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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
New Biotechnology
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.967
Citation Impact (citeScore): 4
Number of Followers: 3  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1871-6784
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3161 journals]
  • Display of the peroxiredoxin Bcp1 of Sulfolobus solfataricus on probiotic
           spores of Bacillus megaterium
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Mariamichela Lanzilli, Giuliana Donadio, Francesca Anna Fusco, Carmen Sarcinelli, Danila Limauro, Ezio Ricca, Rachele Isticato Bacterial spores displaying heterologous proteins have been proposed as a safe and efficient method for delivery of antigens and enzymes to animal mucosal surfaces. Initial studies have been performed using Bacillus subtilis spores, but other spore forming organisms have also been considered. B. megaterium spores have been shown capable of displaying large amounts of a model heterologous protein (Discosoma red fluorescent protein mRFP) that in part crossed the exosporium to localize in the space between the outer coat layer and the exosporium. Here, B. megaterium spores have been used to adsorb Bcp1 (bacterioferritin comigratory protein 1), a peroxiredoxin of the archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, known to have an antioxidant activity. The spores were highly efficient in adsorbing the heterologous enzyme which, once adsorbed, retained its activity. The adsorbed Bcp1 localized beneath the exosporium, filling the space between the outer coat and the exosporium. This unusual localization contributed to the stability of the enzyme-spore interaction and to the protection of the adsorbed enzyme in simulated intestinal or gastric conditions.
       
  • Impact of the treatment of NH3 emissions from pig farms on greenhouse gas
           emissions. Quantitative assessment from the literature data
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Éric Dumont In order to limit ammonia (NH3) emissions from pig farms, various air cleaning solutions are widely applied. However, the literature data report that these systems (chemical scrubbers, bioscrubbers and biofilters) can be both inefficient and promote nitrous oxide (N2O) production. As air cleaning technologies should not contribute to secondary trace gases that may have a stronger environmental impact than the raw gas compounds themselves, the objective of this study was to quantify the effect of NH3 treatment in pig farms on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHGs (carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide) emitted at the outlet of three different cleaning systems (“chemical scrubber”, “bioscrubber” and “bioscrubber + denitrification step”) were assessed and compared with the emissions generated by the exhaust air with “no treatment”. The calculations show that the chemical scrubber has no effect whereas biological treatments can increase GHG emissions. The use of bioscrubbers alone for NH3 removal can remain acceptable provided that less than 3% of the NH3 entering the apparatus is converted into N2O. In such cases, a maximum increase of 1.9% in GHG emissions could be obtained. Conversely, the addition of a denitrification step to a bioscrubber must be avoided. Increases in overall GHG emissions of up to 25.8% were calculated but more significant increases could occur. With regard to GHG emissions, it is concluded that the use of a chemical scrubber is more suitable than a bioscrubber to treat exhaust air from pig farms.
       
  • Rapid purification of billions of circulating CD19+ B cells directly from
           leukophoresis samples
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Fortunato Ferrara, Martin Kolnik, Sara D’Angelo, Frank M. Erasmus, Daniela Vorholt, Andrew R.M. Bradbury The study of the biology and function of B cells, or the dissection and in vitro creation of enormous recombinant antibody repertoires, requires the isolation of large numbers of pure CD19+ B cells. The StraightFrom® Leukopak CD19 MicroBead Kit was recently introduced as a fast and robust kit to isolate human CD19+ B cells. This uses paramagnetic microbeads conjugated to high-affinity anti-CD19 monoclonal antibodies to bind B cells in leukapheresis (Leukopak) samples. The overall purity of the isolated cells, together with the characterization of the different CD19+ subclasses, was assessed by flow cytometry using a recombinant (REAffinity) antibody panel, revealing that the method allowed the recovery of over 93% of CD19+ B cells without any pre-purification step. This enables the relatively straightforward purification of all the circulating CD19+ B cells in a single donor.
       
  • Enhanced production and immunological characterization of recombinant West
           Nile virus envelope domain III protein
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Nagesh K. Tripathi, Divyanshi Karothia, Ambuj Shrivastava, Swati Banger, Jyoti S. Kumar West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus which is responsible for severe and fatal encephalitis in humans and for which there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic available to prevent infection. The envelope domain III protein (EDIII) of WNV was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step chromatography process which included immobilized metal affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. E. coli cells were grown in a bioreactor to high density using batch and fed-batch cultivation. Wet biomass obtained after batch and fed-batch cultivation processes was 11.2 g and 84 g/L of culture respectively. Protein yield after affinity purification was 5.76 mg and 5.81 mg/g wet cell weight after batch and fed-batch processes respectively. The purified WNV EDIII elicited specific antibodies in rabbits, confirming its immunogenicity. Moreover, the antibodies were able to neutralize WNV in vitro. These results established that the refolded and purified WNV EDIII could be a potential vaccine candidate.
       
  • Saccharification efficiencies of multi-enzyme complexes produced by
           aerobic fungi
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Ajay Badhan, Jiangli Huang, Yuxi Wang, D. Wade Abbott, Marcos Di Falco, Adrian Tsang, Tim McAllister In the present study, we have characterized high molecular weight multi-enzyme complexes in two commercial enzymes produced by Trichoderma reesei (Spezyme CP) and Penicillium funiculosum (Accellerase XC). We successfully identified 146–1000 kDa complexes using Blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) to fractionate the protein profile in both preparations. Identified complexes dissociated into lower molecular weight constituents when loaded on SDS PAGE. Unfolding of the secondary structure of multi-enzyme complexes with trimethylamine (pH>10) suggested that they were not a result of unspecific protein aggregation. Cellulase (CMCase) profiles of extracts of BN-PAGE fractionated protein bands confirmed cellulase activity within the multi-enzyme complexes. A microassay was used to identify protein bands that promoted high levels of glucose release from barley straw. Those with high saccharification yield were subjected to LC–MS analysis to identify the principal enzymatic activities responsible. The results suggest that secretion of proteins by aerobic fungi leads to the formation of high molecular weight multi-enzyme complexes that display activity against carboxymethyl cellulose and barley straw.
       
  • Development of a simple intensified fermentation strategy for growth of
           Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1: Physiological responses to
           changing environmental conditions
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 November 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 46Author(s): Alfred Fernández-Castané, Hong Li, Owen R.T. Thomas, Tim W. Overton The development of a simple pH-stat fed-batch fermentation strategy for the production of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 and magnetosomes (nanoscale magnetic organelles with biotechnological applications) is described. Flow cytometry was exploited as a powerful analytical tool for process development, enabling rapid monitoring of cell morphology, physiology and polyhydroxyalkanoate production. The pH-stat fed-batch growth strategy was developed by varying the concentrations of the carbon source (lactic acid) and the alternative electron acceptor (sodium nitrate) in the feed. Growth conditions were optimized on the basis of biomass concentration, cellular magnetism (indicative of magnetosome production), and intracellular iron concentration. The highest biomass concentration and cellular iron content achieved were an optical density at 565 nm of 15.5 (equivalent to 4.2 g DCW·L−1) and 33.1 mg iron·g−1 DCW, respectively. This study demonstrates the importance of analyzing bacterial physiology during fermentation development and will potentially aid the industrial production of magnetosomes, which can be used in a wide range of biotechnology and healthcare applications.
       
  • Nanoreactors: Strategies to encapsulate enzyme biocatalysts in virus-like
           particles
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Joshua W. Wilkerson, Seung-Ook Yang, Parker J. Funk, Steven K. Stanley, Bradley C. Bundy Enzyme-mediated biocatalysis is generally more selective and environmentally friendly and requires less energy than chemocatalysis. However, factors such as temperature, acidity and the presence of proteases can negate enzyme activity. Encapsulation in virus-like particles is one promising method to mitigate these difficulties. Encapsulation also can be used to create multi-reaction nanoreactors that increase process efficiency by isolating reaction intermediates. To successfully encapsulate enzymes, a variety of methods involving both non-covalent and covalent interactions have been developed. Here we review promising virus-like particle encapsulation strategies, their advantages and remaining challenges.
       
  • Cleavage of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) rubber as solid substrate by cultures
           of Gordonia polyisoprenivorans
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): R. Andler, S. Hiessl, O. Yücel, M. Tesch, A. Steinbüchel Potential biotechnological recycling processes for rubber products include the bacterial degradation of poly(cis-1,4-isoprene) (IR) in order to achieve its total biodegradation or its biotransformation into useful products. The actinomycete Gordonia polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 catalyzes the degradation of IR and enables its use as a sole carbon source via β-oxidation. The initial cleavage reaction is catalyzed by the extracellular latex clearing protein (Lcp). This dioxygenase is the key enzyme for the formation of oligo(cis-1,4-isoprene) molecules with different lengths, i.e., numbers of isoprene units. For the first time, IR was used as a solid substrate in 2-l fermenters. Two different particle size fractions (63–500 and 500–1000 μm) and three stirring rates (300, 400 and 500 rpm) were evaluated in the process. An increase of the cell concentration was achieved by using smaller particles and by using lower stirring rates, reaching a final biomass concentration of 0.52 g l−1 at 300 rpm after 12 days of cultivation. In order to enhance the formation of oligo(cis-1,4-isoprene) molecules, a transposon insertion mutant (TH5) of G. polyisoprenivorans strain VH2 that has lost the ability to transport the partial degradation products into the cells was used, thereby allowing the accumulation of the degradation products in the culture supernatants. Propionate, glucose and glycerol were evaluated as additional carbon sources besides IR, and the highest yields were observed on propionate. In 2-l bioreactors with pH control, different feeding regimes were performed during cultivation by the addition of propionate every 24 or 48 h for 16 days. After liquid-liquid extraction and a derivatization with Girard’s T reagent, the oligo(cis-1,4-isoprene) molecules were detected by ESI-MS. The mass distribution of the degradation products was affected by the selection of the extraction solvent, but no influence of longer cultivation periods was detected.
       
  • Core element characterization of Rhodococcus promoters and development of
           a promoter-RBS mini-pool with different activity levels for efficient gene
           expression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Song Jiao, Huimin Yu, Zhongyao Shen To satisfy the urgent demand for promoter engineering that can accurately regulate the metabolic circuits and expression of specific genes in the Rhodococcus microbial platform, a promoter-ribosome binding site (RBS) coupled mini-pool with fine-tuning of different activity levels was successfully established. Transcriptome analyses of R. ruber TH revealed several representative promoters with different activity levels, e.g., Pami, Pcs, Pnh, P50sl36, PcbiM, PgroE and Pniami. β-Galactosidase (LacZ) reporter measurement demonstrated that different gene expression levels could be obtained with these natural promoters combined with an optimal RBS of ami. Further use of these promoters to overexpress the nitrile hydratase (NHase) gene with RBSami in R. ruber THdAdN produced different expression levels consistent with the transcription analyses. The −35 and −10 core elements of different promoters were further analyzed, and the conserved sequences were revealed to be TTGNNN and (T/C)GNNA(A/C)AAT. By mutating the core elements of the strong promoters, Pnh and Pami, into the above consensus sequence, two even stronger promoters, PnhM and PamiM, were obtained with 2.2-fold and 7.7-fold improvements in transcription, respectively. Integrating several strategies, including transcriptome promoter screening, −35 and −10 core element identification, core element point-mutation, RBS optimization and diverse reporter verification, a fine-tuning promoter-RBS combination mini-pool with different activity levels in Rhodococcus strains was successfully established. This development is significant for broad applications of the Rhodococcus genus as a microbial platform.
       
  • Quality and cost assessment of a recombinant antibody fragment produced
           from mammalian, yeast and prokaryotic host cells: A case study prior to
           pharmaceutical development
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Kristell Lebozec, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Gilles Avenard, Olivier Favre-Bulle, Philippe Billiald Monoclonal antibody fragments (Fab) are a promising class of therapeutic agents. Fabs are aglycosylated proteins and so many expression platforms have been developed including prokaryotic, yeast and mammalian cells. However, these platforms are not equivalent in terms of cell line development and culture time, product quality and possibly cost of production that greatly influence the success of a drug candidate’s pharmaceutical development. This study is an assessment of the humanized Fab fragment ACT017 produced from two microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris) and one mammalian cell host (CHO). Following low scale production and Protein L-affinity purification under generic conditions, physico-chemical and functional quality assessments were carried out prior to economic analysis of industrial scale production using a specialized software (Biosolve, Biopharm Services, UK). Results show higher titer production when using E. coli but associated with high heterogeneity of the protein content recovered in the supernatant. We also observed glycoforms of the Fab produced from P. pastoris, while Fab secreted from CHO was the most homogeneous despite a much longer culture time and slightly higher estimated cost of goods. This study may help inform future pharmaceutical development of this class of therapeutic proteins.
       
  • Relationship between microbial community, operational factors and ammonia
           inhibition resilience in anaerobic digesters at low and moderate ammonia
           background concentrations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Y. Lu, R. Liaquat, S. Astals, P.D. Jensen, D.J. Batstone, S. Tait The relationship between anaerobic digestion operational conditions and (i) microbial community, (ii) acetoclastic methanogenic activity and (iii) free ammonia (NH3) inhibition resilience was investigated. Thirteen inocula were obtained from full and pilot scale digesters fed with different substrates, digester configurations, operating temperatures and NH3 concentrations (0.1–241 mgN·L−1). Substrate type and temperature were the primary factors influencing microbial community composition. Methanogenic activity ranged from 0.04 to 0.14 gCOD-CH4·g−1VS·day−1, and was significantly correlated with archaeal relative abundance and archaeal community PC2. The variability of NH3 resilience among inocula was moderate, with inhibition threshold values (KI50) ranging between 32 and 175 mgNH3-N·L−1. No microbial or operational factors correlated with NH3 resilience. However, the slopes of inhibition threshold curves were influenced by some environmental factors, namely substrate type, digester temperature and NH3 concentration. Overall, these results indicate that low and moderate background NH3 concentrations is not a key determinant of microbial community nor NH3 resilience.
       
  • Improved continuous fumaric acid production with immobilised Rhizopus
           oryzae by implementation of a revised nitrogen control strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Andre Naude, Willie Nicol A novel fermentation system was employed whereby the mycelial mat of Rhizopus oryzae was attached to a polypropylene tube. Batch operation was used for growth, while continuous operation was employed during the fumaric acid production phase. A clear decrease in respiration, fumaric acid (FA) and ethanol production was observed when zero nitrogen was fed in the production phase, with FA productivity decreasing from an initial 0.7 g L−1 h−1 to 0.3 g L−1 h−1 after 150 h. With the addition of 0.625 mg L−1 h−1 of urea FA productivity dropped to only 0.4 g L−1 h−1 after 150 h and 0.3 g L−1 h−1 after 400 h. Under these conditions it was observed that the ethanol production rate decreased 20 times faster compared with the FA production rate, therefore resulting in high FA yields towards the end of the fermentation (instantaneous 0.96 g g−1 and average 0.81 g g−1 after 400 h). Increasing the urea feed rate to 1.875 mg L−1 h−1 resulted in a clear increase in FA production and respiration rates. This condition also resulted in a 25% increase in biomass after 150 h, while the decline in the ethanol production rate was seven times lower than in the 0.625 mg L−1 h−1 urea fermentation, resulting in lower FA yields.
       
  • Overexpression of acetyl-CoA carboxylase in Aspergillus terreus to
           increase lovastatin production
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Hanan Hasan, Muhammad Hafiz Abd Rahim, Leona Campbell, Dee Carter, Ali Abbas, Alejandro Montoya The present work describes the application of homologous recombination techniques in a wild-type Aspergillus terreus (ATCC 20542) strain to increase the flow of precursors towards the lovastatin biosynthesis pathway. A new strain was generated to overexpress acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) by replacing the native ACCase promoter with a strong constitutive PadhA promoter from Aspergillus nidulans. Glycerol and a mixture of lactose and glycerol were used independently as the carbon feedstock to determine the degree of response by the A. terreus strains towards the production of acetyl-CoA, and malonyl-CoA. The new strain increased the levels of malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA by 240% and 14%, respectively, compared to the wild-type strain. As a result, lovastatin production was increased by 40% and (+)-geodin was decreased by 31% using the new strain. This study shows for the first time that the metabolism of Aspergillus terreus can be manipulated to attain higher levels of precursors and valuable secondary metabolites.Graphical abstractAspergillus terreus has the ability to produce cholesterol-lowering drug, lovastatin but the yield is not fully maximize. A new engineered A. terreus strain was developed to overexpress acetyl-CoA carboxylase by inserting strong promoter PadhA (isolated from Aspergillus nidulans). When the engineered strain grew in a mixture of glycerol (low value feedstock) and lactose, the malonyl-CoA and acetyl-CoA (lovastatin precursors) levels were amplified and positively affect lovastatin production while suppressing unwanted lovastatin co-product, (+)-geodin.Graphical abstract for this article
       
  • Potential use of methane fermentation digested slurry as a low-cost,
           environmentally-friendly nutrient for bioethanol production from crude
           glycerol by Klebsiella variicola TB-83D
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Kohei Seta, Toshihiro Suzuki, Keiji Kiyoshi, Toshiya Shigeno, Toshiaki Nakajima-Kambe A methane fermentation digested slurry (MFDS) was evaluated as a substitute for the commercial nutrient, yeast extract (YE), in ethanol production from glycerol by Klebsiella variicola strain TB-83D. In pH-controlled fed-batch cultures, partial replacement of YE by MFDS did not reduce ethanol productivity significantly. However, non-sterilized MFDS had negative effects on glycerol fermentation by this strain. Although ethanol production decreased when YE was completely replaced by sterilized MFDS, the use of crude glycerol and sterilized MFDS achieved a yield of 14.6 g/L ethanol. This is the first study to report the use of MFDS as the sole nutrient for ethanol production from glycerol, which contributes to the development of a low-cost glycerol biorefinery derived from the biodiesel fuel industry.
       
  • Preparation of a robust immobilized biocatalyst of β-1,4-endoxylanase by
           surface coating with polymers for production of xylooligosaccharides from
           different xylan sources
    • Abstract: Publication date: 25 September 2018Source: New Biotechnology, Volume 44Author(s): Maria Romero-Fernández, Sonia Moreno-Perez, Sandro Martins de Oliveira, Ramón I. Santamaría, Jose M. Guisan, Javier Rocha-Martin Xylooligosaccharides display interesting prebiotic effects on human health. The endoxylanase Xys1Δ, from Streptomyces halstedii JM8, was immobilized and stabilized on glyoxyl-agarose beads by multipoint covalent attachment using a novel strategy based on surface coating with a multilayer of polymers. The optimal modification consisted of surface coating with a bilayer formed by a layer of derived dextran polymers and a layer of polyethylenimine. The optimized biocatalyst was 550-fold more stable than one-point covalent immobilized Xys1Δ (at 70 °C, pH 7). This biocatalyst was tested for the production of xylooligosaccharides from soluble xylans from various sources. Hydrolysis of beechwood, wheat straw and corncob xylans was 93% in 4 h, 44% in 5 h and 100% in 1 h, respectively. Maximum values of xylooligosaccharides were found for beechwood at 20.6 mg/mL, wheat at 12.5 mg/mL and corncob at 30.4 mg/mL. The optimized biocatalyst was reused for 15 reaction cycles without affecting its catalytic activity.
       
  • IMTB 2017 Conference: At the intersection of microfluidics and
           biotechnology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 June 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Žnidaršič-Plazl Polona, Zelić Bruno
       
  • New fluorescently labeled auxins exhibit promising anti-auxin activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 June 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Kristýna Bieleszová, Barbora Pařízková, Martin Kubeš, Alexandra Husičková, Martin Kubala, Qian Ma, Michaela Sedlářová, Stéphanie Robert, Karel Doležal, Miroslav Strnad, Ondřej Novák, Asta Žukauskaitė The plant hormone auxin is a key player in the regulation of plant growth and development. Despite numerous studies devoted to understanding its role in a wide spectrum of physiological processes, full appreciation of its function is linked to a comprehensive determination of its spatio-temporal distribution, which plays a crucial role in its mode of action. Conjugation of fluorescent tracers to plant hormones enables sensitive and specific visualization of their subcellular and tissue-specific localization and transport in planta, which represents a powerful tool for plant physiology. However, to date, only a few fluorescently labeled auxins have been developed. We report the synthesis of four novel fluorescently labeled derivatives of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) in the form of a conjugate with a nitrobenzoxadiazole (NBD) fluorophore together with validation of their biological activity. These compounds, unlike other previously reported auxins fluorescently labeled at N1 position (nitrogen of the indole ring), do not possess auxin activity but rather show dose-dependent inhibition of auxin-induced effects, such as primary root growth inhibition, root hair growth and the auxin reporter DR5::GUS expression. Moreover, the study demonstrates the importance of the character of the linker and optimal choice of the labeling site in the preparation of fluorescently labeled auxins as important variables influencing their biological activity and fluorescent properties.
       
  • The use of multiwell culture plates in the duckweed toxicity test—A case
           study on Zn nanoparticles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 June 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Gabriela Kalčíková, Gregor Marolt, Anita Jemec Kokalj, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn Extensive production of nanomaterials of various properties needs to be coupled with rapid toxicity testing in order to provide information about their potential risks to the environment and human health. Miniaturization of toxicity tests may accelerate economical testing of nanomaterials, but is not a common practice. We describe a case study to miniaturize a commonly used toxicity test with plant duckweed Lemna minor. 6-well, 12-well and 24-well culture plates were used to assess their potential use for the duckweed toxicity test with potassium chloride as reference material. The results were compared to the standard test design using 100 mL glass beakers. The comparison showed that the best agreement was with the 6-well vessels. This set-up was further used for toxicity testing of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NP) and zinc chloride. Zinc was not adsorbed onto either glass or plastic walls of the miniaturized system. We assume that in both vessels a fast agglomeration and settling of ZnO NP took place. Linear regression and statistical testing indicated a good correlation between the toxicity results obtained in the standard test and miniaturized 6-well vessels. The miniaturization of the test system for assessing the biological effect of nanomaterials on Lemna minor could become an appropriate alternative to the traditionally used high volume vessels.
       
  • Plant Biotechnology: Green for Good IV
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 May 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Petr Tarkowski, Ivo Frébort
       
  • Effects of copper and arsenic stress on the development of Norway spruce
           somatic embryos and their visualization with the environmental scanning
           electron microscope
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Biljana Đorđević, Vilém Neděla, Eva Tihlaříková, Václav Trojan, Ladislav Havel Somatic embryogenesis is an important biotechnological technique which can be used in studies associated with environmental stress. Four embryogenic cell lines of Norway spruce were grown on media enriched with copper and arsenic in concentration ranges 50–500 μM and 10–50 μM, respectively. The effects were observed during subsequent stages of somatic embryogenesis, the characteristics evaluated being proliferation potential, average number of somatic embryos obtained per g/fresh weight, morphology of developed somatic embryos, metal uptake, and microanalysis of macro- and micronutrients uptake. Copper and arsenic at higher concentrations significantly reduced the growth of early somatic embryos. In almost all treatments, the cell line V-1-3 showed the best performance compared with the other lines tested. Environmental scanning electron microscopy was used to visualize and identify morphological abnormalities in the development of somatic embryos. Abnormalities observed were classified into several categories: meristemless somatic embryos, somatic embryos with disrupted meristem, reduced number of cotyledons, single cotyledon and fused cotyledons. With the application of a low temperature method for the environmental scanning electron microscope, samples were stabilized and whole meristems could be investigated in their native state. As far as we are aware, this is the first report of the effect of copper and arsenic during the process of somatic embryogenesis and the first to evaluate the content of macro and micronutrients uptake in Norway spruce.
       
  • Development of microreactors with surface-immobilized biocatalysts for
           continuous transamination
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 May 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Nataša Miložič, Gorazd Stojkovič, Andreas Vogel, Dominique Bouwes, Polona Žnidaršič-Plazl The industrial importance of optically pure compounds has thrown a spotlight on ω-transaminases that have shown a high potential for the synthesis of bioactive compounds with a chiral amine moiety. The implementation of biocatalysts in industrial processes relies strongly on fast and cost effective process development, including selection of a biocatalyst form and the strategy for its immobilization. Here, microscale reactors with selected surface-immobilized amine-transaminase (ATA) in various forms are described as platforms for high-throughput process development. Wild type ATA (ATA-wt) from a crude cell extract, as well as Escherichia coli cells intracellularly overexpressing the enzyme, were immobilized on the surfaces of meander microchannels of disposable plastics by means of reactor surface silanization and glutaraldehyde bonding. In addition, a silicon/glass microchannel reactor was used for immobilization of an ATA-wt, genetically engineered to contain a silica-binding module (SBM) at the N-terminus (N-SBM-ATA-wt), leading to immobilization on the non-modified inner microchannel surface. Microreactors with surface-immobilized biocatalysts were coupled with a quenching system and at-line HPLC analytics and evaluated based on continuous biotransformation, yielding acetophenone and l-alanine. E. coli cells and N-SBM-ATA-wt were efficiently immobilized and yielded a volumetric productivity of up to 14.42 g L−1 h−1, while ATA-wt small load resulted in two orders of magnitude lower productivity. The miniaturized reactors further enabled in-operando characterization of biocatalyst stability, crucial for successful transfer to a production scale.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Generating a recombinant phosphothreonine-binding domain for a
           phosphopeptide of the human transcription factor, c-Myc
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 May 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Leon A. Venegas, Stefanie L. Kall, Oluwadamilola Bankole, Arnon Lavie, Brian K. Kay Transcription factor c-Myc is an oncoprotein that is regulated at the post-translational level through phosphorylation of two conserved residues, Serine 62 (Ser62) and Threonine 58 (Thr58). A highly specific tool capable of recognizing Myc via pThr58 is needed to monitor activation and localization. Through phage display, we have isolated 10 engineered Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains that selectively bind to a phosphothreonine (pThr)-containing peptide (53-FELLPpTPPLSPS-64) segment of human c-Myc. One domain variant was observed to bind to the Myc-pThr58 peptide with a KD value of 800 nM and had>1000-fold discrimination between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated peptide. The crystal structure of the engineered FHA Myc-pThr-binding domain (Myc-pTBD) was solved in complex with its cognate ligand. The Myc-pTBD was observed to be structurally similar to the yeast Rad9 FHA1 domain, except that its β4-β5 and β10-β11 loops form a hydrophobic pocket to facilitate the interaction between the domain and the peptide ligand. The Myc-pTBD’s specificity for its cognate ligand was demonstrated to be on a par with 3 commercial polyclonal antibodies, suggesting that this recombinant reagent is a viable alternative to antibodies for monitoring Myc regulation.
       
  • Engineering low-cadmium rice through stress-inducible expression of
           OXS3-family member genes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 April 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Changhu Wang, Weili Guo, Xingzhe Cai, Ruyu Li, David W. Ow Cadmium (Cd) as a carcinogen poses a great threat to food security and public health through plant-derived foods such as rice, the staple for nearly half of the world’s population. We have previously reported that overexpression of truncated gene fragments derived from the rice genes OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 could reduce Cd accumulation in transgenic rice. However, we did not test the full length genes due to prior work in Arabidopsis where overexpression of these genes caused seedling lethality. Here, we report on limiting the overexpression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 through the use of the stress- inducible promoter RD29B. However, despite generating 625 putative transformants, only 7 lines survived as T1 seedlings and only 1 line of each overexpressed OsO3L2 or OsO3L3-produced T2 progeny. The T2 homozygotes from these 2 lines showed the same effect of reducing accumulation of Cd in root and shoot as well as in T3 grain. As importantly, the concentrations of essential metals copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) were unaffected. Analysis of the expression profile suggested that low Cd accumulation may be due to high expression of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 in the root tip region. Cellular localization of OsO3L2 and OsO3L3 indicate that they are histone H2A interacting nuclear proteins in vascular cells and especially in the root tip region. It is possible that interaction with histone H2A modifies chromatin to regulate downstream gene expression.
       
  • Caught in-between: System for in-flow inactivation of enzymes as an
           intermediary step in “plug-and-play” microfluidic platforms
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 April 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ana C. Fernandes, Benjamin Petersen, Lars Møller, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne The need for fast and comprehensive characterization of biocatalysts has pushed the development of new screening platforms based on microfluidics, capable of monitoring several parameters simultaneously, with new configurations of liquid handling, sample treatment and sensing. Modular microfluidics allows the integration of these newly developed approaches in a more flexible way towards increasing applicability of the microfluidic chips to different types of biocatalysts and reactions. A highly relevant operation in such a system is biocatalyst inactivation, which can enable the precise control of reaction time by avoiding the continuation of the reaction in another module or connecting tubes. Such control is important when different modules of reactors and/or sensing units are used and changed frequently. Here we describe the development, characterization and application of a module for rapid enzyme inactivation. The thermal inactivation platform developed is compared with a standard benchtop ThermoMixer in terms of inactivation efficiency for glucose oxidase and catalase. A higher activity loss was observed for enzyme inactivation under flow conditions (inactivation achieved at 120 s residence time at 338 K and 20 s residence time at 353 K) which indicated a high heat transfer to the fluid under dynamic conditions. Moreover, partial deactivation of the enzymes was observed for the continuous thermal inactivation module, when activity measurements were performed after 1 and 2 days following inactivation. The thermal inactivation unit presented can be easily integrated into modular microfluidic platforms and can be a useful addition for enzyme characterization and screening.
       
  • Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of a dioecious plant
           model Silene latifolia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 April 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Vojtech Hudzieczek, Radim Cegan, Tomas Cermak, Nela Bacovska, Zuzana Machalkova, Karel Dolezal, Lucie Plihalova, Daniel Voytas, Roman Hobza, Boris Vyskot Silene latifolia serves as a model species to study dioecy, the evolution of sex chromosomes, dosage compensation and sex-determination systems in plants. Currently, no protocol for genetic transformation is available for this species, mainly because S. latifolia is considered recalcitrant to in vitro regeneration and infection with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Using cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives, we markedly improved the efficiency of regeneration. Several agrobacterial strains were tested for their ability to deliver DNA into S. latifolia tissues leading to transient and stable expression of the GUS reporter. The use of Agrobacterium rhizogenes strains resulted in the highest transformation efficiency (up to 4.7% of stable transformants) in hairy root cultures. Phenotypic and genotypic analyses of the T1 generation suggested that the majority of transformation events contain a small number of independent T-DNA insertions and the transgenes are transmitted to the progeny in a Mendelian pattern of inheritance. In short, we report an efficient and reproducible protocol for leaf disc transformation and subsequent plant regeneration in S. latifolia, based on the unique combination of infection with A. rhizogenes and plant regeneration from hairy root cultures using synthetic cytokinins. A protocol for the transient transformation of S.latifolia protoplasts was also developed and applied to demonstrate the possibility of targeted mutagenesis of the sex linked gene SlAP3 by TALENs and CRISPR/Cas9.
       
  • Generation and validation of murine monoclonal and camelid recombinant
           single domain antibodies specific for human pancreatic glycoprotein 2
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 April 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Anja Schlör, Pamela Holzlöhner, Martin Listek, Cindy Grieß, Monique Butze, Burkhard Micheel, Christian Hentschel, Mandy Sowa, Dirk Roggenbuck, Peter Schierack, Jonas Füner, Erik Schliebs, Alexander Goihl, Dirk Reinhold, Katja Hanack Pancreatic secretory zymogen-granule membrane glycoprotein 2 (GP2) has been identified as a major autoantigenic target in Crohn’s disease patients. It was reported recently that a long (GP2a) and a short (GP2b) isoform of GP2 exist and that in the outcome of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) GP2-specific autoantibodies probably appear as new serological markers for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring. To investigate this further and in order to establish diagnostic tools for the discrimination of both GP2 isoforms, a set of different murine monoclonal and camelid recombinant single domain antibodies (camelid VHH) was generated and validated in various enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) formats, immunofluorescence on transgenic cell lines and immunohistochemistry on monkey pancreas tissue sections. Out of six binders identified, one was validated as highly specific for GP2a. This murine monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used as capture antibody in construction of a sandwich ELISA for the detection of GP2a. Camelid VHHs or a second murine mAb served as detection antibodies in this system. All antibodies were also able to stain GP2a or GP2b on transgenic cell lines as well as on pancreatic tissue in immunohistochemistry. The KD values measured for the camelid VHHs were between 7 nM and 23pM. This set of specific binders will enable the development of suitable diagnostic tools for GP2-related studies in IBD.
       
  • Optimization of aqueous two-phase systems for the production of
           6-aminopenicillanic acid in integrated microfluidic reactors-separators
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Lucie Vobecká, Alexandr Romanov, Zdeněk Slouka, Pavel Hasal, Michal Přibyl Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPSs) were screened for the production of 6-aminopenicillanic acid (6-APA) catalyzed by penicillin acylase, followed by the extractive separation of 6-APA from the reaction mixture. The key point of this study was to find an ATPS exhibiting a large difference in the partition coefficients of the biocatalyst and reaction products. Several ATPSs based on polyethylene glycol (PEG)/phosphate, PEG/citrate, and PEG/dextran were tested. We found that an ATPS consisting of 15 wt% of PEG 4000, 10 wt% of phosphates, 75 wt% of water (pH value 8.0 after dissolution) provided optimal separation of 6-APA from the enzyme. While the 6-APA was mainly found in the top PEG phase, the free enzyme favored the bottom salt-rich phase. This ATPS also fulfils other important requirements: (i) high buffering capacity, reducing an undesirable pH decrease due to the dissociation of phenylacetic acid (the side product of the reaction), (ii) a relatively low cost of the ATPS components, (iii) the possibility of electrophoretic transport of fine droplets as well as the reaction products for both the acceleration of phase separation and the enhancement of 6-APA concentration in the product stream. Extraction experiments in microcapillary and batch systems showed that the transport of 6-APA formed in the salt-rich phase to the corresponding PEG phase could occur within 30 s. The experimental results described form a base of knowledge for the development of continuously operating integrated microfluidic reactors-separators driven by an electric field for the efficient production of 6-APA.
       
  • Pharmacokinetics of radiolabeled dimeric sdAbs constructs targeting human
           CD20
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ahmet Krasniqi, Magdalena Bialkowska, Catarina Xavier, Kevin Van der Jeught, Serge Muyldermans, Nick Devoogdt, Matthias D’Huyvetter Single-domain antibody fragments (sdAbs) are the smallest functional antigen-binding fragments, derived from heavy chain-only camelid antibodies. When designed as radiolabeled monomeric probes for imaging and therapy of cancer, their fast and specific targeting results in high tumor-to-background ratios early after injection. However, their moderate absolute uptake into tumors might not always be sufficient to treat cancerous lesions. We have evaluated the pharmacokinetics of seven constructs derived from a CD20-targeting monomeric sdAb (αCD20). The constructs differed in affinity or avidity towards CD20 (dimeric αCD20-αCD20 and αCD20 fused to a non-targeting control sdAb, referred to as αCD20-ctrl) and blood half-lives (αCD20 fused to an albumin-targeting sdAb (αAlb) = αCD20-αAlb). The constructs were radiolabeled with 111In (imaging) and 177Lu (therapy) using the bifunctional chelator CHX-A”-DTPA and evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In mice, tumor uptake of 177Lu-DTPA-αCD20 decreased from 4.82 ± 1.80 to 0.13 ± 0.05% IA/g over 72 h. Due to its rapid blood clearance, tumor-to-blood (T/B) ratios of>100 were obtained within 24 h. Although in vitro internalization indicated that dimeric 177Lu-DTPA-αCD20-αCD20 was superior in terms of total cell-associated radioactivity, this was not confirmed in vivo. Blood clearance was slower and absolute tumor uptake became significantly higher for αCD20-αAlb. Blood levels of 177Lu-DTPA-αCD20-αAlb decreased from 68.30 ± 10.53 to 3.58 ± 0.66% IA/g over 120 h, while tumor uptake increased from 6.21 ± 0.94 to 24.90 ± 2.83% IA/g, resulting in lower T/B ratios. Taken together, these results indicate that the increased size of dimeric αCD20-αCD20 or the fusion of monomeric αCD20 to an albumin-targeting moiety (αAlb) counterbalance their improved tumor targeting capacity compared to monomeric αCD20.
       
  • Microbial single-cell analysis in picoliter-sized batch cultivation
           chambers
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Eugen Kaganovitch, Xenia Steurer, Deniz Dogan, Christopher Probst, Wolfgang Wiechert, Dietrich Kohlheyer Microfluidics has enabled various research projects in the field of microbial single-cell analysis. In particular, single-use microfluidic cultivation devices combined with automated time-lapse imaging provide powerful approaches for analyzing microbial phenomena at the single-cell level. High spatiotemporal resolution facilitates individual cell identification and tracking, delivering detailed insights into areas like phenotypic population heterogeneity, which can be highly relevant to the fate of a microbial population and may negatively impact the efficiency of biotechnological fermentations. New tools need to be developed to access the origin of population heterogeneity and understand its functional role. In this study, we present a microfluidic device for batch cultivations inside picoliter-sized cultivation chambers that can be reversibly isolated from continuous medium supply. Therefore, the cultivation broth is simply replaced by a continuous flow of humidified air, removing any medium residue along the supply channels but preserving five picoliters of cultivation medium inside the cultivation chambers in a highly parallel manner. Living cells can grow inside our microfabricated batch chambers, which can accommodate up to several hundred cells. The chamber height approximately matches the diameter of a single cell, facilitating cell growth in monolayers that are ideal for image-based cell analysis. We successfully demonstrated the growth of Escherichia coli during continuous medium perfusion and batch cultivation conditions. As expected, the cells grew exponentially under continuous medium influx until the maximum chamber capacity was reached, but when they were cultivated under batch conditions, cellular growth underwent an exponential phase, followed by a stationary phase with obvious morphological changes.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Integrated physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS to facilitate
           gene cloning and comparative studies
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Zuzana Tulpová, Ming-Cheng Luo, Helena Toegelová, Paul Visendi, Satomi Hayashi, Petr Vojta, Etienne Paux, Andrzej Kilian, Michaël Abrouk, Jan Bartoš, Marián Hajdúch, Jacqueline Batley, David Edwards, Jaroslav Doležel, Hana Šimková Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for a significant part of the world’s population. The growing demand on its production can be satisfied by improving yield and resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. Knowledge of the genome sequence would aid in discovering genes and QTLs underlying these traits and provide a basis for genomics-assisted breeding. Physical maps and BAC clones associated with them have been valuable resources from which to generate a reference genome of bread wheat and to assist map-based gene cloning. As a part of a joint effort coordinated by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium, we have constructed a BAC-based physical map of bread wheat chromosome arm 7DS consisting of 895 contigs and covering 94% of its estimated length. By anchoring BAC contigs to one radiation hybrid map and three high resolution genetic maps, we assigned 73% of the assembly to a distinct genomic position. This map integration, interconnecting a total of 1713 markers with ordered and sequenced BAC clones from a minimal tiling path, provides a tool to speed up gene cloning in wheat. The process of physical map assembly included the integration of the 7DS physical map with a whole-genome physical map of Aegilops tauschii and a 7DS Bionano genome map, which together enabled efficient scaffolding of physical-map contigs, even in the non-recombining region of the genetic centromere. Moreover, this approach facilitated a comparison of bread wheat and its ancestor at BAC-contig level and revealed a reconstructed region in the 7DS pericentromere.
       
  • Multi-function microfluidic platform for sensor integration
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ana C. Fernandes, Daria Semenova, Peter Panjan, Adama M. Sesay, Krist V. Gernaey, Ulrich Krühne The limited availability of metabolite-specific sensors for continuous sampling and monitoring is one of the main bottlenecks contributing to failures in bioprocess development. Furthermore, only a limited number of approaches exist to connect currently available measurement systems with high throughput reactor units. This is especially relevant in the biocatalyst screening and characterization stage of process development.In this work, a strategy for sensor integration in microfluidic platforms is demonstrated, to address the need for rapid, cost-effective and high-throughput screening in bioprocesses. This platform is compatible with different sensor formats by enabling their replacement and was built in order to be highly flexible and thus suitable for a wide range of applications. Moreover, this re-usable platform can easily be connected to analytical equipment, such as HPLC, laboratory scale reactors or other microfluidic chips through the use of standardized fittings. In addition, the developed platform includes a two-sensor system interspersed with a mixing channel, which allows the detection of samples that might be outside the first sensor’s range of detection, through dilution of the sample solution up to 10 times.In order to highlight the features of the proposed platform, inline monitoring of glucose levels is presented and discussed. Glucose was chosen due to its importance in biotechnology as a relevant substrate. The platform demonstrated continuous measurement of substrate solutions for up to 12 h. Furthermore, the influence of the fluid velocity on substrate diffusion was observed, indicating the need for in-flow calibration to achieve a good quantitative output.
       
  • Migration of blood cells and phospholipid vesicles induced by
           concentration gradients in microcavities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 March 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Saša Vrhovec Hartman, Bojan Božič, Jure Derganc Microcavities provide a well-controlled flow-free microenvironment and play an important role in many microfluidic systems, for example as cell-culturing microchambers. Here we show that transient concentration gradients that emerge during diffusive exchange of solutes in microcavities induce passive migration (diffusiophoresis) of blood cells and synthetic phospholipid vesicles. The passive migration is observed in various concentration gradients comprising non-electrolytes and electrolytes, i.e., glucose, sucrose, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, potassium benzoate, and potassium sulfate. The results add to prior reports, where gradients of non-electrolytes and monovalent salts, produced by micropipette injection, did not induce a noticeable migration of vesicles. The migration distances measured depended on the solution and the cell or vesicle type, and were in the range of several tens of micrometers. The results show that diffusiophoresis of cells and vesicles is a notable phenomenon in a flow-free environment and has to be taken into account when an accurate spatiotemporal control of cells or vesicles in microcavities is required.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Non-immunoglobulin scaffold proteins: Precision tools for studying
           protein-protein interactions in cancer
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Heather L. Martin, Robert Bedford, Sophie J. Heseltine, Anna A. Tang, Katarzyna Z. Haza, Ajinkya Rao, Michael J. McPherson, Darren C. Tomlinson Cancer is frequently characterised by dysregulation of the cellular signalling processes that govern proliferation, survival and attachment. Understanding such dysregulation continues to present a challenge given the importance of protein-protein interactions in intracellular processes. Exploring this protein-protein interactome requires novel tools capable of discriminating between highly homologous proteins, individual domains and post-translational modifications. This review examines the potential of scaffold-based binding proteins to fulfil these requirements. It also explores protein-protein interactions in the context of intracellular signalling pathways and cancer, and demonstrates the uses of scaffold proteins as functional moderators, biosensors and imaging reagents. This review also highlights the timeliness and potential to develop international consortia to develop and validate highly specific “proteome” scaffold-based binding protein reagents with the ultimate aim of developing screening tools for studying the interactome.
       
  • In-flow protein immobilization monitored by magnetic resonance imaging
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Daniel Grajales, Juan Carlos Mateos, Daniel Padro, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Fernando López-Gallego Protein immobilization is a key enabling technology for flow biocatalysis. For this purpose, many different immobilization protocols and characterization techniques have been developed in recent decades. However, examples where proteins are directly immobilized on ready-to-use reactors are scarce, likely due to the lack of analytical tools to monitor in-flow protein immobilization in a non-invasive manner. Here, we have for the first time exploited Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to characterize in-flow protein immobilization on pre-packed bed columns. This concept was demonstrated by in-flow immobilization of a green fluorescence protein. MRI analysis revealed that both the protein concentration of the flushed solution and flow rate play key roles in controlling the spatial organization of the protein across the packed-bed reactor. This analytical tool coupled to in-flow protein immobilization has been expanded to more industrially relevant enzymes, such as the lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, achieving a ready-to-use reactor packed with a heterogeneous biocatalyst with high activity (up to 3000 U × g−1) and high stability (75% residual activity after 1 h incubation at 60 °C). Introducing new analytical tools during the fabrication of heterogeneous biocatalysts will contribute to make the process of immobilizing proteins on solid carriers more rational than currently is.Graphical abstractGraphical abstract for this article
       
  • Neuregulin 1 discovered as a cleavage target for the HCV NS3/4A protease
           by a microfluidic membrane protein array
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Nika Schwartz, Michal Pellach, Yair Glick, Reuven Gil, Gahl Levy, Dorit Avrahami, Efrat Barbiro-Michaely, Yaakov Nahmias, Doron Gerber The hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 3 (NS3) is essential for HCV maturation. The NS3/4A protease is a target for several HCV treatments and is a well-known target for HCV drug discovery. The protein is membrane associated and thus probably interacts with other membrane proteins. However, the vast majority of known NS3 host partners are soluble proteins rather than membrane proteins, most likely due to lack of appropriate platforms for their discovery. Utilization of an integrated microfluidics platform enables analysis of membrane proteins in their native form. We screened over 2800 membrane proteins for interaction with NS3 and 90 previously unknown interactions were identified. Of these, several proteins were selected for validation by co-immunoprecipitation and for NS3 proteolytic activity. Bearing in mind the considerable number of interactions formed, together with the popularity of NS3/4A protease as a drug target, it was striking to note its lack of proteolytic activity. Only a single protein, Neuregulin1, was observed to be cleaved, adding to the 3 known NS3/4A cleavage targets. Neuregulin1 participates in neural proliferation. Recent studies have shown its involvement in HCV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma. We showed that NS3/4A triggers an increase in neuregulin1 mRNA levels in HCV infected cells. Despite this increase, its protein concentration is decreased due to proteolytic cleavage. Additionally, its EGF-like domain levels were increased, possibly explaining the ErbB2 and EGFR upregulation in HCV infected cells. The newly discovered protein interactions may provide insights into HCV infection mechanisms and potentially provide new therapeutic targets against HCV.
       
  • Easy-to-perform and cost-effective fabrication of continuous-flow reactors
           and their application for nanomaterials synthesis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 6 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Domenico Andrea Cristaldi, Fatih Yanar, Ali Mosayyebi, Pablo García-Manrique, Eugen Stulz, Dario Carugo, Xunli Zhang The translation of continuous-flow microreactor technology to the industrial environment has been limited by cost and complexity of the fabrication procedures and the requirement for specialised infrastructure. In the present study, we have developed a significantly more cost-effective and easy-to-perform fabrication method for the generation of optically transparent, continuous-flow reactors. The method combines 3D printing of master moulds with sealing of the PDMS channels’ replica using a pressure-sensitive adhesive tape. Morphological characterisation of the 3D printed moulds was performed and reactors were fabricated with an approximately square-shaped cross-section of 1 mm2. Notably, they were tested for operation over a wide range of volumetric flow rates, up to 20 ml/min. Moreover, the fabrication time (i.e., from design to the finished product) was
       
  • Lipase catalysed biodiesel synthesis with integrated glycerol separation
           in continuously operated microchips connected in series
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Anita Šalić, Ana Jurinjak Tušek, Aleksandra Sander, Bruno Zelić Although the application of microreactors in different processes has been extensively explored in recent decades, microreactors continue to be underexplored in the context of the enzyme-catalysed process for biodiesel production. Due to their numerous advantages, microreactors could become the next step in the development of a biodiesel production process characterised by sustainability, cost-effectiveness and energy efficiency. In this investigation, biodiesel production was catalysed by lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus (Lipolase L100). Edible sunflower oil was used as a model substrate in order to investigate the process. After optimal process conditions had been determined, waste-cooking oil was used for biodiesel production to make the production process more sustainable. Three different substrate-feeding strategies were investigated and finally an optimal strategy was proposed. In all the investigated systems, fatty acids methyl esters (FAME) content was higher than 95% and obtained in a significantly shorter time (less than 2 h) compared to the batch process in which biodiesel production was catalysed by lipase (C = 95%, t = 96 h). After the optimal biodiesel production system had been proposed, an integrated system with two microchips connected in series was developed. The first microchip was used for biodiesel production and the second for simultaneous purification i.e. glycerol separation. Finally, purified biodiesel was produced with glycerol content below the detection limit.
       
  • The antibody horror show: an introductory guide for the perplexed
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 February 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Simon. L. Goodman The biological literature reverberates with the inadequacies of commercial research-tool antibodies. The scientific community spends some $2 billion per year on such reagents. Excellent accessible scientific platforms exist for reliably making, validating and using antibodies, yet the laboratory end-user reality is somehow depressing – because they often “don’t work”. This experience is due to a bizarre and variegated spectrum of causes including: inadequately identified antibodies; inappropriate user and supplier validation; poor user training; and overloaded publishers. Colourful as this may appear, the outcomes for the community are uniformly grim, including badly damaged scientific careers, wasted public funding, and contaminated literature. As antibodies are amongst the most important of everyday reagents in cell biology and biochemistry, I have tried here to gently suggest a few possible solutions, including: a move towards using recombinant antibodies; obligatory unique identification of antibodies, their immunogens, and their producers; centralized international banking of standard antibodies and their ligands; routine, accessible open-source documentation of user experience with antibodies; and antibody-user certification.
       
  • A myopic perspective on the future of protein diagnostics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 January 2018Source: New BiotechnologyAuthor(s): Ulf Landegren, Rasel A. Al-Amin, Johan Björkesten Plasma proteome analyses of the future promise invaluable insights into states of health, not only by measuring proteins whose role it is to ensure blood homeostasis, but increasingly also as a window into the health of practically any tissue in the body via so-called leakage protein biomarkers. Realizing more of this vast potential will require progress along many lines. Here we discuss the main ones, such as optimal selection of target proteins, affinity reagents, immunoassay formats, samples, and applications, with a view from ongoing work in our laboratory.
       
 
 
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