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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2912 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (217 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Central Science     Hybrid Journal  
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 158)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 72)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 22)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 74)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 159)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 12)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access  
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.663]   [H-I: 48]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • IMPACT OF CYCLICAL CHANGES IN TEMPERATURE ON CIRCADIAN CLOCK GENES
           EXPRESSION IN Bombyx BmN CELLS
    • Abstract: The physiology and metabolism of poikilothermic insects are under the control of environmental temperature. Temperature is the primary cue for the circadian rhythm. Reports on the timing mechanisms of temperature in lepidopterans are limited. This study used Bombyx mori BmN ovarian cells to investigate the effect of temperature on expression of the main circadian clock genes in a negative feedback loop. A 37°C, 30‐min high‐temperature stimulation induced transcription of the circadian clock genes Cry1, Cry2, Per, and Tim. The gene expression profiles showed rhythmic oscillations, with shortened oscillatory periods for Cry1 and altered oscillatory phases for Cry1 and Per. Cyclical increases in temperature of 2°C starting at 26°C, 5°C starting at 20 or 25°C, or 10°C starting at 20°C induced cyclical changes in expression and protein from the four circadian clock genes. Cyclical temperature changes with a difference of 10°C had the most influence. In conclusion, cyclical changes in temperature with differences from 2 to 10°C reset and synchronized the circadian clock of silkworm BmN cells. Transcription of the genes for and protein from Cry2 and Per showed a better reset and synchronization with cyclical temperature changes.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T07:51:25.918759-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21317
       
  • REQUIREMENT OF THE TEC FAMILY TYROSINE KINASE BTK29A FOR COURTSHIP MEMORY
           IN Drosophila MALES
    • Authors: Kazuya Sunouchi; Masayuki Koganezawa, Daisuke Yamamoto
      Abstract: A male Drosophila that is not successful in courtship will reduce his courtship efforts in the next encounter with a female. This courtship suppression persists for more than 1 h in wild‐type males. The Btk29AficP mutant males null for the Btk29A type 2 isoform, a fly homolog of the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase Btk, show no courtship suppression, while Btk29A hypomorphic males exhibit a rapid decline in courtship suppression, leading to its complete loss within 30 min. The males of a revertant stock or Btk29AficP males that are also mutant for parkas, a gene encoding the presumptive negative regulator of Btk29A, exhibit normal courtship suppression. Since another behavioral assay has shown that Btk29AficP mutants are sensitization‐defective, we hypothesize that the mutant flies are unable to maintain the neural excitation state acquired by experience, resulting in the rapid loss of courtship suppression.
      PubDate: 2016-01-19T07:49:49.882192-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21316
       
  • EXPRESSION PATTERNS OF THE GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE GENE RELATED TO LARVAL
           DIAPAUSE IN Ostrinia furnacalis
    • Authors: Jianqing Guo; Honggang Zhang, Martin Edwards, Zhenying Wang, Shuxiong Bai, Kanglai He
      Abstract: Glycogen phosphorylase (GP) acts in the first step in release of glucose from glycogen, a form of energy storage for most organisms. To investigate the characteristics and expression pattern of GP gene (Ofgp) in the Asian corn borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenée), larvae, we cloned and analyzed tissue transcription of Ofgp. The results indicate that the open reading frame (ORF) is 2,526 bp, encoding 841 amino acid. The calculated three‐dimensional structure shows 33 α‐helices and 24 β‐sheets. Ofgp transcription levels varied significantly during the second to fifth instars under long‐day (28°C, 16:8 L:D photoperiod, and 70–80% relative humidity (RH)) and short‐day (24.5°C, 11:13 L:D photoperiod, and 70–80% RH) conditions, remained low during the prediapause phase, and then increased after about 36 d under short‐day photoperiod. In the larvae reared under long‐day condition, hemolymph ranked the highest in the transcript level of Ofgp. The highest transcription was recorded in the fat body and was lower in the other tissues in larvae reared under short‐day condition. We found that Ofgp transcription increased linearly from October 2012 to January 2013. The transcript level was negatively correlated with environmental temperature. We infer the higher Ofgp transcription may enhance the cold hardiness of the diapause larvae.
      PubDate: 2016-01-08T01:35:41.798578-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21318
       
  • PHARMACOLOGICAL REGULATION OF DIGESTION IN THE ANAUTOGENOUS FLESH FLY,
           Sarcophaga crassipalpis, BY SIMPLE INJECTION OF 6‐HYDROXYDOPAMINE
    • Authors: Magdalena Bil; Roger Huybrechts
      Abstract: Female anautogenous Sarcophaga flesh flies need a protein meal to start large‐scale yolk polypeptides (YPs) production and oocyte maturation. Protein meal rapidly elicits a brain‐dependent increase in midgut proteolytic activity. Trypsin and chymotrypsin together represent over 80% of protease activity in liver‐fed flies. Abdominal injection of 6‐hydroxydopamine (6‐OHDA) dose‐dependently prohibits this increase in proteolytic activity at translational level in a similar way as post liver feeding decapitation. Delayed injection of 6‐OHDA later than 6 h post liver meal has no effect. In flesh flies, chemical decapitation by 6‐OHDA, by interrupting the brain‐gut dopaminergic signaling, can be used as tool for the controlled inhibition of midgut proteolytic activity and subsequent ovarial development. Inhibition of ovarial development is probably indirect due to a deficit in circulating amino acids needed for YPs synthesis.
      PubDate: 2016-01-05T07:39:10.773416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21314
       
  • GENE SILENCING BY PARENTAL RNA INTERFERENCE IN THE GREEN RICE LEAFHOPPER,
           Nephotettix cincticeps (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE)
    • Authors: Yukiko Matsumoto; Makoto Hattori
      Abstract: RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for investigating gene function in many nonmodel insect species. Parental RNAi causes gene knockdown in the next generation through the administration of double‐strand RNA (dsRNA) to the mother generation. In this study, we demonstrate that parental RNAi mediated gene silencing is effective in determining the gene function of the cuticle and the salivary glands in green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). Injection of dsRNA of NcLac2 (9 ng/female) to female parents caused a strong knockdown of laccase‐2 gene of first instar nymphs, which eventually led to high mortality rates and depigmentation of side lines on the body. The effects of parental RNAi on the mortality of the nymphs were maintained through 12–14 days after the injections. We also confirmed the effectiveness of parental RNAi induced silencing on the gene expressed in the salivary gland, the gene product of which is passed from instar to instar. The parental RNAi method can be used to examine gene function by phenotyping many offspring nymphs with injection of dsRNA into a small number of parent females, and may be applicable to high‐efficiency determination of gene functions in this species.
      PubDate: 2016-01-05T07:38:53.007939-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21315
       
  • Editorial Board
    • First page: 65
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:39:30.331782-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21280
       
  • Contents
    • First page: 66
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:39:30.268913-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21281
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF PROTEASOME ALPHA6 SUBUNIT ASSOCIATED WITH DELTAMETHRIN
           RESISTANCE IN Drosophila melanogaster Kc CELLS
    • Authors: Junli Hu; Qin Xu, Qingping Chi, Wei Liu, Fengliang Li, Luogen Cheng
      First page: 124
      Abstract: Differential expression of the proteasome alpha6 (prosalpha6) was previously reported between Plutella xylostella strains that are resistant or susceptible to the pesticide deltamethrin (DM). This finding indicated that the prosalpha6 may be involved in DM resistance. In this article, qPCR analysis revealed that the prosalpha6 was also significantly upregulated in Drosophila Kc cells treated with DM. To better understand the contribution of prosalpha6 in DM resistance, RNA interference, heterologous expression, and a proteasome inhibitor (MG‐132) were used. MG‐132 was used to suppress proteasomal activity, and the dsRNA was designed to block the function of prosalpha6. The results indicated that both MG‐132 and prosalpha6 knockdown decreased the cellular viability following DM treatment. Prosalpha6 was cloned and transfected into Drosophila Kc cells. The result showed that overexpression of prosalpha6 in Drosophila Kc cells conferred some protection against DM. Taken together, our results indicate that prosalpha6 is involved in Drosophila cells DM resistance.
      PubDate: 2016-01-13T01:39:28.631212-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21313
       
  • MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION OF CYSTEINE AND TRYPSIN PROTEASE, EFFECT OF
           DIFFERENT HOSTS ON PROTEASE EXPRESSION, AND RNAI MEDIATED SILENCING OF
           CYSTEINE PROTEASE GENE IN THE SUNN PEST
    • Authors: Azam Amiri; Ali Reza Bandani, Houshang Alizadeh
      Abstract: Sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps, is a serious pest of cereals in the wide area of the globe from Near and Middle East to East and South Europe and North Africa. This study described for the first time, identification of E. integriceps trypsin serine protease and cathepsin‐L cysteine, transcripts involved in digestion, which might serve as targets for pest control management. A total of 478 and 500 base pair long putative trypsin and cysteine gene sequences were characterized and named Tryp and Cys, respectively. In addition, the tissue‐specific relative gene expression levels of these genes as well as gluten hydrolase (Gl) were determined under different host kernels feeding conditions. Result showed that mRNA expression of Cys, Tryp, and Gl was significantly affected after feeding on various host plant species. Transcript levels of these genes were most abundant in the wheat‐fed E. integriceps larvae compared to other hosts. The Cys transcript was detected exclusively in the gut, whereas the Gl and Tryp transcripts were detectable in both salivary glands and gut. Also possibility of Sunn pest gene silencing was studied by topical application of cysteine double‐stranded RNA (dsRNA). The results indicated that topically applied dsRNA on fifth nymphal stage can penetrate the cuticle of the insect and induce RNA interference. The Cys gene mRNA transcript in the gut was reduced to 83.8% 2 days posttreatment. Also, it was found that dsRNA of Cys gene affected fifth nymphal stage development suggesting the involvement of this protease in the insect growth, development, and molting.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T09:32:48.958033-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21311
       
  • CLONING, EXPRESSION, AND FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF THREE
           ODORANT‐BINDING PROTEINS OF THE ORIENTAL FRUIT MOTH, Grapholita
           molesta (BUSCK) (LEPIDOPTERA: TORTRICIDAE)
    • First page: 67
      Abstract: Odorant‐binding proteins (OBPs) act in insect olfactory processes. OBPs are expressed in the olfactory organs and serve in binding and transport of hydrophobic odorants through the sensillum lymph to olfactory receptor neurons within the antennal sensilla. In this study, three OBP genes were cloned from the antennal transcriptome database of Grapholita molesta via reverse‐transcription PCR. Recombinant GmolOBPs (rGmolOBPs) were expressed in a prokaryotic expression system and enriched via Ni ion affinity chromatography. The binding properties of the three rGmolOBPs to four sex pheromones and 30 host‐plant volatiles were investigated in fluorescence ligand‐binding assays. The results demonstrated that rGmolOBP8, rGmolOBP11, and rGmolOBP15 exhibited high binding affinities with the major sex pheromone components (E)‐8‐dodecenyl acetate, (Z)‐8‐dodecenyl alcohol, and dodecanol. The volatiles emitted from peach and pear, decanal, butyl hexanoate, and α‐ocimene, also showed binding affinities to rGmolOBP8 and rGmolOBP11. Hexanal, heptanal, and α‐pinene showed strong binding affinities to rGmolOBP15. Results of the electrophysiological recording experiments and previous behavior bioassays indicated that adult insects had strong electroantennogram and behavioral responses toward butyl hexanoate, hexanal, and heptanal. We infer that the GmolOBP8 and GmolOBP11 have dual functions in perception and recognition of host‐plant volatiles and sex pheromones, while GmolOBP15 was mainly involved in plant volatile odorants’ perception.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T09:33:38.855658-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21309
       
  • IDENTIFICATION OF THE FGL‐AMIDE ALLATOSTATIN GENE OF THE PRIMITIVE
           TERMITE Mastotermes darwiniensis AND THE WOODROACH Cryptocercus darwini
    • Authors: Franziska Wende; Martina Meyering-Vos, Klaus H. Hoffmann
      First page: 88
      Abstract: Allatostatins with the C‐terminal ending Tyr/Phe‐Xaa‐Phe‐Gly‐Leu/Ile‐amide (FGLa/ASTs) are widespread neuropeptides with multiple functions. The gene encoding the FGLa/AST polypeptide precursor was first isolated from cockroaches and since then could be identified in many insects and crustaceans. With its strictly conserved regions in combination with variable regions the gene seems to be a good candidate for phylogenetic analyses between closely and distantly related species. Here, the structure of the FGLa/AST gene of the most primitive termite, the giant northern termite Mastotermes darwiniensis Froggatt, was identified. The FGLa/AST gene of the woodroach Cryptocercus darwini was also determined. Precursor sequences of both species possess the general organization of dictyopteran FGLa/AST precursors containing 14 putative FGLa/AST peptides. In M. darwiniensis, only 11 out of the 14 FGLa/AST‐like peptides possess the C‐terminal conserved region Y/FXFGL/I/V/M and four of the putative peptide structures are not followed by a Gly residue that would lead to nonamidated peptides. Phylogenetic analyses show the high degree of similarity of dictyopteran FGLa/AST sequences. The position of termites, nested within the Blattaria, confirms that termites have evolved from primitive cockroaches.
      PubDate: 2015-10-29T08:47:08.337881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21310
       
  • BIOINFORMATICS, TISSUE DISTRIBUTION, AND SUBCELLULAR LOCALIZATION ANALYSES
           OF FK506 BINDING PROTEIN 12B FROM SILKWORMS
    • Authors: Si Li; JingJing Fei, DanDan Cheng, Yongfeng Jin, Wenping Zhang, Yaozhou Zhang, Zhengbing Lv
      First page: 109
      Abstract: FK506 binding proteins (FKBPs) are intracellular receptors of the immunosuppressant FK506 and play important roles in the correct folding of new proteins and the self‐assembly of biological macromolecules. FKBP12 is a member of the FKBP family that is widely expressed and highly conserved in many species. In this study, we identified the complete cDNA sequence encoding the FKBP12 ortholog in Bombyx mori, named Bm‐FKBP12B (GenBank accession no. DQ443423). Multiple‐sequence alignment among different species revealed a high similarity among FKBP12 paralogs and orthologs. Bioinformatics analysis of the Bm‐FKBP12B gene showed that it is located on chromosome 20 and consists of three exons and two introns. We cloned, expressed, and purified the Bm‐FKBP12B protein in Escherichia coli and generated a specific polyclonal antibody against Bm‐FKBP12B. The real‐time quantitative reverse‐transcription (qRT) PCR and Western blotting results showed that Bm‐FKBP12B was present throughout all of the development stages, but it was abundant in the adult and embryo stages. Bm‐FKBP12B expression was higher in the silk gland and gut, suggesting that it might play important roles in regulating gene expression in the silk gland and during silk fiber formation. Bm‐FKBP12B protein was distributed in the cytoplasm, nucleus, and nuclear membrane.
      PubDate: 2015-12-17T05:35:55.984998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21312
       
  • Hormonal and nutritional regulation of insect fat body development and
           function
    • Abstract: The insect fat body is an organ analogue to vertebrate adipose tissue and liver and functions as a major organ for nutrient storage and energy metabolism. Similar to other larval organs, fat body undergoes a developmental “remodeling” process during the period of insect metamorphosis, with the massive destruction of obsolete larval tissues by programmed cell death and the simultaneous growth and differentiation of adult tissues from small clusters of progenitor cells. Genetic ablation of Drosophila fat body cells during larval‐pupal transition results in lethality at the late pupal stage and changes sizes of other larval organs indicating that fat body is the center for pupal development and adult formation. Fat body development and function are largely regulated by several hormonal (i.e. insulin and ecdysteroids) and nutritional signals, including oncogenes and tumor suppressors in these pathways. Combining silkworm physiology with fruitfly genetics might provide a valuable system to understand the mystery of hormonal regulation of insect fat body development and function. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
      PubDate: 2009-02-03T00:00:00-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.20291
       
 
 
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