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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3126 journals)
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BIOTECHNOLOGY (236 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 239 Journals sorted alphabetically
3 Biotech     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advanced Biomedical Research     Open Access  
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Advances in Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Regenerative Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Algal Research     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Bioinformatics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 32)
Anadolu University Journal of Science and Technology : C Life Sciences and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Animal Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annales des Sciences Agronomiques     Full-text available via subscription  
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biosafety     Hybrid Journal  
Applied Food Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Applied Mycology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Arthroplasty Today     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia Pacific Biotech News     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Australasian Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Banat's Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Beitr?ge zur Tabakforschung International/Contributions to Tobacco Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Algorithms and Med-Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bio-Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bioactive Materials     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biocybernetics and Biological Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Bioethics UPdate     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biofuels Engineering     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biological Cybernetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biomarkers and Genomic Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomarkers in Drug Development     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
BioMed Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomédica     Open Access  
Biomedical and Biotechnology Research Journal     Open Access  
Biomedical Engineering Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biomedical Glasses     Open Access  
Biomedical Reports     Full-text available via subscription  
BioMedicine     Open Access  
Biomedika     Open Access  
Bioprinting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioresource Technology Reports     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biosensors Journal     Open Access  
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biosurface and Biotribology     Open Access  
Biotechnic and Histochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BioTechniques : The International Journal of Life Science Methods     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Biotechnologia Acta     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnologie, Agronomie, Société et Environnement     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Advances     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Biotechnology and Bioengineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 153)
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering Reviews     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biotechnology and Health Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Reviews     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Annual Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biotechnology for Biofuels     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Biotechnology Frontier     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Biotechnology Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biotechnology Law Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biotechnology Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Biotechnology Progress     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Biotechnology Reports     Open Access  
Biotechnology Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology Techniques     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biotecnología Aplicada     Open Access  
Bioteknologi (Biotechnological Studies)     Open Access  
BIOTIK : Jurnal Ilmiah Biologi Teknologi dan Kependidikan     Open Access  
Biotribology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BMC Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Cell Biology and Development     Open Access  
Chinese Journal of Agricultural Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Communications in Mathematical Biology and Neuroscience     Open Access  
Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Copernican Letters     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Reviews in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Crop Breeding and Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current Bionanotechnology     Hybrid Journal  
Current Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Opinion in Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Current Research in Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Current Trends in Biotechnology and Chemical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Current trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
EBioMedicine     Open Access  
Electronic Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
Entomologia Generalis     Full-text available via subscription  
Environmental Science : Processes & Impacts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Folia Medica Indonesiana     Open Access  
Food Bioscience     Hybrid Journal  
Food Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Food Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers in Systems Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fungal Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
GM Crops and Food: Biotechnology in Agriculture and the Food Chain     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
GSTF Journal of BioSciences     Open Access  
HAYATI Journal of Biosciences     Open Access  
Horticulture, Environment, and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
IEEE Transactions on Molecular, Biological and Multi-Scale Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
IET Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
IIOAB Letters     Open Access  
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biotechnology (IJBT)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesia Journal of Biomedical Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Indonesian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Medicine     Open Access  
Industrial Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Biomechanics     Open Access  
International Journal of Bioinformatics Research and Applications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Biomechatronics and Biomedical Robotics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biotechnology for Wellness Industries     Partially Free   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Environment, Agriculture and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Functional Informatics and Personalised Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Nanotechnology and Molecular Computation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Radiation Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Iranian Journal of Biotechnology     Open Access  
ISABB Journal of Biotechnology and Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Italian Journal of Food Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JMIR Biomedical Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biometrics & Biostatistics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Bioterrorism & Biodefense     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Advanced Therapies and Medical Innovation Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Advances in Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal Of Agrobiotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Applied Biomedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Mathematics & Bioinformatics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Biologically Active Products from Nature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Biomedical Photonics & Engineering     Open Access  
Journal of Biomedical Practitioners     Open Access  
Journal of Bioprocess Engineering and Biorefinery     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques     Open Access  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Journal of Biotechnology and Strategic Health Research     Open Access  
Journal of Chemical and Biological Interfaces     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Chitin and Chitosan Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Colloid Science and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Essential Oil Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Journal of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Ginseng Research     Open Access  
Journal of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Integrative Bioinformatics     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Imaging and Health Informatics     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology     Open Access  
Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Nano Education     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Nanobiotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nanofluids     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Organic and Biomolecular Simulations     Open Access  
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Science and Applications : Biomedicine     Open Access  
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Tropical Microbiology and Biotechnology     Full-text available via subscription  
Journal of Yeast and Fungal Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Marine Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Meat Technology     Open Access  
Messenger     Full-text available via subscription  
Metabolic Engineering Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Metalloproteinases In Medicine     Open Access  
Microbial Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
MicroMedicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Molecular and Cellular Biomedical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Molecular Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nanobiomedicine     Open Access  
Nanobiotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology     Open Access  
Nanomedicine and Nanobiology     Full-text available via subscription  
Nanomedicine Research Journal     Open Access  

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover
Plant Biotechnology Reports
Journal Prestige (SJR): 0.543
Citation Impact (citeScore): 1
Number of Followers: 2  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 1863-5474 - ISSN (Online) 1863-5466
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2350 journals]
  • Functional conservation of MtFPA, a nucleus-localized RNA-recognition
           motif-binding protein that regulates flowering time in Medicago truncatula
           
    • Authors: Hyun-Ju Hwang; Hyemin Lim; Mi Ok Lee; A-Ram Kim; Dae-Woo Lee; So-Young Kim; Jong-Seong Jeon; Gang-Seob Lee
      Pages: 39 - 46
      Abstract: The FLOWERING TIME CONTROL PROTEIN FPA (FPA) gene encodes an RNA recognition motif (RRM) domain protein and plays an important role in flowering time control. Flowering responds to environmental conditions and developmental regulation through a network of signaling pathways. However, a little is known about the functions of autonomous pathway genes in Medicago truncatula. Here, we characterized the M. truncatula FPA (MtFPA) gene expression profiling through quantitative RT-PCR analysis, cellular localization, and functional analyses in transgenic plants. We cloned the FPA gene of M. truncatula based on its sequence similarity with Arabidopsis thaliana FPA. The quantitative RT-PCR analysis of MtFPA expression patterns showed that the MtFPA transcripts accumulated ubiquitously in the roots, leaves, stems, flowers, and pods of M. truncatula. The confocal image analysis of the fusion protein MtFPA:GFP revealed that MtFPA was localized in the nucleus. To examine the function of MtFPA, the 35S::MtFPA transgenic plants were generated in the Arabidopsis late-flowering mutant background, fpa-2. The overexpression of MtFPA accelerated flowering under long day conditions compared to the non-transgenic plants. In MtFPA transgenic lines, the expression of AtFLC was down-regulated, whereas that of the floral integrators, AtFT and AtSOC1, was up-regulated as compared to the control plants. These results suggest that MtFPA is a functional orthologue of Arabidopsis and plays an important role in the regulation of flowering time in legumes, especially in M. truncatula.
      PubDate: 2018-02-20
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0470-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Rapid discrimination of CMS cybrid lines between Brassica oleracea var.
           capitata and Raphanus sativus L. using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR)
           spectroscopy of genomic DNA
    • Authors: Eun Yee Jie; Myung Suk Ahn; Young Pyo Lee; Soon Kee Sung; Byung Whan Min; Jang Ryol Liu; Suk Weon Kim
      Abstract: The purpose of this study is to establish the rapid discrimination system of cybrid callus lines by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy without genetic fingerprinting analysis. Genomic DNA isolated from two parental lines (Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Raphanus sativus L.) and their cybrid callus lines were analyzed by FT-IR spectroscopy in the spectral region from 4000 to 400 cm−1. Several spectral differences between the two parental lines were detected in the frequency regions of N–H stretching (amide I), C=O stretching vibrations (amide II), and PO2− ionized asymmetric and symmetric stretching. Principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) were used to discriminate cybrid cell lines from the two parental species at the genomic DNA level. PLS-DA analysis provided more clear discrimination between the two parental lines and their progeny cybrid lines in the score plot. PCA loading values also showed that obvious spectral differences played a significant role in discrimination between the two parental lines and their cybrid lines. These spectral differences might be directly related to subtle changes in the base functional groups and backbone structures of genomic DNA. Considering these results, this technique could provide a research foundation for the FT-IR spectral-based diagnosis, selection, and discrimination of parental lines and their cybrids. Furthermore, this technique could be applied in the hybrid seed industry for rapid screening with high heterogeneity.
      PubDate: 2018-05-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0486-7
       
  • De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of the Pinus densiflora
           response to pine wilt disease in nature
    • Authors: Il Hwan Lee; Jinjoong Kim; Kwan-Soo Woo; Kyung-Hwan Jang; Yun-Hee Kim; Donghwan Shim
      Abstract: Pine trees have economically and ecologically important roles. However, since the beginning of the twentieth century, a large number of trees have been seriously damaged by pine wilt disease (PWD). Although many studies have been conducted into blocking the spread of PWD, relatively few studies have been performed to examine the transcriptional responses of pine trees to the pine wood nematode (PWN). Here, we performed de novo assembly and analysis of the Pinus densiflora transcriptome by next-generation sequencing (NGS), to identify transcriptional responses that are related to the PWD infection. We identified that 586 of 71,003 assembled unigenes were differentially expressed after PWD infection. Gene ontology analysis showed that biological process terms related to defense responses (response to oxygen containing compound, response to jasmonic acid, response to biotic stimulus, cinnamic acid biosynthetic process, etc.) were significantly enriched in the DEGs after PWD infection. Our results suggested that jasmonic acid signaling is important in controlling defense response against PWD infection and is finely tuned by coordinated expression of positive and negative regulators. These findings contribute to our understanding of the transcriptional responses of P. densiflora to PWN, and could facilitate the development of biomarkers for diagnosis of PWD.
      PubDate: 2018-05-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0488-5
       
  • Enhanced expression of dengue virus EDIII-based tetravalent antigen
           protein using transgenic rice callus
    • Authors: So-Chon Han; Nguyen-Xuan Huy; Mi-Young Kim
      Abstract: Mosquito-borne tropical dengue disease is a major global epidemic affecting hundreds of millions of people. As a precaution, it would be ideal to develop a highly efficient tetravalent vaccine that protects against all serotypes of dengue viruses. In this study, envelope protein domain III (EDIII) of dengue virus was employed as a target antigen. A single-chain tetravalent type of EDIII (tEDIII) was generated by utilizing a linker peptide and transformed into rice (Oryza sativa). Integration and mRNA transcripts of the tEDIII gene were confirmed by genomic DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Northern blot analyses, respectively. The expression of wild-type tEDIII (wtEDIII) protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis and was determined to improve the synthesis of the tEDIII (stEDIII) construct based on codon optimization and ER targeting. The yield of stEDIII protein was sevenfold higher than secreted wtEDIII protein, reaching a maximum of 357 µg per gram dry weight. These results suggest that a simple tetravalent EDIII dengue antigen can be produced in rice, raising the possibility that edible plant cells can be vaccinated by mucosal application for protection against dengue infection.
      PubDate: 2018-05-18
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0487-6
       
  • RNAi-based transgene conferred extreme resistance to the geminivirus
           causing apical leaf curl disease in potato
    • Authors: Garima Tomar; S. K. Chakrabarti; Nitya Nanda Sharma; A. Jeevalatha; S. Sundaresha; Kanika Vyas; Wamik Azmi
      Abstract: Potato apical leaf curl disease is an emerging geminiviral disease in tropics and subtropics. It was reported for the first time in the year 1999 in northern plains of India but quickly spread to almost all potato growing regions of the country largely due to prevalence of warmer weather during early crop growth, thereby favoring whitefly vector. The problem of apical leaf curl disease in India became more severe due to lack of seed indexing for this virus in conventional seed production scheme. Although it accounts for major yield loss, there is no conventional source of resistance available in potato against Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus-Potato (ToLCNDV-Potato) that causes this disease in potato. In the present study, we have investigated the potential use of RNAi for obtaining resistance against this DNA virus in potato. The replication-associated protein gene (AC1) of the virus was used to obtain pathogen-derived resistance. The AC1 gene was PCR amplified from field-infected potato leaves, cloned and sequenced (JN393309). It showed 93% sequence similarity with the AC1 gene of Tomato Leaf Curl Virus-New Delhi (TOLCV-NDe; DQ169056) virus. Transgenic plants encoding the AC1 gene in three different orientations, viz. sense, antisense and hairpin loop, were raised. Transgenic lines when challenge inoculated with ToLCNDV-Potato showed different levels of resistance for all three constructs. Transgene integration and copy number in selected transgenic lines were determined by qPCR and further confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Though a reduction in viral titer was observed in transgenic lines encoding either antisense or hairpin loop constructs of AC1 gene, the latter transgenics showed most significant results as shown by reduction in the level of symptom expression in glasshouse screening as well as real-time data of in vivo virus concentration. In fact, we obtained a few totally asymptomatic transgenic lines with hairpin loop strategy.
      PubDate: 2018-05-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0485-8
       
  • Micropropagation of the Mongolian medicinal plant Zygophyllum potaninii
           via somatic embryogenesis
    • Authors: Gun-Aajav Bayarmaa; Na Nyum Lee; Ho Duck Kang; Batlai Oyuntsetseg; Heung Kyu Moon
      Abstract: The Mongolian medicinal plant Zygophyllum potaninii has been assessed as an endangered species with regional status. We applied the somatic embryogenesis technique using aseptic in vitro germinants of the plant as an effective propagation technology. The seed germination rate in vitro was 16.5% after 2 weeks of culture. Embryonic calli (EC) and somatic embryos (SEs) were induced using the cotyledon or hypocotyl segments of the germinants. Calli were effectively induced on MS medium supplemented with 0.1 mg/L 2, 4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2, 4-d) and 0.5 mg/L 6-benzylamino purine (BA). The callus was composed of pale yellow or pale green friable cells. SE formed from EC only on Murashige and Skoog medium (MS) with 0.5 mg/L abscisic acid (ABA). Other concentrations of ABA failed to induce SE formation. All SEs germinated in MS medium with different salt levels. However, normal plant conversion was achieved only on half-strength MS medium. The converted plantlets were effectively acclimatized in vitro in sand and transferred to a mixture of sand and perlite (1:1 v/v) in the greenhouse. After 8 weeks of culture, 55.4% of the plants survived. This is a first report of propagating the medicinal desert plant Z. potaninii via somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration.
      PubDate: 2018-04-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0484-9
       
  • An insight into the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), tomato and thrips
           interaction
    • Authors: Ravi Gupta; Suk-Yoon Kwon; Sun Tae Kim
      Abstract: Lycopersicum esculentum (tomato), is a member of the Solanaceae family with a global production of approximately 159 million tons per year. However, the productivity of tomato is constrained by many factors including biotic and abiotic stresses. Of these, tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) is one of the major threats to tomato productivity. TSWV is a ribovirus and is transmitted by small insects commonly known as thrips. Several approaches have been utilized in the past few decades to understand the plant and thrips responses against TSWV. These include conventional molecular biology to high-throughput genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics approaches which have led to the identification of several genes/proteins involved in the tomato/thrips-TSWV interaction. Moreover, several genes (such as Sw-1 a and Sw-1 b , sw-2, sw-3, sw-4, Sw-5, Sw-6, and Sw-7) and proteins (like DNA-J) have also been identified from its plant hosts which provide resistance against this deadly virus. In this mini-review, we are summarizing the progress made so far in this area to provide the overview of tomato, thrips and TSWV interaction.
      PubDate: 2018-04-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0483-x
       
  • RNAi-mediated silencing of endogenous Vlnv gene confers stable reduction
           of cold-induced sweetening in potato ( Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée)
           
    • Authors: Amir Hameed; Rakhshanda Bilal; Farooq Latif; Joyce Van Eck; Georg Jander; Shahid Mansoor
      Abstract: Potato tubers must be cold-stored to extend their shelf life and maintain an uninterrupted supply chain for food processors. However, a side-effect of low-temperature storage is manifested in terms of cold-induced sweetening (CIS) of potato tubers, which reduces the processing quality and the commercial value of the end-products. RNA interference (RNAi) technology, whereby transgene-derived small interfering RNAs can trigger the homology-based knockdown of cognate host genes and can initiate gene silencing, has been successfully applied in crop improvement through targeted gene knockout in host plants. In the current study, transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum cv. Désirée) were generated, expressing a 300 bp hairpin loop nucleotide sequence targeting the potato vacuolar invertase gene (VInv), under the constitutive Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. Tubers collected from transgenic lines showed a significant reduction in reducing sugar content after 180 days of cold storage, without showing any measurable off-target effects on plant morphology and tuberization compared to non-transformed control plants. The cold-stored tubers were further assayed for chip color, which showed a fairly light colored quality in the samples originating from RNAi lines. Together with similar effects seen in previously published experiments involving other potato varieties, the Désirée results described here establish the efficacy of using RNAi for the successful reduction of CIS in potato tubers.
      PubDate: 2018-04-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0482-y
       
  • The role of cuscutain-propeptide inhibitor in haustoria parasitism and
           enhanced resistance to dodder in transgenic alfalfa expressing this
           propeptide
    • Authors: Massoume Amini; Haidar Saify Nabiabad; Ali Deljou
      Abstract: Cuscutain is a cysteine protease produced by dodder (the most important weeds of alfalfa) that is essential for the development and penetration of the haustoria in host. The propeptide subunit of cuscutain has a specific inhibitory function and inhibits the enzymatic activity of the cuscutain. In this study, we introduced the gene encoding the propeptide segment of the cuscutain (signal peptide-less inhibitor) into alfalfa and investigated its roles in parasitism and the alfalfa resistance to C. reflexa. Results demonstrated that cuscutain is mainly expressed in haustoria and the expression of propeptide in transgenic alfalfa plants effectively inhibited cuscutain enzyme activity and consequently interrupted haustoria development at the pathogenic stage. Digitate cells of haustoria could not differentiate into the xylem and phloem hyphae in dodder grown on transgenic alfalfa. Dodder development on transgenic alfalfa lines showed an overall reduction in fecundity and vigor due to imperfect attachment of haustoria. Morphology, nodule development and biomass of transgenic plants indicate that the inhibitory transgene exhibits exquisite specificity for cuscutain enzyme and by expression of the inhibitor in transgenic plants, there was no obvious adverse effect on them. The increased development and growth of dodder-challenged alfalfa transgenic plants compared to controls, showed the efficacy of propeptide in dodder control.
      PubDate: 2018-03-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0481-z
       
  • Nitric oxide-induced salt stress tolerance in plants: ROS metabolism,
           signaling, and molecular interactions
    • Authors: Mirza Hasanuzzaman; Hirosuke Oku; Kamrun Nahar; M. H. M. Borhannuddin Bhuyan; Jubayer Al Mahmud; Frantisek Baluska; Masayuki Fujita
      Abstract: Nitric oxide (NO), a non-charged, small, gaseous free-radical, is a signaling molecule in all plant cells. Several studies have proposed multifarious physiological roles for NO, from seed germination to plant maturation and senescence. Nitric oxide is thought to act as an antioxidant, quenching ROS during oxidative stress and reducing lipid peroxidation. NO also mediates photosynthesis and stomatal conductance and regulates programmed cell death, thus providing tolerance to abiotic stress. In mitochondria, NO participates in the electron transport pathway. Nitric oxide synthase and nitrate reductase are the key enzymes involved in NO-biosynthesis in aerobic plants, but non-enzymatic pathways have been reported as well. Nitric oxide can interact with a broad range of molecules, leading to the modification of protein activity, GSH biosynthesis, S-nitrosylation, peroxynitrite formation, proline accumulation, etc., to sustain stress tolerance. In addition to these interactions, NO interacts with fatty acids to form nitro-fatty acids as signals for antioxidant defense. Polyamines and NO interact positively to increase polyamine content and activity. A large number of genes are reprogrammed by NO; among these genes, proline metabolism genes are upregulated. Exogenous NO application is also shown to be involved in salinity tolerance and/or resistance via growth promotion, reversing oxidative damage and maintaining ion homeostasis. This review highlights NO-mediated salinity-stress tolerance in plants, including NO biosynthesis, regulation, and signaling. Nitric oxide-mediated ROS metabolism, antioxidant defense, and gene expression and the interactions of NO with other bioactive molecules are also discussed. We conclude the review with a discussion of unsolved issues and suggestions for future research.
      PubDate: 2018-03-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0480-0
       
  • Molecular profiling of a y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit at
           Glu-D1 locus from a North Korean landrace wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.)
    • Authors: Seong-Woo Cho; Kun Cho; Geul Bang; Chul Soo Park
      Abstract: The objective of this study is to demonstrate characteristics of a y-type high molecular weight glutenin subunit (D1y HMW-GS) at Glu-D1 found in IT212991, a North Korean landrace wheat compared to Dy12 and Dy12.K as a novel HMW-GS in JB20, a Korean wheat line onto molecular analyses as PCR, cloning, DNA sequencing, and RP-HPLC and proteomic analyses as sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS–PAGE), two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (LTQ-FT-MS). The D1y of IT212991 was identified to have faster electrophoretic mobility than that of Dy12 by SDS–PAGE. HMW-GS components of IT212991 were identified to be different from Chinese Spring (CS) and JB20, a Korean wheat line by RP-HPLC. The result of mass spectrometric analysis, the D1y of IT212991 (68510.8 Da) was similar to that of Dy12.K of JB20 (68514.4 Da), and lower than Dy12 of CS (69151.2 Da). The result of LTQ-FT-MS based on 2-DE, the D1y of IT212991 was identified to be similar with Dy12 corresponding to the protein function as ‘Glutenin, high molecular weight subunit 12’. The D1y encoding the D1y of IT212991 was identified to consist of 652 amino acid sequences corresponding to 1962 bp according to DNA sequencing. The gene was identified to have a insertion and deletion (InDel) corresponding to 18 bp sequences ‘AACAGGACAAGGGCAACA’ compared to ordinary Dy12 gene. It was demonstrated that the D1y of IT212991 is the same as Dy12.K.
      PubDate: 2018-03-09
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0479-6
       
  • A bicistronic transgene system for genetic modification of Parthenium
           argentatum
    • Authors: Grisel Ponciano; Niu Dong; Grace Chen; Colleen McMahan
      Abstract: Parthenium argentatum (guayule) was transformed with a bicistronic transgene containing a viral 2A cleavage sequence. The transgene includes the coding sequences of two key enzymes of the mevalonate pathway, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) and farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), involved in rubber biosynthesis. The viral 2A peptide sequence located between the two transgenes allowed for their co-expression via the Arabidopsis CBF2 (C-Binding repeat Factor 2) cold-inducible promoter. We identified three independent transgenic lines expressing the bicistronic transgenes upon cold treatment and examined the rubber content in the in vitro guayule plants.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0478-7
       
  • Improvement of conditional Cre-lox system through application of the
           regulatory sequences from Cowpea mosaic virus
    • Authors: L. Kopertekh; E. Krebs; F. Guzmann
      Abstract: To study the impact of regulatory sequences from Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) on Cre-mediated recombination rates, the cre gene was flanked by the 5′ non-translated and 3′ non-translated regions of CPMV. This cre configuration was tested by simultaneous excision of nptII selectable marker gene and heat-inducible cre recombinase gene in potato. Fusion of the cre recombinase sequence with modified regulatory sequences of CPMV increased both the excision efficiencies in primary regenerants and transmission frequencies of recombined loci to vegetative progeny as was confirmed by molecular analysis. These data might have practical implication with regard to selection of putative recombinants in vegetative progeny of potato and other clonally propagated plants as well.
      PubDate: 2018-02-22
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0477-8
       
  • Perspective: functional genomics towards new biotechnology in medicinal
           plants
    • Authors: Mami Yamazaki; Amit Rai; Naoko Yoshimoto; Kazuki Saito
      Abstract: The secret of chemical diversity and function of specialized metabolites in medicinal plants will be unveiled by study of functional genomics at an unprecedentedly rapid rate in the coming years. This is mostly ascribed to the remarkable advancement in the high-throughput DNA sequencing together with other omics technologies such as metabolomics, in particular, due to drastic reduction in the cost of acquiring, storing and analyzing massive omics datasets. Once the genes involved in a biosynthetic pathway of specialized compounds in plants are elucidated, synthetic biology or genome editing can be applied to produce the target compounds in an engineered organism or to manipulate the pathway in planta. Coupled with these advancements in pathway elucidation approaches, modern plant biotechnology strategies are bound to significantly contribute to the sustainable development goals set by United Nations.
      PubDate: 2018-02-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0476-9
       
  • Functional analysis of an APETALA1 -like MADS box gene from Eustoma
           grandiflorum in regulating floral transition and formation
    • Authors: Tien-Hsin Chuang; Kun-Hung Li; Pei-Fang Li; Chang-Hsien Yang
      Abstract: An Eustoma grandiflorum APETALA1 (EgAP1) gene showing high homology to the SQUA subfamily of MADS-box genes was isolated and characterized. EgAP1, containing a conserved euAP1 motif at the C-terminus, showed high sequence identity to Antirrhinum majus SQUAMOSA in the SQUA subfamily. EgAP1 mRNA was detected in the leaf and expressed significantly higher in young flower buds than in mature flower buds. In flowers, EgAP1 mRNA was strongly detected in sepal, weakly detected in petal and was absent in stamen and carpel. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants ectopically expressing EgAP1 flowered early and produced terminal flowers. In addition, the conversion of petals into stamen-like structures was also observed in 35S::EgAP1 flowers. 35S::EgAP1 was able to complement the ap1 flower defects by restoring the defect for sepal formation and significantly increasing second whorl petal production in Arabidopsis ap1 mutant plants. These results revealed that EgAP1 is the APETALA1 homolog in E. grandiflorum and that the function of EgAP1 is involved in floral induction and flower formation.
      PubDate: 2018-02-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0475-x
       
  • Ectopic expression of the LoERF017 transcription factor from Larix
           olgensis Henry enhances salt and osmotic-stress tolerance in Arabidopsis
           thaliana
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Hu; Xuemei Xu; Chenghao Li
      Abstract: Dehydration-responsive element binding (DREB) transcription factors (TFs) play a significant role in the response to many abiotic stresses, and they can regulate the downstream expression of some defense genes. In this study, a novel DREB TF gene, designated as LoERF017, was identified from Larix olgensis. The ORF of the LoERF017 gene is 624 bp and it contains an AP2/EREBP domain belonging to a typical DREB TF. Sub-cellular location analysis showed that LoERF017 was located in the nucleus. QRT-PCR analysis indicated that LoERF017 could be induced by NaCl, PEG6000, sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and ABA treatment. Moreover, an analysis of the survival rate and the development of transgenic plants under mannitol and NaCl revealed that the overexpression of LoERF017 in Arabidopsis could improve tolerance to osmotic and salt stress. Compared with wild-type (WT) plants, the overexpression of LoERF017 resulted in higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels under osmotic stress. Downstream stress-responsive genes, including COR, rd29A, and ERD10, were also activated in transgenic plants overexpressing LoERF017. In brief, the overexpression of the LoERF017 gene may directly or indirectly induce antioxidant enzyme systems and downstream stress-response genes to enhance osmotic resistance capacity in plants.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0473-z
       
  • The 5′ UTR intron-mediated enhancement of constitutive splicing of the
           tobacco microsome ω-3 fatty acid desaturase gene
    • Authors: Sayuri Ohta; Sakie Nakagawara; Sayaka Hirai; Kumi Miyagishima; Gorou Horiguchi; Hiroaki Kodama
      Abstract: Several plant genes have their first intron in the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR), and such 5′ UTR introns often show several biological functions, including the intron-mediated enhancement of protein expression through an increase of mRNA level (IME), intron-dependent spatial expression, and intron-mediated enhancement of translation. Here, we show another function of the 5′ UTR intron, i.e., the 5′ UTR intron-mediated enhancement of constitutive splicing. The NtFAD3 gene, which encodes a tobacco microsome ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, has a 552 nucleotide-long 5′ UTR intron (intron 1), and the other seven introns are located in the coding sequence. The splicing of the 5′ half region of the NtFAD3 was studied through an in vivo splicing assay using Arabidopsis leaf explants. The low splicing efficiency of intron 2 was much improved when the assay construct harbored intron 1. Deletion of intron 1 and the replacement of intron 1 to the NtFAD3 intron 8 decreased the splicing efficiency of intron 2. The splicing enhancers were redundant and dispersed in the 5′ splice site-proximal, 284-nucleotides region of intron 1. In addition, the interaction among the cis-elements, i.e., the splicing enhancers in the intron 1 and exon 2, were necessary for the efficient splicing of intron 2. The 5′ UTR intron-mediated constitutive splicing was partially inhibited when an SR-like protein, SR45, was deficient. These results indicated a novel function of the 5′ UTR intron, namely an enhancement of the constitutive splicing.
      PubDate: 2018-02-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0474-y
       
  • Genome editing technologies and their applications in crop improvement
    • Authors: Rukmini Mishra; Kaijun Zhao
      Abstract: Crop improvement is very essential to meet the increasing global food demands and enhance food nutrition. Conventional crop-breeding methods have certain limitations such as taking lot of time and resources, and causing biosafety concerns. These limitations could be overcome by the recently emerged-genome editing technologies that can precisely modify DNA sequences at the genomic level using sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs). Among the artificially engineered SSNs, the CRISPR/Cas9 is the most recently developed targeted genome modification system and seems to be more efficient, inexpensive, easy, user-friendly and rapidly adopted genome-editing tool. Large-scale genome editing has not only improved the yield and quality but also has enhanced the disease resistance ability in several model and other major crops. Increasing case studies suggest that genome editing is an efficient, precise and powerful technology that can accelerate basic and applied research towards crop improvement. In this review, we briefly overviewed the structure and mechanism of genome editing tools and then emphatically reviewed the advances in the application of genome editing tools for crop improvement, including the most recent case studies with CRISPR/Cpf1 and base-editing technologies. We have also discussed the future prospects towards the improvement of agronomic traits in crops.
      PubDate: 2018-01-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0472-0
       
  • Broad-specificity amino acid racemase, a novel non-antibiotic selectable
           marker for transgenic plants
    • Authors: Yi-Chia Kuan; Venkatesan Thiruvengadam; Jia-Shin Lin; Jia-Hsin Liu; Tsan-Jan Chen; Hsin-Mao Wu; Wen-Ching Wang; Liang-Jwu Chen
      Abstract: The broad-specificity amino acid racemase (Bsar) from Pseudomonas putida catalyzes the racemization of various amino acids, offering a flexible and feasible platform to develop a new non-antibiotic selectable marker system for plant transformation. In the present study, we demonstrated that a Bsar variant, Bsar-R174K, that is useful as a selectable marker gene in Arabidopsis and rice that were susceptible to l-lysine and D-alanine. The introduction of wild-type Bsar, Bsar-R174K or Bsar-R174A into E. coli lysine or asparagine auxotrophs was able to rescue the growth of these microorganisms in minimal media supplemented with selectable amino acid enantiomers. The transformation of Arabidopsis with Bsar or Bsar variants based on d-alanine selection revealed that Bsar-R174K had the greatest efficiency (2.40%), superior to kanamycin selection-based transformation (1.10%). Whereas, l-lysine-based selection exhibited lower efficiency for Bsar-R174K (0.17%). The progenies of selected Bsar-R174K transgenic Arabidopsis revealed normal growth properties. In addition, Bsar-R174K transgenic rice was obtained on l-lysine medium with an efficiency of 0.9%, and the progenies of the transgenic rice revealed morphologically normal phenotypes comparable with their wild-type counterparts. This study presents the first report of broad range amino acid racemase Bsar-R174K as a non-antibiotic selectable marker system applied in transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0469-8
       
  • Overexpression of the maize ZmAMT1;1a gene enhances root ammonium uptake
           efficiency under low ammonium nutrition
    • Authors: Yang Zhao; Zhi Liu; Fengying Duan; Xia An; Xiangguo Liu; Dongyun Hao; Riliang Gu; Zhangkui Wang; Fanjun Chen; Lixing Yuan
      Abstract: High-affinity ammonium uptake in maize roots is mainly mediated by AMT1-type ammonium transporters ZmAMT1;1a and ZmAMT1;3, but whether the increased expression of ZmAMTs genes is able to enhance ammonium uptake capacity and subsequently improves overall nitrogen use efficiency remains to be elucidated. In this work, ZmAMT1;1a-overexpression transgenic maize plants were generated with the elevated levels of transcripts and proteins, and phenotypically analyzed together with wild-type plants grown in nutrient solution under two regimes of ammonium supply. Under low ammonium nutrition (0.04 mM), in relative to wild-type plants, the maize transgenic lines showed an approximately 17% increases in the high-affinity ammonium uptake capacity of roots as revealed by 15N-labeled ammonium influx assay and further contributed to about 7% increases in the total nitrogen uptake at the whole plant level. By contrast, when ammonium was supplied in high amounts (1 mM), wild-type plants expressed higher levels of ZmAMT1;1a, but exhibited a lower ammonium uptake capacity in roots. Furthermore, the transgenic maize line accumulated more amounts of ZmAMT1;1a protein, but did not translate into an enhanced ammonium acquisition, suggesting a possible post-translational down-regulation of ZmAMT1;1a by high ammonium. This study proved the possibility to enhance ammonium acquisition by elevating ZmAMTs expression in maize roots and provided an effective transgenic approach on developing high nitrogen use efficient maize cultivars.
      PubDate: 2018-01-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s11816-018-0471-1
       
 
 
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