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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2799 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (212 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 378)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 227)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 248)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 288)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Brain Plasticity     Hybrid Journal  
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.663]   [H-I: 48]   [3 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1607 journals]
  • PGE2 MEDIATES OENOCYTOID CELL LYSIS VIA A
           SODIUM‐POTASSIUM‐CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER
    • Authors: Sony Shrestha; Jiyeong Park, Seung‐Joon Ahn, Yonggyun Kim
      Abstract: Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates immune responses of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, including oenocytoid cell lysis (a class of lepidopteran hemocytes: OCL) via its specific membrane receptor to release inactive prophenoloxidase (PPO) into hemolymph. PPO is activated into phenoloxidase in the plasma to play crucial roles in the immune responses of S. exigua. The mechanism of OCL has not been elucidated, however we posed the hypothesis that a rapid accumulation of sodium ions within the oenocytoids allows a massive influx of water by the ion gradient, which leads to the cell lysis. It remains unclear which sodium channel is responsible for the OCL in response to PGE2. This study identified a specific sodium channel called sodium‐potassium‐chloride cotransporter 1 (Se‐NKCC1) expressed in hemocytes of S. exigua and analyzed its function in the OCL in response to PGE2. Se‐NKCC1 encodes a basic membrane protein (pI value = 8.445) of 1,066 amino acid residues, which contains 12 putative transmembrane domains. Se‐NKCC1 was expressed in all developmental stages and tissues. qPCR showed that bacterial challenge significantly induced its expression. A specific inhibitor of NKCC, bumetanide, prevented the OCL in a dose‐dependent manner. When RNA interference (RNAi) using double‐stranded RNA specific to Se‐NKCC1 suppressed its expression, the OCL and PPO activation were significantly inhibited in response to PGE2. The RNAi treatment also reduced nodule formation to bacterial challenge. These results suggest that Se‐NKCC1 is associated with OCL by facilitating inward transport of ions in response to PGE2.
      PubDate: 2015-04-06T08:13:23.594503-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21238
       
  • A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON APOPTOSIS INDUCTION BY AZADIRACHTIN IN Spodoptera
           frugiperda CULTURED CELL LINE Sf9
    • Authors: Benshui Shu; Wenxiang Wang, Qingbo Hu, Jingfei Huang, Meiying Hu, Guohua Zhong
      Abstract: The induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, a well‐known botanical tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the neem tree (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and other members of the Meliaceae, was investigated in Spodoptera frugiperda cultured cell line (Sf9). Morphological changes in Sf9 cells treated by various concentrations of azadirachtin were observed at different times under light microscopy. Morphological and biochemical analysis indicated that Sf9 cells treated by 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin showed typical morphological changes, which were indicative of apoptosis and a clear DNA ladder. The flow cytometry analysis showed the apoptosis rate reached a maximum value of 32.66% at 24 h with 1.5 μg/mL azadirachtin in Sf9 cells. The inhibition of Sf9 cell proliferation suggested that the effect of azadirachtin was dose dependent and the EC50 at 48 and 72 h was 2.727 × 10−6 and 6.348 × 10−9 μg/mL, respectively. The treatment of azadirachtin in Sf9 cells could significantly increase the activity of Sf caspase‐1, but showed no effect on the activity of Topo I, suggesting that the apoptosis induced by azadirachtinin Sf9 cells is through caspase‐dependent pathway. These results provided not only a series of morphological, biochemical, and toxicological comprehensive evidences for induction of apoptosis by azadirachtin, but also a reference model for screening insect cell apoptosis inducers from natural compounds.
      PubDate: 2015-04-01T05:20:51.9908-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21233
       
  • THE EFFECTS OF XANTHOTOXIN ON THE BIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY OF Galleria
           mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Authors: Meltem Erdem; Ender Büyükgüzel
      Abstract: The effects of a dietary plant allelochemical, xanthotoxin (XA), on survivorship, development, male and female adult longevity, fecundity, and hatchability of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella L. were investigated. Oxidative stress indicators, the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein oxidation products, protein carbonyl (PCO) contents, and activities of a detoxification enzyme glutathione S‐transferase (GST) activity were determined in wax moth adults. The insect was reared from first‐instar larvae on an artificial diets containing XA at 0.001, 0.005, or 0.1% to adult stage in laboratory conditions. Relative to the controls, the diets containing XA concentrations led to decreased survivorship in seventh instar, pupal, and adult stages. Compared to control diet (77.7%), the highest dietary XA concentration decreased survivorship to adulthood to 11.0%. The highest XA concentration (0.1%) reduced female longevity from 10.4 to 5.7 days and decreased egg numbers from 95.0 to 33.5 and hatchability from 82.7 to 35.6%. The lowest XA concentration (0.001%) led to about a sixfold increase in MDA content. XA at high concentrations (0.005 and 0.1%) increased MDA (by threefold) and protein carbonyl (by twofold) contents decreased GST activity. The highest dietary XA concentration decreased GST activity from 0.28 ± 0.025 to 0.16 ± 0.005 μmol/mg protein/min. We infer from these findings that XA‐induced oxidative stress led to decreased biological fitness.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T02:03:44.079437-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21236
       
  • THE NEUROPEPTIDE BURSICON ACTS IN CUTICLE METABOLISM
    • Authors: Shengzhang Dong; Hongwei Zhang, Xi Chen, David Stanley, Xiaoping Yu, Qisheng Song
      Abstract: Bursicon is a heterodimeric neuropeptide formed of bursicon α (burs α) and bursicon β (burs β) that controls cuticle tanning and wing expansion in insects. Burs α–α and burs β−β homodimers are also formed; they act via an unknown receptor to induce expression of prophylactic immune and stress genes during molting. Based on the hypothesis that burs β−β and/or bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt, we prepared and sequenced six Drosophila cDNA libraries from groups of flies separately injected with burs β−β, bursicon, or blank control. Compared to the control, the burs β−β treatments led to upregulation (by at least 1.5‐fold) of 262 genes at 0.5 h postinjection (PI) and 298 genes at 1 h PI; 323 genes at 0.5 h PI and 269 genes at 1h PI were downregulated (by at least 0.67). Similar changes were recorded following bursicon injections. Of these genes, expression of seven transcripts encoding cuticle proteins was upregulated and three downregulated by burs β−β; expression of nine transcripts encoding cuticle proteins were upregulated and four downregulated following bursicon treatments. Expression of dozens of genes involved in chitin metabolism was altered by the experimental treatments. We recorded parallel changes in expression of selected genes by transcriptome and qPCR analysis. These findings support our hypothesis that burs β−β and bursicon influence expression of additional genes acting after the molt. We report that burs β−β and bursicon act in cuticle synthesis and degradation by regulating the expression of cuticular protein and chitin metabolizing related genes.
      PubDate: 2015-03-27T02:03:01.139155-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21227
       
  • IDENTIFICATION AND EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE
           WILD SILKWORM, Bombyx mandarina
    • Authors: Cen Qian; Wei‐Wei Fu, Guo‐Qing Wei, Lei Wang, Qiu‐Ning Liu, Li‐Shang Dai, Yu Sun, Bao‐Jian Zhu, Chao‐Liang Liu
      Abstract: The vitellogenin receptor (VgR) plays a key role on embryonic development in oviparous animals. Here, we cloned a VgR gene, which was identified from the wild silkworm Bombyx mandarina (BmaVgR) using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT‐PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence analysis revealed that BmaVgR is 5,861 bp long with an open reading frame encoded by 1,811 amino acid residues. The predicted amino acid sequence has 99.7 and 98.2% identity with the VgRs of Actias selene and Bombyx mori, respectively. The class B domain sequence of BmaVgR was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified by a Ni‐NTA column. Polyclonal antibodies were produced against the purified recombinant protein, and titer of the antibody was about 1:12,800 measured by enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Western blot and RT‐qPCR showed that BmaVgR was expressed in the ovary and fat body of female larvae and the ovary of moth, and the expression level was highest at the third day and then declined from third day to seventh in fat body of pupa. After knockdown of the BmaVgR gene through RNA interference (RNAi), other three BmaVgR‐related genes (Vg, egg‐specific protein, and low molecular weight lipoprotein LP gene) were all downregulated significantly.
      PubDate: 2015-03-23T02:23:45.967634-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21235
       
  • DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT
           SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT
    • Authors: Bo Yong Kim; Hwa Young Song, Mi Young Kim, Bong Hee Lee, Kyung Joo Kim, Kyung Jin Jo, Suhng Wook Kim, Seung Gwan Lee, Boo Hyung Lee
      Abstract: Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA+ cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH‐1+ cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA+ neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA+ sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA+ sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T07:29:43.820702-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21234
       
  • cDNA CLONING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATION OF THE CECROPIN AND ATTACIN
           FROM THE ORIENTAL FRUIT FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE)
    • Authors: Yin‐Yin Liao; Yu‐Han Zuo, Cheng‐Lung Tsai, Chia‐Ming Hsu, Mei‐Er Chen
      Abstract: We described the cDNA cloning of two antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), cecropin (BdCec), and attacin C (BdAttC), from the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), a serious insect pest of fruit trees. Using rapid amplification of cDNA ends, fragments encompassing the entire open reading frames of BdCec and BdAttC were cloned and sequenced. The complete 425 bp cDNA of BdCec encodes a protein of 64 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of 6.84 kDa. The 931 bp cDNA of BdAttC encodes a protein of 239 residues with a predicted molecular weight of 24.97 kDa. Real‐time quantitative RT‐PCR demonstrated that the developmental transcription profiles of BdCec and BdAttC were similar in each larvae, pupae, and adults. The constitutive expression levels of both AMPs were high in the first‐instar and late third‐instar larvae, suggesting that their antimicrobial activity is active in the newly hatched larvae and just before pupation. The basal expression levels were not significant different in adult fat bodies. The expression of BdCec and BdAttC was upregulated after bacterial challenge in adult fat bodies. The ratio of inducible expression to constitutive expression was lower in males compared to females.
      PubDate: 2015-03-17T07:26:54.039248-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21230
       
  • INSECTICIDAL AND OXIDATIVE EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON THE MODEL ORGANISM
           Galleria mellonella L. (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Authors: Beyza Dere; Hülya Altuntaş, Z. Ulya Nurullahoğlu
      Abstract: The insecticidal effects, specifically, changes in hemolymph total protein and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and antioxidant enzyme activities of azadirachtin (AZA) given to the wax moth, Galleria mellonella L. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) larvae via force feeding were investigated. Bioassays showed that the LD50 and LD99 (lethal dose) values of AZA were 2.1 and 4.6 μg/larva, respectively. Experimental analyses were performed with five doses of AZA (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva). Total protein level in larval hemolymph increased at all AZA doses at 24 h whereas a considerable decrease was observed at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses, and only an increase displayed at 1.5 μg/larva at 72 h. The level of MDA increased at 2 and 3 μg/larva doses at 24 h compared with controls. This trend was also observed at 1.5, 2, and 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h and MDA levels were lower when compared with those of 24 h at all doses except for 1.5 μg/larva dose. Catalase activity decreased at 1, 1.5, and 2 μg/larva doses at 24 h whereas increased at all doses except for 0.5 μg/larva at 72 h compared with controls. AZA led to a decline in superoxide dismutase activity at all experimental doses at 24 and 72 h except for 3 μg/larva doses at 72 h. An increase in glutathione‐S‐transferase (GST) activity was evident at all AZA doses at 24 h. AZA displayed 68% decline in GST activity at 72 h post treatments when compared to 24 h. Consequently, We infer that the toxicity of AZA extends beyond its known actions in molting processes to redox homeostasis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-16T10:17:48.929691-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21231
       
  • ISOLATION AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF McMenA, A GENE ENCODING A
           1,4‐DIHYDROXY‐2‐NAPHTHOATE OCTAPRENYLTRANSFERASE IN
           Mylabris cichorii
    • Authors: Y. F. Liao; Y. Wang, Y. Huang, S. F. Zha, J. J. Liu, Z. K. Wang, Y. P. Yin, Y. F. Liao, Y. Wang
      Abstract: Cantharidin is a biomolecule with a role in host defense that can also be used as an anticancer drug. The in vivo biosynthetic pathway for cantharidin has been the subject of debate for several decades and the mechanism is not yet completely understood. To study the biosynthetic pathway of cantharidin in blister beetles, Mylabris cichori, a full‐length MenA (McMenA) cDNA was cloned based on the partial sequence of the MenA gene from a suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library of male and female adult M. cichorii. The cDNA was 1264 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame of 1026 bp nucleotides encoding a 341 amino acid protein. Analysis of the McMenA amino acid sequence showed that the aspartate rich motif N/DDxxD represented binding sites for prenyl diphosphate via a Mg2+ ion. Phylogenetic analysis showed that McMenA was most closely related to MenA of Tribolium castaneum, and the amino acid sequence similarity was 86%. The expression pattern of McMenA in adults was analyzed using RT‐qPCR, and we found that the highest expression of McMenA occurred during 22–25 days in the sex‐separate breeding males, while the lowest expression occurred in females at the same time. Injection with a specific double‐strand RNA (dsRNA) of McMenA led to a significant reduction of McMenA mRNA levels after 24 h. Cantharidin and ATP concentrations dropped around the same time. Together, our data showed that the McMenA gene might be involved in cantharidin biosynthesis.
      PubDate: 2015-03-14T05:39:56.289562-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21229
       
  • RNAi KNOCKDOWN OF BmRab3 LED TO LARVA AND PUPA LETHALITY IN SILKWORM
           Bombyx mori L.
    • Authors: Chabungbam Orville Singh; Hu‐hu Xin, Rui‐ting Chen, Mei‐xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yan Lu, Zi‐zheng Cai, Deng‐pan Zhang, Yun‐gen Miao
      Abstract: Rab3 GTPases are known to play key a role in vesicular trafficking, and express highest in brain and endocrine tissues. In mammals, Rab3 GTPases are paralogs unlike in insect. In this study, we cloned Rab3 from the silk gland tissue of silkworm Bombyx mori, and identified it as BmRab3. Our in silico analysis indicated that BmRab3 is an isoform with a theoretical isoelectric point and molecular weight of 5.52 and 24.3 kDa, respectively. Further, BmRab3 showed the C‐terminal hypervariability for GGT2 site but having two other putative guanine nucleotide exchange factor/GDP dissociation inhibitor interaction sites. Multiple alignment sequence indicated high similarities of BmRab3 with Rab3 isoforms of other species. The phylogeny tree showed BmRab3 clustered between the species of Tribolium castaneum and Aedes aegypti. Meanwhile, the expression analysis of BmRab3 showed the highest expression in middle silk glands (MSGs) than all other tissues in the third day of fifth‐instar larva. Simultaneously, we showed the differential expression of BmRab3 in the early instar larva development, followed by higher expression in male than female pupae. In vivo dsRNA interference of BmRab3 reduced the expression of BmRab3 by 75% compared to the control in the MSGs in the first day. But as the worm grew to the third day, the difference of BmRab3 between knockdown and control was only about 10%. The knockdown later witnessed underdevelopment of the larvae and pharate pupae lethality in the overall development of silkworm B. mori L.
      PubDate: 2015-03-04T07:15:42.386535-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21228
       
  • CONSTRUCTION AND ANALYSIS OF ANTENNAL cDNA LIBRARY FROM RICE STRIPED STEM
           BORER, Chilo suppressalis (WALKER) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE), AND
           EXPRESSION PROFILES OF PUTATIVE ODORANT‐BINDING PROTEIN AND
           CHEMOSENSORY PROTEIN GENES
    • Authors: Zhong‐Jun Gong; Su Liu, Yan‐Dong Jiang, Wen‐Wu Zhou, Qing‐Mei Liang, Jiaan Cheng, Chuan‐Xi Zhang, Zeng‐Rong Zhu, Geoff M Gurr
      Abstract: In this study, we constructed a high‐quality cDNA library from the antennae of the Chilo suppressalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). A total of 1,235 colonies with inserts greater than 0.7 kb were sequenced and analyzed. Homology searching coupled with bioinformatics analysis identified 15 and 7 cDNA sequences, respectively, encoding putative odorant‐binding proteins (OBPs) and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). A phylogenetic tree of CsupCSPs showed that each CsupCSP has orthologs in Manduca sexta and Bombyx mori with strong bootstrapping support. One CSP was either very specific or more related to the CSPs of another species than to conspecific CSP. The expression profiles of the OBPs and CSPs in different tissues were measured by real‐time quantitative PCR. The results revealed that of the 11 OBP genes, the transcript levels of CsupOBP1, CsupOBP5, and CsupOBP7 were higher in both male and female antennae than those in other tissues. And CsupCSP7 was highly expressed in both male and female antennae. Based on these results, the possible physiological functions of CsupOBPs and CsupCSPs were discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01T23:51:16.780352-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21224
       
  • IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO PHOSPHOLIPID HYDROPEROXIDE
           GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE GENES FROM THE MEDITERRANEAN SPECIES OF THE
           WHITEFLY Bemisia tabaci COMPLEX
    • Authors: Min Jiu; Jun‐Min Li, Xian‐Long Gao, Lun‐Ji Wang, Xiao‐Wei Wang, Shu‐Sheng Liu
      Abstract: Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidases (PHGPXs) are essential enzymes of the cellular antioxidant defense system during insect–plant interactions. However, little attention has been devoted to the functional characterization of PHGXPs in the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Here, we report the identification and characterization of two PHGPX genes, designated as BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 from the Mediterranean species of the B. tabaci complex. Sequence analysis indicated that the length of BtQ‐PHGPX1 is of 942 bp with a 729 bp open‐reading frame (ORF) encoding 242 amino acids, and BtQ‐PHGPX2 is of 699 bp with a 567 bp ORF encoding 188 amino acids. Sequence alignment analysis showed that BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 shared high similarity with other known PHGPXs. The NVASXCGXT, FPCNQFXXQEPG, and IKWNFXKFLV surrounded the reactive cysteine, glutamine, and tryptophan residues, respectively. Recombinant BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 were overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. quantitative reverse transcription‐polymerase chain reaction (qRT‐PCR) analysis with whiteflies of different development stages showed that the mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX2 were significantly higher in larvae than in other stages. The mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX2 were significantly higher than BtQ‐PHGPX1 during all the developmental stages. The mRNA levels of BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 in female adults were relatively higher than in male adults. The expression of BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 was induced by the insecticide imidacloprid. These results suggest that BtQ‐PHGPX1 and BtQ‐PHGPX2 may participate in detoxification of oxidative hazards in B. tabaci.
      PubDate: 2015-02-01T23:39:52.677914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21225
       
  • DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATED GENES IN THE SALIVARY GLANDS OF BROWN PLANTHOPPER
           AFTER FEEDING IN RESISTANT VERSUS SUSCEPTIBLE RICE VARIETIES
    • Authors: Xiaolan Wang; Mei Zhang, Fei Feng, Ruifeng He
      Abstract: Brown planthopper (BPH) is a damaging insect pest of rice. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) and mirror orientation selection to identify differentially regulated genes in salivary glands of BPH after feeding on resistant and susceptible varieties. The forward SSH library included 768 clones with insertions ranging from 250 to 1000 bp. After differential screening, a total of 112 transcripts were identified, which included 27 upregulated genes and seven downregulated genes. Several of these transcripts showed sequence homology to known proteins such as trehalase, mucin‐like protein, vitellogenin, calcium ion binding protein, and eukaryotic initiation factor‐like protein. About half of the transcripts, however, did not match to any sequences in the protein databases currently available. Functional annotation of the transcripts showed gene ontology association with metabolism, signal transduction, and regulatory responses. Notably, many known functional genes were predicted to be secreted proteins. Also, gene expression profiles of the salivary glands of BPH feeding on resistant rice (B5) and susceptible rice (TN1) varieties were compared. Our data provide a molecular resource for future functional studies on salivary glands and will be useful for elucidating the molecular mechanisms between BPH feeding and rice varieties with BPH resistance differences.
      PubDate: 2015-01-22T00:12:01.68346-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21226
       
  • THE INFLUENCE OF A 21 kDa KUNITZ‐TYPE TRYPSIN INHIBITOR FROM
           NONHOST MADRAS THORN, Pithecellobium dulce, SEEDS ON H. armigera
           (HÜBNER) (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE)
    • Authors: Prabhash K. Pandey; Dushyant Singh, Farrukh Jamal
      Abstract: A trypsin inhibitor purified from the seeds of the Manila tamarind, Pithecellobium dulce (PDTI), was studied for its effects on growth parameters and developmental stages of  Helicoverpa armigera. PDTI exhibited inhibitory activity against bovine trypsin (∼86%; ∼1.33 ug/ml IC50). The inhibitory activity of PDTI was unaltered over a wide range of temperature, pH, and in the presence of dithiothreitol. Larval midgut proteases were unable to digest PDTI for up to 12 h of incubation. Dixon and Lineweaver–Burk double reciprocal plots analysis revealed a competitive inhibition mechanism and a Ki of ∼3.9 × 10−8 M. Lethal dose (0.50% w/w) and dosage for weight reduction by 50% (0.25% w/w) were determined. PDTI showed a dose‐dependent effect on mean larval weight and a series of nutritional disturbances. In artificial diet at 0.25% w/w PDTI, the efficiency of conversion of ingested food, of digested food, relative growth rate, and growth index declined, whereas approximate digestibility, relative consumption rate, metabolic cost, consumption index, and total developmental period were increased in larvae. This is the first report of antifeedant and antimetabolic activities of PDTI on midgut proteases of  H. armigera.
      PubDate: 2015-01-08T07:41:39.637984-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21221
       
  • BIOPOTENCY OF SERINE PROTEASE INHIBITORS FROM COWPEA (Vigna unguiculata)
           SEEDS ON DIGESTIVE PROTEASES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF Spodoptera littoralis
           (BOISDUVAL)
    • Authors: Ashraf Oukasha Abd El‐latif
      Abstract: Serine protease inhibitors (PIs) have been described in many plant species and are universal throughout the plant kingdom, where trypsin inhibitors is the most common type. In the present study, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity was detected in the seed flour extracts of 13 selected cultivars/accessions of cowpea. Two cowpea cultivars, Cream7 and Buff, were found to have higher trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory potential compared to other tested cultivars for which they have been selected for further purification studies using ammonium sulfate fractionation and DEAE‐Sephadex A‐25 column. Cream7‐purified proteins showed two bands on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS‐PAGE) corresponding to molecular mass of 17.10 and 14.90 kDa, while the purified protein from Buff cultivar showed a single band corresponding mass of 16.50 kDa. The purified inhibitors were stable at temperature below 60°C and were active at wide range of pH from 2 to 12. The kinetic analysis revealed noncompetitive type of inhibition for both inhibitors against both enzymes. The inhibitor constant (Ki) values suggested high affinity between inhibitors and enzymes. Purified inhibitors were found to have deep and negative effects on the mean larval weight, larval mortality, pupation, and mean pupal weight of Spodoptera littoralis, where Buff PI was more effective than Cream7 PI. It may be concluded that cowpea PI gene(s) could be potential insect control protein for future studies in developing insect‐resistant transgenic plants.
      PubDate: 2014-12-18T16:30:16.62718-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21216
       
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Authors: Ying Liu; Hanhan Liu, Shumin Liu, Sheng Wang, Rong‐Jing Jiang, Sheng Li
      Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
  • COMPARISON OF CHITIN STRUCTURES DERIVED FROM THREE COMMON WASP SPECIES
           (Vespa crabro LINNAEUS, 1758, Vespa orientalis LINNAEUS, 1771 and Vespula
           germanica (FABRICIUS, 1793))
    • Abstract: There has been no study on the chitin structure of wasp species. Here, we selected the three most common wasp species belonging to the family Vespidae for chitin extraction and characterization. Chitin was isolated from each wasp species and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X‐ray diffractometry (XRD), elemental analysis (EA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chitin contents of Vespa crabro, Vespa orientalis, and Vespula germanica were 8.3, 6.4, and 11.9%, respectively. The crystalline index (CrI) values for the chitin extracted from each species were 69.88, 53.92, and 50%, respectively. The most important finding of the study is that although the same method was used to extract chitin from each of the three wasp species, the degree of acetylation was different: for V. crabro and V. orientalis it was 96.85 and 99.82% (the chitin was extremely pure), respectively, whereas that for V. germanica the chitin was 79.83%.
       
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