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  Subjects -> BIOLOGY (Total: 3003 journals)
    - BIOCHEMISTRY (237 journals)
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    - BIOLOGY (1427 journals)
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BIOCHEMISTRY (237 journals)                  1 2 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 237 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Acetic Acid Bacteria     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ACS Central Science     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
ACS Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 253)
ACS Chemical Neuroscience     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Acta Biochimica Polonica     Open Access  
Acta Crystallographica Section D : Biological Crystallography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Advances and Applications in Bioinformatics and Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Advances in Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Plant Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
African Journal of Biochemistry Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Chemical Education     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Alkaloids: Chemical and Biological Perspectives     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
American Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 67)
American Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Polymer Science     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
Amino Acids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Research     Open Access  
Analytical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 168)
Angiogenesis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Annals of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 55)
Annual Review of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Applied Organometallic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Bangladesh Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
BBA Clinical     Open Access  
BBR : Biochemistry and Biotechnology Reports     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biocatalysis     Open Access  
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Biochemical and Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Compounds     Open Access  
Biochemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochemical Genetics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Biochemical Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Biochemical Society Transactions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 304)
Biochemistry & Pharmacology : Open Access     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry & Physiology : Open Access     Open Access  
Biochemistry (Moscow)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplement Series A: Membrane and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry (Moscow) Supplemental Series B: Biomedical Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports     Open Access  
Biochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology of Fishes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Biochemistry Research International     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Biochimie     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Biochimie Open     Open Access  
Bioconjugate Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
BioDrugs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Bioelectrochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Biofuels     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Biogeochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
BioInorganic Reaction Mechanisms     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biokemistri     Open Access  
Biological Chemistry     Partially Free   (Followers: 22)
Biomaterials Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Biomedicines     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BioMolecular Concepts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Biosimilars     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Bit├ícora Digital     Open Access  
BMC Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca : Food Science and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Carbohydrate Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cell Biochemistry and Function     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ChemBioChem     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Chemical and Biological Technologies for Agriculture     Open Access  
Chemical Biology & Drug Design     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Chemical Engineering Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Chemical Senses     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Chemical Speciation and Bioavailability     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Chemico-Biological Interactions     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chemistry & Biodiversity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chemistry & Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Chemistry and Ecology     Hybrid Journal  
ChemTexts     Hybrid Journal  
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Clinical Biochemist Reviews     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Clinical Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 68)
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Clinical Lipidology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part D: Genomics and Proteomics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Comprehensive Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Computational Biology and Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Current Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Current Medicinal Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Current Opinion in Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Current Opinion in Lipidology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
DNA Barcodes     Open Access  
Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Doklady Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Full-text available via subscription  
FABICIB     Open Access  
FEBS Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
FEBS Open Bio     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fish Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Food & Function     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Foundations of Modern Biochemistry     Full-text available via subscription  
Free Radicals and Antioxidants     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Frontiers in Natural Product Chemistry     Hybrid Journal  
Global Biogeochemical Cycles     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Green Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Histochemistry and Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Indian Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics (IJBB)     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Biomedical Journal     Open Access  
Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Biochemistry and Biophysics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Biological Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Biomedical Nanoscience and Nanotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Food Contamination     Open Access  
International Journal of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Plant Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Secondary Metabolite     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Invertebrate Immunity     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
JBIC Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Applied Biology & Biotechnology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Research     Open Access  
Journal of Biological Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 199)
Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Carbohydrate Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Chemical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Clinical Lipidology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Comparative Physiology B : Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Drug Discovery and Therapeutics     Open Access  
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Evolutionary Biochemistry and Physiology     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Food and Drug Analysis     Open Access  
Journal of Forensic Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Screening     Open Access  
Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences     Open Access  
Journal of Medical Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Molecular Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Molecular Diagnostics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Neurochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Pediatric Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Peptide Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Physiobiochemical Metabolism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Plant Biochemistry and Biotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Wood Chemistry and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
La Rivista Italiana della Medicina di Laboratorio - Italian Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 36)
Marine Chemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Methods in Enzymology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular Aspects of Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Molecular Informatics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Molecular inhibitors in targeted therapy     Open Access  
Moscow University Chemistry Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Mycologia     Hybrid Journal  
Mycology : An International Journal on Fungal Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Natural Products and Bioprospecting     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Nature Chemical Biology     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 72)
Nature Communications     Open Access   (Followers: 191)
Neurosignals     Open Access  
NOVA     Open Access  
Novelty in Biomedicine     Open Access  
OA Biochemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
OA Inflammation     Open Access  
Ocean Acidification     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 89)

        1 2 | Last

Journal Cover Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
  [SJR: 0.768]   [H-I: 54]   [0 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0739-4462 - ISSN (Online) 1520-6327
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1579 journals]
  • Sterol content in the artificial diet of Mythimna separata affects the
           metabolomics of Arma chinensis (Fallou) as determined by proton nuclear
           magnetic resonance spectroscopy
    • Authors: Yi Guo; Chen-xi Liu, Li-sheng Zhang, Meng-qing Wang, Hong-yin Chen
      Abstract: Insects cannot synthesize sterols and must obtain them from plants. Therefore, reducing plant sterol content or changing sterol type might be an effective pest control strategy. However, the impacts of these changes on pests’ natural predators remain unknown. Here, we fed artificial diets with reduced sterol content to Mythimna separata (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and investigated the effects on its natural predator, Arma chinensis (Fallou) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Reduced sterol content in M. separata (MS1, MS2, and MS5) was achieved by feeding them artificial diets prepared from a feed base subjected to one, two, or five cycles of sterol extractions, respectively. The content of most substances increased in A. chinensis (AC) groups feeding on MS2 and MS5. The content of eight substances (alanine, betaine, dimethylamine, fumarate, glutamine, glycine, methylamine, and sarcosine) differed significantly between the control (AC0) and treated (AC1, AC2, and AC5) groups. Metabolic profiling revealed that only AC5 was significantly distinct from AC0; the major substances contributing to this difference were maltose, glucose, tyrosine, proline, O-phosphocholine, glutamine, allantoin, lysine, valine, and glutamate. Furthermore, only two metabolic pathways, that is, nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism and ubiquinone and other terpenoid-quinone biosynthesis, differed significantly between AC1 and AC5 and the control, albeit with an impact value of zero. Thus, the sterol content in the artificial diet fed to M. separata only minimally affected the metabolites and metabolic pathways of its predator A. chinensis, suggesting that A. chinensis has good metabolic self-regulation with high resistance to sterol content changes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11T04:46:04.701243-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21426
       
  • Proteomic analysis of the venom of the predatory ant Pachycondyla striata
           (Hymenoptera: Formicidae)
    • Authors: Pollyanna Pereira Santos; Patricia Dias Games, Dihego Oliveira Azevedo, Edvaldo Barros, Leandro Licursi Oliveira, Humberto Josué Oliveira Ramos, Maria Cristina Baracat-Pereira, José Eduardo Serrão
      Abstract: The ants use their venom for predation, defense, and communication. The venom of these insects is rich in peptides and proteins, and compared with other animal venoms, ant venoms remain poorly explored. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein content of the venom in the Ponerinae ant Pachycondyla striata. Venom samples were collected by manual gland reservoir dissection, and samples were submitted to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and separation by ion-exchange and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry using tanden matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-quadrupole with time-of-flight (ESI-Q/TOF) mass spectrometry for obtaining amino acid sequence. Spectra obtained were searched against the NCBInr and SwissProt database. Additional analysis was performed using PEAKS Studio 7.0 (Sequencing de novo). The venom of P. striata has a complex mixture of proteins from which 43 were identified. Within the identified proteins are classical venom proteins (phospholipase A, hyaluronidase, and aminopeptidase N), allergenic proteins (different venom allergens), and bioactive peptides (U10-ctenitoxin Pn1a). Venom allergens are among the most expressed proteins, suggesting that P. striata venom has high allergenic potential. This study discusses the possible functions of the proteins identified in the venom of P. striata.
      PubDate: 2017-10-10T23:05:36.113044-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21424
       
  • Identification of three prophenoloxidase-activating factors (PPAFs) from
           an invasive beetle Octodonta nipae Maulik (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) and
           their roles in the prophenoloxidase activation
    • Authors: HuaJian Zhang; BaoZhen Tang, YaPing Lin, ZhiMing Chen, XiaFang Zhang, TianLiang Ji, XiaoMei Zhang, YouMing Hou
      Abstract: A typical characteristic of the insect innate immune system is the activation of the serine protease cascade in the hemolymph. As being the terminal component of the extracellular serine protease cascade in the prophenoloxidase (proPO) activating system, proPO-activating factors (PPAFs) activated by the upstream cascade may generate active phenoloxidase, which then induces downstream melanization. In the present study, we reported three PPAFs from the nipa palm hispid beetle Octodonta nipae (Maulik) (designated as OnPPAF1, OnPPAF2, OnPPAF3). All three OnPPAFs contained a single clip domain at the amino-terminus followed by a trypsin-like serine protease domain at the carboxyl-terminus, except the Ser in the active sites of OnPPAF2 and OnPPAF3 was substituted with Gly. Transcript expression analysis revealed that all OnPPAFs were highly expressed in hemolymph, whereas OnPPAF2 showed an extremely low mRNA abundance compared with that of OnPPAF1 and OnPPAF3, and that the abundance of all three OnPPAFs was dramatically increased upon bacterial challenge. Knockdown of OnPPAF1 or OnPPAF3 resulted in a reduction of hemolymph phenoloxidase activity and an inhibition of hemolymph melanization, whereas the knockdown of OnPPAF2 did not affect the proPO cascade. Our work thus implies that the three OnPPAFs may have different functions and regulation during immune responses in O. nipae.
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T22:00:42.231738-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21425
       
  • Inhibition of translation initiation factor eIF4A is required for
           apoptosis mediated by Microplitis bicoloratus bracovirus
    • Authors: Shu-Mei Dong; Ji-Hui Cui, Wei Zhang, Xue-Wen Zhang, Tian-Chao Kou, Qiu-Chen Cai, Sha Xu, Shan You, Dong-Shuai Yu, Lei Ding, Jian-Hua Lai, Ming Li, Kai-Jun Luo
      Abstract: Apoptotic hemocytes induced by Microplitis bicoloratus parasitism have been reported, and M. bicoloratus bracovirus (MbBV) is known to be the apoptosis inducer. However, the mechanism how MbBV regulates apoptosis remains unclear. eIF4A, one of translation initiation factors, was found from a Spodoptera litura transcriptome, the expression of which in the parasitized hemocytes of S. litura was inhibited in RT-qPCR analysis. The western blot also illustrated eIF4A at 6-day post-parasitization was inhibited in hemocytes. For testing interaction of MbBV–eIF4A–apoptosis, a cDNA clone encoding 1,266 bp of eIF4A was obtained from S. litura hemocytes and sequenced. Then, a 48 kDa V5-fusion protein of the eIF4A was detected by using the anti-V5 antibody at 72-h post-transfection in the High Five cells, which is located in the cell cytoplasm. In vitro, overexpression of eIF4A rescued the apoptotic High Five cells induced by MbBV. Conversely, in vivo, loss of eIF4A proteins by dsRNA feeding increased apoptosis of hemocytes. Furthermore, RNAi and parasitism significantly increased apoptosis of hemocytes in S. litura. These findings suggested that MbBV inhibited the expression of eIF4A, which was required for apoptosis mediated by MbBV. This study will contribute to biological pest control and enhance our understanding of molecular mechanisms underlying polydnavirus–parasitoid–host interaction.
      PubDate: 2017-09-20T22:35:37.230497-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21423
       
  • Differences in protein expression among five species of stream stonefly
           (Plecoptera) along a latitudinal gradient in Japan
    • Authors: Maribet Gamboa; Maria Claret Tsuchiya, Suguru Matsumoto, Hisato Iwata, Kozo Watanabe
      Abstract: Proteome variation among natural populations along an environmental gradient may provide insights into how the biological functions of species are related to their local adaptation. We investigated protein expression in five stream stonefly species from four geographic regions along a latitudinal gradient in Japan with varying climatic conditions. The extracted proteins were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization of time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF), yielding 446 proteins. Low interspecies variation in the proteome profiles was observed among five species within geographical regions, presumably due to the co-occurring species sharing the environments. However, large spatial variations in protein expression were found among four geographic regions, suggesting strong regulation of protein expression in heterogeneous environments, where the spatial variations were positively correlated with water temperature. We identified 21 unique proteins expressed specifically in a geographical region and six common proteins expressed throughout all regions. In warmer regions, metabolic proteins were upregulated, whereas proteins related to cold stress, the photoperiod, and mating were downregulated. Oxygen-related and energy-production proteins were upregulated in colder regions with higher altitudes. Thus, our proteomic approach is useful for identifying and understanding important biological functions related to local adaptations by populations of stoneflies.
      PubDate: 2017-09-19T04:21:12.256325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21422
       
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2017-09-12T02:02:58.216919-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21363
       
  • Heat stress hardening of oriental armyworms is induced by a transient
           elevation of reactive oxygen species during sublethal stress
    • Authors: Takashi Matsumura; Hitoshi Matsumoto, Yoichi Hayakawa
      Abstract: Pre-exposure to mild heat stress enhances the thermotolerance of insects. Stress hardening is a beneficial physiological plasticity, but the mechanism underlying it remains elusive. Here we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentrations were quickly and transiently elevated in the armyworms, Mythimna separata, by exposing them to 40°C, but not other tested temperatures. Larvae exposed to 40°C had subsequently elevated antioxidant activity and the highest survival of all tested heating conditions. The elevation of ROS after lethal heating at 44°C for 1 h was approximately twofold compared to heating at 40°C. Injection of an optimal amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) similarly caused sequential elevation of ROS and antioxidant activity in the test larval hemolymph, which led to significantly enhanced survival after lethal heat stress. The H2O2-induced thermotolerance was abolished by coinjection of potent antioxidants such as ascorbic acid or N-acetylcysteine. Both preheating at 40°C and H2O2 injection enhanced expression of genes encoding superoxide dismutase 1, catalase, and heat shock protein 70 in the fat body of test larvae, indicating the adequate heat stress induced a transient elevation of ROS, followed by upregulation of antioxidant activity. We infer that thermal stress hardening is induced by a small timely ROS elevation that triggers a reduction–oxidation signaling mechanism.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T03:26:20.541046-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21421
       
  • The light cycle controls the hatching rhythm in Bombyx mori via negative
           feedback loop of the circadian oscillator
    • Authors: Hui Tao; Xue Li, Jian-Feng Qiu, Heng-Jiang Liu, Da-Yan Zhang, Feng Chu, Yanghu Sima, Shi-Qing Xu
      Abstract: Hatching behavior is a key target in silkworm (Bombyx mori) rearing, especially for the control of Lepidoptera pests. According to previous research, hatching rhythms appear to be controlled by a clock mechanism that restricts or “gates” hatching to a particular time. However, the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Under 12-h light:12-h dark photoperiod (LD) conditions, the transcriptional levels of the chitinase5 (Cht5) and hatching enzyme-like (Hel) genes, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, oscillated in time with ambient light cycles, as did the transcriptional levels of the cryptochrome 1, cryptochrome 2, period (per), and timeless genes, which are key components of the negative feedback loop of the circadian rhythm. These changes were related to the expression profile of the ecdysteroid receptor gene and the hatching behavior of B. mori eggs. However, under continuous light or dark conditions, the hatching behavior, the expression levels of Cht5 and Hel, as well as the enzymatic activities of their gene products, were not synchronized unlike under LD conditions. In addition, immunohistochemistry experiments showed that light promoted the translocation of PER from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In conclusion, LD cycles regulate the hatching rhythm of B. mori via negative feedback loop of the circadian oscillator.
      PubDate: 2017-09-05T03:26:10.485485-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21408
       
  • The impact of pollen consumption on honey bee (Apis mellifera) digestive
           physiology and carbohydrate metabolism
    • Authors: Vincent A. Ricigliano; William Fitz, Duan C. Copeland, Brendon M. Mott, Patrick Maes, Amy S. Floyd, Arnold Dockstader, Kirk E. Anderson
      Abstract: Carbohydrate-active enzymes play an important role in the honey bee (Apis mellifera) due to its dietary specialization on plant-based nutrition. Secretory glycoside hydrolases (GHs) produced in worker head glands aid in the processing of floral nectar into honey and are expressed in accordance with age-based division of labor. Pollen utilization by the honey bee has been investigated in considerable detail, but little is known about the metabolic fate of indigestible carbohydrates and glycosides in pollen biomass. Here, we demonstrate that pollen consumption stimulates the hydrolysis of sugars that are toxic to the bee (xylose, arabinose, mannose). GHs produced in the head accumulate in the midgut and persist in the hindgut that harbors a core microbial community composed of approximately 108 bacterial cells. Pollen consumption significantly impacted total and specific bacterial abundance in the digestive tract. Bacterial isolates representing major fermentative gut phylotypes exhibited primarily membrane-bound GH activities that may function in tandem with soluble host enzymes retained in the hindgut. Additionally, we found that plant-originating β-galactosidase activity in pollen may be sufficient, in some cases, for probable physiological activity in the gut. These findings emphasize the potential relative contributions of host, bacteria, and pollen enzyme activities to carbohydrate breakdown, which may be tied to gut microbiome dynamics and associated host nutrition.
      PubDate: 2017-08-20T23:00:45.133413-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21406
       
  • Purification and characterization of trypsin produced by gut bacteria from
           Anticarsia gemmatalis
    • Authors: Franciny Martins Pilon; Camila da Rocha Silva, Liliane Evangelista Visôtto, Rafael de Almeida Barros, Neilier Rodrigues da Silva Júnior, Wellington Garcia Campos, Maria Goreti Almeida Oliveira
      Abstract: Purification of active trypsin in the digestive process of insects is essential for the development of potent protease inhibitors (PIs) as an emerging pest control technology and research into insect adaptations to dietary PIs. An important aspect is the presence of proteolytic microorganisms, which contribute to host nutrition. Here, we purified trypsins produced by bacteria Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus mundtii, Enterococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from the midgut of Anticarsia gemmatalis. The trypsins had a molecular mass of approximately 25 kDa. The enzymes showed increased activity at 40°C, and they were active at pH values 7.5–10. Aprotinin, bis-benzamidine, and soybean Kunitz inhibitor (SKTI) significantly inhibited trypsin activity. The l-1-tosyl-amido-2-phenylethylchloromethyl ketone (TPCK), pepstatin A, E-64, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, and calcium ions did not affect the enzyme activity at the concentrations tested. We infer the purified trypsins do not require calcium ions, by which they differ from the trypsins of other microorganisms and the soluble and insoluble trypsins characterized from A. gemmatalis. These data suggest the existence of different isoforms of trypsin in the velvetbean caterpillar midguts.
      PubDate: 2017-08-01T00:06:43.768584-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21407
       
  • Induction of stress- and immune-associated genes in the Indian meal moth
           Plodia interpunctella against envenomation by the ectoparasitoid Bracon
           hebetor
    • Authors: Tahir Shafeeq; Zain UlAbdin, Kyeong-Yeoll Lee
      Abstract: Envenomation is an important process in parasitism by parasitic wasps; it suppresses the immune and development of host insects. However, the molecular mechanisms of host responses to envenomation are not yet clear. This study aimed to determine the transcription-level responses of the Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella against envenomation of the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription PCR was used to determine the transcriptional changes of 13 selected genes, which are associated with development, metabolism, stress, or immunity, in the feeding and wandering fifth instar larvae over a 4-day period after envenomation. The effects of envenomation on the feeding-stage larvae were compared with those of starvation in the transcriptional levels of the 13 genes. Most selected genes were altered in their expression by either envenomation or starvation. In particular, a heat shock protein, hsp70, was highly upregulated in envenomated larvae in both the feeding and wandering stages as well as in starved larvae. Further, some genes were upregulated by envenomation in a stage-specific manner. For example, hsp25 was upregulated after envenomation in the feeding larvae, but hsp90 and an immune-associated gene, hemolin, were upregulated in the wandering larvae. However, both envenomation and starvation resulted in the downregulation of genes associated with development and metabolism. Taken together, P. interpunctella upregulated stress- and immune-responsive genes, but downregulated genes associated with development and metabolism after envenomation. This study provides important information for understanding the molecular mechanisms of host responses to parasitism.
      PubDate: 2017-07-21T00:56:54.515999-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/arch.21405
       
 
 
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