized MFDS achieved a yield of 14.6 g/L ethanol. This is the first study to report the use of MFDS as the sole nutrient for ethanol production from glycerol, which contributes to the development of a low-cost glycerol biorefinery derived from the biodiesel fuel industry.

      PubDate: 2018-03-08T02:44:51Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.014
  • Potential use of ricotta cheese whey for the production of lactobionic
           acid by Pseudomonas taetrolens strains
    • Authors: Stefania De Giorgi; Noura Raddadi; Angelo Fabbri; Tullia Gallina Toschi; Fabio Fava
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Stefania De Giorgi, Noura Raddadi, Angelo Fabbri, Tullia Gallina Toschi, Fabio Fava
      Lactobionic acid (LBA) is a fine chemical largely applied in the food, chemical, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industries. Here, its production from ricotta cheese whey (RCW), or scotta, the main by-product obtained from ricotta cheese production process and currently employed mainly for cattle feed, was evaluated. Among seven bacterial species tested, only two Pseudomonas taetrolens strains were selected after preliminary screening in shake-flasks. When autoclaved RCW was used, a lactobionic acid titer of 34.25 ± 2.86 g/l, with a conversion yield (defined as mol LBA/mol of consumed lactose %) of up to 85 ± 7.0%, was obtained after 48 h of batch fermentation in 3 L stirred tank bioreactor. This study is a preliminary investigation on the potential industrial use of scotta as a substrate for bacterial growth and lactobionic acid production that details the possible biotechnological valorization pathways and feasibility of the process.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.010
  • Non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins: Precision tools for studying
           protein-protein interactions in cancer
    • Authors: Heather L. Martin; Robert Bedford; Sophie J. Heseltine; Anna A. Tang; Katarzyna Z. Haza; Ajinkya Rao; Michael J. McPherson; Darren C. Tomlinson
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Heather L. Martin, Robert Bedford, Sophie J. Heseltine, Anna A. Tang, Katarzyna Z. Haza, Ajinkya Rao, Michael J. McPherson, Darren C. Tomlinson
      Cancer is frequently characterised by dysregulation of the cellular signalling processes that govern proliferation, survival and attachment. Understanding such dysregulation continues to present a challenge given the importance of protein-protein interactions in intracellular processes. Exploring this protein-protein interactome requires novel tools capable of discriminating between highly homologous proteins, individual domains and post-translational modifications. This review examines the potential of scaffold-based binding proteins to fulfil these requirements. It also explores protein-protein interactions in the context of intracellular signalling pathways and cancer, and demonstrates the uses of scaffold proteins as functional moderators, biosensors and imaging reagents. This review also highlights the timeliness and potential to develop international consortia to develop and validate highly specific “proteome” scaffold-based binding protein reagents with the ultimate aim of developing screening tools for studying the interactome.

      PubDate: 2018-02-26T01:13:15Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.008
  • Deciphering the growth pattern and phytohormonal content in Saskatoon
           berry (Amelanchier alnifolia) in response to in vitro cytokinin
    • Authors: Mack Moyo; Adeyemi O. Aremu; Lenka Plačková; Lucie Plíhalová; Aleš Pěnčík; Ondřej Novák; Jan Holub; Karel Doležal; Johannes Van Staden
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Mack Moyo, Adeyemi O. Aremu, Lenka Plačková, Lucie Plíhalová, Aleš Pěnčík, Ondřej Novák, Jan Holub, Karel Doležal, Johannes Van Staden
      Clonal propagation plays a critical integral role in the growth and success of a global multi-billion dollar horticulture industry through a constant supply of healthy stock plants. The supply chain depends on continuously improving the micropropagation process, thus, understanding the physiology of in vitro plants remains a core component. We evaluated the influence of exogenously applied cytokinins (CKs, N 6-benzyladenine = BA, isopentenyladenine = iP, meta-topolin = mT, 6-(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-9-(tetrahydropyran-2-yl)purine = mTTHP) in Murashige and Skoog (MS)-supplemented media on organogenic response and accumulation of endogenous CK and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolites. The highest shoot proliferation (30 shoots/explant) was obtained with 20 μM mT treatment. However, the best quality regenerants were produced in 10 μM mT treatment. Rooting of Amelanchier alnifolia in vitro plantlets was observed at the lowest CK concentrations, with the highest root proliferation (3 roots/explant) in 1 μM mTTHP regenerants. Similar to the organogenic response, high levels of endogenous bioactive CK metabolites (free bases, ribosides, and nucleotides) were detected in mT and mTTHP-derived regenerants. The level of O-glucosides was also comparatively high in these cultures. All CK-treated plants had high levels of endogenous free IAA compared to the control. This may suggest an influence of CKs on biosynthesis of IAA.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.001
  • A SEP tag enhances the expression, solubility and yield of recombinant TEV
           protease without altering its activity
    • Authors: Kalpana Nautiyal; Yutaka Kuroda
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Kalpana Nautiyal, Yutaka Kuroda
      Tobacco Etch Virus (TEV) protease is used in the purification of recombinant proteins, but its use is often hampered by solubility issues. Here, we report a short, 12-residue solubility enhancing peptide (SEP) tag attached at the C-terminus of TEV (TEV-C9R). We assessed the effects of the C9R tag on the biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV. The yield of HPLC purified TEV-C9R expressed in E. coli grown in 200 mL LB or TB media was between 10 and 13 mg, which was up to 6.5 times higher than the yield of the untagged TEV. TEV-C9R was active over a pH range of 5–8, which was wider than that of the commonly used thrombin, and it remained active upon incubation at 60 °C much longer than the untagged TEV, which aggregated at this temperature. Static and dynamic light scattering demonstrated the higher solubility of purified TEV-C9R. Furthermore, the thermal unfolding of TEV-C9R, as assessed by circular dichroism at pH 4.7, was almost perfectly reversible, in contrast to that of untagged TEV, which aggregated at high temperature. These results demonstrate the improved biophysical and biochemical characteristics of TEV-C9R originating from higher solubility and provide another example of how SEP tags can enhance enzyme solubility without altering its activity.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.006
  • In-flow protein immobilization monitored by Magnetic Resonance Imaging
    • Authors: Daniel Grajales; Juan Carlos Mateos; Daniel Padro; Pedro Ramos-Cabrer; Fernando López-Gallego
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Daniel Grajales, Juan Carlos Mateos, Daniel Padro, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Fernando López-Gallego
      Protein immobilization is a key enabling technology for flow biocatalysis. For this purpose, many different immobilization protocols and characterization techniques have been developed in recent decades. However, examples where proteins are directly immobilized on ready-to-use reactors are scarce, likely due to the lack of analytical tools to monitor in-flow protein immobilization in a non-invasive manner. Here, we have for the first time exploited Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to characterize in-flow protein immobilization on pre-packed bed columns. This concept was demonstrated by in-flow immobilization of a green fluorescence protein. MRI analysis revealed that both the protein concentration of the flushed solution and flow rate play key roles in controlling the spatial organization of the protein across the packed-bed reactor. This analytical tool coupled to in-flow protein immobilization has been expanded to more industrially relevant enzymes, such as the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, achieving a ready-to-use reactor packed with a heterogeneous biocatalyst with high activity (up to 3000 U x g-1) and high stability (75% residual activity after 1 h incubation at 60 °C). Introducing new analytical tools during the fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts will contribute to make the process of immobilizing proteins on solid carriers more rational than currently is.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.003
  • Neuregulin 1 discovered as a cleavage target for the HCV NS3/4A protease
           by a microfluidic membrane protein array
    • Authors: Nika Schwartz; Michal Pellach; Yair Glick; Reuven Gil; Gahl Levy; Dorit Avrahami; Efrat Barbiro-Michaely; Yaakov Nahmias; Doron Gerber
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Nika Schwartz, Michal Pellach, Yair Glick, Reuven Gil, Gahl Levy, Dorit Avrahami, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Yaakov Nahmias, Doron Gerber
      The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is essential for HCV maturation. The NS3/4A protease is a target for several HCV treatments and is a well-known target for HCV drug discovery. The protein is membrane associated and thus probably interacts with other membrane proteins. However, the vast majority of known NS3 host partners are soluble proteins rather than membrane proteins, most likely due to lack of appropriate platforms for their discovery. Utilization of an integrated microfluidics platform enables analysis of membrane proteins in their native form. We screened over 2800 membrane proteins for interaction with NS3 and 90 previously unknown interactions were identified. Of these, several proteins were selected for validation by co-immunoprecipitation and for NS3 proteolytic activity. Bearing in mind the considerable number of interactions formed, together with the popularity of NS3/4A protease as a drug target, it was striking to note its lack of proteolytic activity. Only a single protein, Neuregulin1, was observed to be cleaved, adding to the 3 known NS3/4A cleavage targets. Neuregulin1 participates in neural proliferation. Recent studies have shown its involvement in HCV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. We showed that NS3/4A triggers an increase in neuregulin1 mRNA levels in HCV infected cells. Despite this increase, its protein concentration is decreased due to proteolytic cleavage. Additionally, its EGF-like domain levels were increased, possibly explaining the ErbB2 and EGFR upregulation in HCV infected cells. The newly discovered protein interactions may provide insights into HCV infection mechanisms and potentially provide new therapeutic targets against HCV.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.004
  • Easy-to-perform and cost-effective fabrication of continuous-flow reactors
           and their application for nanomaterials synthesis
    • Authors: Domenico Andrea Cristaldi; Fatih Yanar; Ali Mosayyebi; Pablo García-Manrique; Eugen Stulz; Dario Carugo; Xunli Zhang
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Domenico Andrea Cristaldi, Fatih Yanar, Ali Mosayyebi, Pablo García-Manrique, Eugen Stulz, Dario Carugo, Xunli Zhang
      The translation of continuous-flow microreactor technology to the industrial environment has been limited by cost and complexity of the fabrication procedures and the requirement for specialised infrastructure. In the present study, we have developed a significantly cost-effective and easy-to-perform fabrication method for the generation of optically transparent, continuous-flow reactors. The method combines 3D printing of master moulds with sealing of the PDMS channels’ replica using a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Morphological characterisation of the 3D printed moulds was performed and reactors were fabricated with an approximately square-shaped cross-section of 1 mm2. Notably, they were tested for operation over a wide range of volumetric flow rates, up to 20 ml/min. Moreover, the fabrication time (i.e., from design to the finished product) was <1 day, at an average material cost of ∼£5. The flow reactors have been applied to the production of both inorganic nanoparticles (silver nanospheres) and organic vesicular systems (liposomes), and their performance compared with reactors produced using more expensive and laborious fabrication methods Numerical simulations were performed to characterise the transport of fluids and chemical species within the devices. The developed fabrication method is suitable for scaled-up fabrication of continuous-flow reactors, with potential for application in biotechnology and nanomedicine.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.02.002
  • Lipase catalysed biodiesel synthesis with integrated glycerol separation
           in continuously operated microchips connected in series
    • Authors: Anita Šalić; Ana Jurinjak Tušek; Aleksandra Sander; Bruno Zelić
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Anita Šalić, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Aleksandra Sander, Bruno Zelić
      Although the application of microreactors in different processes has been extensively explored in recent decades, microreactors continue to be underexplored in the context of the enzyme-catalysed process for biodiesel production. Due to their numerous advantages, microreactors could become the next step in the development of a biodiesel production process characterised by sustainability, cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. In this investigation, biodiesel production was catalysed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipolase L100). Edible sunflower oil was used as a model substrate in order to investigate the process. After optimal process conditions had been determined, waste-cooking oil was used for biodiesel production to make the production process more sustainable. Three different substrate-feeding strategies were investigated and finally an optimal strategy was proposed. In all the investigated systems, fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) content was higher than 95% and obtained in a significantly shorter time (less than 2 h) compared to the batch process in which biodiesel production was catalysed by lipase (C = 95%, t = 96 h). After the optimal biodiesel production system had been proposed, an integrated system with two microchips connected in series was developed. The first microchip was used for biodiesel production and the second for simultaneous purification i.e. glycerol separation. Finally, purified biodiesel was produced with glycerol content below the detection limit.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.007
  • The antibody horror show: an introductory guide for the perplexed
    • Authors: Simon. L. Goodman
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Simon. L. Goodman
      The biological literature reverberates with the inadequacies of commercial research-tool antibodies. The scientific community spends some $2 billion per year on such reagents. Excellent accessible scientific platforms exist for reliably making, validating and using antibodies, yet the laboratory end-user reality is somehow depressing – because they often “don’t work”. This experience is due to a bizarre and variegated spectrum of causes including: inadequately identified antibodies; inappropriate user and supplier validation; poor user training; and overloaded publishers. Colourful as this may appear, the outcomes for the community are uniformly grim, including badly damaged scientific careers, wasted public funding, and contaminated literature. As antibodies are amongst the most important of everyday reagents in cell biology and biochemistry, I have tried here to gently suggest a few possible solutions, including: a move towards using recombinant antibodies; obligatory unique identification of antibodies, their immunogens, and their producers; centralized international banking of standard antibodies and their ligands; routine, accessible open-source documentation of user experience with antibodies; and antibody-user certification.

      PubDate: 2018-02-16T00:16:22Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.006
  • Laccase catalyzed elimination of morphine from aqueous systems
    • Authors: Daniela Huber; Klaus Bleymaier; Alessandro Pellis; Robert Vielnascher; Andreas Daxbacher; Katrin J. Greimel; Georg M. Guebitz
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Daniela Huber, Klaus Bleymaier, Alessandro Pellis, Robert Vielnascher, Andreas Daxbacher, Katrin J. Greimel, Georg M. Guebitz
      Pharmaceuticals contaminate the environment for several reasons, including metabolic excretion after intake, industrial waste and improper disposal. The narcotic drug morphine is commonly utilized for chronic pain management, and the distribution of morphine in aqueous systems and in waste waters is of high concern. Here. the removal of morphine by a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila both in its free form as well as immobilized on Accurel MP1000 beads was investigated. Complete morphine elimination was achieved within 30 min for the free and the immobilized enzyme (70% bound protein) for concentrations between 1 and 1,000 mg L−1 according to LC-TOF mass spectrometry analysis. Higher morphine concentrations up to 60 g L−1 were also tested and total elimination was achieved within 6 h. Therefore, laccases are ideal candidates for removing morphine from aqueous systems.

      PubDate: 2018-01-09T16:46:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.003
  • Production of polyhydroxybutyrates and carbohydrates in a mixed
           cyanobacterial culture: effect of nutrients limitation and photoperiods
    • Authors: Dulce María Arias; Enrica Uggetti; María Jesús García-Galán; Joan García
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology
      Author(s): Dulce María Arias, Enrica Uggetti, María Jesús García-Galán, Joan García
      In the present study, different photoperiods and nutritional conditions were applied to a mixed wastewater-borne cyanobacterial culture in order to enhance the intracellular accumulation of polyhydroxybutyrates (PHBs) and carbohydrates. Two different experimental set-ups were used. In the first, the culture was permanently exposed to illumination, while in the second it was submitted to light/dark alternation (12 h cycles). In both cases, two different nutritional regimes were also evaluated, N-limitation and P-limitation. Results showed that the highest PHB concentration (104 mg L−1) was achieved under P limited conditions and permanent illumination, whereas the highest carbohydrate concentration (838 mg L−1) was obtained under N limited condition and light/dark alternation. With regard to bioplastics and biofuel generation, this study demonstrates that the accumulation of PHBs (bioplastics) and carbohydrates (potential biofuel substrate) is favored in wastewater-borne cyanobacteria under conditions where nutrients are limited.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2018-01-05T13:38:25Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2018.01.001
  • Biosynthesis of selenium-nanoparticles and -nanorods as a product of
           selenite bioconversion by the aerobic bacterium Rhodococcus aetherivorans
    • Authors: Alessandro Presentato; Elena Piacenza; Max Anikovskiy; Martina Cappelletti; Davide Zannoni; Raymond J. Turner
      Pages: 1 - 8
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Alessandro Presentato, Elena Piacenza, Max Anikovskiy, Martina Cappelletti, Davide Zannoni, Raymond J. Turner
      The wide anthropogenic use of selenium compounds represents the major source of selenium pollution worldwide, causing environmental issues and health concerns. Microbe-based strategies for metal removal/recovery have received increasing interest thanks to the association of the microbial ability to detoxify toxic metal/metalloid polluted environments with the production of nanomaterials. This study investigates the tolerance and the bioconversion of selenite (SeO3 2−) by the aerobically grown Actinomycete Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 in association with its ability to produce selenium nanoparticles and nanorods (SeNPs and SeNRs). The BCP1 strain showed high tolerance towards SeO3 2− with a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 500mM. The bioconversion of SeO3 2− was evaluated considering two different physiological states of the BCP1 strain, i.e. unconditioned and/or conditioned cells, which correspond to cells exposed for the first time or after re-inoculation in fresh medium to either 0.5 or 2mM of Na2SeO3, respectively. SeO3 2− bioconversion was higher for conditioned grown cells compared to the unconditioned ones. Selenium nanostructures appeared polydisperse and not aggregated, as detected by electron microscopy, being embedded in an organic coating likely responsible for their stability, as suggested by the physical-chemical characterization. The production of smaller and/or larger SeNPs was influenced by the initial concentration of provided precursor, which resulted in the growth of longer and/or shorter SeNRs, respectively. The strong ability to tolerate high SeO3 2− concentrations coupled with SeNP and SeNR biosynthesis highlights promising new applications of Rhodococcus aetherivorans BCP1 as cell factory to produce stable Se-nanostructures, whose suitability might be exploited for biotechnology purposes.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.11.002
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Fungal feruloyl esterases: Functional validation of genome mining based
           enzyme discovery including uncharacterized subfamilies
    • Authors: Adiphol Dilokpimol; Miia R. Mäkelä; Simona Varriale; Miaomiao Zhou; Gabriella Cerullo; Loknath Gidijala; Harri Hinkka; Joana L.A. Brás; Peter Jütten; Alexander Piechot; Raymond Verhaert; Kristiina S. Hildén; Vincenza Faraco; Ronald P. de Vries
      Pages: 9 - 14
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Adiphol Dilokpimol, Miia R. Mäkelä, Simona Varriale, Miaomiao Zhou, Gabriella Cerullo, Loknath Gidijala, Harri Hinkka, Joana L.A. Brás, Peter Jütten, Alexander Piechot, Raymond Verhaert, Kristiina S. Hildén, Vincenza Faraco, Ronald P. de Vries
      Feruloyl esterases (FAEs) are a diverse group of enzymes that specifically catalyze the hydrolysis of ester bonds between a hydroxycinnamic (e.g. ferulic) acid and plant poly- or oligosaccharides. FAEs as auxiliary enzymes significantly assist xylanolytic and pectinolytic enzymes in gaining access to their site of action during biomass saccharification for biofuel and biochemical production. A limited number of FAEs have been functionally characterized compared to over 1000 putative fungal FAEs that were recently predicted by similarity-based genome mining, which divided phylogenetically into different subfamilies (SFs). In this study, 27 putative and six characterized FAEs from both ascomycete and basidiomycete fungi were selected and heterologously expressed in Pichia pastoris and the recombinant proteins biochemically characterized to validate the previous genome mining and phylogenetical grouping and to expand the information on activity of fungal FAEs. As a result, 20 enzymes were shown to possess FAE activity, being active towards pNP-ferulate and/or methyl hydroxycinnamate substrates, and covering 11 subfamilies. Most of the new FAEs showed activities comparable to those of previously characterized fungal FAEs.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.11.004
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Nutrient removal from hydroponic wastewater by a microbial consortium and
           a culture of Paracercomonas saepenatans
    • Authors: Ju Yeon Lee; Arifur Rahman; Juliana Behrens; Conor Brennan; Baknoon Ham; Hyung Seok Kim; Chu Won Nho; Seong-Taek Yun; Hossain Azam; Man Jae Kwon
      Pages: 15 - 24
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Ju Yeon Lee, Arifur Rahman, Juliana Behrens, Conor Brennan, Baknoon Ham, Hyung Seok Kim, Chu Won Nho, Seong-Taek Yun, Hossain Azam, Man Jae Kwon
      The potential of microbial processes for removal of major nutrients (e.g., N, P) and inorganic cations (e.g., Ca2+, Mg2+, and Fe2+) from hydroponic systems was investigated. Microbial consortium- and axenic culture-based experiments were conducted in a waste nutrient solution (WNS). A microbial consortium grown in the WNS and selected microalgae species of Paracercomonas saepenatans were inoculated in two different synthetic media (Bold’s Basal Medium (BBM) and synthetic WNS) in batch systems, and the microbial growth characteristics and the rate and extent of nutrient removal were determined for each system. No toxicity or growth inhibition was observed during microbial growth in either media. Both the waste-nutrient-grown microbial consortium and Paracercomonas saepenatans can be grown effectively in BBM and WNS, and both remove most ions from both media (e.g.,>99% removal of NO3 − and 41–100% removal of PO4 3−) within 16days. Significant nutrient removal was observed during the growth phase of the microbial communities (4–10days period), indicating major nutrient utilization for microbial growth as well as chemical mineral precipitation. Furthermore, MINEQL+4.6 modeling showed higher PO4 3− removal in WNS during microbial growth (compared to BBM) due to precipitation of phosphate minerals (e.g., hydroxyapatite, vivianite). The dominant microbial species in both systems were also identified. DNA sequencing showed that Vorticella (58%) and Scenedesmus (33%) in WNS and Scenedesmus (89%) in BBM were the predominant species. This study demonstrates the potential application of microbial consortium (predominantly algae and protozoan)-based treatment techniques for hydroponic systems.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.11.003
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Soy flour as an alternative to purified lipoxygenase for the enzymatic
           synthesis of resolvin analogues
    • Authors: Hoang-Anh T. Tu; Eleanor P. Dobson; Luke C. Henderson; Colin J. Barrow; Jacqui L. Adcock
      Pages: 25 - 33
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Hoang-Anh T. Tu, Eleanor P. Dobson, Luke C. Henderson, Colin J. Barrow, Jacqui L. Adcock
      Specialized pro-resolving mediators are lipid signaling molecules synthesized from omega-3 and -6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, which promote the resolution of the inflammatory response. They are potential drug targets for the treatment of numerous conditions linked with uncontrolled inflammation. Many of these mediators can be effectively synthesized using enzymes, such as lipoxygenases. However, these enzymes are expensive to purchase and can be difficult to isolate. In this work, we show that commercial soy flour can be used directly as a source of lipoxygenase for the biosynthesis of specialized pro-resolving mediators from DHA and other biologically important fatty acids. The reaction was optimized and the products characterized. We found that the reaction yield and products were comparable to those synthesized using a commercial 15-lipoxygenase preparation.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.11.005
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Substrate specificity and transfucosylation activity of GH29
           α-l-fucosidases for enzymatic production of human milk oligosaccharides
    • Authors: Birgitte Zeuner; Jan Muschiol; Jesper Holck; Mateusz Lezyk; Mattias Raae Gedde; Carsten Jers; Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen; Anne S. Meyer
      Pages: 34 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Birgitte Zeuner, Jan Muschiol, Jesper Holck, Mateusz Lezyk, Mattias Raae Gedde, Carsten Jers, Jørn Dalgaard Mikkelsen, Anne S. Meyer
      Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a unique family of bioactive lactose-based molecules present in human breast milk. HMOs are of major importance for infant health and development but also virtually absent from bovine milk used for infant formula. Among the HMOs, the fucosylated species are the most abundant. Transfucosylation catalysed by retaining α-l-fucosidases is a new route for manufacturing biomimetic HMOs. Seven α-l-fucosidases from glycosyl hydrolase family 29 were expressed, characterized in terms of substrate specificity and thermal stability, and shown to be able to catalyse transfucosylation. The α-l-1,3/4-fucosidase CpAfc2 from Clostridium perfringens efficiently catalysed the formation of the more complex human milk oligosaccharide structure lacto-N-fucopentaose II (LNFP II) using 3-fucosyllactose as fucosyl donor and lacto-N-tetraose as acceptor with a 39% yield. α-l-Fucosidases FgFCO1 from Fusarium graminearum and Mfuc5 from a soil metagenome were able to catalyse transfucosylation of lactose using citrus xyloglucan as fucosyl donor. FgFCO1 catalysed formation of 2′-fucosyllactose, whereas Mfuc5 catalysis mainly produced an unidentified, non-HMO fucosyllactose, reaching molar yields based on the donor substrate of 14% and 18%, respectively.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.12.002
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Identification of an industrial microalgal strain for starch production in
           biorefinery context: The effect of nitrogen and carbon concentration on
           starch accumulation
    • Authors: Imma Gifuni; Giuseppe Olivieri; Antonino Pollio; Antonio Marzocchella
      Pages: 46 - 54
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Imma Gifuni, Giuseppe Olivieri, Antonino Pollio, Antonio Marzocchella
      The recent trends in microalgal cultures are focused on the biorefinery of the biomass components. Some of them are not completely valorised, for example starch. Since there is a wide market for starch products in food and non-food industries, the exploitation of microalgal starch fractions could improve the economic sustainability of microalgae production. In this perspective, the optimization of nitrogen and carbon source uptake for starch accumulation is a critical point for reducing the nitrogen requirement footprint and to increase CO2 capture. In this study, four robust microalgal strains, already known as starch-accumulating strain, were investigated: Chlorella sorokiniana, Scenedesmus vacuolatus, Dunaliella tertiolecta, and Tetraselmis chuii. C. sorokiniana was selected as the best starch producer in the biorefinery context, and the role nitrogen and CO2 concentration had on the starch production was investigated. For light irradiance of 300μmolm−2 s−1 the optimal nitrogen concentration for growth and starch accumulation resulted 32mgL−1. The CO2 concentration clearly does not influence the starch accumulation, but concentrations distant from 2% negatively influence microalgal growth, affecting the final starch productivity. The biomass composition during the batch growth of C. sorokiniana was also analysed in order to explicitly characterise the dynamic of starch accumulation during the different growth phases. Protein content decreased during N-depletion, carbohydrates were mainly produced during the early N-depletion, followed by the accumulation of lipids in the late depletion.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.12.003
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria under continuous substrate supply
    • Authors: Leonie Marang; Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht; Robbert Kleerebezem
      Pages: 55 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 March 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 41
      Author(s): Leonie Marang, Mark C.M. van Loosdrecht, Robbert Kleerebezem
      To enrich polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) producing microbial communities, generally, a feast-famine regime is applied. Here we investigated the impact of continuous substrate feeding on the enrichment of PHA-producing bacteria in two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs). In the first reactor, the substrate (acetate) was dosed continuously and Zoogloea sp. was enriched. The culture accumulated PHA upon exposure to excess carbon, but the PHA production rate and storage capacity (53 wt.%) were one-fifth of that observed for enrichment cultures in a standard, pulse-fed SBR dominated by the PHA producer Plasticicumulans acidivorans. In the second reactor, half the acetate was dosed at the beginning of the cycle and the other half continuously. Having a true feast phase, the enrichment of P. acidivorans was not impeded by the continuous supply of acetate and the culture accumulated 85 wt.% PHA. This shows that for the enrichment of bacteria with a superior PHA-producing capacity periodic substrate excess – a true feast phase – is essential, while periodic substrate absence – a true famine phase – is not.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.12.001
      Issue No: Vol. 41 (2017)
  • Preface to the special issue bioeconomy
    • Authors: Alfredo Aguilar; Roland Wohlgemuth; Tomasz Twardowski
      Pages: 1 - 4
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Alfredo Aguilar, Roland Wohlgemuth, Tomasz Twardowski
      The security of food, feed and energy supply, resource efficiency and the creation of sustainable economic value and jobs for a growing population represent interlinked global challenges demanding new approaches and paradigms. One of them is bioeconomy, which ranks very high on national and international agendas, strategies and blueprints. This special issue brings together a series of unique contributions by some of the leading experts on bioeconomy with a special focus on biotechnology as the pillar of bioeconomy. The articles cover different aspects and are structured into sections on global perspectives, regional dimensions, examples of national initiatives, examples of regional and local case studies, transnational clusters and technology platforms, intellectual property rights, bio-industry associations and new scientific and technological trends in bioeconomy. A final article discussing perspectives on bioeconomy concludes this series of publications. We hope that readers will enjoy the first comprehensive insight into bioeconomy at the global level.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.008
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Biotechnology and the bioeconomy—Towards inclusive and sustainable
           industrial development
    • Authors: Yvonne Lokko; Marc Heijde; Karl Schebesta; Philippe Scholtès; Marc Van Montagu; Mauro Giacca
      Pages: 5 - 10
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Yvonne Lokko, Marc Heijde, Karl Schebesta, Philippe Scholtès, Marc Van Montagu, Mauro Giacca
      To transform developing and least developing countries into industrialised ones, biotechnology could be deployed along the value chain, to provide support to the development of the bio-based industries in such a way to ensure sustainability of the sector and to reduce negative environmental impacts that might otherwise occur. In agribusiness development, for instance, interventions could start from inputs and agricultural mechanization, modern processing technologies, packaging of perishable products, the promotion of food safety in the processing and regulatory environment; and interventions to improve competitiveness and productivity. Worth over USD 300 billion in revenue, the role of the biotechnology goes beyond industrial growth, since it provides opportunities for progress towards many of the UN sustainable development goals (SDGs). This paper reviews the status of industrial biotechnology as it relates to inclusive and sustainable industrial development.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • EU ambition to build the world’s leading bioeconomy—Uncertain times
           demand innovative and sustainable solutions
    • Authors: John Bell; Lino Paula; Thomas Dodd; Szilvia Németh; Christina Nanou; Voula Mega; Paula Campos
      Pages: 25 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): John Bell, Lino Paula, Thomas Dodd, Szilvia Németh, Christina Nanou, Voula Mega, Paula Campos
      This article outlines the current context and the development of the European Bioeconomy Strategy. It analyses the current situation, challenges and needs for EU action and concludes with the next steps that the European Commission will undertake to review and update the Bioeconomy Strategy. Bioeconomy offers great opportunities to realising a competitive, circular and sustainable economy with a sound industrial base that is less dependent on fossil carbon. A sustainable bioeconomy also contributes to climate change mitigation, with oceans, forests and soils being major carbon sinks and fostering negative CO2 emissions. The EU has invested significantly in research and innovation in this field and the European Commission is committed to lead on European bioeconomy strategy.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.010
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Bioeconomy in Latin America
    • Authors: Albert Sasson; Carlos Malpica
      Pages: 40 - 45
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Albert Sasson, Carlos Malpica
      This article provides the authors’ view on how Latin America has embraced bioeconomy principles in the last two decades with different levels of socio-economic impact. Examples of biodiversity resource valorization in medicine, eco-intensification of agriculture, biotechnology applications in mature sectors such as mining, food and beverage production, bio-refineries and ecosystem services are provided. The importance of participatory and social innovation initiatives is highlighted.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.07.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Bioindustry in China: An overview and perspective
    • Authors: Ruiyan Wang; Qin Cao; Qiuwei Zhao; Yin Li
      Pages: 46 - 51
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Ruiyan Wang, Qin Cao, Qiuwei Zhao, Yin Li
      With its vast population of over 1.4 billion, China is predicted soon to become the biggest single-country market in the world. The large population offers not only immense economic opportunity but also poses serious challenges related to resource depletion, pollution, and environmental degradation. To solve these burgeoning problems, biotechnology appears to be particularly well-positioned, since the Chinese government and large Chinese companies provide strong support towards the development of this field in terms both of policy and finance. Moreover, active research and commercial applications have led to rapid development of the Chinese bioindustry and bioeconomy. Chinese bioindustry is considered to be at the forefront of those of the developing and emerging countries and has added value to the country’s economy and society. This study summarizes the development and current status of Chinese bioindustry, from research and development to recent market trends. It thus can be considered as a quick-glance resource for the various stakeholders in the biotechnology sector.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.08.002
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • The biotechnology and bioeconomy landscape in Malaysia
    • Authors: Mahaletchumy Arujanan; Muthu Singaram
      Pages: 52 - 59
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Mahaletchumy Arujanan, Muthu Singaram
      Since 1990s Malaysia aspired to make biotechnology and bioeconomy as her engines of economic growth to utlise the abundance of natural resources and biodiversity. The public sector plays an integral role in developing the sector and various incentives are in place for the private sector to be actively involved and to forge collaboration with the public sector. The country launched its National Biotechnology Policy in 2005 and later launched its National Bioeconomy Programme in 2010 to become the first country in South East Asia and second in Asia after China to have such an initiative. Malaysia is also very proactive in its biosafety law and regulations and has most of the related legal instrument in place. A lot of success has been recorded since the inception of the National Biotechnology Policy in terms of job creation, contribution to GDP through biobusinesses and investment from foreign companies, but the sector is not spared from challenges too. Due to the nature of the discipline that is multidisciplinary and that requires huge amount of investment, expertise and political will, there are a lot of barriers before the country emerges as a bioeconomy player. This paper discusses the public policies, initiatives and funding mechanisms in place in Malaysia that drive its research, development and commercialisation in the area of biotechnology and bioeconomy. The authors also discuss the challenges faced in Malaysia in implementing the policies.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.004
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Waste derived bioeconomy in India: A perspective
    • Authors: Venkata Mohan S.; Chiranjeevi P.; Shikha Dahiya; Naresh Kumar A.
      Pages: 60 - 69
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part A
      Author(s): Venkata Mohan S., Chiranjeevi P., Shikha Dahiya, Naresh Kumar A.
      Environmental and climatic change issues, population explosion, rapid urbanisation, depletion of fossil reserves, need for energy security, huge waste generation, etc. are some of the inherent issues associated with the fossil based linear economy which need greater attention. In this context, the world is gradually transforming from fossil-based economy to a sustainable circular bio-economy. The biogenic waste which is generated in enormous quanties in India can be considered as potential feedstock for structuring the bio-based economy. This communication depicts the need for developing waste derived bioeconomy in the Indian perspective. Waste is now being perceived as a resource with value and believed to supplement petroleum feedstock to a great extent if properly utilized. The necessity to introduce waste as the core element for the future economic models which also allows sustainable development is discussed. The review also establishes drivers for the bioeconomy and structures the waste derived bioeconomy in a sustainable format to address the futuristic needs, scope and opportunities envisaged in the business and economic realm. The enabling technologies/processes that can be applied for biogenic wastes valorisation are elaborated. Circularizing the economy in a waste biorefinery model for the production of biobased products including bioenergy is discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-11-18T15:24:13Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.06.006
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Editorial
    • Authors: Arturo Blázquez Navarro; Francesco Lescai
      First page: 185
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Arturo Blázquez Navarro, Francesco Lescai

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.11.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Fed-batch production of vanillin by Bacillus aryabhattai BA03
    • Authors: Alicia Paz; David Outeiriño; Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira; José Manuel Domínguez
      Pages: 186 - 191
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Alicia Paz, David Outeiriño, Ricardo Pinheiro de Souza Oliveira, José Manuel Domínguez
      Bacillus aryabhattai BA03, a strain isolated in our laboratory, has interesting properties related to the production of natural aromas and flavors. Specifically, we have found that it was able to produce vanillin from ferulic acid (FA). Furthermore, this strain produces high amounts of 4-vinylguaiacol in only 14h, this being the only intermediate metabolite observed in the process. FA is an inexpensive feedstock for the production of natural value-added compounds when extracted from lignocellulosic wastes. In this study, we optimized the operational conditions (temperature, pH and agitation), medium composition and bioconversion technology (batch or fed-batch) to produce vanillin. In a fed-batch process conducted with just one additional supplementation after 24h, the maximal concentration of vanillin (147.1±0.9mg/L) was observed after 216h (QV =0.681mg/Lh; YV/fFA =0.082mg/mg) after degrading 90.3% FA. In view of our data, we postulate that Bacillus aryabhattai BA03 carries out a decarboxylation of ferulic acid as a metabolic pathway.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.07.012
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • New insights into the impacts of elevated CO2, nitrogen, and temperature
           levels on the regulation of C and N metabolism in durum wheat using
           network analysis
    • Authors: Rubén Vicente; Rafael Martínez-Carrasco; Pilar Pérez; Rosa Morcuende
      Pages: 192 - 199
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Rubén Vicente, Rafael Martínez-Carrasco, Pilar Pérez, Rosa Morcuende
      The use of correlation networks and hierarchical cluster analysis provides a framework to organize and study the coordination of parameters such as genes, metabolites, proteins and physiological parameters. We have analyzed 142 traits from primary C and N metabolism, including biochemical and gene expression analyses, in a range of 32 different growth conditions (various [CO2] levels, temperatures, N supplies, growth stages and experimental methods). To test the integration of primary metabolism, particularly under climate change, we investigated which C and N metabolic traits and transcript levels are correlated in durum wheat flag leaves using a correlation network and a hierarchical cluster analysis. There was a high amount of positive correlation between traits involved in a wide range of biological processes, suggesting a close and intricate coordination between C-N metabolisms at the biochemical and transcriptional levels. Transcript levels for genes related to N uptake and assimilation were especially coexpressed with genes belonging to the respiratory pathway, highlighting the coordination between the synthesis of organic N compounds and provision of energy and C skeletons. Also involved in this coordination were Rubisco and nitrate reductase activities, which play a key role in the regulation of plant metabolism. Carbohydrate accumulation was linked with a down-regulation of photosynthetic and N metabolism genes and nitrate reductase activity. Based on the degree of connectivity between nodes, network exploration facilitated the identification of some traits that may be biologically relevant during plant abiotic stress tolerance, as most of them are involved in limiting steps of plant metabolism.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.08.003
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Heterologous expression of phaC2 gene and poly-3-hydroxyalkanoate
           production by recombinant Cupriavidus necator strains using canola oil as
           carbon source
    • Authors: J. Valdés; G. Kutralam-Muniasamy; B. Vergara-Porras; R. Marsch; F. Pérez-Guevara; M.R. López-Cuellar
      Pages: 200 - 206
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): J. Valdés, G. Kutralam-Muniasamy, B. Vergara-Porras, R. Marsch, F. Pérez-Guevara, M.R. López-Cuellar
      Many heterologous transformation studies have been carried out using the Cupriavidus necator PHB−4 strain to investigate the expression characteristics of various polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase enzymes. In this study, we generated a recombinant C. necator PHB−4 strain by transforming a plasmid (pMRC03) harbouring the synthetic phaC2 gene of Pseudomonas putida CA-3. Under conditions favourable for expression of the phaC2 P.put CA-3 gene, canola oil was used as carbon source for the synthesis of PHAs. The expressed synthase polymerised monomers of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3-HB), 3-hydroxyvalerate (3-HV) and 3-hydroxyhexanoate (3-HHx) in the recombinant C. necator PHB−4 (pMRC03) strain. We then co-expressed the phaC2P.put CA-3 gene with the native gene in wild type Cupriavidus necator H16 (C. necator H16 (pMRC03)). This co-expression produced a PHA blend of 3-HB, 3-HV, 3-HHx and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (3-HO) monomers in the presence of canola oil. Gas chromatography analysis revealed the presence of 94mol% 3-HB, 1mol% 3-HV, 4mol% 3-HHx and 1mol% 3-HO in a tetra-polymer. Thus, we confirmed that a synthetic phaC2 gene encoding the synthase enzyme is functionally active with substrates ranging from short to medium chain length PHAs.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.08.001
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Functional redundancy ensures performance robustness in 3-stage
           PHA-producing mixed cultures under variable feed operation
    • Authors: Gilda Carvalho; Inês Pedras; Soren M. Karst; Catarina S.S. Oliveira; Anouk F. Duque; Per H. Nielsen; Maria A.M. Reis
      Pages: 207 - 217
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Gilda Carvalho, Inês Pedras, Soren M. Karst, Catarina S.S. Oliveira, Anouk F. Duque, Per H. Nielsen, Maria A.M. Reis
      Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) are biopolymers that can be produced by mixed microbial cultures using wastes or industrial by-products, which represent an economical and environmental advantage over pure culture processes. The use of alternate feedstocks enables using seasonal by-products, providing that the process is resilient to transient conditions. The mixed microbial communities of a 3-stage PHA producing system fed initially with molasses and then cheese whey were investigated through amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. The transition in feedstock resulted in an adaptation of the acidogenic community, where Actinobacteria dominated with sugarcane molasses (up to 93% of the operational taxonomic units) and Firmicutes, with cheese whey (up to 97%). The resulting fermentation products profile also changed, with a higher fraction of HV precursors obtained with molasses than cheese whey (7.1±0.5 and 1.7±0.7 gCOD/L, respectively). As for the PHA storing culture, the genera Azoarcus, Thauera and Paracoccus were enriched with fermented molasses (average 89% of Bacteria). Later, fermented cheese whey fostered a higher diversity, including some less characterised PHA-storers such as the genera Paenibacillus and Lysinibacillus. Although the microbial community structure was significantly affected by the feedstock shift, the acidogenic and PHA storing performance of the 3-stage system was very similar once a pseudo steady state was attained, showing that a reliable level of functional redundancy was attained in both mixed cultures.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.08.007
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Structural insights into β-glucosidase transglycosylation based on
           biochemical, structural and computational analysis of two GH1 enzymes from
           Trichoderma harzianum
    • Authors: Renata N. Florindo; Valquiria P. Souza; Hemily S. Mutti; Cesar Camilo; Lívia Regina Manzine; Sandro R. Marana; Igor Polikarpov; Alessandro S. Nascimento
      Pages: 218 - 227
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Renata N. Florindo, Valquiria P. Souza, Hemily S. Mutti, Cesar Camilo, Lívia Regina Manzine, Sandro R. Marana, Igor Polikarpov, Alessandro S. Nascimento
      β-glucosidases are glycoside hydrolases able to cleave small and soluble substrates, thus producing monosaccharides. These enzymes are distributed among families GH1, GH2, GH3, GH5, GH9, GH30 and GH116, with GH1 and GH3 being the most relevant families with characterized enzymes to date. A recent transcriptomic analysis of the fungus Trichoderma harzianum, known for its increased β-glucosidase activity as compared to Trichoderma reesei, revealed two enzymes from family GH1 with high expression levels. Here we report the cloning, recombinant expression, purification and crystallization of these enzymes, ThBgl1 and ThBgl2. A close inspection of the enzymatic activity of these enzymes surprisingly revealed a marked difference between them despite the sequence similarity (53%). ThBgl1 has an increased tendency to catalyze transglycosylation reaction while ThBgl2 acts more as a hydrolyzing enzyme. Detailed comparison of their crystal structures and the analysis of the molecular dynamics simulations reveal the presence of an asparagine residue N186 in ThBgl2, which is replaced by the phenylalanine F180 in ThBgl1. This single amino acid substitution seems to be sufficient to create a polar environment that culminates with an increased availability of water molecules in ThBgl2 as compared to ThBgl1, thus conferring stronger hydrolyzing character to the former enzyme.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.08.012
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Effect of Ca2+ concentration on Scenedesmus sp. growth in heterotrophic
           and photoautotrophic cultivation
    • Authors: Fabrizio Di Caprio; Pietro Altimari; Francesca Pagnanelli
      Pages: 228 - 235
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Fabrizio Di Caprio, Pietro Altimari, Francesca Pagnanelli
      The influence of Ca2+ concentration on the growth of the microalga Scenedesmus sp. in heterotrophic and photoautotrophic cultivations was investigated. Heterotrophic growth was induced by the addition of olive mill wastewaters (9% v·v−1) to the culture. Variations in the calcium concentration affected differently biomass production depending on whether microalgae were cultivated under heterotrophic or photoautotrophic regime. In photoautotrophic regime, increasing the calcium concentration from 20 to 230mg⋅L−1 decreased maximum cell concentration and growth rate. In heterotrophic cultivation, cell concentration and growth rate decreased with Ca2+ concentration increasing from 20 to 80mg⋅L−1 but then increased with Ca2+ concentration increasing to 230mg⋅L−1. Increasing calcium concentration invariably promoted cell aggregation. The precipitation of calcium phosphates can explain the decreasing growth rate and cell concentration attained with increasing calcium concentration, while the influence of Ca2+ concentration on the adsorption of phenols on suspended solids can explain the enhanced growth attained at large Ca2+ concentration under heterotrophic regime. Implications of the illustrated results for industrial scale application of microalgae are thoroughly discussed.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.09.003
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant properties of laccase-synthesized
           phenolic-O-carboxymethyl chitosan hydrogels
    • Authors: Daniela Huber; Adrianna Grzelak; Martina Baumann; Nicole Borth; Gerhard Schleining; Gibson S. Nyanhongo; Georg M. Guebitz
      Pages: 236 - 244
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Daniela Huber, Adrianna Grzelak, Martina Baumann, Nicole Borth, Gerhard Schleining, Gibson S. Nyanhongo, Georg M. Guebitz
      A bioactive O-carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) hydrogel crosslinked with natural phenolics with potential application in wound dressings was synthesized using a laccase from Myceliophthora thermophila (MTL). The highest degree of cross-linking (49.7%) was achieved with catechol. All the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels synthesized showed excellent anti-oxidant properties with a free radical scavenging activity up to 4-fold higher than in the absence of the phenolics, as quantified by the di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) assay. In addition, the hydrogels produced showed an anti-inflammatory effect as evidenced by the inhibition of enzymes [myeloperoxidase (MPO), matrix-metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and human neutrophil elastase (HNE)] over-expressed in chronic wounds. Sinapyl-CMCS hydrogels showed an MMP-1 inhibition of 37%. Further, the phenolic-CMCS hydrogels did not affect the viability of the NIH 3T3 mouse fibroblast cell line and were also able to slowly release human fibroblast growth factor 2, reaching 48.3% over a period of 28days. This study thus shows the possibility of synthesizing multifunctional bioactive chitosan based hydrogels with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties using natural occurring phenolics as crosslinkers.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.09.004
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • The E. coli S30 lysate proteome: A prototype for cell-free protein
    • Authors: Daniel Foshag; Erik Henrich; Ekkehard Hiller; Miriam Schäfer; Christian Kerger; Anke Burger-Kentischer; Irene Diaz-Moreno; Sofía M. García-Mauriño; Volker Dötsch; Steffen Rupp; Frank Bernhard
      Pages: 245 - 260
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Daniel Foshag, Erik Henrich, Ekkehard Hiller, Miriam Schäfer, Christian Kerger, Anke Burger-Kentischer, Irene Diaz-Moreno, Sofía M. García-Mauriño, Volker Dötsch, Steffen Rupp, Frank Bernhard
      Protein production using processed cell lysates is a core technology in synthetic biology and these systems are excellent to produce difficult toxins or membrane proteins. However, the composition of the central lysate of cell-free systems is still a “black box”. Escherichia coli lysates are most productive for cell-free expression, yielding several mgs of protein per ml of reaction. Their preparation implies proteome fractionation, resulting in strongly biased and yet unknown lysate compositions. Many metabolic pathways are expected to be truncated or completely removed. The lack of knowledge of basic cell-free lysate proteomes is a major bottleneck for directed lysate engineering approaches as well as for assay design using non-purified reaction mixtures. This study is starting to close this gap by providing a blueprint of the S30 lysate proteome derived from the commonly used E. coli strain A19. S30 lysates are frequently used for cell-free protein production and represent the basis of most commercial E. coli cell-free expression systems. A fraction of 821 proteins was identified as the core proteome in S30 lysates, representing approximately a quarter of the known E. coli proteome. Its classification into functional groups relevant for transcription/translation, folding, stability and metabolic processes will build the framework for tailored cell-free reactions. As an example, we show that SOS response induction during cultivation results in tuned S30 lysate with better folding capacity, and improved solubility and activity of synthesized proteins. The presented data and protocols can serve as a platform for the generation of customized cell-free systems and product analysis.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.09.005
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
  • Identification and characterization of a thermostable endolytic β-agarase
           Aga2 from a newly isolated marine agarolytic bacteria Cellulophaga
           omnivescoria W5C
    • Authors: Kristine Rose M. Ramos; Kris Niño G. Valdehuesa; Grace M. Nisola; Won-Keun Lee; Wook-Jin Chung
      Pages: 261 - 267
      Abstract: Publication date: 25 January 2018
      Source:New Biotechnology, Volume 40, Part B
      Author(s): Kristine Rose M. Ramos, Kris Niño G. Valdehuesa, Grace M. Nisola, Won-Keun Lee, Wook-Jin Chung
      Research on the enzymatic breakdown of seaweed-derived agar has recently gained attention due to the progress in green technologies for marine biomass utilization. The enzymes known as agarases catalyze the cleavage of glycosidic bonds within the polysaccharide. In this study, a new β-agarase, Aga2, was identified from Cellulophaga omnivescoria W5C. Aga2 is one of four putative agarases from the W5C genome, and it belongs to the glycoside hydrolase 16 family. It was shown to be exclusive to the Cellulophaga genus. Agarase activity assays showed that Aga2 is an endolytic-type β-agarase that produces tetrameric and hexameric neoagaro-oligosaccharides, with optimum activity at 45°C and pH 8.0. Zinc ions slightly enhanced its activity while manganese ions had inhibitory effects even at very low concentrations. Aga2 has a Km of 2.59mgmL−1 and Vmax of 275.48Umg−1. The Kcat is 1.73×102 s−1, while the Kcat/Km is 8.04×106 s−1 M−1. Aga2 also showed good thermostability at 45°C and above, and retained >90% of its activity after repeated freeze-thaw cycles. Bioinformatic analysis of its amino acid sequence revealed that intrinsic properties of the protein (e.g. presence of certain dipeptides and the relative volume occupied by aliphatic amino acids) and tertiary structural elements (e.g. presence of salt bridges, hydrophobic interactions and H-bonding) contributed to its thermostability.

      PubDate: 2017-12-18T11:04:04Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.nbt.2017.09.006
      Issue No: Vol. 40 (2017)
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