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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2598 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (192 journals)                  1 2     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 247)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 142)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 169)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 174)
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedicines     Open Access  
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Current Opinion in Lipidology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  

        1 2     

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1603 journals]   [SJR: 0.572]   [H-I: 44]
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Authors: Ying Liu; Hanhan Liu, Shumin Liu, Sheng Wang, Rong‐Jing Jiang, Sheng Li
      Pages: n/a - n/a
      Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
  • Editorial Board
    •  
  • TRANSCRIPTOME AND TISSUE‐SPECIFIC EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF OBP AND CSP
           GENES IN THE DARK BLACK CHAFER
    • Abstract: The dark black chafer, Holotrichia parallela, is an economically important pest in China and worldwide. Traps based on chemical communication are being developed as an alternative control measure to pesticides for this pest, and studies to reveal chemical communication mechanisms in this pest are highly desirable. To systematically analyze genes potentially involved in chemical communication in this pest, we generated a comprehensive transcriptome with combined samples derived from multiple tissues and developmental stages. A total of 43,967 nonredundant sequences (unigenes) with average length of 806 bp were obtained. These unigenes were annotated into different pathways using gene ontology analysis and cluster analysis of orthologous groups of proteins, and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In total, 25 transcripts encoding odorant‐binding proteins (OBPs) and 16 transcripts encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified based on homology searches. Tissue‐specific expression profile indicates that OBP17 and CSP7 are likely responsible for male sex pheromone recognition, whereas OBP1–4, OBP9, OBP13–14, OBP17–18, OBP20, OBP22, OBP25, CSP1–7, CSP11, and CSP12–15 are likely responsible for chemical communication between the beetle and environments. Our data shall provide a foundation for further research on the molecular aspects of chemical communication of this insect, and for comparative genomic studies with other species.
       
  • LYSOZYME AND DEFENSE PEPTIDES AS SUPPRESSORS OF PHENOLOXIDASE ACTIVITY IN
           Galleria mellonella
    • Abstract: The prophenoloxidase (proPO) cascade supplies quinones and other reactive compounds for melanin formation, protein cross‐linking, hemolymph coagulation, and killing of microbial invaders as well as parasites. The high cytotoxicity of the generated compounds requires a strict control of the activation of the proPO system and phenoloxidase (PO) activity to minimize damage to host tissues and cells. The PO activity in hemolymph of Escherichia coli challenged Galleria mellonella larvae increased, with a temporal drop 1 h after the challenge, reaching the highest level 24 h after the challenge. In the present study, a potential role of G. mellonella defense peptides and lysozyme in controlling the proPO system was investigated. The effects of purified defense peptides (anionic peptides 1 and 2, cecropin D‐like peptide, Galleria defensin, proline‐rich peptides 1 and 2) and lysozyme were analyzed. Four compounds, namely lysozyme, Galleria defensin, proline‐rich peptide 1, and anionic peptide 2, decreased the hemolymph PO activity considerably, whereas the others did not affect the enzyme activity level. Our results indicate that these hemolymph factors could play multiple and distinct roles in the insect immune response.
       
  • THERMOLYSIN DAMAGES ANIMAL LIFE THROUGH DEGRADATION OF PLASMA PROTEINS
           ENHANCED BY RAPID CLEAVAGE OF SERPINS AND ACTIVATION OF PROTEASES
    • Abstract: Thermolysin, a metallopeptidase secreted by pathogenic microbes, is concluded as an important virulence factor due to cleaving purified host proteins in vitro. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model system, we found that thermolysin injection into larvae induces the destruction of the coagulation response and the activation of hemolymph melanization, which results in larval death. Thermolysin triggers the rapid degradation of insect and mammalian plasma proteins at a level that is considerably greater than expected in vitro and/or in vivo. To more specifically explore the mechanism, thermolysin‐induced changes to key proteins belonging to the insect melanization pathway were assessed as a window for observing plasma protein cleavage. The application of thermolysin induced the rapid cleavage of the melanization negative regulator serpin‐3, but did not directly activate the melanization rate‐limiting enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO) or the terminal serine proteases responsible for PPO activation. Terminal serine proteases of melanization are activated indirectly after thermolysin exposure. We hypothesize that thermolysin induces the rapid degradation of serpins and the activation of proteases directly or indirectly, boosting uncontrolled plasma protein degradation in insects and mammalians.
       
  • POTATO LEAF EXTRACT AND ITS COMPONENT, α‐SOLANINE, EXERT
           SIMILAR IMPACTS ON DEVELOPMENT AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN Galleria mellonella
           L.
    • Abstract: Plants synthesize a broad range of secondary metabolites that act as natural defenses against plant pathogens and herbivores. Among these, potato plants produce glycoalkaloids (GAs). In this study, we analyzed the effects of the dried extract of fresh potato leaves (EPL) on the biological parameters of the lepidopteran, Galleria mellonella (L.) and compared its activity to one of the main EPL components, the GA α‐solanine. Wax moth larvae were reared from first instar on a diet supplemented with three concentrations of EPL or α‐solanine. Both EPL and α‐solanine affected survivorship, fecundity, and fertility of  G. mellonella to approximately the same extent. We evaluated the effect of EPL and α‐solanine on oxidative stress in midgut and fat body by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyl (PCO) contents, both biomarkers of oxidative damage. We evaluated glutathione S‐transferase (GST) activity, a detoxifying enzyme acting in prevention of oxidative damage. EPL and α‐solanine altered MDA and PCO concentrations and GST activity in fat body and midgut. We infer that the influence of EPL on G. mellonella is not enhanced by synergistic effects of the totality of potato leaf components compared to α‐solanine alone.
       
  • CLONING AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF G‐PROTEIN Gαq SUBUNIT AND
           Gβ1 SUBUNIT FROM Bemisia tabaci GENNADIUS (HOMOPTERA: ALEYRODIDAE)
    • Abstract: The heterotrimeric G proteins play an essential role in a wide variety of signal transduction pathways, mediating the process of chemical signals from the environment in all higher eukaryotic organisms. In this article, two G‐protein subunit genes encoding Gαq and Gβ1 were cloned from Bemisia tabaci Gennadius. The full‐length cDNA sequence of BtGαq consisted of 2,336 bp with an ORF of 1,062 bp encoding 353 amino acids and BtGβ1 had a full length of 1,942 bp with an ORF of 1,023 nucleotides encoding 340 amino acids. The amino acid sequences of BtGαq and BtGβ1 from B. tabaci B biotype were identical to those from the Q biotype. Phylogenetic analysis identified G protein α and β subunit families from insects based on their amino acid sequences. The expression patterns of BtGαq and BtGβ1 at different development stages and in different body regions were analyzed by real‐time quantitative PCR and Western blot. The results show that BtGαq and BtGβ1 are neither developmental stage‐specific nor tissue‐specific. The transcript levels of BtGαq in the B biotype are similar to that in the Q biotype, the transcript levels of BtGβ1 at egg, first instar and pupae in B biotype were significantly higher than that in Q biotype. The transcript levels of BtGαq and BtGβ1 in the head were significantly higher than those in thorax and abdomen indicating that they are involved in nervous system and sensory functions.
       
  • THE PARASITOID, Cotesia flavipes (CAMERON) (HYMENOPTERA: BRACONIDAE),
           INFLUENCES FOOD CONSUMPTION AND UTILIZATION BY LARVAL Diatraea saccharalis
           (F.) (LEPIDOPTERA: CRAMBIDAE)
    • Abstract: Parasitoids exploit host insects for food and other resources; they alter host development and physiology to optimize conditions to favor parasitoid development. Parasitoids influence their hosts by injecting eggs, along with a variety of substances, including venoms, polydnaviruses, ovarian fluids, and other maternal factors, into hosts. These factors induce profound changes in hosts, such as behavior, metabolism, endocrine events, and immune defense. Because endoparasitoids develop and consume tissues from within their hosts, it is reasonable to suggest that internal parasitization would also influence host food consumption and metabolism. We report on the effects of parasitism by Cotesia flavipes on the food consumption and utilization of its host, Diatraea saccharalis. Cotesia flavipes reduces the host food consumption, but parasitized larvae considered a unit with their parasitoid's attained the same final weight as the nonparasitized larvae. Nutritional indices, midgut activities of carbohydrases, and trypsin of parasitized and nonparasitized D. saccharalis were assessed. Parasitized larvae had reduced relative food consumption, metabolic and growth rates, coupled with higher efficiency for conversion of the digested, but not ingested, food into body mass. Parasitism also affected food flux through the gut and protein contents in the midgut of parasitized larvae. The activity of α‐amylase and trehalase in parasitized host was enhanced in the first day after parasitism relative to control larvae. Saccharase activity remained unchanged during larval development. Trypsin activity was reduced from the fifth to ninth day after parasitism. We argue on the mechanisms involved in host food processing after parasitism.
       
  • PHYSIOLOGICAL EFECTS OF PAICHONGDING APPLIED TO RICE ON THE Nilaparvata
           lugens (STÅ L), THE BROWN PLANTHOPPER
    • Abstract: Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) is a major rice pest in Asia. Paichongding is a novel neonicotinoid insecticide developed in 2008. The effects of this insecticide on the activity of detoxification enzymes of N. lugens and on rice resistance to the pest were examined in the laboratory. The results showed that paichongding could significantly decrease the acetylcholinesterase and GSHs transferase activities of N. lugens. The variation tendency of mixed function oxidase (MFO) activity was similar with that of the esterase. After 12 h treatment, there was no significance between the treatment and control. However, the activities of MFO and esterase increased after 24 and 48 h treatment, which suggested that MFO and esterase may play an important role in the detoxification of paichongding for N. lugens. Our results also demonstrated that treated with paichongding, damage levels of rice plants were significantly lower than those of control plants except 15 days after treatment. Compared with the control, injury indices decreased 70.22, 49.12, 34.44, and 23.23% at 3 , 6 , 9, and 12 days after paichongding treatment, respectively. The laboratory results suggested that paichongding may be effective for the control of brown planthopper.
       
  • ORIGINS AND ACTIVATION OF PROPHENOLOXIDASES IN THE DIGESTIVE TRACT OF THE
           CRICKET, Gryllus bimaculatus
    • Abstract: The function of Phenoloxidases (POs) in sclerotization and defense in insects is well understood, but little is known concerning their occurrence, origins, and function in the digestive tract. In Gyrllus bimaculatus gut all of the PO activity is found in the lumen of the digestive tract, and no detectible activity is found in homogenates of the gut epithelium or secretions from incubated epithelial tissues. Prophenoloxidases (PPOs) are synthesized in the hemocytes of  Bombyx mori and are transported into the cuticle. It is suggested that the PPOs in the caecal lumen of G. bimaculatus likewise are synthesized in hemocytes and are transported by unknown means into the caecal lumen, where they are activated to POs by trypsin. Peristalsis transports the POs both forward into the crop and posterior within the peritrophic membrane into the hind gut. The PPOs in the hemolymph consist of a trimer (270–280 kDa) and a tetramer (340–370 kDa). The active POs in the gut lumen consist of a monomer (85–95 kDa) in addition to an activated trimer and tetramer.
       
  • EFFECT OF TEMPOL ON REDOX HOMEOSTASIS AND STRESS TOLERANCE IN MIMETICALLY
           AGED DROSOPHILA
    • Abstract: We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol, a membrane permeable antioxidant, affects the type and magnitude of oxidative damage and stress tolerance through mimetic aging process in Drosophila. Drosophila colonies were randomly divided into three groups: (1) no d‐galactose, no tempol; (2) d‐galactose without tempol; (3) d‐galactose, but with tempol. Mimetic aging was induced by d‐galactose administration. The tempol‐administered flies received tempol at the concentration of 0.2% in addition to d‐galactose. Thiobarbituric acid reacting substance (TBARS) concentrations, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), Cu,Zn‐superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn‐SOD), sialic acid (SA) were determined. Additionally, stress tolerances were tested. Mimetically aged group without tempol led to a significant decrease in tolerance to heat, cold, and starvation (P < 0.05), but tempol was used for these parameters. The Cu,Zn‐SOD activity and SA concentrations were lower in both mimetically aged and tempol‐administered Drosophila groups compared to control (P < 0.05), whereas there were no significantly difference between mimetically aged and tempol‐administered groups. Mimetically aged group without tempol led to a significant increase in tissue TBARS and AOPPs concentrations (P < 0.05). Coadministration of tempol could prevent these alterations. Scavenging ROS using tempol also restores redox homeostasis in mimetically aged group. Tempol partly restores age‐related oxidative injury and increases stress tolerance.
       
  • ANALYSIS OF THE Vitellogenin GENE OF RICE MOTH, Corcyra cephalonica
           STAINTON
    • Abstract: Vitellogenin (Vg) is a precursor of the major yolk protein, an essential nutrient for the embryonic development of oviparous animals including insects. Here, the gene(CceVg [Corcyra cephalonica Vg] ) encoding the Vg (CceVg of moth, C. cephalonica, was cloned and sequenced. The gene sequence was 6,721‐bp long and contained 5five introns and six exons that together formed a 5,382‐bp open reading frame. The deduced protein (CceVg) consisted of 1,793 amino acid residues, including a 16‐amino‐acid signal peptide. The putative molecular weight of the primary Vg protein was 202.46 kDa. The CceVg contained all conserved domains and motifs that were commonly found in most insect Vgs except the presence of a polyserine tract at the C‐terminal region, which had not been reported in other lepidopteran Vgs. The expression pattern showed thatCceVg was first transcribed at a very low level in the early larval stage but disappeared in later stage larva. In female, theCceVg mRNA was detected in early pupal stage and throughout adult stage. Interestingly, theCceVg mRNA was detected only in mated males at low levels, not in the virgin ones. Injection ofCceVg double‐stranded RNA into early‐emergent females caused severely abnormal ovaries.
       
  • OVARIAN NUTRITIONAL RESOURCES DURING THE REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE OF THE
           HEMATOPHAGOUS DIPETALOGASTER MAXIMA (HEMIPTERA: REDUVIIDAE): FOCUS ON
           LIPID METABOLISM
    • Abstract: In this study, we have analyzed the changes of the ovarian nutritional resources in Dipetalogaster maxima at representative days of the reproductive cycle: previtellogenesis, vitellogenesis, as well as fasting‐induced early and late atresia. As expected, the amounts of ovarian lipids, proteins, and glycogen increased significantly from previtellogenesis to vitellogenesis and then, diminished during atresia. However, lipids and protein stores found at the atretic stages were higher in comparison to those registered at previtellogenesis. Specific lipid staining of ovarian tissue sections evidenced remarkable changes in the shape, size, and distribution of lipid droplets throughout the reproductive cycle. The role of lipophorin (Lp) as a yolk protein precursor was analyzed by co‐injecting Lp‐OG (where OG is Oregon Green) and Lp‐DiI (where DiI is 1,10‐dioctadecyl‐3,3,30,30‐tetramethylindocarbocyanine) to follow the entire particle, demonstrating that both probes colocalized mainly in the yolk bodies of vitellogenic oocytes. Immunofluorescence assays also showed that Lp was associated to yolk bodies, supporting its endocytic pathway during vitellogenesis. The involvement of Lp in lipid delivery to oocytes was investigated in vivo by co‐injecting fluorescent probes to follow the fate of the entire particle (Lp‐DiI) and its lipid cargo (Lp‐Bodipy‐FA). Lp‐DiI was readily incorporated by vitellogenic oocytes and no lipoprotein uptake was observed in terminal follicles of ovaries at atretic stages. Bodipy‐FA was promptly transferred to vitellogenic oocytes and, to a much lesser extent, to previtellogenic follicles and to oocytes of ovarian tissue at atretic stages. Colocalization of Lp‐DiI and Lp‐Bodipy‐FA inside yolk bodies indicated the relevance of Lp in the buildup of lipid and protein oocyte stores during vitellogenesis.
       
  • PARASITIZATION BY SCLERODERMA GUANI INFLUENCES EXPRESSION OF SUPEROXIDE
           DISMUTASE GENES IN TENEBRIO MOLITOR
    • Abstract: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an antioxidant enzyme involved in detoxifying reactive oxygen species. In this study, we identified genes encoding the extracellular and intracellular copper‐zinc SODs (ecCuZnSOD and icCuZnSOD) and a manganese SOD (MnSOD) in the yellow mealworm beetle, Tenebrio molitor. The cDNAs for ecCuZnSOD, icCuZnSOD, and MnSOD, respectively, encode 24.55, 15.81, and 23.14 kDa polypeptides, which possess structural features typical of other insect SODs. They showed 20–94% identity to other known SOD sequences from Bombyx mori, Musca domestica, Nasonia vitripennis, Pediculus humanus corporis, and Tribolium castaneum. Expression of these genes was analyzed in selected tissues and developmental stages, and following exposure to Escherichia coli and parasitization by Scleroderma guani. We recorded expression of all three SODs in cuticle, fat body, and hemocytes and in the major developmental stages. Relatively higher expressions were detected in late‐instar larvae and pupae, compared to other developmental stages. Transcriptional levels were upregulated following bacterial infection. Analysis of pupae parasitized by S. guani revealed that expression of  T. molitor SOD genes was significantly induced following parasitization. We infer that these genes act in immune response and in host–parasitoid interactions.
       
  • DOES THE VOLATILE HYDROCARBON PROFILE DIFFER BETWEEN THE SEXES: A CASE
           STUDY ON FIVE APHIDOPHAGOUS LADYBIRDS
    • Abstract: Insect hydrocarbons (HCs) primarily serve as a waterproofing cuticular layer and function extensively in chemical communication by facilitating species, sex, and colony recognition. In this study, headspace solid‐phase microextraction is employed for investigating the sex‐specific volatile HC profile of five ladybirds collected from Lucknow, India namely, Coccinella septempunctata (L.), Coccinella transversalis (Fabr.), Menochilus sexmaculatus (Fabr.), Propylea dissecta (Mulsant), and Anegleis cardoni (Weise) for the first time. Major compounds reported in C. septempunctata, C. transversalis, and A. cardoni are methyl‐branched saturated HCs, whereas in M. sexmaculatus, and P. dissecta, they are unsaturated HCs. Other than A. cardoni, both the sexes of the other four ladybirds had similar compounds at highest peak but with statistically significant differences. However, in A. cardoni, which is a beetle with a narrow niche, the major compound in both male and female was different. The difference in volatile HC profile of the sexes of the five ladybirds indicates that gender‐specific differences primarily exist due to quantitative differences in chemicals with only very few chemicals being unique to a gender. This variation in semiochemicals might have a role in behavioral or ecological aspects of the studied ladybirds.
       
 
 
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