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BIOTECHNOLOGY (244 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 244 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 70)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 33)
Amylase     Open Access  
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 67)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 160)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
DNA and RNA Nanotechnology     Open Access  
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticultural Biotechnology Research     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of BioScience and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Ecobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Biological Cybernetics
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.667
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 10  
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1432-0770 - ISSN (Online) 0340-1200
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2352 journals]
  • Reflections on biological cybernetics: past, present, prospects
    • Authors: J. Leo van Hemmen
      Pages: 1 - 5
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0756-z
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Foreword for the special issue on Neural Coding
    • Authors: Martin P. Nawrot; Peter Kloppenburg; Moritz Deger
      Pages: 11 - 11
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0754-1
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Coordinate invariance as a fundamental constraint on the form of
           stimulus-specific information measures
    • Authors: Lubomir Kostal; Giuseppe D’Onofrio
      Pages: 13 - 23
      Abstract: The value of Shannon’s mutual information is commonly used to describe the total amount of information that the neural code transfers between the ensemble of stimuli and the ensemble of neural responses. In addition, it is often desirable to know which features of the stimulus or response are most informative. The literature offers several different decompositions of the mutual information into its stimulus or response-specific components, such as the specific surprise or the uncertainty reduction, but the number of mutually distinct measures is in fact infinite. We resolve this ambiguity by requiring the specific information measures to be invariant under invertible coordinate transformations of the stimulus and the response ensembles. We prove that the Kullback–Leibler divergence is then the only suitable measure of the specific information. On a more general level, we discuss the necessity and the fundamental aspects of the coordinate invariance as a selection principle. We believe that our results will encourage further research into invariant statistical methods for the analysis of neural coding.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0729-7
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Colored noise and a stochastic fractional model for correlated inputs and
           adaptation in neuronal firing
    • Authors: Enrica Pirozzi
      Pages: 25 - 39
      Abstract: High variability in the neuronal response to stimulations and the adaptation phenomenon cannot be explained by the standard stochastic leaky integrate-and-fire model. The main reason is that the uncorrelated inputs involved in the model are not realistic. There exists some form of dependency between the inputs, and it can be interpreted as memory effects. In order to include these physiological features in the standard model, we reconsider it with time-dependent coefficients and correlated inputs. Due to its hard mathematical tractability, we perform simulations of it for a wide investigation of its output. A Gauss–Markov process is constructed for approximating its non-Markovian dynamics. The first passage time probability density of such a process can be numerically evaluated, and it can be used to fit the histograms of simulated firing times. Some estimates of the moments of firing times are also provided. The effect of the correlation time of the inputs on firing densities and on firing rates is shown. An exponential probability density of the first firing time is estimated for low values of input current and high values of correlation time. For comparison, a simulation-based investigation is also carried out for a fractional stochastic model that allows to preserve the memory of the time evolution of the neuronal membrane potential. In this case, the memory parameter that affects the firing activity is the fractional derivative order. In both models an adaptation level of spike frequency is attained, even if along different modalities. Comparisons and discussion of the obtained results are provided.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0731-0
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Ergodicity and parameter estimates in auditory neural circuits
    • Authors: Peter G. Toth; Petr Marsalek; Ondrej Pokora
      Pages: 41 - 55
      Abstract: This paper discusses ergodic properties and circular statistical characteristics in neuronal spike trains. Ergodicity means that the average taken over a long time period and over smaller population should equal the average in less time and larger population. The objectives are to show simple examples of design and validation of a neuronal model, where the ergodicity assumption helps find correspondence between variables and parameters. The methods used are analytical and numerical computations, numerical models of phenomenological spiking neurons and neuronal circuits. Results obtained using these methods are the following. They are: a formula to calculate vector strength of neural spike timing dependent on the spike train parameters, description of parameters of spike train variability and model of output spiking density based on assumption of the computation realized by sound localization neural circuit. Theoretical results are illustrated by references to experimental data. Examples of neurons where spike trains have and do not have the ergodic property are then discussed.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0739-5
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Methods for identification of spike patterns in massively parallel spike
    • Authors: Pietro Quaglio; Vahid Rostami; Emiliano Torre; Sonja Grün
      Pages: 57 - 80
      Abstract: Temporally, precise correlations between simultaneously recorded neurons have been interpreted as signatures of cell assemblies, i.e., groups of neurons that form processing units. Evidence for this hypothesis was found on the level of pairwise correlations in simultaneous recordings of few neurons. Increasing the number of simultaneously recorded neurons increases the chances to detect cell assembly activity due to the larger sample size. Recent technological advances have enabled the recording of 100 or more neurons in parallel. However, these massively parallel spike train data require novel statistical tools to be analyzed for correlations, because they raise considerable combinatorial and multiple testing issues. Recently, various of such methods have started to develop. First approaches were based on population or pairwise measures of synchronization, and later led to methods for the detection of various types of higher-order synchronization and of spatio-temporal patterns. The latest techniques combine data mining with analysis of statistical significance. Here, we give a comparative overview of these methods, of their assumptions and of the types of correlations they can detect.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0755-0
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Winnerless competition in clustered balanced networks: inhibitory
           assemblies do the trick
    • Authors: Thomas Rost; Moritz Deger; Martin P. Nawrot
      Pages: 81 - 98
      Abstract: Balanced networks are a frequently employed basic model for neuronal networks in the mammalian neocortex. Large numbers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons are recurrently connected so that the numerous positive and negative inputs that each neuron receives cancel out on average. Neuronal firing is therefore driven by fluctuations in the input and resembles the irregular and asynchronous activity observed in cortical in vivo data. Recently, the balanced network model has been extended to accommodate clusters of strongly interconnected excitatory neurons in order to explain persistent activity in working memory-related tasks. This clustered topology introduces multistability and winnerless competition between attractors and can capture the high trial-to-trial variability and its reduction during stimulation that has been found experimentally. In this prospect article, we review the mean field description of balanced networks of binary neurons and apply the theory to clustered networks. We show that the stable fixed points of networks with clustered excitatory connectivity tend quickly towards firing rate saturation, which is generally inconsistent with experimental data. To remedy this shortcoming, we then present a novel perspective on networks with locally balanced clusters of both excitatory and inhibitory neuron populations. This approach allows for true multistability and moderate firing rates in activated clusters over a wide range of parameters. Our findings are supported by mean field theory and numerical network simulations. Finally, we discuss possible applications of the concept of joint excitatory and inhibitory clustering in future cortical network modelling studies.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0737-7
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • Leg-local neural mechanisms for searching and learning enhance robotic
    • Authors: Nicholas S. Szczecinski; Roger D. Quinn
      Pages: 99 - 112
      Abstract: Adapting motor output based on environmental forces is critical for successful locomotion in the real world. Arthropods use at least two neural mechanisms to adjust muscle activation while walking based on detected forces. Mechanism 1 uses negative feedback of leg depressor force to ensure that each stance leg supports an appropriate amount of the body’s weight. Mechanism 2 encourages searching for ground contact if the leg supports no body weight. We expand the neural controller for MantisBot, a robot based upon a praying mantis, to include these mechanisms by incorporating leg-local memory and command neurons, as observed in arthropods. We present results from MantisBot transitioning between searching and stepping, mimicking data from animals as reported in the literature.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0726-x
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • A neural network model for familiarity and context learning during
           honeybee foraging flights
    • Authors: Jurek Müller; Martin Nawrot; Randolf Menzel; Tim Landgraf
      Pages: 113 - 126
      Abstract: How complex is the memory structure that honeybees use to navigate' Recently, an insect-inspired parsimonious spiking neural network model was proposed that enabled simulated ground-moving agents to follow learned routes. We adapted this model to flying insects and evaluate the route following performance in three different worlds with gradually decreasing object density. In addition, we propose an extension to the model to enable the model to associate sensory input with a behavioral context, such as foraging or homing. The spiking neural network model makes use of a sparse stimulus representation in the mushroom body and reward-based synaptic plasticity at its output synapses. In our experiments, simulated bees were able to navigate correctly even when panoramic cues were missing. The context extension we propose enabled agents to successfully discriminate partly overlapping routes. The structure of the visual environment, however, crucially determines the success rate. We find that the model fails more often in visually rich environments due to the overlap of features represented by the Kenyon cell layer. Reducing the landmark density improves the agents route following performance. In very sparse environments, we find that extended landmarks, such as roads or field edges, may help the agent stay on its route, but often act as strong distractors yielding poor route following performance. We conclude that the presented model is valid for simple route following tasks and may represent one component of insect navigation. Additional components might still be necessary for guidance and action selection while navigating along different memorized routes in complex natural environments.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0732-z
      Issue No: Vol. 112, No. 1-2 (2018)
  • A new model of the spinal locomotor networks of a salamander and its
    • Authors: Qiang Liu; Huizhen Yang; Jinxue Zhang; Jingzhuo Wang
      Abstract: A salamander is an ideal animal for studying the spinal locomotor network mechanism of vertebrates from an evolutionary perspective since it represents the transition from an aquatic to a terrestrial animal. However, little is known about the spinal locomotor network of a salamander. A spinal locomotor network model is a useful tool for exploring the working mechanism of the spinal networks of salamanders. A new spinal locomotor network model for a salamander is built for a three-dimensional (3D) biomechanical model of the salamander using a novel locomotion-controlled neural network model. Based on recent experimental data on the spinal circuitry and observational results of gaits of vertebrates, we assume that different interneuron sets recruited for mediating the frequency of spinal circuits are also related to the generation of different gaits. The spinal locomotor networks of salamanders are divided into low-frequency networks for walking and high-frequency networks for swimming. Additionally, a new topological structure between the body networks and limb networks is built, which only uses the body networks to coordinate the motion of limbs. There are no direct synaptic connections among limb networks. These techniques differ from existing salamander spinal locomotor network models. A simulation is performed and analyzed to validate the properties of the new spinal locomotor networks of salamanders. The simulation results show that the new spinal locomotor networks can generate a forward walking gait, a backward walking gait, a swimming gait, and a turning gait during swimming and walking. These gaits can be switched smoothly by changing external inputs from the brainstem. These properties are consistent with those of a real salamander. However, it is still difficult for the new spinal locomotor networks to generate highly efficient turning during walking, 3D swimming, nonrhythmic movements, and so on. New experimental data are required for further validation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0759-9
  • Trans-algorithmic nature of learning in biological systems
    • Authors: Yury P. Shimansky
      Abstract: Learning ability is a vitally important, distinctive property of biological systems, which provides dynamic stability in non-stationary environments. Although several different types of learning have been successfully modeled using a universal computer, in general, learning cannot be described by an algorithm. In other words, algorithmic approach to describing the functioning of biological systems is not sufficient for adequate grasping of what is life. Since biosystems are parts of the physical world, one might hope that adding some physical mechanisms and principles to the concept of algorithm could provide extra possibilities for describing learning in its full generality. However, a straightforward approach to that through the so-called physical hypercomputation so far has not been successful. Here an alternative approach is proposed. Biosystems are described as achieving enumeration of possible physical compositions though random incremental modifications inflicted on them by active operating resources (AORs) in the environment. Biosystems learn through algorithmic regulation of the intensity of the above modifications according to a specific optimality criterion. From the perspective of external observers, biosystems move in the space of different algorithms driven by random modifications imposed by the environmental AORs. A particular algorithm is only a snapshot of that motion, while the motion itself is essentially trans-algorithmic. In this conceptual framework, death of unfit members of a population, for example, is viewed as a trans-algorithmic modification made in the population as a biosystem by environmental AORs. Numerous examples of AOR utilization in biosystems of different complexity, from viruses to multicellular organisms, are provided.
      PubDate: 2018-05-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0757-y
  • Modeling and analysis of a new locomotion control neural networks
    • Authors: Q. Liu; J. Z. Wang
      Abstract: Experimental data have shown that inherent bursting of the neuron plays an important role in the generation of rhythmic movements in spinal networks. Based on the mechanism that the spinal neurons of a lamprey generate this inherent bursting, this paper builds a simplified inherent bursting neuron model. A new locomotion control neural network is built that takes advantage of this neuron model and its performance is analyzed mathematically and by numerical simulation. From these analyses, it is found that the new control networks have no restriction on their topological structure for generating the oscillatory outputs. If a network is used to control the motion of bionic robots or build the model of the vertebrate spinal circuitry, its topological structure can be constructed using the unit burst generator model proposed by Grillner. The networks can also be easily switched between oscillatory and non-oscillatory output. Additionally, inactivity and saturation properties of the new networks can also be developed, which will be helpful to increase the motor flexibility and environmental adaptability of bionic robots.
      PubDate: 2018-04-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0758-x
  • Comparative study of chemical neuroanatomy of the olfactory neuropil in
           mouse, honey bee, and human
    • Abstract: Despite divergent evolutionary origins, the organization of olfactory systems is remarkably similar across phyla. In both insects and mammals, sensory input from receptor cells is initially processed in synaptically dense regions of neuropil called glomeruli, where neural activity is shaped by local inhibition and centrifugal neuromodulation prior to being sent to higher-order brain areas by projection neurons. Here we review both similarities and several key differences in the neuroanatomy of the olfactory system in honey bees, mice, and humans, using a combination of literature review and new primary data. We have focused on the chemical identity and the innervation patterns of neuromodulatory inputs in the primary olfactory system. Our findings show that serotonergic fibers are similarly distributed across glomeruli in all three species. Octopaminergic/tyraminergic fibers in the honey bee also have a similar distribution, and possibly a similar function, to noradrenergic fibers in the mammalian OBs. However, preliminary evidence suggests that human OB may be relatively less organized than its counterparts in honey bee and mouse.
      PubDate: 2018-04-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0728-8
  • Planning and navigation as active inference
    • Authors: Raphael Kaplan; Karl J. Friston
      Abstract: This paper introduces an active inference formulation of planning and navigation. It illustrates how the exploitation–exploration dilemma is dissolved by acting to minimise uncertainty (i.e. expected surprise or free energy). We use simulations of a maze problem to illustrate how agents can solve quite complicated problems using context sensitive prior preferences to form subgoals. Our focus is on how epistemic behaviour—driven by novelty and the imperative to reduce uncertainty about the world—contextualises pragmatic or goal-directed behaviour. Using simulations, we illustrate the underlying process theory with synthetic behavioural and electrophysiological responses during exploration of a maze and subsequent navigation to a target location. An interesting phenomenon that emerged from the simulations was a putative distinction between ‘place cells’—that fire when a subgoal is reached—and ‘path cells’—that fire until a subgoal is reached.
      PubDate: 2018-03-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0753-2
  • The role of long-range coupling in crayfish swimmeret phase-locking
    • Authors: Lucy E. Spardy; Timothy J. Lewis
      Abstract: During forward swimming, crayfish and other long-tailed crustaceans rhythmically move four pairs of limbs called swimmerets to propel themselves through the water. This behavior is characterized by a particular stroke pattern in which the most posterior limb pair leads the rhythmic cycle and adjacent swimmerets paddle sequentially with a delay of roughly 25% of the period. The neural circuit underlying limb coordination consists of a chain of local modules, each of which controls a pair of limbs. All modules are directly coupled to one another, but the inter-module coupling strengths decrease with the distance of the connection. Prior modeling studies of the swimmeret neural circuit have included only the dominant nearest-neighbor coupling. Here, we investigate the potential modulatory role of long-range connections between modules. Numerical simulations and analytical arguments show that these connections cause decreases in the phase-differences between neighboring modules. Combined with previous results from a computational fluid dynamics model, we posit that this phenomenon might ensure that the resultant limb coordination lies within a range where propulsion is optimal. To further assess the effects of long-range coupling, we modify the model to reflect an experimental preparation where synaptic transmission from a middle module is blocked, and we generate predictions for the phase-locking properties in this system.
      PubDate: 2018-03-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0752-3
  • Place recognition from distant landmarks: human performance and maximum
           likelihood model
    • Authors: Hanspeter A. Mallot; Stephan Lancier
      Abstract: We present a simple behavioral experiment on human place recognition from a configuration of four visual landmarks. Participants were asked to navigate several paths, all involving a turn at one specific point, and while doing so incidentally learned the position of that turning point. In the test phase, they were asked to return to the turning point in a reduced environment leaving only the four landmarks visible. Results are compared to two versions of a maximum likelihood model of place recognition using either view-based or depth-based cues for place recognition. Only the depth-based model is in good qualitative agreement with the data. In particular, it reproduces landmark configuration-dependent effects of systematic bias and statistical error distribution as well as effects of approach direction. The model is based on a place code (depth and bearing of the landmarks at target location) and an egocentric working memory of surrounding space including current landmark position in a local, map-like representation. We argue that these elements are crucial for human place recognition.
      PubDate: 2018-02-26
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-018-0751-4
  • Sustained sensorimotor control as intermittent decisions about prediction
           errors: computational framework and application to ground vehicle steering
    • Authors: Gustav Markkula; Erwin Boer; Richard Romano; Natasha Merat
      Abstract: A conceptual and computational framework is proposed for modelling of human sensorimotor control and is exemplified for the sensorimotor task of steering a car. The framework emphasises control intermittency and extends on existing models by suggesting that the nervous system implements intermittent control using a combination of (1) motor primitives, (2) prediction of sensory outcomes of motor actions, and (3) evidence accumulation of prediction errors. It is shown that approximate but useful sensory predictions in the intermittent control context can be constructed without detailed forward models, as a superposition of simple prediction primitives, resembling neurobiologically observed corollary discharges. The proposed mathematical framework allows straightforward extension to intermittent behaviour from existing one-dimensional continuous models in the linear control and ecological psychology traditions. Empirical data from a driving simulator are used in model-fitting analyses to test some of the framework’s main theoretical predictions: it is shown that human steering control, in routine lane-keeping and in a demanding near-limit task, is better described as a sequence of discrete stepwise control adjustments, than as continuous control. Results on the possible roles of sensory prediction in control adjustment amplitudes, and of evidence accumulation mechanisms in control onset timing, show trends that match the theoretical predictions; these warrant further investigation. The results for the accumulation-based model align with other recent literature, in a possibly converging case against the type of threshold mechanisms that are often assumed in existing models of intermittent control.
      PubDate: 2018-02-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0743-9
  • Editorial Board of Biological Cybernetics: Advances in Computational
    • PubDate: 2018-01-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0744-8
  • Analysis of fMRI data using noise-diffusion network models: a new
           covariance-coding perspective
    • Authors: Matthieu Gilson
      Abstract: Since the middle of the 1990s, studies of resting-state fMRI/BOLD data have explored the correlation patterns of activity across the whole brain, which is referred to as functional connectivity (FC). Among the many methods that have been developed to interpret FC, a recently proposed model-based approach describes the propagation of fluctuating BOLD activity within the recurrently connected brain network by inferring the effective connectivity (EC). In this model, EC quantifies the strengths of directional interactions between brain regions, viewed from the proxy of BOLD activity. In addition, the tuning procedure for the model provides estimates for the local variability (input variances) to explain how the observed FC is generated. Generalizing, the network dynamics can be studied in the context of an input–output mapping—determined by EC—for the second-order statistics of fluctuating nodal activities. The present paper focuses on the following detection paradigm: observing output covariances, how discriminative is the (estimated) network model with respect to various input covariance patterns' An application with the model fitted to experimental fMRI data—movie viewing versus resting state—illustrates that changes in local variability and changes in brain coordination go hand in hand.
      PubDate: 2017-12-04
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0741-y
  • Area-specific processing of cerebellar-thalamo-cortical information in
    • Authors: Abdulraheem Nashef; Hannes Rapp; Martin P. Nawrot; Yifat Prut
      Abstract: The cerebellar-thalamo-cortical (CTC) system plays a major role in controlling timing and coordination of voluntary movements. However, the functional impact of this system on motor cortical sites has not been documented in a systematic manner. We addressed this question by implanting a chronic stimulating electrode in the superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) and recording evoked multiunit activity (MUA) and the local field potential (LFP) in the primary motor cortex ( \(n=926\) ), the premotor cortex ( \(n=357\) ) and the somatosensory cortex ( \(n=345\) ). The area-dependent response properties were estimated using the MUA response shape (quantified by decomposing into principal components) and the time-dependent frequency content of the evoked LFP. Each of these signals alone enabled good classification between the somatosensory and motor sites. Good classification between the primary motor and premotor areas could only be achieved when combining features from both signal types. Topographical single-site representation of the predicted class showed good recovery of functional organization. Finally, the probability for misclassification had a broad topographical organization. Despite the area-specific response features to SCP stimulation, there was considerable site-to-site variation in responses, specifically within the motor cortical areas. This indicates a substantial SCP impact on both the primary motor and premotor cortex. Given the documented involvement of these cortical areas in preparation and execution of movement, this result may suggest a CTC contribution to both motor execution and motor preparation. The stimulation responses in the somatosensory cortex were sparser and weaker. However, a functional role of the CTC system in somatosensory computation must be taken into consideration.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s00422-017-0738-6
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