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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2698 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (206 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 342)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 201)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 231)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     [SJR: 0.572]   [H-I: 44]
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1605 journals]
  • DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATED GENES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF BROWN PLANTHOPPER
           AFTER FEEDING IN RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RICE VARIETIES
    • Authors: Xiaolan Wang; Mei Zhang, Fei Feng, Ruifeng He
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Brown planthopper (BPH) is a damaging insect pest of rice. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and mirror orientation selection to identify differentially regulated genes in salivary glands of BPH after feeding on resistant and susceptible varieties. The forward SSH library included 768 clones with insertions ranging from 250 to 1000 bp. After differential screening, a total of 112 transcripts were identified, which included 27 upregulated genes and seven downregulated genes. Several of these transcripts showed sequence homology to known proteins such as trehalase, mucin‐like protein, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, and eukaryotic initiation factor‐like protein. About half of the transcripts, however, did not match to any sequences in the protein databases currently available. Functional annotation of the transcripts showed gene ontology association with metabolism, signal transduction, and regulatory responses. Notably, many known functional genes were predicted to be secreted proteins. Also, gene expression profiles of the salivary glands of BPH feeding on resistant rice (B5) and susceptible rice (TN1) varieties were compared. Our data provide a molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms between BPH feeding and rice varieties with BPH resistance differences.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T00:12:01.68346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21226
       
  • IDENTIFICATION AND PARTIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PROTEASES IN LARVAL
           PREPARATIONS OF THE CEREAL LEAF BEETLE (Oulema melanopus, CHRYSOMELIDAE,
           COLEOPTERA)
    • Authors: Beata Wielkopolan; Felicyta Walczak, Andrzej Podleśny, Robert Nawrot, Aleksandra Obrępalska‐Stęplowska
      Abstract: We determined some biochemical properties of Oulema melanopus larval gut proteases. We found adult midgut enzyme preparations yielded results similar to whole‐larval preparations, permitting studies of the very small whole‐larval preparations. Protein preparations were analyzed using FITC–casein as a substrate. Acidic pH is optimal for proteolytic activity (range 3.0–4.0). Cysteine protease activity increased at acidic pH and in the presence of β‐mercaptoethanol. Protease activities at all pH values were maximal at 45°C. Enzyme activity in larval preparations was inhibited by addition of Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and K+ (10 mM). Fe2+ and Zn2+ significantly decreased enzyme activity at all pH values, Ca2+ and Mg2+ at pH 6.2 and Mg2+ at pH 4.0. Inhibitors, including pepstatin A, showed the greatest inhibition at pH 4.0; phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N‐p‐tosyl‐l‐phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone at pH 6.2; and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Nα‐tosyl‐l‐lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride, N‐p‐tosyl‐l‐phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, trans‐epoxysuccinyl‐l‐leucylamido‐(4‐guanidino) butane at pH of 7.6. Inhibition assays indicated that cysteine, aspartyl (cathepsin D), serine (trypsin, chymotrypsin‐like) proteases and metalloproteases act in cereal leaf beetle digestion.
      PubDate: 2015-01-12T06:52:25.637091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21223
       
  • Editorial Board
    • PubDate: 2015-01-09T05:50:07.994213-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21195
       
  • THE INFLUENCE OF A 21 kDa KUNITZ‐TYPE TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM
           NONHOST MADRAS THORN, Pithecellobium dulce, SEEDS ON H. armigera
           (HÜBNER) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
    • Authors: Prabhash K. Pandey; Dushyant Singh, Farrukh Jamal
      Abstract: A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of  Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver–Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10−8 M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose‐dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of  H. armigera.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T07:41:39.637984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21221
       
  • EFFECT OF LOW DOSES OF HERBICIDE PARAQUAT ON ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE IN
           Drosophila
    • Authors: Tomáš Krůček; Michala Korandová, Michal Šerý, Radmila Čapková Frydrychová, Tomáš Krůček, Michala Korandová, Klára Szakosová
      Abstract: Despite a high toxicity, paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Our study evaluated the effect of paraquat exposure on antioxidant response and locomotion activity in Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the transcript levels of both enzymes. Flies were exposed to a wide range of paraquat concentrations (0.25 μM to 25 mM) for 12 h. SOD, at both transcript and enzymatic levels, revealed a biphasic dose–response curve with the peak at 2.5 μM paraquat. A similar dose–response curve was observed at transcript levels of catalase. Males revealed higher susceptibility to paraquat exposure, displaying higher lethality, increased levels of SOD activity, and increased peroxide levels than in females. We found that the exposure of females to 2.5 μM paraquat leads to an increase in locomotion activity. Because susceptibility to paraquat was enhanced by mating, the study supports the hypothesis of elevation of stress sensitivity as a physiological cost of reproduction.
      PubDate: 2015-01-03T05:42:36.989099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21222
       
  • EFFECTS OF OXYGEN CONCENTRATION AND PRESSURE ON Drosophila melanogaster:
           OXIDATIVE STRESS, MITOCHONDRIAL ACTIVITY, AND SURVIVORSHIP
    • Authors: Gerardo Bosco; Martina Clamer, Elisa Messulam, Cristina Dare, Zhongjin Yang, Mauro Zordan, Carlo Reggiani, Qinggang Hu, Aram Megighian
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Organisms are known to be equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits in response to the imposed environmental challenges as they grow and develop. In this study, the effects of extreme changes in oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure on physiological phenotypes of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated to explore adaptation mechanisms. The changes in citrate synthase activity (CSA), lifespan, and behavioral function in different atmospheric conditions were evaluated. In the CAS test, hyperoxia significantly increased CSA; both hypoxia and hyperbaric conditions caused a significant decrease in CSA. In the survivorship test, all changed atmospheric conditions caused a significant reduction in lifespan. The lifespan reduced more after hypoxia exposure than after hyperbaria exposure. In behavioral function test, when mechanical agitation was conducted, bang‐sensitive flies showed a stereotypical sequence of initial muscle spasm, paralysis, and recovery. The percentage of individuals that displayed paralysis or seizure was measured on the following day and after 2 weeks from each exposure. The majority of flies showed seizure behavior 15 days after exposure, especially after 3 h of exposure. The percentage of individuals that did not undergo paralysis or seizure and was able to move in the vial, was also tested. The number of flies that moved and raised the higher level of the vial decreased after exposure. Animal's speed decreased significantly 15 days after exposure to extreme environmental conditions. In summary, the alteration of oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure may lead to significant changes in mitochondria mass, lifespan, and behavioral function in D. melanogaster.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T03:17:21.397414-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21217
       
  • BIOPOTENCY OF SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITORS FROM COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)
           SEEDS ON DIGESTIVE PROTEASES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF Spodoptera littoralis
           (BOISDUVAL)
    • Authors: Ashraf Oukasha Abd El‐latif
      Abstract: Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE‐Sephadex A‐25 column. Cream7‐purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect‐resistant transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T16:30:16.62718-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21216
       
  • KNOCKDOWN OF CS‐SPOOK INDUCES DELAYED LARVAL MOLTING IN RICE STRIPED
           STEM BORER Chilo suppressalis
    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Shahzad; Yao Li, Chang Ge, Yang Sun, Qiupu Yang, Fei Li
      Abstract: Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20‐hydroxyecdysone (20‐E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full‐length transcript of spook (Cs‐Spook) in SSB by 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs‐Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix‐C, Helix‐I, Helix‐K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs‐Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs‐Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA‐treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA‐treatment group was rescued by treating with 20‐E. Our work demonstrates that Cs‐Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20‐E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T08:11:19.788019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21213
       
  • THE OCTOPAMINE RECEPTOR octß2R IS ESSENTIAL FOR OVULATION AND
           FERTILIZATION IN THE FRUIT FLY Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Yong Li; Christine Fink, Samar El‐Kholy, Thomas Roeder
      Abstract: The biogenic monoamine octopamine is essential for ovulation and fertilization in insects. Release of this hormone from neurons in the thoracoabdominal ganglion triggers ovulation and sperm release from the spermathecae. Here we show that the effects of octopamine on ovulation are mediated by at least two different octopamine receptors. In addition to the Oamb receptor that is present in the epithelium of the oviduct, the octß2R receptor is essential for ovulation and fertilization. Octß2R is widely expressed in the female reproductive tract. Most prominent is expression in the oviduct muscle and the spermathecae. Animals deficient in expression of the receptor show a severe egg‐laying defect. The corresponding females have a much larger ovary that is caused by egg retention in the ovary. Moreover, the very few laid eggs are not fertilized, indicating problems in the process of sperm delivery. We assume that octß2R acts in a similar way as ß2‐adrenoreceptors in smooth muscles, were activation of this receptor induces an increase in cAMP levels that lead to relaxation of the muscle. Taken together, our findings show that octopaminergic control of ovulation and fertilization is more complex than anticipated and that various receptors located in different cells act together to enable a well‐orchestrated activity of the female reproductive system in response to copulation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T08:11:07.865342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21211
       
  • MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AN APOLIPOPHORIN‐III GENE FROM THE
           CHINESE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE)
    • Authors: Qiu‐Ning Liu; Kun‐Zhang Lin, Lin‐Nan Yang, Li‐Shang Dai, Lei Wang, Yu Sun, Cen Qian, Guo‐Qing Wei, Dong‐Ran Liu, Bao‐Jian Zhu, Chao‐Liang Liu
      Abstract: Apolipophorin‐III (ApoLp‐III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp‐III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap‐ApoLp‐III) was isolated and characterized. The full‐length cDNA of Ap‐ApoLp‐III is 687 bp, including a 5′‐untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3′‐UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin‐III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap‐apoLp‐III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap‐apoLp‐III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap‐ApoLp‐III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap‐ApoLp‐III showed that the expression of Ap‐ApoLp‐III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T07:46:44.97292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21210
       
  • TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF AN ENDOPARASITOID WASP Cotesia chilonis
           
    • Authors: Yixiang Qi; Ziwen Teng, Lingfeng Gao, Shunfan Wu, Jia Huang, Gongyin Ye, Qi Fang
      Abstract: For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus‐carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA‐seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception‐related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant‐binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus‐related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real‐time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult‐specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus‐carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:08:59.36601-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21214
       
  • VENOM OF THE PARASITOID WASP Pteromalus puparum CONTAINS AN ODORANT
           BINDING PROTEIN
    • Authors: Lei Wang; Jia‐Ying Zhu, Cen Qian, Qi Fang, Gong‐Yin Ye
      First page: 101
      Abstract: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial for insects to detect food, mates, predators, or other purposes. They are mostly located on antennae and other olfactory sensilla. In this study, we identified an OBP from the venom of Pteromalus puparum, designated as PpOBP. The cDNA of PpOBP is 517 bp in length, encoding 132 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PpOBP was clustered with OBP68 and OBP67 of Nasonia vitripennis. PpOBP was highly expressed in the venom apparatus at the transcriptional and translational levels. PpOBP was located in all parts of venom apparatus including venom gland, venom reservoir, and Dufour's gland. During 0–6 days post adult eclosion, the PpOBP mRNA level peaked at 2 days in the venom apparatus, whereas the protein remained at a high level. In the venom apparatus, the PpOBP mRNA was significantly upregulated following feeding with honey and parasitization. We propose that PpOBP is involved in parasitoid‐host interactions.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T04:18:47.630955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21206
       
  • Tcmof REGULATES LARVAL/PUPAL DEVELOPMENT AND FEMALE FECUNDITY IN RED FLOUR
           BEETLE, Tribolium castaneum
    • Authors: Yanyun Wang; Chengjun Li, Ming Sang, Bin Li
      First page: 111
      Abstract: Males absent on the first (MOF) was originally identified as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila melanogaster, and is also a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. MOF has been extensively studied in D. melanogaster and mammals. However, whether MOF is involved in dosage compensation and/or other vital functions for newly emerging model insects such as Tribolium castaneum, is unclear. We cloned the mof from T. castaneum, named Tcmof. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mof is highly conserved in eukaryotes but lost in birds. qPCR showed that Tcmof was most highly expressed in the early embryo stage and equally expressed in males and females. Treating larvae with ds‐Tcmof led 79.1% of the insects to arrest during its eclosion; the remaining insects died either in the larval stage or immediately following eclosion. Treating pupae with the same construct eliminated the fertility of T. castaneum. This effect was rescued by reciprocal crosses with wild‐type females, but not males. We infer that the mof gene is essential for larval/pupal development and female fertility in T. castaneum.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:27:03.37915-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21207
       
  • CHANGES IN THE HEMOLYMPH PROTEIN PROFILES IN Galleria mellonella INFECTED
           WITH Bacillus thuringiensis INVOLVE APOLIPOPHORIN III. THE EFFECT OF
           HEAT‐SHOCK
    • Authors: Paulina Taszłow; Iwona Wojda
      First page: 123
      Abstract: This report concerns the effect of heat shock on host–pathogen interaction in Galleria mellonella infected with Bacillus thuringiensis. We show enhanced activity against Gram‐positive bacteria in the hemolymph of larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock before infection with B. thuringiensis. Heat shock influenced the protein pattern in the hemolymph of infected larvae: more peptides with a molecular weight below 10 kDa were detected in comparison with nonshocked animals. Additionally, we noticed that the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp‐III) in the hemolymph decreased transiently following infection, which was considerably higher in larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock. On the other hand, its expression in the fat body showed a consequent infection‐induced decline, observed equally in shocked and nonshocked animals. This suggests that the amount of apoLp‐III in the hemolymph of G. mellonella larvae is regulated at multiple levels. We also report that this protein is more resistant to degradation in the hemolymph of larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock in comparison to nonshocked larvae. Two‐dimensional analysis revealed the presence of three isoforms of apoLp‐III, all susceptible to proteolytic degradation. However, one of them was the most abundant, both in the protease‐treated and untreated hemolymph. Taking into consideration that, in general, apoLp‐III has a stimulative effect on different immune‐related hemolymph proteins and peptides, the reported findings bring us closer to understanding the effect of heat shock on the resistance of G. mellonella to infection.
      PubDate: 2014-10-10T23:25:20.418079-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21208
       
  • KNOCKDOWN OF ATPsyn‐b CAUSED LARVAL GROWTH DEFECT AND MALE
           INFERTILITY IN Drosophila
    • Authors: Ya‐Na Chen; Chun‐Hong Wu, Ya Zheng, Jing‐Jing Li, Jia‐Lin Wang, Yu‐Feng Wang
      First page: 144
      Abstract: The ATPsyn‐b encoding for subunit b of ATP synthase in Drosophila melanogaster is proposed to act in ATP synthesis and phagocytosis, and has been identified as one of the sperm proteins in both Drosophila and mammals. At present, its details of functions in animal growth and spermatogenesis have not been reported. In this study, we knocked down ATPsyn‐b using Drosophila lines expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs and Gal4 drivers. Ubiquitous knockdown of ATPsyn‐b resulted in growth defects in larval stage as the larvae did not grow bigger than the size of normal second‐instar larvae. Knockdown in testes did not interrupt the developmental excursion to viable adult flies, however, these male adults were sterile. Analyses of testes revealed disrupted nuclear bundles during spermatogenesis and abnormal shaping in spermatid elongation. There were no mature sperm in the seminal vesicle of ATPsyn‐b knockdown male testes. These findings suggest us that ATPsyn‐b acts in growth and male fertility of Drosophila.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:08:49.499284-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21209
       
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Authors: Ying Liu; Hanhan Liu, Shumin Liu, Sheng Wang, Rong‐Jing Jiang, Sheng Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
 
 
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