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BIOCHEMISTRY (230 journals)                  1 2     

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AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Central Science     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 181)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 60)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 140)
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 50)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 232)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie Open     Open Access  
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 26)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Bitácora Digital     Open Access  
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Current Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Current Opinion in Lipidology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
FABICIB     Open Access  
FEBS Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
FEBS Open Bio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Foundations of Modern Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Free Radicals and Antioxidants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Natural Product Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Green Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Histochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Biomedical Journal     Open Access  
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access  
International Journal of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Journal of Biological Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 177)
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Clinical Lipidology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Investigational Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Neurochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Peptide Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
La Rivista Italiana della Medicina di Laboratorio - Italian Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
Marine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Enzymology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Aspects of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Molecular inhibitors in targeted therapy     Open Access  
Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mycology : An International Journal on Fungal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Natural Products and Bioprospecting     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Nature Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 67)
Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 109)
Neurosignals     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Novelty in Biomedicine     Open Access  
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 85)
Peptidomics     Open Access  
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Pflugers Archiv European Journal of Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Pharmaceutical Bioprocessing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Pharmacognosy Magazine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2     

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.768]   [H-I: 54]   [0 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • Green tea polyphenols require the mitochondrial iron transporter,
           mitoferrin, for lifespan extension in Drosophila melanogaster
    • Authors: Terry E. Lopez; Hoang M. Pham, Benjamin V. Nguyen, Yerazik Tahmasian, Shannon Ramsden, Volkan Coskun, Samuel E. Schriner, Mahtab Jafari
      Abstract: Green tea has been found to increase the lifespan of various experimental animal models including the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster. High in polyphenolic content, green tea has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in part by its ability to bind free iron, a micronutrient that is both essential for and toxic to all living organisms. Due to green tea's iron-binding properties, we questioned whether green tea acts to increase the lifespan of the fruit fly by modulating iron regulators, specifically, mitoferrin, a mitochondrial iron transporter, and transferrin, found in the hemolymph of flies. Publicly available hypomorph mutants for these iron regulators were utilized to investigate the effect of green tea on lifespan and fertility. We identified that green tea could not increase the lifespan of mitoferrin mutants but did rescue the reduced male fertility phenotype. The effect of green tea on transferrin mutant lifespan and fertility were comparable to w1118 flies, as observed in our previous studies, in which green tea increased male fly lifespan and reduced male fertility. Expression levels in both w1118 flies and mutant flies, supplemented with green tea, showed an upregulation of mitoferrin but not transferrin. Total body and mitochondrial iron levels were significantly reduced by green tea supplementation in w1118 and mitoferrin mutants but not transferrin mutant flies. Our results demonstrate that green tea may act to increase the lifespan of Drosophila in part by the regulation of mitoferrin and reduction of mitochondrial iron.
      PubDate: 2016-10-03T10:30:38.254926-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21353
    • Authors: Abel Trujillo-Ocampo; Febe Elena Cázares-Raga, Antonio Celestino-Montes, Leticia Cortés-Martínez, Mario H. Rodríguez, Fidel de la Cruz Hernández-Hernández
      Abstract: The 14‐3‐3 proteins are evolutionarily conserved acidic proteins that form a family with several isoforms in many cell types of plants and animals. In invertebrates, including dipteran and lepidopteran insects, only two isoforms have been reported. 14‐3‐3 proteins are scaffold molecules that form homo‐ or heterodimeric complexes, acting as molecular adaptors mediating phosphorylation‐dependent interactions with signaling molecules involved in immunity, cell differentiation, cell cycle, proliferation, apoptosis, and cancer. Here, we describe the presence of two isoforms of 14‐3‐3 in the mosquito Aedes aegypti, the main vector of dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya, and zika viruses. Both isoforms have the conserved characteristics of the family: two protein signatures (PS1 and PS2), an annexin domain, three serine residues, targets for phosphorylation (positions 58, 184, and 233), necessary for their function, and nine alpha helix‐forming segments. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, we found that the molecules correspond to Ɛ and ζ isoforms (Aeae14‐3‐3ε and Aeae14‐3‐3ζ). The messengers and protein products were present in all stages of the mosquito life cycle and all the tissues analyzed, with a small predominance of Aeae14‐3‐3ζ except in the midgut and ovaries of adult females. The 14‐3‐3 proteins in female midgut epithelial cells were located in the cytoplasm. Our results may provide insights to further investigate the functions of these proteins in mosquitoes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-05T06:05:38.826642-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21348
  • Ingestion of the anti‐bacterial agent, gemifloxacin mesylate, leads to
           increased gst activity and peroxidation products in hemolymph of Galleria
           mellonella l. (lepidoptera: pyralidae)
    • Authors: Meltem Erdem; Ceyhun Küçük, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel
      Abstract: Gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM) is a synthetic, fourth‐generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria. GEM inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities. Recent research into insect nutrition and mass‐rearing programs, in which antibiotics are incorporated into the culture media to maintain diet quality, raised a question of whether clinical antibiotics influence the health or biological performance of the insects that ingest these compounds. Because some antibiotics are pro‐oxidant compounds, we addressed the question with experiments designed to assess the effects of GEM (mesylate salt) on oxidative stress indicators, using Galleria mellonella larvae. The insects were reared from first‐instar larvae to adulthood on artificial diets amended with GEM at 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, or 1.0%. Feeding on the 1% diets led to significantly increased hemolymph contents of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde and protein oxidation products, protein carbonyl. All GEM concentrations led to increased hemolymph glutathione S‐transferase activity. We inferred that although it was not directly lethal to G. mellonella larvae, dietary exposure to GEM exerts measurable oxidative damage, possibly on insects generally. Long‐term, multigenerational effects remain unknown.
      PubDate: 2016-09-02T08:00:24.210228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21352
    • Authors: Rui-ting Chen; Peng Jiao, Yan Lu, Hu-hu Xin, Deng-pan Zhang, Mei-xian Wang, Shuang Liang, Yun-gen Miao
      Abstract: The apoptosis mechanisms in mammals were investigated relatively clearly. However, little is known about how apoptosis is achieved at a molecular level in silkworm cells. We cloned a caspase homologous gene named BmDredd (where Bm is Bombyx mori and Dredd is death‐related ced‐3/Nedd2‐like caspase) in BmN cells from the ovary of Bm and analyzed its biological information. We constructed the N‐terminal, C‐terminal, and overexpression vector of BmDredd, respectively. Our results showed that the transcriptional expression level of BmDredd was increased in the apoptotic BmN cells. Furthermore, overexpression of BmDredd increased the caspase‐3/7 activity. Simultaneously, RNAi of BmDredd could save BmN cells from apoptosis. The immunofluorescence study showed that BmDredd located at the cytoplasm in normal cell otherwise is found at the nucleus when cells undergo apoptosis. Moreover, we quantified the transcriptional expressions of apoptosis‐related genes including BmDredd, BmDaxx (where Daxx is death‐domain associated protein), BmCide‐b (where Cide‐b is cell death inducing DFF45‐like effector), BmFadd (Fadd is fas‐associated via death domain), and BmCreb (where Creb is cAMP‐response element binding protein) in BmN cells with dsRNA interferences to detect the molecular mechanism of apoptosis. In conclusion, BmDredd may function for promoting apoptosis and there are various regulatory interactions among these apoptosis‐related genes.
      PubDate: 2016-08-25T02:05:34.16865-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21349
    • Authors: Zahra Afrasiabi; Holly J.R. Popham, David Stanley, Dhananjay Suresh, Kristen Finley, Jonelle Campbell, Raghuraman Kannan, Anandhi Upendran
      Abstract: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have antimicrobial and insecticidal properties and they have been considered for their potential use as insecticides. While they do, indeed, kill some insects, two broader issues have not been considered in a critical way. First, reports of insect‐lethal AgNPs are often based on simplistic methods that yield nanoparticles of nonuniform shapes and sizes, leaving questions about the precise treatments test insects experienced. Second, we do not know how AgNPs influence beneficial insects. This work addresses these issues. We assessed the influence of AgNPs on life history parameters of two agricultural pest insect species, Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm) and Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper) and a beneficial predatory insect species, Podisus maculiventris (spined soldier bug), all of which act in agroecosystems. Rearing the two pest species on standard media amended with AgNPs led to negligible influence on developmental times, pupal weights, and adult emergence, however, they led to retarded development, reductions in adult weight and fecundity, and increased mortality in the predator. These negative effects on the beneficial species, if also true for other beneficial insect species, would have substantial negative implications for continued development of AgNPs for insect pest management programs.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T08:20:54.787531-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21351
    • Authors: Malgorzata Slocinska; Nina Antos-Krzeminska, Grzegorz Rosinski, Wieslawa Jarmuszkiewicz
      Abstract: We investigated the effect of neuropeptide, the nonsulfated sulfakinin (SK) Zopat‐SK‐1 (pETSDDYGHLRFa) on the mitochondrial oxidative metabolism in the Zophobas atratus larval fat body. Mitochondria were isolated from beetle fat bodies 2 and 24 h after hormone injection. The administration of 20 pmol of Zopat‐SK‐1 to feeding larvae led to decreased mitochondrial oxidative activities in larval fat body. Diminished activities of citrate synthase and the cytochrome pathway, that is, nonphosphorylating and phosphorylating respiration during succinate oxidation, were observed. However, the effect of Zopat‐SK‐1 was more pronounced in fat body of insects after 24 h since hormone application. In hormone‐treated larval fat bodies, mitochondrial respiration was decreased at the level of respiratory chain and the TCA cycle as well as at the level of mitochondrial biogenesis, as indicated by decreased activities of mitochondrial marker enzymes in fat body homogenates. The inhibition of succinate oxidation may indicate the role of Zopat‐SK‐1 in the regulation of mitochondrial complex II activity. Moreover, decreased respiratory chain activity was accompanied by the reduced activity of mitochondrial energy‐dissipating pathway, uncoupling protein 4. The observed decrease in mitochondrial oxidative metabolism may reflect the Zopat‐SK‐1‐induced reduction in the metabolic rate of larval fat body linked to actual energetic demands of animal.
      PubDate: 2016-08-08T09:34:13.076889-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21350
           LEAFFOLDER, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)
    • Authors: Dong-Ming Wang; Bang-Xian Zhang, Xiao-Ming Liu, Xiang-Jun Rao, Shi-Guang Li, Mao-Ye Li, Su Liu
      Abstract: In this study, two full‐length cDNA sequences (Cmace1 and Cmace2) encoding putative acetylcholinesterases (AChEs) were cloned and characterized from the rice leaffolder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis, an important lepidopteran rice pest in Asia. Cmace1 encodes a CmAChE1 consisting of 689 amino acid residues, while Cmace2 encodes a 639 amino acids CmAChE2. The two CmAChEs both have N‐terminal signal peptides and conserved motifs including the catalytic triad, choline‐binding sites, oxianion hole, acyl pocket, peripheral anionic subsite, and the characteristic FGESAG motif and conserved 14 aromatic amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Cmace1 and Cmace2 are clustered into distinct clusters that are completely diverged from each other. Reverse‐transcription quantitative PCR analysis revealed that Cmace1 and Cmace2 were predominately expressed in the larval brain and at the fifth‐instar larvae stage, and the transcription levels of Cmace1 were significantly higher than those of Cmace2 in all the tested samples. Recombinant CmAChE1 and CmAChE2 were heterologously expressed in baculovirus system. Using acetylthiocholine iodide (ATChI) as substrate, the Michaelis constant (Km) values of rCmAChE1 and rCmAChE2 were 39.81 ± 6.49 and 68.29 ± 6.72 μmol/l, respectively; and the maximum velocity (Vmax) values of the two rCmAChEs were 0.60 ± 0.02 and 0.31 ± 0.06 μmol/min/mg protein, respectively. Inhibition assay indicated that rCmAChE1 was more sensitive to the organophosphate insecticides chlorpyrifos and triazophos than rCmAChE2. This study is the first report of molecular cloning and biochemical characterization of two acetylcholinesterase genes/enzymes in C. medinalis.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:56:15.845334-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21347
           DIETARY PROTEIN IN THE CRICKET Gryllus bimaculatus
    • Authors: Joseph Woodring; Sandy Weidlich
      Abstract: In Gryllus bimaculatus, the size of the caecum decreases in the latter half of each instar to a stable minimal size with a steady minimal rate of digestive enzyme secretion until feeding resumes after ecdysis. The higher the percent protein in the newly ingested food, the faster and larger the caecum grows, and as a consequent the higher the secretion rate of trypsin and amylase. When hard boiled eggs (40% protein) are eaten the caecum is 2× larger, the trypsin secretion is almost 3× greater, and amylase 2.5× greater then when fed the same amount of apples (1.5% protein). Only dietary protein increases amylase secretion, whereas dietary carbohydrates have no effect on amylase secretion. The minimal caecal size and secretion rate must be supported by utilization of hemolymph amino acids, but the growth of the caecum and increasing enzymes secretions after the molt depend upon an amino acid source in the lumen. This simple regulation of digestive enzyme secretion is ideal for animals that must stop feeding in order to molt. This basic control system does not preclude additional regulation mechanisms, such as prandal, which is also indicated for G. bimaculatus, or even paramonal regulation.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T07:31:03.208313-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21346
  • Issue Information
    • First page: 65
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T06:50:48.816255-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21297
           AND SEROTONIN
    • Authors: Melika Zadeh-Tahmasebi; Phuong Bui, Andrew Donini
      First page: 67
      Abstract: Larvae of Chironomus riparius respond to ion‐poor and brackish water (IPW, BW) conditions by activating ion uptake mechanisms in the anal papillae and reducing ion absorption at the rectum, respectively. The role that the Malpighian tubules play in ion and osmoregulation under these conditions is not known in this species. This study examines rates of fluid secretion and major cation composition of secreted fluid from tubules of C. riparius reared in IPW, freshwater (FW) and BW. Fluid secretion of tubules from FW and BW larvae was similar but tubules from IPW larvae secrete fluid at higher rates, are more sensitive to serotonin stimulation, and the secreted fluid contains less Na+. Therefore in IPW, tubules work in concert with anal papillae to eliminate excess water while conserving Na+ in the hemolymph. Tubules do not appear to play a significant role in ion/osmoregulation under BW. Serotonin immunoreactivity in the nervous system and gastrointestinal tract of larval C. riparius was similar to that seen in mosquito larvae with the exception that the hindgut was devoid of staining. Hemolymph serotonin titer was similar in FW and IPW; hence, serotonin is not responsible for the observed high rates of fluid secretion in IPW. Instead, it is suggested that serotonin may work in a synergistic manner with an unidentified hormonal factor in IPW. Ion transport mechanisms in the tubules of C. riparius are pharmacologically similar to those of other insects.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T04:35:54.369042-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21342
    • Authors: Fei Deng; Qiankun He, Zhangwu Zhao
      First page: 86
      Abstract: Peroxidases (POXs) make up a large superfamily of enzymes that act in a wide range of biological mechanisms, including maintaining appropriate redox balances within cells, among other actions. In this study, we cloned a sequence that encodes a POX protein, SaPOX, from wheat aphids, Sitobion avenae. Amino acid sequence alignment showed the SaPOX sequence was conserved with POXs from other insect species. SaPOX mRNA accumulations were present in all nymphal and adult stages, at higher levels during the first and second instar, and lower during later stages in the life cycle. Ingestion of dsRNA specific to POX led to reduced SaPOX mRNA accumulation. Sitobion avenae nymphs continuously exposed to dietary dsPOX via an artificial diet led to reduced survival rate and ecdysis index. We infer that POX is important to maintain the growth and development of S. avenae.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T04:30:37.087795-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21343
    • Authors: Murat Kaya; Esra Bulut, Muhammad Mujtaba, Karolis Sivickis, Idris Sargin, Bahar Akyuz, Sevil Erdogan
      First page: 96
      Abstract: Earlier reports have established that chitin isolates from each body part of an insect cuticle can exhibit diverse physicochemical properties. But it is still unknown if the gender of the insect can influence characteristics of chitin isolates from different body parts. The present study addresses this question. As a result, important physicochemical differences in the chitin samples from different body parts of Melolontha sp. were recorded on the basis of sex. The chitin samples were extracted from eight different body parts (antennae, head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, elytra, hindwings, and legs) of female and male. The most remarkable variations in the chitin isolates from female and male body parts were recorded in chitin content, crystallinity, thermal stability, and surface morphology. And also it was wondered these chitin isolates from different body parts of female and male could find different applications. To check this hypothesis, the chitin samples from female and male were interacted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein and important variations were observed.
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T05:30:31.379728-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21344
    • Authors: Bin-Bin Wang; Yi Xie, Fan-Chi Li, Min Ni, Kai-Zun Xu, Jiang-Hai Tian, Jing-Sheng Hu, Bin Xue, Wei-De Shen, Bing Li
      First page: 110
      Abstract: The main mechanism of toxicity of organophosphate (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides is their irreversible binding and inhibition of acetylcholinestrase (AChE), encoded by ace1 (acetylcholinestrase gene 1), leading to eventual death of insects. Mutations in AChE may significantly reduce insects susceptibility to these pesticides. Bombyx mori is an important beneficial insect, and no OP‐ or CB‐resistant strains have been generated. In this study, wild‐type ace1 (wace1) and mutant ace1 (mace1) were introduced into BmN cells, confirmed by screening and identification. The expression of wace1 and mace1 in the cells was confirmed by Western blot and their expression levels were about 21‐fold higher than the endogenous ace1 level. The activities of AChE in wace1 and mace1 transgenic cells were 10.6 and 20.2% higher compared to control cells, respectively. mace1 transgenic cells had higher remaining activity than wace1 transgenic cells under the treatment of physostigmine (a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor) and phoxim (an OP acaricide). The results showed that ace1 transgene can significantly improve ace1 expression, and ace1 mutation at a specific site can reduce the sensitivity to AChE inhibitors. Our study provides a new direction for the exploration of the relationship between AChE mutations and drug resistance.
      PubDate: 2016-07-12T03:11:09.711064-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21345
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