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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 2664 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (204 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1338 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (204 journals)                  1 2 3     

AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 305)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access  
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 177)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 205)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 28)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences     Open Access  
Avicenna Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access  
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 220)
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 11)
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
BMC Chemical Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access  
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Journal of Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription  
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3     

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
   [3 followers]  Follow    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
     ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
     Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1604 journals]   [SJR: 0.572]   [H-I: 44]
  • INHIBITION OF INSECT GLUTATHIONE S‐TRANSFERASE (GST) BY CONIFER
           EXTRACTS
    • Authors: Zhiling Wang; Zhong Zhao, Mamdouh M. Abou‐Zaid, John T. Arnason, Rui Liu, Brendan Walshe‐Roussel, Andrew Waye, Suqi Liu, Ammar Saleem, Luis A. Cáceres, Qin Wei, Ian M. Scott
      Abstract: Insecticide synergists biochemically inhibit insect metabolic enzyme activity and are used both to increase the effectiveness of insecticides and as a diagnostic tool for resistance mechanisms. Considerable attention has been focused on identifying new synergists from phytochemicals with recognized biological activities, specifically enzyme inhibition. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana Lamb.), black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP.), balsam fir (Abies balsamea (L.) Mill.), and tamarack larch (Larix laricina (Du Roi) Koch) have been used by native Canadians as traditional medicine, specifically for the anti‐inflammatory and antioxidant properties based on enzyme inhibitory activity. To identify the potential allelochemicals with synergistic activity, ethanol crude extracts and methanol/water fractions were separated by Sephadex LH‐20 chromatographic column and tested for in vitro glutathione S‐transferase (GST) inhibition activity using insecticide‐resistant Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say) midgut and fat‐body homogenate. The fractions showing similar activity were combined and analyzed by ultra pressure liquid chromatography‐mass spectrometry. A lignan, (+)‐lariciresinol 9′‐p‐coumarate, was identified from P. mariana cone extracts, and L. laricina and A. balsamea bark extracts. A flavonoid, taxifolin, was identified from P. mariana and P. banksiana cone extracts and L. laricina bark extracts. Both compounds inhibit GST activity with taxifolin showing greater activity compared to (+)‐lariciresinol 9′‐p‐coumarate and the standard GST inhibitor, diethyl maleate. The results suggested that these compounds can be considered as potential new insecticide synergists.
      PubDate: 2014-09-30T11:08:26.207637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21192
       
  • VENOM OF THE PARASITOID WASP Pteromalus puparum CONTAINS AN ODORANT
           BINDING PROTEIN
    • Authors: Lei Wang; Jia‐Ying Zhu, Cen Qian, Qi Fang, Gong‐Yin Ye
      Abstract: Odorant binding proteins (OBPs) are crucial for insects to detect food, mates, predators, or other purposes. They are mostly located on antennae and other olfactory sensilla. In this study, we identified an OBP from the venom of Pteromalus puparum, designated as PpOBP. The cDNA of PpOBP is 517 bp in length, encoding 132 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that PpOBP was clustered with OBP68 and OBP67 of Nasonia vitripennis. PpOBP was highly expressed in the venom apparatus at the transcriptional and translational levels. PpOBP was located in all parts of venom apparatus including venom gland, venom reservoir, and Dufour's gland. During 0–6 days post adult eclosion, the PpOBP mRNA level peaked at 2 days in the venom apparatus, whereas the protein remained at a high level. In the venom apparatus, the PpOBP mRNA was significantly upregulated following feeding with honey and parasitization. We propose that PpOBP is involved in parasitoid‐host interactions.
      PubDate: 2014-09-25T04:18:47.630955-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21206
       
  • DIVERSITY IN GUT MICROFLORA OF Helicoverpa armigera POPULATIONS FROM
           DIFFERENT REGIONS IN RELATION TO BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF Bacillus
           thuringiensis δ‐ENDOTOXIN Cry1Ac
    • Authors: Inakarla Paramasiva; Yogesh Shouche, Girish Jayant Kulkarni, Pulipaka Venkata Krishnayya, Shaik Mohammed Akbar, Hari Chand Sharma
      Abstract: Transgenic crops expressing toxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been deployed on a large scale for management of Helicoverpa armigera. Resistance to Bt toxins has been documented in several papers, and therefore, we examined the role of midgut microflora of H. armigera in its susceptibility to Bt toxins. The susceptibility of H. armigera to Bt toxin Cry1Ac was assessed using Log‐dose‐Probit analysis, and the microbial communities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. The H. armigera populations from nine locations harbored diverse microbial communities, and had some unique bacteria, suggesting a wide geographical variation in microbial community in the midgut of the pod borer larvae. Phylotypes belonging to 32 genera were identified in the H. armigera midgut in field populations from nine locations. Bacteria belonging to Enterobacteriaceae (Order Bacillales) were present in all the populations, and these may be the common members of the H. armigera larval midgut microflora. Presence and/or absence of certain species were linked to H. armigera susceptibility to Bt toxins, but there were no clear trends across locations. Variation in susceptibility of F1 neonates of H. armigera from different locations to the Bt toxin Cry1Ac was found to be 3.4‐fold. These findings support the idea that insect migut microflora may influence the biological activity of Bt toxins.
      PubDate: 2014-09-04T06:29:31.575519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21190
       
  • PROTEIN PROFILES OF CHINESE WHITE WAX SCALE, Ericerus pela, AT THE MALE
           PUPAL STAGE BY HIGH‐THROUGHPUT PROTEOMICS
    • Authors: Pu Yang; Xiao‐Ming Chen
      Abstract: The Chinese white wax scale insect (Ericerus pela) is sexually dimorphic with holometabolous males and hemimetabolous females. Holometabolous insects were assumed to originate from hemimetabolous ancestors. Therefore, the male pupal stage is a major innovation compared with hemimetabolous female insects. Here, the protein profiles of the male pupae were obtained by high‐throughput proteomics and analyzed using bioinformatics methods. A total of 1,437 peptides were identified and assigned to 677 protein groups. Most of the proteins had molecular weights below 40 kDa and isoelectric points from 4 to 7. Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 331 proteins, including metabolic process, developmental process, and cellular process. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes annotations identified 142 pathways and most proteins were assigned to metabolism events. Pathways involved in cell growth and death, signal transduction, folding, and sorting and degradation were also identified. Six proteins that had undergone positive selection were classified into four groups, protein biosynthesis, protein degeneration, signal transduction, and detoxification. Many of the high‐abundance proteins were enzymes involved in carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid metabolism; signal transduction; degradation; and immunization, which indicated that metabolism, disruption, and development occurred intensely at the pupal stage. These processes are closely related to the physiological status of pupae. The results also suggested that these related proteins may be fundamental factors in the formation of pupae. This study describes pupal characterization at the molecular level and provides a basis for further physiological studies.
      PubDate: 2014-09-03T04:07:18.881343-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21191
       
  • TRANSCRIPTOME AND TISSUE‐SPECIFIC EXPRESSION ANALYSIS OF OBP AND CSP
           GENES IN THE DARK BLACK CHAFER
    • Authors: Qian Ju; Xiao Li, Xiao‐Jing Jiang, Ming‐Jing Qu, Xiao‐Qiang Guo, Zhao‐Jun Han, Fei Li
      Abstract: The dark black chafer, Holotrichia parallela, is an economically important pest in China and worldwide. Traps based on chemical communication are being developed as an alternative control measure to pesticides for this pest, and studies to reveal chemical communication mechanisms in this pest are highly desirable. To systematically analyze genes potentially involved in chemical communication in this pest, we generated a comprehensive transcriptome with combined samples derived from multiple tissues and developmental stages. A total of 43,967 nonredundant sequences (unigenes) with average length of 806 bp were obtained. These unigenes were annotated into different pathways using gene ontology analysis and cluster analysis of orthologous groups of proteins, and kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes. In total, 25 transcripts encoding odorant‐binding proteins (OBPs) and 16 transcripts encoding chemosensory proteins (CSPs) were identified based on homology searches. Tissue‐specific expression profile indicates that OBP17 and CSP7 are likely responsible for male sex pheromone recognition, whereas OBP1–4, OBP9, OBP13–14, OBP17–18, OBP20, OBP22, OBP25, CSP1–7, CSP11, and CSP12–15 are likely responsible for chemical communication between the beetle and environments. Our data shall provide a foundation for further research on the molecular aspects of chemical communication of this insect, and for comparative genomic studies with other species.
      PubDate: 2014-08-06T12:18:51.2571-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21188
       
  • THERMOLYSIN DAMAGES ANIMAL LIFE THROUGH DEGRADATION OF PLASMA PROTEINS
           ENHANCED BY RAPID CLEAVAGE OF SERPINS AND ACTIVATION OF PROTEASES
    • Authors: Lulu Kong; Anrui Lu, Jingmin Guan, Bing Yang, Muwang Li, Julián F. Hillyer, Nalini Ramarao, Kenneth Söderhäll, Chaoliang Liu, Erjun Ling
      Abstract: Thermolysin, a metallopeptidase secreted by pathogenic microbes, is concluded as an important virulence factor due to cleaving purified host proteins in vitro. Using the silkworm Bombyx mori as a model system, we found that thermolysin injection into larvae induces the destruction of the coagulation response and the activation of hemolymph melanization, which results in larval death. Thermolysin triggers the rapid degradation of insect and mammalian plasma proteins at a level that is considerably greater than expected in vitro and/or in vivo. To more specifically explore the mechanism, thermolysin‐induced changes to key proteins belonging to the insect melanization pathway were assessed as a window for observing plasma protein cleavage. The application of thermolysin induced the rapid cleavage of the melanization negative regulator serpin‐3, but did not directly activate the melanization rate‐limiting enzyme prophenoloxidase (PPO) or the terminal serine proteases responsible for PPO activation. Terminal serine proteases of melanization are activated indirectly after thermolysin exposure. We hypothesize that thermolysin induces the rapid degradation of serpins and the activation of proteases directly or indirectly, boosting uncontrolled plasma protein degradation in insects and mammalians.
      PubDate: 2014-07-10T03:26:35.907129-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21178
       
  • DEPLETION OF AUTOPHAGY‐RELATED GENES ATG3 AND ATG5 IN Tenebrio
           molitor LEADS TO DECREASED SURVIVABILITY AGAINST AN INTRACELLULAR
           PATHOGEN, Listeria monocytogenes
    • Abstract: Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process involved in physiological and developmental processes including cell survival, death, and innate immunity. Homologues of most of 36 originally discovered autophagy‐related (ATG) genes in yeast have been characterized in higher eukaryotes including insects. In this study, the homologues of ATG3 (TmATG3) and ATG5 (TmATG5) were isolated from the coleopteran beetle, Tenebrio molitor by expressed sequence tag and RNAseq approaches. The cDNA of TmATG3 and TmATG5 comprise open‐reading frame sizes of 963 and 792 bp encoding polypeptides of 320 and 263 amino acid residues, respectively. TmATG3 and TmATG5 mRNA are expressed in all developmental stages, and mainly in fat body and hemocytes of larvae. TmATG3 and TmATG5 showed an overall sequence identity of 58–95% to other insect Atg proteins. There exist clear one‐to‐one orthologs of TmATG3 and TmATG5 in Tribolium and that they clustered together in the gene tree. Depletion of TmATG3 and TmATG5 by RNA interference led to a significant reduction in survival ability of T. molitor larvae against an intracellular pathogen, Listeria monocytogenes. Six days post‐Listeria challenge, the survival rate in the dsEGFP‐injected (where EGFP is enhanced green fluorescent protein) control larvae was significantly higher (55%) compared to 4 and 3% for TmATG3 and TmATG5 double‐stranded RNA injected larvae, respectively. These data suggested that TmATG3 and TmATG5 may play putative role in mediating autophagy‐based clearance of Listeria in T. molitor model.
       
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    •  
  • KNOCKDOWN OF CS‐SPOOK INDUCES DELAYED LARVAL MOLTING IN RICE STRIPED
           STEM BORER Chilo suppressalis
    • Abstract: Spook has essential roles in the biogenesis of the molting hormone 20‐hydroxyecdysone (20‐E). The function of spook in the rice striped stem borer (SSB) Chilo suppressalis remains unclear, prompting our hypothesis that it exerts actions similar to those reported for other insect species. Here we amplified the full‐length transcript of spook (Cs‐Spook) in SSB by 5′ and 3′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Cs‐Spook has conserved P450 motifs such as Helix‐C, Helix‐I, Helix‐K, and PERF motif (PxxFxPxRF). It was highly expressed in late instar larvae but less so in newly molted larvae. Cs‐Spook was highly expressed in prothoracic glands. Cs‐Spook was knocked down by dsRNA treatments. Compared with controls, the gene expression level was reduced to 9% at 24 h post injection (PI), 33% at 48 h PI, and 24% at 72 h PI. The ecdysteroid titer decreased significantly in the dsRNA‐treated group (P < 0.05), resulting in delayed larval development. The delayed development in dsRNA‐treatment group was rescued by treating with 20‐E. Our work demonstrates that Cs‐Spook participates in the biogenesis of 20‐E and regulates the molt of SSB, as seen in other species.
       
  • MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF AN APOLIPOPHORIN‐III GENE FROM THE
           CHINESE OAK SILKWORM, Antheraea pernyi (LEPIDOPTERA: SATURNIIDAE)
    • Abstract: Apolipophorin‐III (ApoLp‐III) acts in lipid transport, lipoprotein metabolism, and innate immunity in insects. In this study, an ApoLp‐III gene of Antheraea pernyi pupae (Ap‐ApoLp‐III) was isolated and characterized. The full‐length cDNA of Ap‐ApoLp‐III is 687 bp, including a 5′‐untranslated region (UTR) of 40 bp, 3′‐UTR of 86 bp and an open reading frame of 561 bp encoding a polypeptide of 186 amino acids that contains an Apolipophorin‐III precursor domain (PF07464). The deduced Ap‐apoLp‐III protein sequence has 68, 59, and 23% identity with its orthologs of Manduca sexta, Bombyx mori, and Aedes aegypti, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Ap‐apoLp‐III was close to that of Bombycoidea. qPCR analysis revealed that Ap‐ApoLp‐III expressed during the four developmental stages and in integument, fat body, and ovaries. After six types of microorganism infections, expression levels of the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene were upregulated significantly at different time points compared with control. RNA interference (RNAi) of Ap‐ApoLp‐III showed that the expression of Ap‐ApoLp‐III was significantly downregulated using qPCR after injection of E. coli. We infer that the Ap‐ApoLp‐III gene acts in the innate immunity of A. pernyi.
       
  • THE OCTOPAMINE RECEPTOR octß2R IS ESSENTIAL FOR OVULATION AND
           FERTILIZATION IN THE FRUIT FLY Drosophila melanogaster
    • Abstract: The biogenic monoamine octopamine is essential for ovulation and fertilization in insects. Release of this hormone from neurons in the thoracoabdominal ganglion triggers ovulation and sperm release from the spermathecae. Here we show that the effects of octopamine on ovulation are mediated by at least two different octopamine receptors. In addition to the Oamb receptor that is present in the epithelium of the oviduct, the octß2R receptor is essential for ovulation and fertilization. Octß2R is widely expressed in the female reproductive tract. Most prominent is expression in the oviduct muscle and the spermathecae. Animals deficient in expression of the receptor show a severe egg‐laying defect. The corresponding females have a much larger ovary that is caused by egg retention in the ovary. Moreover, the very few laid eggs are not fertilized, indicating problems in the process of sperm delivery. We assume that octß2R acts in a similar way as ß2‐adrenoreceptors in smooth muscles, were activation of this receptor induces an increase in cAMP levels that lead to relaxation of the muscle. Taken together, our findings show that octopaminergic control of ovulation and fertilization is more complex than anticipated and that various receptors located in different cells act together to enable a well‐orchestrated activity of the female reproductive system in response to copulation.
       
  • TRANSCRIPTOME ANALYSIS OF AN ENDOPARASITOID WASP Cotesia chilonis
           
    • Abstract: For successful parasitization, parasitiods usually depend on the chemosensory cues for the selection of hosts, as well as a variety of virulence factors introduced into their hosts to overcome host immunity and prevent rejection of progeny development. In bracovirus‐carrying wasps, the symbiotic polydnaviruses act in manipulating development and immunity of hosts. The endoparasitoid Cotesia chilonis carrying bracovirus as a key host immunosuppressive factor is a superior endoparasitoid of rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis. So far, genomic information for C. chilonis is not available and transcriptomic data may provide valuable resources for global studying on physiological processes of C. chilonis, including chemosensation and parasitism at molecular level. Here, we performed RNA‐seq to characterize the transcriptome of C. chilonis adults. We obtained 27,717,892 reads, assembled into 38,318 unigenes with a mean size of 690 bp. Approximately, 62.1% of the unigenes were annotated using NCBI databases. A large number of chemoreception‐related genes encoding proteins including odorant receptors, gustatory receptors, odorant‐binding proteins, chemosensory proteins, transient receptor potential ion channels, and sensory neuron membrane proteins were identified in silico. Totally, 72 transcripts possessing high identities with the bracovirus‐related genes were identified. We investigated the mRNA expression levels of several transcripts at different developmental stages (including egg, larva, pupae, and adult) by quantitative real‐time PCR analysis. The results revealed that some genes had adult‐specific expression, indicating their potential significance for mating and parasitism. Overall, these results provide comprehensive insights into transcriptomic data of a polydnavirus‐carrying parasitoid of a rice pest.
       
  • KNOCKDOWN OF ATPsyn‐b CAUSED LARVAL GROWTH DEFECT AND MALE
           INFERTILITY IN Drosophila
    • Abstract: The ATPsyn‐b encoding for subunit b of ATP synthase in Drosophila melanogaster is proposed to act in ATP synthesis and phagocytosis, and has been identified as one of the sperm proteins in both Drosophila and mammals. At present, its details of functions in animal growth and spermatogenesis have not been reported. In this study, we knocked down ATPsyn‐b using Drosophila lines expressing inducible hairpin RNAi constructs and Gal4 drivers. Ubiquitous knockdown of ATPsyn‐b resulted in growth defects in larval stage as the larvae did not grow bigger than the size of normal second‐instar larvae. Knockdown in testes did not interrupt the developmental excursion to viable adult flies, however, these male adults were sterile. Analyses of testes revealed disrupted nuclear bundles during spermatogenesis and abnormal shaping in spermatid elongation. There were no mature sperm in the seminal vesicle of ATPsyn‐b knockdown male testes. These findings suggest us that ATPsyn‐b acts in growth and male fertility of Drosophila.
       
  • ANTI‐INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITIES OF CECROPIN A AND ITS MECHANISM OF
           ACTION
    • Abstract: Cecropin A is a novel 37‐residue cecropin‐like antimicrobial peptide isolated from the cecropia moth, Hyalophora cecropia. We have demonstrated that cecropin A is an antibacterial agent and have investigated its mode of action. In this study, we show that cecropin A has potent antimicrobial activity against 2 multidrug resistant organisms—Acinetobacter baumanii and—Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Interactions between cecropin A and membrane phospholipids were studied using tryptophan blue shift experiments. Cecropin A has a strong interaction with bacterial cell mimetic membranes. These results imply that cecropin A has selectivity for bacterial cells. To address the potential the rapeutic efficacy of cecropin A, its anti‐inflammatory activities and mode of action in mouse macrophage‐derived RAW264.7 cells stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were examined. Cecropin A suppressed nitrite production, mTNF‐α, mIL‐1β, mMIP‐1, and mMIP‐2 cytokine release in LPS‐stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, cecropin A inhibited intracellular cell signaling via the ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK pathway, leading to the prevention of COX‐2 expression in LPS‐stimulated RAW264.7 cells. These results strongly suggest that cecropin A should be investigated as a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases.
       
  • CHANGES IN THE HEMOLYMPH PROTEIN PROFILES IN Galleria mellonella INFECTED
           WITH Bacillus thuringiensis INVOLVE APOLIPOPHORIN III. THE EFFECT OF
           HEAT‐SHOCK
    • Abstract: This report concerns the effect of heat shock on host–pathogen interaction in Galleria mellonella infected with Bacillus thuringiensis. We show enhanced activity against Gram‐positive bacteria in the hemolymph of larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock before infection with B. thuringiensis. Heat shock influenced the protein pattern in the hemolymph of infected larvae: more peptides with a molecular weight below 10 kDa were detected in comparison with nonshocked animals. Additionally, we noticed that the amount of apolipophorin III (apoLp‐III) in the hemolymph decreased transiently following infection, which was considerably higher in larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock. On the other hand, its expression in the fat body showed a consequent infection‐induced decline, observed equally in shocked and nonshocked animals. This suggests that the amount of apoLp‐III in the hemolymph of G. mellonella larvae is regulated at multiple levels. We also report that this protein is more resistant to degradation in the hemolymph of larvae pre‐exposed to heat shock in comparison to nonshocked larvae. Two‐dimensional analysis revealed the presence of three isoforms of apoLp‐III, all susceptible to proteolytic degradation. However, one of them was the most abundant, both in the protease‐treated and untreated hemolymph. Taking into consideration that, in general, apoLp‐III has a stimulative effect on different immune‐related hemolymph proteins and peptides, the reported findings bring us closer to understanding the effect of heat shock on the resistance of G. mellonella to infection.
       
  • Tcmof REGULATES LARVAL/PUPAL DEVELOPMENT AND FEMALE FECUNDITY IN RED FLOUR
           BEETLE, Tribolium castaneum
    • Abstract: Males absent on the first (MOF) was originally identified as an essential component of the X chromosome dosage compensation system in Drosophila melanogaster, and is also a member of the MYST family of histone acetyltransferases. MOF has been extensively studied in D. melanogaster and mammals. However, whether MOF is involved in dosage compensation and/or other vital functions for newly emerging model insects such as Tribolium castaneum, is unclear. We cloned the mof from T. castaneum, named Tcmof. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that mof is highly conserved in eukaryotes but lost in birds. qPCR showed that Tcmof was most highly expressed in the early embryo stage and equally expressed in males and females. Treating larvae with ds‐Tcmof led 79.1% of the insects to arrest during its eclosion; the remaining insects died either in the larval stage or immediately following eclosion. Treating pupae with the same construct eliminated the fertility of T. castaneum. This effect was rescued by reciprocal crosses with wild‐type females, but not males. We infer that the mof gene is essential for larval/pupal development and female fertility in T. castaneum.
       
 
 
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