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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2835 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (212 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 192)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 85)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 91)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 155)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover   Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.663]   [H-I: 48]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • A NONOVARY‐SPECIFIC VITELLOGENIN RECEPTOR FROM THE ORIENTAL FRUIT
           FLY, Bactrocera dorsalis (HENDEL)
    • Abstract: The yolk protein precursor, vitellogenin (Vg), is absorbed into growing oocytes via receptor‐mediated endocytosis for embryonic development. In this study, a Vg receptor (VgR) cDNA of the oriental fruit fly (Bactrocera dorsalis Hendel) was cloned via RT‐PCR and RACE (GenBank accession no. KR535603) and its expression analyzed. The BdVgR cDNA has a length of 6,585 bp encoding 1,923 amino acids. It has a conserved motif arrangement with other insect VgRs, and showed high identity to the B. cucurbitae VgR (91.4%). The expression of BdVgR mRNA and proteins was shown in both ovary and fat body. This is the first report on a nonovary‐specific VgR from a nonsocial insect. In ovary, the expression of BdVgR mRNA and proteins was inconsistent, with the transcription, but not protein, level high on D0. In fat body, the expression levels of BdVgR mRNA and proteins were high on days 5 and 6. The function of BdVgR in the fat body is not clear. However, it may be involved in reuptake of yolk proteins from the hemolymph as an amino acid reservoir or as autocrine regulation of yolk protein expression.
      PubDate: 2015-08-17T09:45:24.16466-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21252
       
  • CHARACTERIZATION AND FUNCTIONAL STUDY OF A PUTATIVE JUVENILE HORMONE DIOL
           KINASE IN THE COLORADO POTATO BEETLE Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say)
    • Abstract: Juvenile hormone diol kinase (JHDK) is an enzyme involved in JH degradation. In the present article, a putative JHDK cDNA (LdJHDK) was cloned from the Colorado potato beetle Leptinotarsa decemlineata. The cDNA consists of 814 bp, containing a 555 bp open reading frame encoding a 184 amino acid protein. LdJHDK reveals a high degree of identity to the previously reported insect JHDKs. It possesses three conserved purine nucleotide‐binding elements, and contains three EF‐hand motifs (helix‐loop‐helix structural domains). LdJHDK mRNA was mainly detected in hindgut and Malpighian tubules. Besides, a trace amount of LdJHDK mRNA was also found in thoracic muscles, brain–corpora cardiaca–corpora allata complex, foregut, midgut, ventral ganglia, fat body, epidermis, and hemocytes. Moreover, LdJHDK was expressed throughout all developmental stages. Within the first, second, and third larval instar, the expression levels of LdJHDK were higher just before and right after the molt, and were lower in the intermediate instar. In the fourth larval instar, the highest peak of LdJHDK occurred 56 h after ecdysis. Ingestion of double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA) against LdJHDK successfully knocked down the target gene, increased JH titer, and significantly upregulated LdKr‐h1 mRNA level. Knockdown of LdJHDK significantly impaired adult emergence. Thus, we provide a line of experimental evidence in L. decemlineata to support that LdJHDK encodes function protein involved in JH degradation.
      PubDate: 2015-08-17T09:44:43.288463-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21251
       
  • Editorial Board
    • PubDate: 2015-08-17T07:09:22.313139-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21202
       
  • THE ENDOPARASITOID Pteromalus puparum INFLUENCES HOST GENE EXPRESSION
           WITHIN FIRST HOUR OF PARASITIZATION
    • Abstract: The small cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, is an important pest of cruciferous corps, and Pteromalus puparum is a predominant pupal endoparasitoid wasp of this butterfly. For successful development of parasitoid offspring, female parasitoids usually introduce one or several kinds of maternal factors into the hemocoels during oviposition to suppress host immunity. To investigate the early changes in host immune‐related genes following parasitization, we analyzed transcriptomes of parasitized and unparasitized, control, host pupae. Approximately 17.7 and 19.3 million paired‐end reads were generated from nonparasitized and parasitized host pupae, and assembled de novo into 45,639 transcripts and 27,659 nonredundant unigenes. The average unigene length was 790 bp. A total 18,377 of 27,659 unigenes were annotated and we identified 557 differentially expressed unigenes in host pupae at 1 h after parasitization, of which 21 were immune‐related. Parasitization led to downregulation of most pattern recognition receptors and upregulation of all serine protease inhibitors. The transcirptomic profile of P. rapae is considerably affected by parasitization. This study provides valuable sources for future investigations of the molecular interaction between P. puparum and its host P. rapae.
      PubDate: 2015-08-04T06:29:32.983805-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21250
       
  • ROLE OF SERUM AND ION CHANNEL BLOCK ON GROWTH AND HORMONALLY‐INDUCED
           DIFFERENTIATION OF Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) INSECT CELLS
    • Authors: Lacey J. Jenson; Jeffrey R. Bloomquist
      Abstract: A neuronal morphological phenotype can be induced in cultured Spodoptera frugiperda insect cells (Sf21) by supplementing serum‐containing media with 20‐hydroxyecdysone (20‐HE) and/or insulin. In this study, the primary objectives were to determine any role of ion channels in mediating the morphological change in cells treated with 20‐HE and insulin, and whether serum was required to observe this effect. Results showed serum‐free media also induced growth of processes in Sf21 cells, but at a lower percentage than that found previously in cells bathed in serum‐containing media. Veratridine, a sodium channel activator, increased cell survival when applied in combination with 20‐HE to Sf21 cells, and the effect was blocked by tetrodotoxin (1 μM) a known sodium channel blocker. Cobalt, a calcium channel blocker, showed significant inhibition of cell process growth when applied in combination with both 20‐HE and 20‐HE plus veratridine. Cobalt also showed significant inhibition of cell process growth when applied in combination with insulin. Thus, some type of sodium channel, as well as a mechanism for transmembrane calcium ion movement, are apparently expressed in Sf21 cells and are involved in the differentiation process. These cell lines may be used in a wide variety of endeavors, including the screening of insecticides, as well as foster basic studies of neurodevelopment and ecdysone action.
      PubDate: 2015-07-16T05:25:36.923777-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21249
       
  • CALCIUM‐INDUCED LIPID PEROXIDATION IS MEDIATED BY RHODNIUS
           HEME‐BINDING PROTEIN (RHBP) AND PREVENTED BY VITELLIN
    • Abstract: Lipid peroxidation is promoted by the quasi‐lipoxygenase (QL) activity of heme proteins and enhanced by the presence of free calcium. Unlike mammalian plasma, the hemolymph of Rhodnius prolixus, a vector of Chagas disease, contains both a free heme‐binding protein (RHBP) and circulating lipoproteins. RHBP binds and prevents the heme groups of the proteins from participating in lipid peroxidation reactions. Herein, we show that despite being bound to RHBP, heme groups promote lipid peroxidation through a calcium‐dependent QL reaction. This reaction is readily inhibited by the presence of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA), the antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene or micromolar levels of the main yolk phosphoprotein vitellin (Vt). The inhibition of lipid peroxidation is eliminated by the in vitro dephosphorylation of Vt, indicating that this reaction depends on the interaction of free calcium ions with negatively charged phosphoamino acids. Our results demonstrate that calcium chelation mediated by phosphoproteins occurs via an antioxidant mechanism that protects living organisms from lipid peroxidation.
      PubDate: 2015-06-25T04:26:20.751996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21248
       
  • VENOM FROM THE ECTOPARASITIC WASP Habrobracon hebetor ACTIVATES
           CALCIUM‐DEPENDENT DEGRADATION OF Galleria mellonella LARVAL
           HEMOCYTES
    • Authors: Natalia A. Kryukova; Ekaterina A. Chertkova, Alexandra D Semenova, Yuri I. Glazachev, Irina A. Slepneva, Victor V. Glupov
      Abstract: Ectoparasitoids inject venom into hemolymph during oviposition. We determined the influence of envenomation by the parasitoid, Habrobracon hebetor, on the hemocytes of its larval host, Galleria mellonella. An increase in both intracellular Са2+ content and phospholipase C activity of the host hemocytes was recorded during 2 days following envenomation by the parasitoid. The decreased hemocyte viability was detected 1, 2, and 24 h after the envenomation. Injecting of the crude venom (final protein concentration 3 μg/ml) into the G. mellonella larvae led to the reduced hemocyte adhesion. The larval envenomation caused a decrease in transmembrane potential of the hemocytes. These findings document the suppression of hemocytic immune effectors in the parasitized host larvae.
      PubDate: 2015-06-19T03:05:12.559034-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21247
       
  • EFFECTS OF FIVE DIVERSE LIGNOCELLULOSIC DIETS ON DIGESTIVE ENZYME
           BIOCHEMISTRY IN THE TERMITE Reticulitermes flavipes
    • Authors: Zachary J. Karl; Michael E. Scharf
      Abstract: Termites have recently drawn much attention as models for biomass processing, mainly due to their lignocellulose digestion capabilities and mutualisms with cellulolytic gut symbionts. This research used the lower termite Reticulitermes flavipes to investigate gut enzyme activity changes in response to feeding on five diverse lignocellulosic diets (cellulose filter paper [FP], pine wood [PW], beech wood xylan [X], corn stover [CS], and soybean residue [SB]). Our objectives were to compare whole‐gut digestive enzyme activity and host versus symbiont contributions to enzyme activity after feeding on these diets. Our hypothesis was that enzyme activities would vary among diets as an adaptive mechanism enabling termites and symbiota to optimally utilize variable resources. Results support our “diet‐adaptation” hypothesis and further indicate that, in most cases, host contributions are greater than those of symbionts with respect to the enzymes and activities studied. The results obtained thus provide indications as to which types of transcriptomic resources, termite or symbiont, are most relevant for developing recombinant enzyme cocktails tailored to specific feedstocks. With regard to the agricultural feedstocks tested (CS and SB), our results suggest endoglucanase and exoglucanase (cellobiohydrolase) activities are most relevant for CS breakdown; whereas endoglucanase and xylosidase activities are relevant for SB breakdown. However, other unexplored activities than those tested may also be important for breakdown of these two feedstocks. These findings provide new protein‐level insights into diet adaptation by termites, and also complement host–symbiont metatranscriptomic studies that have been completed for R. flavipes after FP, PW, CS, and SB feeding.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:48:45.403245-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21246
       
  • PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF UBIQUITINATED PROTEINS FROM
           DELTAMETHRIN‐RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE STRAINS OF THE DIAMONDBACK
           MOTH, Plutella Xylostella L.
    • Authors: Luogen Cheng; Yaqiong Du, Junli Hu, Dongxu Jiao, Jin Li, Zhou Zhou, Qin Xu, Fengliang Li
      Abstract: Ubiquitin, a small protein consisting of 76 amino acids, acts in protein degradation, DNA repair, signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, and receptor control through endocytosis. Using proteomics, we compared the differentially ubiquitinated proteins between a deltamethrin‐resistant (DR) strain and a deltamethrin‐sensitive (DS) strain in third‐instar larvae of the diamondback moth. We used polyubiquitin affinity beads to enrich ubiquitinated proteins and then performed one‐dimensional SDS‐PAGE separation and mass spectrometric identification. In the DR strain, We found 17 proteins that were upregulated (relative to the DS strain), including carbonic anhydrase family members, ADP ribosylation factor 102F CG11027‐PA, protein kinase 61C, phospholipase A2, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase, tyrosine hydroxylase, and heat shock proteins, and five proteins that were downregulated in the DS strain, including carboxylesterase and DNA cytosine‐5 methyltransferase. These results were also verified by qPCR. The differentially ubiquitinated proteins/enzymes were mainly responsible for protein binding, catalytic activity, and molecular transducer activity. These results improve our understanding of the relationship between protein ubiquitination and the deltamethrin stress response.
      PubDate: 2015-05-15T08:48:13.933263-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21245
       
  • TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR Bmsage PLAYS A CRUCIAL ROLE IN SILK GLAND GENERATION
           IN SILKWORM, Bombyx mori
    • Abstract: Salivary gland secretion is altered in Drosophila embryos with loss of function of the sage gene. Saliva has a reduced volume and an increased electron density according to transmission electron microscopy, resulting in regions of tube dilation and constriction with intermittent tube closure. However, the precise functions of Bmsage in silkworm (Bombyx mori) are unknown, although its sequence had been deposited in SilkDB. From this, Bmsage is inferred to be a transcription factor that regulates the synthesis of silk fibroin and interacts with another silk gland‐specific transcription factor, namely, silk gland factor‐1. In this study, we introduced a germline mutation of Bmsage using the Cas9/sgRNA system, a genome‐editing technology, resulting in deletion of Bmsage from the genome of B. mori. Of the 15 tested samples, seven displayed alterations at the target site. The mutagenesis efficiency was about 46.7% and there were no obvious off‐target effects. In the screened homozygous mutants, silk glands developed poorly and the middle and posterior silk glands (MSG and PSG) were absent, which was significantly different from the wild type. The offspring of G0 mosaic silkworms had indel mutations causing 2‐ or 9‐bp deletions at the target site, but exhibited the same abnormal silk gland structure. Mutant larvae containing different open‐reading frames of Bmsage had the same silk gland phenotype. This illustrated that the mutant phenotype was due to Bmsage knockout. We conclude that Bmsage participates in embryonic development of the silk gland.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T01:50:41.084039-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21244
       
  • GLUTATHIONE S‐TRANSFERASE Genes IN THE RICE LEAFFOLDER,
           Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE): IDENTIFICATION AND
           EXPRESSION PROFILES
    • First page: 1
      Abstract: In insects, glutathione S‐transferases (GSTs) play critical roles in the detoxification of various insecticides, resulting in insecticide resistance. The rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, is an economically important pest of rice in Asia. GST genes have not been largely identified in this insect species. In the present study, by searching the transcriptome dataset, 25 candidate GST genes were identified in C. medinalis for the first time. Of these, 23 predicted GST proteins fell into five cytosolic classes (delta, epsilon, omega, sigma, and zeta), and two were assigned to the “unclassified” subgroup. Real‐time quantitative PCR analysis showed that these GST genes were differentially expressed in various tissues, including the midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body of larvae, and the antenna, abdomen, and leg of adults, indicating diversified functions for these genes. Transcription levels of CmGSTd2, CmGSTe6, and CmGSTe7 increased significantly in larvae following exposure to chlorpyrifos, suggesting that these GST genes could be involved in the detoxification of this insecticide. The results of our study pave the way to a better understanding of the detoxification system of C. medinalis.
      PubDate: 2015-04-28T01:33:08.661474-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21240
       
  • THE ENDOPARASITOID Campoletis chlorideae INDUCES A HEMOLYTIC FACTOR IN THE
           HERBIVOROUS INSECT Helicoverpa armigera
    • First page: 14
      Abstract: Although lysis of invading organisms is a major innate form of immunity used by invertebrates, it remains unclear whether herbivorous insects have hemolysin or not. To address this general question, we tested the hemolytic (HL) activity of the hemolymph and tissue extracts from various stages of the polyphagous insect Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) against the erythrocytes from chicken, duck, and rabbit. An HL activity was identified in the hemolymph of H. armigera larvae. Further studies demonstrated that the HL activity is proteinaceous as it was precipitable by deproteinizing agents. Hemolysins were found in Helicoverpa egg, larva, pupa, and adult, but the activity was higher in feeding larvae than in molting or newly molted larvae. Hemolysins were distributed among a variety of larval tissues including salivary gland, fat body, epidermis, midgut, or testes, but the highest activity was found in salivary gland and fat body. Relative to nonparasitized larvae, parasitization of H. armigera larvae by the endoparasitoid Campoletis chlorideae Uchida induced a 3.4‐fold increase in the HL activity in the plasma of parasitized host at day two postparasitization. The present study shows the presence of a parasitoid inducible HL factor in the parasitized insect. The HL activity increased significantly in H. armigera larvae at 12 and 24 h postinjection with Escherichia coli. We infer the HL factor(s) is inducible or due to de novo synthesis, which means that the HL factor(s) is associated with insect immune response by inhibiting or clearance of invading organisms.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30T03:41:52.552765-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21241
       
  • IMPACT OF IMMUNE RESPONSE OF A PARASITIC BEETLE Dastarcus helophoroides ON
           ITS HOST BEETLE Monochamus alternatus
    • First page: 28
      Abstract: Dastarcus helophoroides is an ectoparasitoid beetle of Monochamus alternatus, and the parasitism by D. helophoroides larvae remarkably influenced on the immune responses of M. alternatus larvae in many aspects. The hemolymph melanization reactions in the hosts were inhibited 1 h and 24 h postparasitization. The phenoloxidase activities of hemolymph were significantly stimulated 4 h postparasitization and inhibited 12 h postparasitization, and back to control level. The antibacterial activities of hemolymph in the parasitized hosts were significantly lower than that in the unparasitized ones 1 h postparasitization. By 72 h postparasitism, the total hemocyte numbers of the parasitized larvae declined to not more than one‐seconds of the number collected from the unparasitized larvae. All sampled hemolymph held the capability of nodulation, and there were fluctuations in the number of nodules the hemocytes made. However, there were no significant differences between unparasitized and parasitized larvae at each time point in the hemagglutination activity and the ratios of spreading hemocytes. In conclusion, D. helophoroides larvae could regulate M. alternatus immune system and resulted in the changes in host immune responses.
      PubDate: 2015-04-30T01:24:35.033606-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21242
       
  • TWO INNEXINS OF Spodoptera litura INFLUENCES HEMICHANNEL AND GAP JUNCTION
           FUNCTIONS IN CELLULAR IMMUNE RESPONSES
    • Authors: Zunyu Pang; Ming Li, Dongshuai Yu, Zhang Yan, Xinyi Liu, Xinglai Ji, Yang Yang, Jiansheng Hu, Kaijun Luo
      First page: 43
      Abstract: Insect cellular immune responses include encapsulation, nodule formation, and phagocytosis. Hemichannels and gap junctions are involved in these cellular actions. Innexins (Inxs: analogous to the vertebrate connexins) form hemichannels and gap junctions, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their biology is still unclear. In this article, we reported a steady‐state level of Inxs (SpliInxs) in hemocytes of Spodoptera litura, which formed nonfunctional hemichannels on the cell surface to maintain normal metabolism. We also reported that two innnexins (SpliInx2 and SpliInx3) were expressed significantly higher in hemocytes compared to other tissues, suggesting that they play important roles in hemocytes. Amino acid analysis found that two cysteine residues in two extracellular loops provided the capability for SpliInx2 and SpliInx3 hemichannels to dock into gap junctions. Western blotting demonstrated that both extracellular and intracellular loops of SpliInx3 and the extracellular loops of SpliInx2 might undergo posttranslational modification during the formation of a steady‐state hemichannel. During hemichannel formation, SpliInx2 presented as one isoform, while SpliInx3 presented as three isoforms. These results provide fundamental knowledge for further study of how steady‐state levels of SpliInxs are dynamically adjusted to perform cellular immune responses under immune challenge.
      PubDate: 2015-05-02T23:32:36.164232-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21243
       
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
  • ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS ON SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE AND CATALASE ACTIVITY AND
           EXPRESSION IN HONEY BEE
    • Abstract: Understanding the cellular stress response in honey bees will significantly contribute to their conservation. The aim of this study was to analyze the response of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase in honey bees related to the presence of toxic metals in different habitats. Three locations were selected: (i) Tunovo on the mountain Golija, as control area, without industry and large human impact, (ii) Belgrade as urban area, and (iii) Zajača, as mining and industrial zone. Our results showed that the concentrations of lead (Pb) in whole body of bees vary according to habitat, but there was very significant increase of Pb in bees from investigated industrial area. Bees from urban and industrial area had increased expression of both Sod1 and Cat genes, suggesting adaptation to increased oxidative stress. However, in spite increased gene expression, the enzyme activity of catalase was lower in bees from industrial area suggesting inhibitory effect of Pb on catalase.
       
 
 
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