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BIOCHEMISTRY (210 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 367)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
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Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
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Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 216)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 243)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
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Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
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BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioprocess     Open Access  
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.663]   [H-I: 48]   [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
           Bombyx mori L.
    • Authors: Chabungbam Orville Singh; Hu‐hu Xin, Rui‐ting Chen, Mei‐xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yan Lu, Zi‐zheng Cai, Deng‐pan Zhang, Yun‐gen Miao
      Abstract: Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C‐terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth‐instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04T07:15:42.386535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21228
  • Editorial Board
    • PubDate: 2015-02-04T01:39:23.882368-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21196
           BORER, Chilo suppressalis (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE), AND
    • Authors: Zhong‐Jun Gong; Su Liu, Yan‐Dong Jiang, Wen‐Wu Zhou, Qing‐Mei Liang, Jiaan Cheng, Chuan‐Xi Zhang, Zeng‐Rong Zhu, Geoff M Gurr
      Abstract: In this study, we constructed a high‐quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant‐binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real‐time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01T23:51:16.780352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21224
           WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci COMPLEX
    • Authors: Min Jiu; Jun‐Min Li, Xian‐Long Gao, Lun‐Ji Wang, Xiao‐Wei Wang, Shu‐Sheng Liu
      Abstract: Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPXs) are essential enzymes of the cellular antioxidant defense system during insect–plant interactions. However, little attention has been devoted to the functional characterization of PHGXPs in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two PHGPX genes, designated as BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 from the Mediterranean species of the B. tabaci complex. Sequence analysis indicated that the length of BtQ‐PHGPX1 is of 942 bp with a 729 bp open‐reading frame (ORF) encoding 242 amino acids, and BtQ‐PHGPX2 is of 699 bp with a 567 bp ORF encoding 188 amino acids. Sequence alignment analysis showed that BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 shared high similarity with other known PHGPXs. The NVASXCGXT, FPCNQFXXQEPG, and IKWNFXKFLV surrounded the reactive cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan residues, respectively. Recombinant BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR) analysis with whiteflies of different development stages showed that the mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX2 were significantly higher in larvae than in other stages. The mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX2 were significantly higher than BtQ‐PHGPX1 during all the developmental stages. The mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 in female adults were relatively higher than in male adults. The expression of BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 was induced by the insecticide imidacloprid. These results suggest that BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 may participate in detoxification of oxidative hazards in B. tabaci.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01T23:39:52.677914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21225
    • Authors: Xiaolan Wang; Mei Zhang, Fei Feng, Ruifeng He
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Brown planthopper (BPH) is a damaging insect pest of rice. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and mirror orientation selection to identify differentially regulated genes in salivary glands of BPH after feeding on resistant and susceptible varieties. The forward SSH library included 768 clones with insertions ranging from 250 to 1000 bp. After differential screening, a total of 112 transcripts were identified, which included 27 upregulated genes and seven downregulated genes. Several of these transcripts showed sequence homology to known proteins such as trehalase, mucin‐like protein, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, and eukaryotic initiation factor‐like protein. About half of the transcripts, however, did not match to any sequences in the protein databases currently available. Functional annotation of the transcripts showed gene ontology association with metabolism, signal transduction, and regulatory responses. Notably, many known functional genes were predicted to be secreted proteins. Also, gene expression profiles of the salivary glands of BPH feeding on resistant rice (B5) and susceptible rice (TN1) varieties were compared. Our data provide a molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms between BPH feeding and rice varieties with BPH resistance differences.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T00:12:01.68346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21226
           NONHOST MADRAS THORN, Pithecellobium dulce, SEEDS ON H. armigera
    • Authors: Prabhash K. Pandey; Dushyant Singh, Farrukh Jamal
      Abstract: A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of  Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver–Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10−8 M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose‐dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of  H. armigera.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T07:41:39.637984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21221
    • Authors: Tomáš Krůček; Michala Korandová, Michal Šerý, Radmila Čapková Frydrychová, Tomáš Krůček, Michala Korandová, Klára Szakosová
      Abstract: Despite a high toxicity, paraquat is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world. Our study evaluated the effect of paraquat exposure on antioxidant response and locomotion activity in Drosophila melanogaster. We examined the enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase, and the transcript levels of both enzymes. Flies were exposed to a wide range of paraquat concentrations (0.25 μM to 25 mM) for 12 h. SOD, at both transcript and enzymatic levels, revealed a biphasic dose–response curve with the peak at 2.5 μM paraquat. A similar dose–response curve was observed at transcript levels of catalase. Males revealed higher susceptibility to paraquat exposure, displaying higher lethality, increased levels of SOD activity, and increased peroxide levels than in females. We found that the exposure of females to 2.5 μM paraquat leads to an increase in locomotion activity. Because susceptibility to paraquat was enhanced by mating, the study supports the hypothesis of elevation of stress sensitivity as a physiological cost of reproduction.
      PubDate: 2015-01-03T05:42:36.989099-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21222
    • Authors: Beata Wielkopolan; Felicyta Walczak, Andrzej Podleśny, Robert Nawrot, Aleksandra Obrępalska‐Stęplowska
      First page: 192
      Abstract: We determined some biochemical properties of Oulema melanopus larval gut proteases. We found adult midgut enzyme preparations yielded results similar to whole‐larval preparations, permitting studies of the very small whole‐larval preparations. Protein preparations were analyzed using FITC–casein as a substrate. Acidic pH is optimal for proteolytic activity (range 3.0–4.0). Cysteine protease activity increased at acidic pH and in the presence of β‐mercaptoethanol. Protease activities at all pH values were maximal at 45°C. Enzyme activity in larval preparations was inhibited by addition of Fe2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, and K+ (10 mM). Fe2+ and Zn2+ significantly decreased enzyme activity at all pH values, Ca2+ and Mg2+ at pH 6.2 and Mg2+ at pH 4.0. Inhibitors, including pepstatin A, showed the greatest inhibition at pH 4.0; phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, N‐p‐tosyl‐l‐phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone at pH 6.2; and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, Nα‐tosyl‐l‐lysine chloromethyl ketone hydrochloride, N‐p‐tosyl‐l‐phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone, trans‐epoxysuccinyl‐l‐leucylamido‐(4‐guanidino) butane at pH of 7.6. Inhibition assays indicated that cysteine, aspartyl (cathepsin D), serine (trypsin, chymotrypsin‐like) proteases and metalloproteases act in cereal leaf beetle digestion.
      PubDate: 2015-01-12T06:52:25.637091-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21223
    • Authors: Gerardo Bosco; Martina Clamer, Elisa Messulam, Cristina Dare, Zhongjin Yang, Mauro Zordan, Carlo Reggiani, Qinggang Hu, Aram Megighian
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: Organisms are known to be equipped with an adaptive plasticity as the phenotype of traits in response to the imposed environmental challenges as they grow and develop. In this study, the effects of extreme changes in oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure on physiological phenotypes of Drosophila melanogaster were investigated to explore adaptation mechanisms. The changes in citrate synthase activity (CSA), lifespan, and behavioral function in different atmospheric conditions were evaluated. In the CAS test, hyperoxia significantly increased CSA; both hypoxia and hyperbaric conditions caused a significant decrease in CSA. In the survivorship test, all changed atmospheric conditions caused a significant reduction in lifespan. The lifespan reduced more after hypoxia exposure than after hyperbaria exposure. In behavioral function test, when mechanical agitation was conducted, bang‐sensitive flies showed a stereotypical sequence of initial muscle spasm, paralysis, and recovery. The percentage of individuals that displayed paralysis or seizure was measured on the following day and after 2 weeks from each exposure. The majority of flies showed seizure behavior 15 days after exposure, especially after 3 h of exposure. The percentage of individuals that did not undergo paralysis or seizure and was able to move in the vial, was also tested. The number of flies that moved and raised the higher level of the vial decreased after exposure. Animal's speed decreased significantly 15 days after exposure to extreme environmental conditions. In summary, the alteration of oxygen availability and atmospheric pressure may lead to significant changes in mitochondria mass, lifespan, and behavioral function in D. melanogaster.
      PubDate: 2014-12-22T03:17:21.397414-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21217
    • Authors: Ashraf Oukasha Abd El‐latif
      Abstract: Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE‐Sephadex A‐25 column. Cream7‐purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect‐resistant transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T16:30:16.62718-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21216
    • Authors: Yixiang Qi; Ziwen Teng, Lingfeng Gao, Shunfan Wu, Jia Huang, Gongyin Ye, Qi Fang
      Abstract: For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus‐carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA‐seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception‐related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant‐binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus‐related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real‐time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult‐specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus‐carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
      PubDate: 2014-10-22T00:08:59.36601-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21214
    • Authors: Qiu‐Ning Liu; Kun‐Zhang Lin, Lin‐Nan Yang, Li‐Shang Dai, Lei Wang, Yu Sun, Cen Qian, Guo‐Qing Wei, Dong‐Ran Liu, Bao‐Jian Zhu, Chao‐Liang Liu
      First page: 155
      Abstract: Apolipophorin‐III (ApoLp‐III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp‐III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap‐ApoLp‐III) was isolated and characterized. The full‐length cDNA of Ap‐ApoLp‐III is 687 bp, including a 5′‐untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3′‐UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin‐III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap‐apoLp‐III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap‐apoLp‐III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap‐ApoLp‐III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap‐ApoLp‐III showed that the expression of Ap‐ApoLp‐III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi.
      PubDate: 2014-10-27T07:46:44.97292-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21210
           FERTILIZATION IN THE FRUIT FLY Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Yong Li; Christine Fink, Samar El‐Kholy, Thomas Roeder
      First page: 168
      Abstract: The biogenic monoamine octopamine is essential for ovulation and fertilization in insects. Release of this hormone from neurons in the thoracoabdominal ganglion triggers ovulation and sperm release from the spermathecae. Here we show that the effects of octopamine on ovulation are mediated by at least two different octopamine receptors. In addition to the Oamb receptor that is present in the epithelium of the oviduct, the octß2R receptor is essential for ovulation and fertilization. Octß2R is widely expressed in the female reproductive tract. Most prominent is expression in the oviduct muscle and the spermathecae. Animals deficient in expression of the receptor show a severe egg‐laying defect. The corresponding females have a much larger ovary that is caused by egg retention in the ovary. Moreover, the very few laid eggs are not fertilized, indicating problems in the process of sperm delivery. We assume that octß2R acts in a similar way as ß2‐adrenoreceptors in smooth muscles, were activation of this receptor induces an increase in cAMP levels that lead to relaxation of the muscle. Taken together, our findings show that octopaminergic control of ovulation and fertilization is more complex than anticipated and that various receptors located in different cells act together to enable a well‐orchestrated activity of the female reproductive system in response to copulation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T08:11:07.865342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21211
           STEM BORER Chilo suppressalis
    • Authors: Muhammad Faisal Shahzad; Yao Li, Chang Ge, Yang Sun, Qiupu Yang, Fei Li
      First page: 179
      Abstract: Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20‐hydroxyecdysone (20‐E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full‐length transcript of spook (Cs‐Spook) in SSB by 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs‐Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix‐C, Helix‐I, Helix‐K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs‐Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs‐Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA‐treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA‐treatment group was rescued by treating with 20‐E. Our work demonstrates that Cs‐Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20‐E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T08:11:19.788019-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21213
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
    • Authors: Ying Liu; Hanhan Liu, Shumin Liu, Sheng Wang, Rong‐Jing Jiang, Sheng Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
           Mylabris cichorii
    • Abstract: Cantharidin is a biomolecule with a role in host defense that can also be used as an anticancer drug. The in vivo biosynthetic pathway for cantharidin has been the subject of debate for several decades and the mechanism is not yet completely understood. To study the biosynthetic pathway of cantharidin in blister beetles, Mylabris cichori, a full‐length MenA (McMenA) cDNA was cloned based on the partial sequence of the MenA gene from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of male and female adult M. cichorii. The cDNA was 1264 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 1026 bp nucleotides encoding a 341 amino acid protein. Analysis of the McMenA amino acid sequence showed that the aspartate rich motif N/DDxxD represented binding sites for prenyl diphosphate via a Mg2+ ion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that McMenA was most closely related to MenA of Tribolium castaneum, and the amino acid sequence similarity was 86%. The expression pattern of McMenA in adults was analyzed using RT‐qPCR, and we found that the highest expression of McMenA occurred during 22–25 days in the sex‐separate breeding males, while the lowest expression occurred in females at the same time. Injection with a specific double‐strand RNA (dsRNA) of McMenA led to a significant reduction of McMenA mRNA levels after 24 h. Cantharidin and ATP concentrations dropped around the same time. Together, our data showed that the McMenA gene might be involved in cantharidin biosynthesis.
           Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Abstract: The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione‐S‐transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis.
    • Abstract: Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA+ cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH‐1+ cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA+ neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA+ sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA+ sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp.
    • Abstract: We described the cDNA cloning of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin (BdCec), and attacin C (BdAttC), from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious insect pest of fruit trees. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, fragments encompassing the entire open reading frames of BdCec and BdAttC were cloned and sequenced. The complete 425 bp cDNA of BdCec encodes a protein of 64 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 6.84 kDa. The 931 bp cDNA of BdAttC encodes a protein of 239 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24.97 kDa. Real‐time quantitative RT‐PCR demonstrated that the developmental transcription profiles of BdCec and BdAttC were similar in each larvae, pupae, and adults. The constitutive expression levels of both AMPs were high in the first‐instar and late third‐instar larvae, suggesting that their antimicrobial activity is active in the newly hatched larvae and just before pupation. The basal expression levels were not significant different in adult fat bodies. The expression of BdCec and BdAttC was upregulated after bacterial challenge in adult fat bodies. The ratio of inducible expression to constitutive expression was lower in males compared to females.
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