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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2844 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (216 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 195)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 81)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 93)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 141)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Plasticity     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.663]   [H-I: 48]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1607 journals]
  • PGE2 MEDIATES OENOCYTOID CELL LYSIS VIA A
           SODIUM‐POTASSIUM‐CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER
    • Authors: Sony Shrestha; Jiyeong Park, Seung‐Joon Ahn, Yonggyun Kim
      Abstract: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including oenocytoid cell lysis (a class of lepidopteran hemocytes: OCL) via its specific membrane receptor to release inactive prophenoloxidase (PPO) into hemolymph. PPO is activated into phenoloxidase in the plasma to play crucial roles in the immune responses of S. exigua. The mechanism of OCL has not been elucidated, however we posed the hypothesis that a rapid accumulation of sodium ions within the oenocytoids allows a massive influx of water by the ion gradient, which leads to the cell lysis. It remains unclear which sodium channel is responsible for the OCL in response to PGE2. This study identified a specific sodium channel called sodium‐potassium‐chloride cotransporter 1 (Se‐NKCC1) expressed in hemocytes of S. exigua and analyzed its function in the OCL in response to PGE2. Se‐NKCC1 encodes a basic membrane protein (pI value = 8.445) of 1,066 amino acid residues, which contains 12 putative transmembrane domains. Se‐NKCC1 was expressed in all developmental stages and tissues. qPCR showed that bacterial challenge significantly induced its expression. A specific inhibitor of NKCC, bumetanide, prevented the OCL in a dose‐dependent manner. When RNA interference (RNAi) using double‐stranded RNA specific to Se‐NKCC1 suppressed its expression, the OCL and PPO activation were significantly inhibited in response to PGE2. The RNAi treatment also reduced nodule formation to bacterial challenge. These results suggest that Se‐NKCC1 is associated with OCL by facilitating inward transport of ions in response to PGE2.
      PubDate: 2015-04-06T08:13:23.594503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21238
       
  • A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera
           frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9
    • Authors: Benshui Shu; Wenxiang Wang, Qingbo Hu, Jingfei Huang, Meiying Hu, Guohua Zhong
      Abstract: The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well‐known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10−6 and 6.348 × 10−9 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase‐1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase‐dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T05:20:51.9908-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21233
       
  • THE EFFECTS OF XANTHOTOXIN ON THE BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF Galleria
           mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Authors: Meltem Erdem; Ender Büyükgüzel
      Abstract: The effects of a dietary plant allelochemical, xanthotoxin (XA), on survivorship, development, male and female adult longevity, fecundity, and hatchability of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. were investigated. Oxidative stress indicators, the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein oxidation products, protein carbonyl (PCO) contents, and activities of a detoxification enzyme glutathione S‐transferase (GST) activity were determined in wax moth adults. The insect was reared from first‐instar larvae on an artificial diets containing XA at 0.001, 0.005, or 0.1% to adult stage in laboratory conditions. Relative to the controls, the diets containing XA concentrations led to decreased survivorship in seventh instar, pupal, and adult stages. Compared to control diet (77.7%), the highest dietary XA concentration decreased survivorship to adulthood to 11.0%. The highest XA concentration (0.1%) reduced female longevity from 10.4 to 5.7 days and decreased egg numbers from 95.0 to 33.5 and hatchability from 82.7 to 35.6%. The lowest XA concentration (0.001%) led to about a sixfold increase in MDA content. XA at high concentrations (0.005 and 0.1%) increased MDA (by threefold) and protein carbonyl (by twofold) contents decreased GST activity. The highest dietary XA concentration decreased GST activity from 0.28 ± 0.025 to 0.16 ± 0.005 μmol/mg protein/min. We infer from these findings that XA‐induced oxidative stress led to decreased biological fitness.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T02:03:44.079437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21236
       
  • THE NEUROPEPTIDE BURSICON ACTS IN CUTICLE METABOLISM
    • Authors: Shengzhang Dong; Hongwei Zhang, Xi Chen, David Stanley, Xiaoping Yu, Qisheng Song
      Abstract: Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon α (burs α) and bursicon β (burs β) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs α–α and burs β−β homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes during molting. Based on the hypothesis that burs β−β and/or bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt, we prepared and sequenced six Drosophila cDNA libraries from groups of flies separately injected with burs β−β, bursicon, or blank control. Compared to the control, the burs β−β treatments led to upregulation (by at least 1.5‐fold) of 262 genes at 0.5 h postinjection (PI) and 298 genes at 1 h PI; 323 genes at 0.5 h PI and 269 genes at 1h PI were downregulated (by at least 0.67). Similar changes were recorded following bursicon injections. Of these genes, expression of seven transcripts encoding cuticle proteins was upregulated and three downregulated by burs β−β; expression of nine transcripts encoding cuticle proteins were upregulated and four downregulated following bursicon treatments. Expression of dozens of genes involved in chitin metabolism was altered by the experimental treatments. We recorded parallel changes in expression of selected genes by transcriptome and qPCR analysis. These findings support our hypothesis that burs β−β and bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt. We report that burs β−β and bursicon act in cuticle synthesis and degradation by regulating the expression of cuticular protein and chitin metabolizing related genes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T02:03:01.139155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21227
       
  • IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE
           WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina
    • Authors: Cen Qian; Wei‐Wei Fu, Guo‐Qing Wei, Lei Wang, Qiu‐Ning Liu, Li‐Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Bao‐Jian Zhu, Chao‐Liang Liu
      Abstract: The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni‐NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1:12,800 measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT‐qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR‐related genes (Vg, egg‐specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly.
      PubDate: 2015-03-23T02:23:45.967634-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21235
       
  • DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT
           SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT
    • Authors: Bo Yong Kim; Hwa Young Song, Mi Young Kim, Bong Hee Lee, Kyung Joo Kim, Kyung Jin Jo, Suhng Wook Kim, Seung Gwan Lee, Boo Hyung Lee
      Abstract: Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA+ cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH‐1+ cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA+ neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA+ sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA+ sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T07:29:43.820702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21234
       
  • cDNA CLONING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF THE CECROPIN AND ATTACIN
           FROM THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
    • Authors: Yin‐Yin Liao; Yu‐Han Zuo, Cheng‐Lung Tsai, Chia‐Ming Hsu, Mei‐Er Chen
      Abstract: We described the cDNA cloning of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin (BdCec), and attacin C (BdAttC), from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious insect pest of fruit trees. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, fragments encompassing the entire open reading frames of BdCec and BdAttC were cloned and sequenced. The complete 425 bp cDNA of BdCec encodes a protein of 64 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 6.84 kDa. The 931 bp cDNA of BdAttC encodes a protein of 239 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24.97 kDa. Real‐time quantitative RT‐PCR demonstrated that the developmental transcription profiles of BdCec and BdAttC were similar in each larvae, pupae, and adults. The constitutive expression levels of both AMPs were high in the first‐instar and late third‐instar larvae, suggesting that their antimicrobial activity is active in the newly hatched larvae and just before pupation. The basal expression levels were not significant different in adult fat bodies. The expression of BdCec and BdAttC was upregulated after bacterial challenge in adult fat bodies. The ratio of inducible expression to constitutive expression was lower in males compared to females.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T07:26:54.039248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21230
       
  • INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM
           Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Authors: Beyza Dere; Hülya Altuntaş, Z. Ulya Nurullahoğlu
      Abstract: The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione‐S‐transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T10:17:48.929691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21231
       
  • ISOLATION AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF McMenA, A GENE ENCODING A
           1,4‐DIHYDROXY‐2‐NAPHTHOATE OCTAPRENYLTRANSFERASE IN
           Mylabris cichorii
    • Authors: Y. F. Liao; Y. Wang, Y. Huang, S. F. Zha, J. J. Liu, Z. K. Wang, Y. P. Yin, Y. F. Liao, Y. Wang
      Abstract: Cantharidin is a biomolecule with a role in host defense that can also be used as an anticancer drug. The in vivo biosynthetic pathway for cantharidin has been the subject of debate for several decades and the mechanism is not yet completely understood. To study the biosynthetic pathway of cantharidin in blister beetles, Mylabris cichori, a full‐length MenA (McMenA) cDNA was cloned based on the partial sequence of the MenA gene from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of male and female adult M. cichorii. The cDNA was 1264 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 1026 bp nucleotides encoding a 341 amino acid protein. Analysis of the McMenA amino acid sequence showed that the aspartate rich motif N/DDxxD represented binding sites for prenyl diphosphate via a Mg2+ ion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that McMenA was most closely related to MenA of Tribolium castaneum, and the amino acid sequence similarity was 86%. The expression pattern of McMenA in adults was analyzed using RT‐qPCR, and we found that the highest expression of McMenA occurred during 22–25 days in the sex‐separate breeding males, while the lowest expression occurred in females at the same time. Injection with a specific double‐strand RNA (dsRNA) of McMenA led to a significant reduction of McMenA mRNA levels after 24 h. Cantharidin and ATP concentrations dropped around the same time. Together, our data showed that the McMenA gene might be involved in cantharidin biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-14T05:39:56.289562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21229
       
  • RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM
           Bombyx mori L.
    • Authors: Chabungbam Orville Singh; Hu‐hu Xin, Rui‐ting Chen, Mei‐xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yan Lu, Zi‐zheng Cai, Deng‐pan Zhang, Yun‐gen Miao
      Abstract: Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C‐terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth‐instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04T07:15:42.386535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21228
       
  • DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATED GENES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF BROWN PLANTHOPPER
           AFTER FEEDING IN RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RICE VARIETIES
    • Authors: Xiaolan Wang; Mei Zhang, Fei Feng, Ruifeng He
      Abstract: Brown planthopper (BPH) is a damaging insect pest of rice. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and mirror orientation selection to identify differentially regulated genes in salivary glands of BPH after feeding on resistant and susceptible varieties. The forward SSH library included 768 clones with insertions ranging from 250 to 1000 bp. After differential screening, a total of 112 transcripts were identified, which included 27 upregulated genes and seven downregulated genes. Several of these transcripts showed sequence homology to known proteins such as trehalase, mucin‐like protein, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, and eukaryotic initiation factor‐like protein. About half of the transcripts, however, did not match to any sequences in the protein databases currently available. Functional annotation of the transcripts showed gene ontology association with metabolism, signal transduction, and regulatory responses. Notably, many known functional genes were predicted to be secreted proteins. Also, gene expression profiles of the salivary glands of BPH feeding on resistant rice (B5) and susceptible rice (TN1) varieties were compared. Our data provide a molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms between BPH feeding and rice varieties with BPH resistance differences.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T00:12:01.68346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21226
       
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Authors: Ying Liu; Hanhan Liu, Shumin Liu, Sheng Wang, Rong‐Jing Jiang, Sheng Li
      Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
  • EFFECTS OF FIVE DIVERSE LIGNOCELLULOSIC DIETS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME
           BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE TERMITE Reticulitermes flavipes
    • Abstract: Termites have recently drawn much attention as models for biomass processing, mainly due to their lignocellulose digestion capabilities and mutualisms with cellulolytic gut symbionts. This research used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes to investigate gut enzyme activity changes in response to feeding on five diverse lignocellulosic diets (cellulose filter paper [FP], pine wood [PW], beech wood xylan [X], corn stover [CS], and soybean residue [SB]). Our objectives were to compare whole‐gut digestive enzyme activity and host versus symbiont contributions to enzyme activity after feeding on these diets. Our hypothesis was that enzyme activities would vary among diets as an adaptive mechanism enabling termites and symbiota to optimally utilize variable resources. Results support our “diet‐adaptation” hypothesis and further indicate that, in most cases, host contributions are greater than those of symbionts with respect to the enzymes and activities studied. The results obtained thus provide indications as to which types of transcriptomic resources, termite or symbiont, are most relevant for developing recombinant enzyme cocktails tailored to specific feedstocks. With regard to the agricultural feedstocks tested (CS and SB), our results suggest endoglucanase and exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase) activities are most relevant for CS breakdown; whereas endoglucanase and xylosidase activities are relevant for SB breakdown. However, other unexplored activities than those tested may also be important for breakdown of these two feedstocks. These findings provide new protein‐level insights into diet adaptation by termites, and also complement host–symbiont metatranscriptomic studies that have been completed for R. flavipes after FP, PW, CS, and SB feeding.
       
  • PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS FROM
           DELTAMETHRIN‐RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF THE DIAMONDBACK
           MOTH, Plutella Xylostella L.
    • Abstract: Ubiquitin, a small protein consisting of 76 amino acids, acts in protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and receptor control through endocytosis. Using proteomics, we compared the differentially ubiquitinated proteins between a deltamethrin‐resistant (DR) strain and a deltamethrin‐sensitive (DS) strain in third‐instar larvae of the diamondback moth. We used polyubiquitin affinity beads to enrich ubiquitinated proteins and then performed one‐dimensional SDS‐PAGE separation and mass spectrometric identification. In the DR strain, We found 17 proteins that were upregulated (relative to the DS strain), including carbonic anhydrase family members, ADP ribosylation factor 102F CG11027‐PA, protein kinase 61C, phospholipase A2, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and heat shock proteins, and five proteins that were downregulated in the DS strain, including carboxylesterase and DNA cytosine‐5 methyltransferase. These results were also verified by qPCR. The differentially ubiquitinated proteins/enzymes were mainly responsible for protein binding, catalytic activity, and molecular transducer activity. These results improve our understanding of the relationship between protein ubiquitination and the deltamethrin stress response.
       
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    •  
  • TWO INNEXINS OF Spodoptera litura INFLUENCES HEMICHANNEL AND GAP JUNCTION
           FUNCTIONS IN CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES
    • Abstract: Insect cellular immune responses include encapsulation, nodule formation, and phagocytosis. Hemichannels and gap junctions are involved in these cellular actions. Innexins (Inxs: analogous to the vertebrate connexins) form hemichannels and gap junctions, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their biology is still unclear. In this article, we reported a steady‐state level of Inxs (SpliInxs) in hemocytes of Spodoptera litura, which formed nonfunctional hemichannels on the cell surface to maintain normal metabolism. We also reported that two innnexins (SpliInx2 and SpliInx3) were expressed significantly higher in hemocytes compared to other tissues, suggesting that they play important roles in hemocytes. Amino acid analysis found that two cysteine residues in two extracellular loops provided the capability for SpliInx2 and SpliInx3 hemichannels to dock into gap junctions. Western blotting demonstrated that both extracellular and intracellular loops of SpliInx3 and the extracellular loops of SpliInx2 might undergo posttranslational modification during the formation of a steady‐state hemichannel. During hemichannel formation, SpliInx2 presented as one isoform, while SpliInx3 presented as three isoforms. These results provide fundamental knowledge for further study of how steady‐state levels of SpliInxs are dynamically adjusted to perform cellular immune responses under immune challenge.
       
  • IMPACT OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF A PARASITIC BEETLE Dastarcus helophoroides ON
           ITS HOST BEETLE Monochamus alternatus
    • Abstract: Dastarcus helophoroides is an ectoparasitoid beetle of Monochamus alternatus, and the parasitism by D. helophoroides larvae remarkably influenced on the immune responses of M. alternatus larvae in many aspects. The hemolymph melanization reactions in the hosts were inhibited 1 h and 24 h postparasitization. The phenoloxidase activities of hemolymph were significantly stimulated 4 h postparasitization and inhibited 12 h postparasitization, and back to control level. The antibacterial activities of hemolymph in the parasitized hosts were significantly lower than that in the unparasitized ones 1 h postparasitization. By 72 h postparasitism, the total hemocyte numbers of the parasitized larvae declined to not more than one‐seconds of the number collected from the unparasitized larvae. All sampled hemolymph held the capability of nodulation, and there were fluctuations in the number of nodules the hemocytes made. However, there were no significant differences between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at each time point in the hemagglutination activity and the ratios of spreading hemocytes. In conclusion, D. helophoroides larvae could regulate M. alternatus immune system and resulted in the changes in host immune responses.
       
  • THE ENDOPARASITOID Campoletis chlorideae INDUCES A HEMOLYTIC FACTOR IN THE
           HERBIVOROUS INSECT Helicoverpa armigera
    • Abstract: Although lysis of invading organisms is a major innate form of immunity used by invertebrates, it remains unclear whether herbivorous insects have hemolysin or not. To address this general question, we tested the hemolytic (HL) activity of the hemolymph and tissue extracts from various stages of the polyphagous insect Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) against the erythrocytes from chicken, duck, and rabbit. An HL activity was identified in the hemolymph of H. armigera larvae. Further studies demonstrated that the HL activity is proteinaceous as it was precipitable by deproteinizing agents. Hemolysins were found in Helicoverpa egg, larva, pupa, and adult, but the activity was higher in feeding larvae than in molting or newly molted larvae. Hemolysins were distributed among a variety of larval tissues including salivary gland, fat body, epidermis, midgut, or testes, but the highest activity was found in salivary gland and fat body. Relative to nonparasitized larvae, parasitization of H. armigera larvae by the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae Uchida induced a 3.4‐fold increase in the HL activity in the plasma of parasitized host at day two postparasitization. The present study shows the presence of a parasitoid inducible HL factor in the parasitized insect. The HL activity increased significantly in H. armigera larvae at 12 and 24 h postinjection with Escherichia coli. We infer the HL factor(s) is inducible or due to de novo synthesis, which means that the HL factor(s) is associated with insect immune response by inhibiting or clearance of invading organisms.
       
  • TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Bmsage PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN SILK GLAND GENERATION
           IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori
    • Abstract: Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland‐specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor‐1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome‐editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off‐target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2‐ or 9‐bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open‐reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland.
       
  • GLUTATHIONE S‐TRANSFERASE Genes IN THE RICE LEAFFOLDER,
           Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE): IDENTIFICATION AND
           EXPRESSION PROFILES
    • Abstract: In insects, glutathione S‐transferases (GSTs) play critical roles in the detoxification of various insecticides, resulting in insecticide resistance. The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is an economically important pest of rice in Asia. GST genes have not been largely identified in this insect species. In the present study, by searching the transcriptome dataset, 25 candidate GST genes were identified in C. medinalis for the first time. Of these, 23 predicted GST proteins fell into five cytosolic classes (delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, and zeta), and two were assigned to the “unclassified” subgroup. Real‐time quantitative PCR analysis showed that these GST genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, including the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of larvae, and the antenna, abdomen, and leg of adults, indicating diversified functions for these genes. Transcription levels of CmGSTd2, CmGSTe6, and CmGSTe7 increased significantly in larvae following exposure to chlorpyrifos, suggesting that these GST genes could be involved in the detoxification of this insecticide. The results of our study pave the way to a better understanding of the detoxification system of C. medinalis.
       
  • COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES
           (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula
           germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793))
    • Abstract: There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X‐ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%.
       
 
 
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