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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1148 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 135)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
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Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 315)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access  
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities
  [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0126-5008
   Published by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Homepage  [13 journals]
  • Pengaruh Faktor Individu, Keluarga dan Persekitaran Sosial Terhadap
           Tingkah Laku Penyalahgunaan Bahan dalam Kalangan Remaja (The Influence of
           Individual, Familial and Social Environmental Factors Towards Substance
           Abuse Behavior among Adolescents)

    • Authors: Rozmi Ismail, Nor Azri Ahmad, Fauziah Ibrahim, Salina Nen
      Abstract: Prevalen salah guna bahan dalam kalangan remaja semakin meningkat setiap tahun. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenalpasti hubungan dan sejauhmana faktor-faktor berikut iaitu individu, keluarga dan persekitaran sosial (di sekolah dan komuniti) memberi pengaruh terhadap tingkah laku salah guna bahan. Kajian ini menggunakan metod survei melibatkan pengedaran soal selidik ke atas 480 responden remaja daripada populasi remaja berisiko tinggi dalam penyalahgunaan bahan. Responden yang terpilih adalah berumur di antara 13-17 tahun dan majoritinya adalah lelaki. Analisis korelasi dan regresi berganda telah digunakan untuk menguji hubungan dan mengenalpasti pemboleh ubah peramal terhadap gejala penyalahgunaan bahan. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan pemboleh ubah persekitaran sosial (keadaan berisiko di sekolah) dapat menerangkan sebanyak 45.5% daripada varians dalam tingkah laku salah guna bahan dan menjadi peramal yang dominan. Keputusan seterusnya melalui analisis regresi linear berganda mengesahkan bahawa model regresi menunjukkan pemboleh ubah individu, keluarga dan persekitaran sosial adalah signifikan dalam model tersebut dan menjadi penyumbang utama kepada salahguna bahan dalam kalangan remaja. Kajian ini merumuskan bahawa domain faktor persekitaran sosial amat penting dalam memahami keterlibatan remaja dalam penyalahgunaan bahan dan perlu diberi perhatian dalam merangka dan membina program pencegahan. Implikasi kajian ini mencadangkan bahawa sebarang dasar atau pembinaan modul pencegahan salah guna bahan dalam kalangan remaja perlu memfokus kepada aspek mengurangkan risiko dalam faktor persekitaran sosial seperti keadaan sekolah dan faktor komuniti yang tidak kondusif.Kata kunci : Remaja; penyalahgunaan bahan; tingkah laku berisiko; faktor persekitaran sosial; program pencegahan   ABSTRAKThe prevalence of substance abuse among adolescents in Malaysia has increased significantly. The current study is aimed to examine the relationship between individual, familial and social environment factors and to identify which factors are good predictors in explaining the involvement of adolescents in substance abuse behavior. This study used a survey method which involved the distribution of questionnaires to 480 respondents who were identified as high-risk youth from the population. The age of respondents between was between 13-17 years and majority were male.Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used to identify correlation and predictor variable. The results showed that social environment variable (i.e. school environment) can explain as much as 45.5 % of the total variance in substance abuse activities and becomes the dominant predictor. Multiple linear regression analysis confirmed variables such as individual, family and social environment are significant variables in the model and are major contributing factors to the drug-related behavior among adolescents. This study concluded that the domain of social environmental factors is very important in understanding the involvement of adolescents in substance abuse and should be given attention in the design and development of relevant prevention programs. The implications of this study suggest that any policy or development of modules that guide substance abuse prevention among adolescents should focus on the aspect of reducing the risks of social-environmental factors such as improving the condition of the schools and creating conducive environment in the communities. Keyword: Adolescent; substance abuse; risk behavior; socio-environmental factor; prevention program
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Analisis Konteks Peristiwa Bahasa Melunas Rindu: Aplikasi Model Leech dan
           Grice (Speech Event Context Analysis in Melunas Rindu: Application of
           Model Leech and Grice)

    • Authors: Sara Beden, Indirawati Zahid
      Abstract: Kajian ini menggabungkan dua model kesopanan, iaitu Leech (1983) dan Grice (1975) yang membentuk Model Pola Kombinasi Maksim Umum (MPKMU). Terdapat enam pola kombinasi maksim dalam MPKMU, iaitu Pola 1, Pola 2, Pola 3, Pola 4, Pola 5 dan Pola 6 berdasarkan prinsip hampir sama, tepat dan ekonomis. Kajian ini menggunakan Pola 2 (5 PS + 3 PK) dalam peristiwa bahasa Melunas Rindu. Berdasarkan pengklasifikasian, didapati 17 daripada 33 peristiwa telah diklasifikasikan dalam Pola 2 dan dianalisis. Justeru, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis penggunaan pola kesopanan berbahasa dalam peristiwa bahasa berdasarkan MPKMU. Antara kaedah yang digunakan dalam kajian ini termasuklah analisis teks dan kaedah kuantitatif. Dapatan analisis memperlihatkan 17 peristiwa ini mematuhi prinsip hampir sama dengan kehadiran maksim (i) Persetujuan, (ii) Relevan dan (iii) Maksim Persetujuan dan Relevan yang mencakupi penggunaan jumlah maksim dan dialog yang digunakan. Dapatan ini juga bervariasi atas faktor konteks. Analisis konteks telah dilakukan terhadap enam peristiwa dalam Pola 2 dan dapatan memperlihatkan  tiga variasi penyediaan konteks wujud, iaitu (i) pascadata, (ii) pra dan pascadata dan (iii) tiada  konteks. Terdapat  tiga peristiwa yang kewujudan penyediaan konteksnya signifikan manakala dua peristiwa lagi sebaliknya dan satu peristiwa penyediaan konteks Ø. Sehubungan itu, kewujudan konteks tidak memberikan impak yang menyeluruh terhadap kelengkapan maklumat dalam peristiwa bahasa yang dianalisis.  Kajian ini telah memperlihatkan keperluan wujudnya keserasian antara penggunaan unsur-unsur bahasa dengan topik yang menjadi fokus perbincangan.  Keserasian dan kesesuaian penggunaan unsur-unsur bahasa merupakan aspek penting bagi memperlihatkan kesopanan dan pembudayaannya dalam kalangan generasi muda yang selaras dengan agenda Dasar Pendidikan Negara.Kata kunci:  konteks; signifikan; pola kombinasi maksim; peristiwa bahasa; kesopanan  This study combined two politeness models i.e. Leech (1983) and Grice (1975) to form the General Maxim Combination Pattern Model (MPKMU). MPKMU comprised of six maxim combination patterns which are pattern 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 and they are based on principals of accurate, almost similar and economical. Pattern 2 (5 PS + 3 PK) from the speech event in Melunas Rindu was used in this study. Based on the classifications, 17 out of the 33 events were classified and analysed in Pattern 2. The purpose of the study was to analyse the use of language politeness pattern in the speech event based on MPMKU by using text analysis and quantitative methods. The results disclosed that 17 events conformed to the almost similar principles with the presence of maxims of (i) Agreement, (ii) Relevance and (iii) Maxims of Agreement and Relevance that subsumed the total maxims and dialogues utilized. The findings are also varied in terms of context. The context analysis was done on six speech events in pattern 2 and the results revealed the existence of three variations of context preparation i.e. (i) post data, (ii) pre and post data and (iii) no context. The presence of three speech events on context preparation was significant while two speech events were contrariwise and one speech event had Ø context preparation. Therefore, the existence of context did not provide a holistic impact towards the comprehensiveness of information in the analysed speech event. This study had revealed the need of compatibility between the uses of language elements with the topic that was the focus of discussion. The compatibility and conformity in utilizing the elements of language constitue an important aspect in exhibiting courtesy and acculturation among the younger generation which is congruent with the National Education Policy. Keywords: context; significant; combination maxims pattern; speech event; politeness
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Malay Royal Institutions according to the Federal Constitution within the
           Context of Ethnic Relations in Malaysia (Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu
           menurut Perlembagaan Persekutuan dalam Konteks Hubungan Etnik di Malaysia)

    • Authors: Nazri Muslim, Azizi Umar
      Abstract: The Malay Royal Institution has existed for centuries in the social system of the administration of Malay states in Malaysia. In this monarchy system, the sovereign has the absolute power in the state administration. However, during British colonization, the Sultan had to refer to the Resident as advisor except on matters related to Islam and Malay customs. The situation continued until the Malayan Union was introduced in 1946 when the Sultan was only authoritative on the Malay customs and Islam, while the state administration was held by the Governor. When the Malayan Union Constitution was replaced by the Malay Federation in 1948, the Sultan was given the rights to rule the country in accordance with the Constitutional Monarch. This study aims to analyze the perception of undergraduates at public higher education institutions regarding the Malay Royal Institution in the Federal Constitution within the context of ethnic relations in Malaysia.  It involved 422 respondents selected from 4 public higher education institutions in Malaysia. The data obtained through surveys was analysed using SPSS program. Descriptive statistics such as frequency was used to describe the background of the respondents and to analyze the students’ perception. The findings show that the acceptance level of the students on the position of Malay Royal Institutions in the constitution is relatively and generally high. Based on the findings, several recommendations are put forward to address issues related to the position of the Malay Royal Institution. This study also contributes to the field of knowledge as the methodology employed was quantitative which was different from previous studies which used qualitative methods. Keywords: Malay Royal Institution;  Malaysia; Federal Constitution; students; public higher education institutions
      ABSTRAKInstitusi Raja-raja Melayu telah wujud dalam sistem sosial di negeri-negeri Melayu sejak berabad-abad lamanya dan institusi ini terlibat secara langsung dalam pemerintahan. Menurut sistem beraja ini, raja mempunyai kuasa mutlak dalam pemerintahan. Namun selepas penjajahan British, Sultan perlu menerima nasihat daripada Residen kecuali dalam perkara yang menyentuh tentang agama Islam dan adat istiadat Melayu. Keadaan demikian berlanjutan sehingga diperkenalkan Malayan Union pada 1946 di mana Sultan hanya berkuasa dalam adat istiadat Melayu dan agama Islam sahaja dan kuasa pentadbiran negeri dipegang oleh Gabenor. Apabila Perlembagaan Malayan Union digantikan dengan Persekutuan Tanah Melayu 1948, Sultan telah diberi hak untuk mengambil tahu hal-hal berkenaan dengan pemerintahan negara dengan konsep Raja Berperlembagaan. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis persepsi dalam kalangan pelajar Institut Pengajian Tinggi Awam (IPTA) terhadap Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu dalam Perlembagaan dalam konteks hubungan etnik di Malaysia. Kajian ini melibatkan seramai 422 responden yang dipilih dari empat buah IPTA. Data kajian yang diperoleh melalui soal selidik dianalisis menggunakan program SPSS. Statistik deskriptif seperti frekuensi, digunakan bagi menerangkan latar belakang responden dan menganalisis persepsi pelajar. Hasil kajian menunjukkan penerimaan pelajar terhadap kedudukan Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu adalah tinggi secara keseluruhannya. Berdasarkan dapatan kajian, beberapa cadangan telah dikemukakan bagi menangani isu berkaitan dengan kedudukan Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu. Seterusnya, kajian ini turut menyumbang kepada bidang ilmu kerana metodologi berbentuk kuantitatif yang digunakan berbeza dengan kebanyakan kajian sebelum ini yang dilakukan secara kualitatif serta menghasilkan satu instrumen soal selidik untuk kajian selanjutnya. Kata kunci: Institusi Raja-Raja Melayu;, Malaysia; Perlembagaan Persekutuan; pelajar; institusi pengajian tinggi awam
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Stakeholders’ Attitudes towards Biobanks in Malaysia (Sikap Pihak
           Berkepentingan terhadap Biobank di Malaysia)

    • Authors: Hasrizul Hashim, Latifah Amin, Zurina Mahadi, Khaidzir Ismail
      The Malaysian Cabinet’s approval of MyCohort in 2005 was seen as the crucial step toward the country having its very first biobank to improve the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Past studies have shown that public attitudes towards biobanking depend heavily upon several factors including public engagement with biobanks, trust in key actors, privacy and data security, perceived benefit, altruism and certain demographic variables. The objective of this paper is to assess and compare the attitude levels of the Malaysian stakeholders’ towards the application of biobanks across education levels and religion. A survey was carried out on 509 adult respondents in the Klang Valley region of Malaysia. Results of the study have substantiated that the Malaysian stakeholders’ attitudes towards biobank were classified as high. Despite their high levels of perceived benefit and religious acceptance, they also expressed moderately high levels of concern when it comes to issues of data and specimen protection; this suggests that the Malaysian stakeholders also tend to be critical upon expressing their views towards a complex system such as biobanks. One-way MANOVA initially has detected a significant difference of attitude towards biobanks across stakeholder groups, education level and religion. Series of univariate analysis following the MANOVA, as well as Post Hoc analysis, also confirm significant difference of attitude existing across stakeholders; however, no significant differences were detected across education level and religion. The research finding serves as a useful benchmark for scientists and government regulators to understand public attitudes to biobanks before they are set into use. Keywords: Attitude; biobank; religion; education; Malaysia. ABSTRAKKelulusan MyCohort oleh kabinet pada tahun 2005 dilihat sebagai langkah penting negara untuk memiliki Biobanknya yang pertama dalam meningkatkan pencegahan, diagnosis dan rawatan penyakit. Kajian lampau menunjukkan sikap orang ramai terhadap biobank bergantung kepada beberapa faktor antaranya termasuklah penglibatan awam, kepercayaan kepada pemain  utama, privasi dan keselamatan data, manfaat yang dijangka, altruisma dan pembolehubah demografik tertentu. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menilai dan membandingkan tahap sikap pihak berkepentingan di Malaysia terhadap Biobank berdasarkan tahap pendidikan dan agama. Kajian telah dijalankan ke atas 509 responden dewasa di kawasan Lembah Klang, Malaysia. Hasil kajian mendapati sikap pihak berkepentingan terhadap Biobank boleh diklasifikasikan sebagai tinggi. Walaupun persepsi faedah dan penerimaan agama meraka adalah pada tahap yang tinggi, mereka turut menzahirkan tahap kebimbangan yang sederhana tinggi apabila merujuk kepada isu-isu perlindungan data dan spesimen. Hal ini mencadangkan pihak berkepentingan di Malaysia juga cenderung untuk menjadi kritikal apabila menyuarakan pandangan mereka terhadap sistem yang kompleks seperti Biobank. MANOVA satu hala pada mulanya telah mengesan perbezaan yang signifikan sikap terhadap Biobank berdasarkan kumpulan pihak berkepentingan, tahap pendidikan dan agama. Lanjutan analisis univariat dan analisis Post Hoc mengesahkan bahawa wujud perbezaan sikap secara signifikan merentasi kumpulan pihak berkepentingan, namun tiada perbezaan yang signifikan wujud berdasarkan tahap pendidikan dan agama. Hasil kajian ini boleh dijadikan penanda aras yang bermanfaat kepada para saintis dan badan kerajaan yang terlibat dalam pengawalan untuk memahami sikap masyarakat terhadap biobank sebelum ia dilaksanakan. Kata kunci: Sikap; biobank; agama; pendidikan; Malaysia.
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Pengalaman Sokongan Sosial Intergenerasi dalam Kalangan Warga Emas di
           Institusi Kebajikan Awam (Experience of Intergenerational Social Support
           among Elderly in a Public Welfare Institution)

    • Authors: Nurhayati Mohamad, Khadijah Alavi, Mohd Suhaimi Mohamad, Nur Saadah Mohamad Aun
      Abstract: Sokongan sosial intergenerasi antara anak dewasa dan ibu bapa tua merupakan fenomena yang menjadi cabaran keluarga di Malaysia, terutamanya dengan peningkatan populasi warga emas. Tujuan artikel ini ialah untuk meninjau sokongan sosial intergenerasi yang diterima oleh warga emas di institusi kebajikan warga emas yang dibiayai oleh pihak kerajaan. Sampel daripada sepuluh orang warga emas yang dipilih menggunakan teknik pensampelan bertujuan di salah satu daripada  Rumah Seri Kenangan RSK yang memberikan perlindungan dan penjagaan asas kepada emas. Analisis tematik telah digunakan untuk mendapatkan data perbincangan. Hasil kajian menunjukkan warga emas di institusi kebajikan kurang menerima sokongan sosial intergenerasi daripada anak atau waris. Majoriti melaporkan hubungan mereka dengan anak-anak dan waris semakin renggang malah ada antaranya yang terputus hubungan setelah mereka berpindah masuk ke institusi kebajikan awam.  Artikel ini mencadangkan item-item dimensi keluarga dalam skala Lubben sesuai digunakan untuk mengukur secara kuantitatif penerimaan sokongan sosial intergenerasi bagi warga emas di institusi. Pengukuran secara kuantitatif menggunakan sub skala keluarga membolehkan pengkaji membuat kajian terhadap saiz sampel yang lebih besar. Pada masa yang sama analisis inferensi dapat dilakukan dan keputusan boleh digeneralisasikan kepada semua ahli dalam populasi. Kata kunci:   Sokongan sosial intergenerasi; skala Lubben; institusi penjagaan; warga emas; anak dewasa. ABSTRACTIntergenerational social support between adult children and elderly parents is a phenomenon that is becoming a challenge for Malaysian families, particularly with an increase in the elderly population. The purpose of this article is to assess the intergenerational social support received by the elderly living in public care institutions. The sample consisted of ten elderly respondents recruited through purposive sampling from one of the Rumah Seri Kenangan that provides shelter and basic care for the elderly.  Thematic analysis was used to arrive at pragmatic findings. Results revealed that the elderly in this care institution received less intergenerational social support from the children or next of kin. The majority reports their relationship with children and next of kin  to be more  distant and even lost contact with them after moving into institutions. This article proposes that the items in the family dimension in Lubben scale were appropriate to be used for measuring quantitatively the receipt of intergenerational social support among elderly living in a care  institution. The quantitative measurements using family sub-scale allows researchers to do research on a larger sample sizes. At the same time inferential analysis can be carried out and the results can be generalized to all members of the population. Keywords: Intergenerational social support; Lubben scale; care institutions; old      people; young adult
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Trade War: The Trade Blockade on German in the Federated Malay States,
           1914-1918 ( ‘Trade War’: Sekatan Perdagangan Jerman di Negeri-Negeri
           Melayu Bersekutu, 1914-1918)

    • Authors: Mohd Shazwan Mokhtar, Mohd Samsudin
      Abstract: This article examines the trade blockade on German and British enemies in Federated Malay States (FMS) by the Federal Council (FC). The British trade blockade in the FMS attempted to secure the state's position as a valuable world raw material exporter to prevent the enemies from getting their supplies for their armory development. The establishment of an FC in 1909, marked the British successful effort to gain more control over the state's administration and perform the blockade policy. The history methodology was used to analyse the important documents such as the F.M.S Shorthand Report, British High Commissioner files, F.O 371 and 372 and C.A.B 38. The British High Commissioner had an autonomous power in FC administration which was to transact the legislative and other business of the FMS, especially on the financial administration to develop colonial capitalism. It argues that the British economic interest in the FMS was protected by the FC during the First World War. The British’s failure to compete with the German economic growth at the international level was an important factor on the trade blockade. Furthermore, the trade blockade was also a war strategy by the British government to weaken German’s military strength through the economic war. The findings have shown that the trade blockade policy of the FC succeeds to weaken German economic interest in the FMS, and the FMS was directly involved as a British proxy in World War 1. This article concludes that the trade blockade policy has been a long-term strategy by the British to protect her economic interest since before the war. Keywords: Economic history; trade blockade; Federated Malay States; German; World War 1
      ABSTRAK Artikel ini menganalisis usaha sekatan perdagangan oleh Majlis Mesyuarat Persekutuan (MMP) di peringkat persekutuan Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu (NNMB) terhadap aktiviti perniagaan dan perdagangan Jerman dan negara-negara musuh Britain. Pelaksanaan dasar sekatan perdagangan oleh British di NNMB merupakan usaha untuk melindungi kedudukan NNMB sebagai pengeksport bahan mentah penting dunia, agar pihak musuh gagal untuk mendapatkan sumber bahan mentah untuk pembangunan ketenteraan. Kejayaan British menguasai pentadbiran NNMB menerusi penubuhan MMP pada tahun 1909, telah membolehkan usaha sekatan perdagangan ini dilaksanakan secara sah mengikut enakmen NNMB. Metodologi kajian sejarah digunakan untuk menganalisis dokumen penting seperti F.M.S Shorthand Report, fail-fail Persuruhjaya Tinggi British, F.O 371 & 372 dan C.A.B 38. Persuruhjaya Tinggi British memiliki autonomi kuasa pentadbiran dalam MMP seterusnya telah membolehkan kerajaan kolonial mentadbir kewangan dan menggalakkan lagi pembangunan kapitalisme kolonial di NNMB. Pihak British menggunakan MMP sebagai alat penting bagi memastikan kepentingan ekonomi British tidak tergugat ketika era perang. Faktor penting usaha sekatan ekonomi ini dilakukan ialah kegagalan Britain untuk bersaing dengan kemajuan ekonomi Jerman di peringkat antarabangsa. Tambahan lagi, usaha sekatan perdagangan ini juga merupakan strategi peperangan British untuk melemahkan kekuatan militer Jerman menerusi ‘perang ekonomi’. Kajian mendapati usaha sekatan perdagangan ini merupakan strategi jangka panjang yang dilakukan oleh British untuk memelihara kepentingan ekonominya di seluruh dunia sejak era sebelum perang. Hasil kajian ini membuktikan keberkesanan dasar sekatan perdagangan oleh MMP berjaya melemahkan kepentingan ekonomi Jerman di NNMB, dan sememangnya NNMB telah terlibat secara langsung dalam Perang Dunia Pertama sebagai proksi British. Kata kunci: Sejarah ekonomi; sekatan perdagangan; Negeri-Negeri Melayu Bersekutu; Jerman; Perang Dunia Pertama
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Peranan UMNO Menegakkan Islam dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan: Satu Kajian
           Secara Kronogikal (The Roles of UMNO in Legislating Islam in The Federal

    • Authors: Mohamed Anwar Omar Din, Wan Ahmad Fauzi Wan Husain, Mat Zin Mat Kib, Junaidi Abu Bakar
      Abstract: Makalah ini berusaha menelusuri kronologi sejarah pemaktuban Islam dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan negara Malaysia dengan menyemak pelbagai sumber primer iaitu rekod-rekod rasmi, minit-minit keputusan mesyuarat UMNO-Perikatan, laporan-laporan rasmi kerajaan, akta-akta, ordinan-ordinan, perlembagaan dan akhbar-akhbar berkait dengan Islam dalam kemerdekaan Malaysia di Arkib Negara Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur dan National Archive, London. Bahan-bahan ini dianalisis dengan kritis dan disusun secara kronologikal. Berdasarkan hasil analisis tersebut makalah ini menemui hakikat bahawa sesungguhnya UMNO memain peranan paling utama dalam sejarah pemaktuban Perkara 3 dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan yang menyebut Islam merupakan agama Persekutuan. Dalilnya, UMNO merupakan satu-satunya parti politik yang mengusulkan Islam kepada Suruhanjaya Reid (pada 25 September 1956). Pada asalnya, cadangan tersebut ditolak oleh Raja-Raja Melayu dan kerajaan British. Sekiranya UMNO tidak mengusulkannya maka amatlah besar kemungkinannya tidak ada Perkara 3 dalam Perlembagaan Persekutuan itu seperti adanya pada hari ini. UMNO bukan sekadar menghantar memorandum kepada Suruhanjaya Reid, sebaliknya, ia berusaha secara berterusan untuk menangani tentangan Raja-Raja Melayu dan pihak British itu sehingga akhirnya termaktub juga Islam dalam Perlembagaan. Hakikat ini tidak disedari oleh para penyelidik. Ini berlaku kerana mereka tidak menukili sejarah penggubalan Perlembagaan Persekutuan secara kronologi. Kata kunci: Sekular; UMNO; Perlembagaan Persekutuan; Suruhanjaya Reid; Majlis Raja-Raja Melayu  ABSTRACT This article seeks to construct the chronology of the recorded history of Islam legislation in the Federal Constitution by investigating through various primary sources such as official records, minutes of UMNO-Alliance meetings, official government reports, acts, ordinances, constitutions and newspapers related to Islam in the independence of Malaysia at the National Archive of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, and the National Archive in London. These materials have been critically analysed and arranged chronologically. Based on the analysis, it is found that United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) had indeed played the most important role in the history of legislating Article 3 of the Federal Constitution, which mentions Islam as the religion of the federation. This is proven by the fact that UMNO was the only political party that had proposed the motion on Islam in the Federal Constitution to the Reid Commission (on 25th September 1956). Initially the motion was rejected by the Malay Rulers and the British government. If UMNO had not proposed it, then, most probably Article 3 of the Federal Constitution would not have existed as it does today. UMNO had not only sent its memorandum to the Reid Commission, but it had also consistently and seriously dealt with the opposition of the Malay Rulers and the British government until Islam was finally enacted in the Constitution. This fact is not realised by researchers. Hitherto, the researchers had not examined the history of the legislation of Islam in the Constitution chronologically. It is for this reason that the real history, especially the role of UMNO in the legislating of Islam in the Constitution, is not visible. Thus, it is recommended that researchers should reconstruct the legislation history of Islam in the Constitution chronologically. Keywords: Secular; United Malays National Organisation; Federal Constitution; Reid Commission; Malay Rulers Council 
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Resilience as Mediator in the Relationship between Family Functioning and
           Depression among Adolescents from Single Parent Families (Resilien sebagai
           Mediator dalam Hubungan di antara Kefungsian Keluarga dan Kemurungan dalam
           kalangan Remaja dari Keluarga Tunggal)

    • Authors: Ng Ying Yee, Wan Shahrazad Wan Sulaiman
      Abstract:  Family dysfunction makes many adolescents experience problems in adjusting themselves in single-parent families. Resilient adolescents cope by interpreting life in single-parent family as a meaningful and empowering transition while non-resilient adolescents often experience anxiety and depression. This study aims to examine the mediator effect of resilience in the relationship between family functioning and depression among adolescents from single parent families. The participants were 232 adolescents who came from single parent families, with ages 13 to 18 years old. Data were collected from 8 secondary schools in Klang Valley using a set of questionnaire consisting the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scales III, The Resilience Scale and Beck Depression Inventory-II. Pearson correlation analysis showed that all the variables in this study were significantly correlated with each other. Results showed that resilience significantly mediated the relationship between family adaptability and depression. However, resilience partially mediated the relationship between family cohesion and depression. The strong emotional bonding among family members can serve as a significant social support for family members. When adolescents have adequate social support from their family, it will foster the process of resilience reintegration. Hence, family cohesion has a stronger relationship with resilience compared to family adaptability that emphasised on family’s leadership, rules and roles. This implies that adolescents from single parent family should be assisted in strengthening and building their resilience despite staying in the dysfunctional family to reduce their depression tendencies. Keywords: Family functioning; resilience; depression; adolescents; single parent family ABSTRAKKetidakfungsian keluarga menyukarkan remaja menyesuaikan diri dalam keluarga tunggal. Remaja resilien berdaya tindak dengan menginterpretasi kehidupan dalam keluarga tunggal sebagai bermakna manakala remaja tidak resilien kebiasaannya mengalami kebimbangan dan kemurungan. Kajian ini bertujuan menguji resilien sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara kefungsian keluarga dan kemurungan dalam kalangan remaja dari keluarga tunggal.  Responden kajian adalah 232 remaja dari keluarga tunggal dengan umur di antara 13 hingga 18 tahun. Data dikumpul dari 8 sekolah menengah di Lembah Klang menggunakan satu set soal selidik mengandungi Skala Penyesuaian dan Kohesi Keluarga III, Skala Resilien dan Inventori Kemurungan Beck-II. Analisis korelasi Pearson menunjukkan semua pembolehubah kajian berkorelasi secara signifikan. Keputusan juga menunjukkan bahawa resilien berperanan secara signifikan sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara penyesuaian keluarga dan kemurungan. Walau bagaimanapun, resilien hanya berperanan secara separa sebagai mediator dalam hubungan di antara kohesi keluarga dan kemurungan. Hubungan emosi yang kuat di antara ahli-ahli keluarga boleh menjadi sumber sokongan sosial. Apabila remaja mempunyai sokongan sosial yang mencukupi, ia akan menggalakkan proses perkembangan resilien. Sehubungan itu, kohesi keluarga mempunyai hubungan yang lebih kuat berbanding adaptasi keluarga kerana ia menekankan kepada kepimpinan, peraturan dan peranan keluarga. Ini memberi implikasi bahawa remaja dari keluarga tunggal perlu dibantu dalam memperkasakan dan membina resilien apabila berada dalam keluarga disfungsi untuk mengurangkan kecenderungan ke arah kemurungan. Kata kunci: Kefungsian keluarga; resilien; kemurungan; remaja; keluarga tunggal
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Penerokaan Aliran Tematik Penulisan Bahasa Sepanyol Sebagai Bahasa Asing
           Berdasarkan Bidang Pengajian (Exploration of Written Spanish Thematic
           Progression as a Foreign Language According to Disciplinary Study)

    • Authors: Azlina Mohd Sera'ai, Idris Aman, Maserah Shabudin
      Abstract: Dalam pembelajaran bahasa asing, menulis merupakan salah satu alat yang penting kerana bertujuan memperoleh maklumat dan kemahiran yang baharu. Maka, seorang pelajar perlu mengetahui interaksi antara klausa berdasarkan informasi yang terkandung dalam Tema dan Rema di dalam teks. Didapati kajian penulisan karangan sebagai bahasa asing tertumpu kepada kajian linguistik, pembelajaran dan pengajaran dan eksperimental benar. Namun, kajian tematik dimensi linguistik hanya membicarakan aliran tematik di sekitar teks tanpa mengambil kira pembolehubah lain seperti bidang pengajian. Bahkan, kajian tematik yang menjurus kepada penulisan karangan bahasa asing selain bahasa Inggeris amat terhad. Maka, kajian ini berobjektif mengenal pasti, menghurai dan menjelaskan penguasaan aliran tematik dalam teks yang dihasilkan oleh pelajar tahap lanjutan bahasa Sepanyol dari angkubah bidang pengajian. Sebanyak 30 teks naratif dan 30 teks ekspositori yang melibatkan 207 unit perenggan dianalisis. Pergerakan aliran idea dalam setiap perenggan dianalisis berpandukan kerangka aliran tematik, Rema Regresi, Rema Ulangan, Tema Rencam, Box Development dan Pair to Single Development. Hasil kajian memaparkan, kesemua bidang pengajian memanfaatkan aliran Tema Rencam tanpa menyedari genre penulisan, pelajar Sains Sosial lebih kreatif mempelbagaikan jenis aliran Tema dalam kedua-dua genre penulisan, pelajar Sains dan Teknologi tidak memanfaatkan aliran Tema Kekal dalam teks naratif dan garapan idea teks ekspositori pelajar Sains Kemanusiaan cenderung kepada norma penulisan teks naratif. Ini menggambarkan pembolehubah bidang pengajian tidak berperanan dan tidak mempengaruhi pembinaan aliran tematik mereka. Walaupun berada di tahap lanjutan namun, masih belum menguasai aspek aliran tematik dengan sebaik-baiknya. Disyorkan, pendekatan pengajaran dan pembelajaran menggunakan Tema/Rema dalam kelas bahasa asing diintegrasikan ke dalam penulisan. Kata kunci: Aliran tematik; bahasa Sepanyol; penulisan; tema dan rema; bidang pengajian ABSTRACTIn learning a foreign language, writing is one of the most important tool in order to acquire new information and skills. Hence, a student needs to know the interaction between clauses based on information contained in Theme and Rheme in the text. The study of essay writing as a foreign language focused on linguistic, learning and teaching, and experimental. However, studies on thematic linguistic dimension have only discussed the thematic progression surrounding text without taking into account other variables such as disciplinary of study. In fact, thematic studies on writing as a foreign language other than English are scarced. Thus, this study aims to identify, describe and explain the mastery of thematic progression in texts produced by advanced students of Spanish based on disciplinary of study. A total of 30 narrative texts and 30 expository texts which involves 207 paragraphs are analysed. The movement of ideas in each paragraph is analysed based on the thematic progression scheme outline, Rheme Regression, Rheme Iteration, Mix Theme, Box Development and Pair to Single Development. The findings reveal that all disciplinary of studies deployed Mix Theme without noticing the genre of writing, Social Sciences students more creative on diversify of themes in both genres of writing, Science and Technology students do not deploy Constant Theme in narrative text and the idea of Human Sciences students text expository tends to writing a narrative text. This shows that the disciplinary of study do not play a role nor influence the construction of their thematic progression. They still have not mastered the aspect of thematic progression well although learned in the advanced stage. It is recommended that teaching and learning approach using Theme/Rheme in foreign language classes integrated into writing.Keywords: Thematic progression; Spanish; writing, theme and rheme, disciplinary studies
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Alternative Assessment: Exploring the Effectiveness of Self-Assessment
           Practice among Engineering Students (Penilaian Alternatif: Meneroka
           Keberkesanan Penilaian Kendiri dalam Kalangan Pelajar Jurusan

    • Authors: Nurul Farehah Mohamad Uri, Mohd Sallehhudin Abd Aziz
      Abstract: There are numerous ways available for lecturers to assess their students’ learning progress and one practical way is through self-assessment. Instructors should not under-estimate their students’ capability and interest in assessing themselves. Instead they should be given the opportunity to be involved in the assessment process. One salient advantage of this practice is to enable students to identify their own strengths and weaknesses in order improve themselves. The main purpose of this article is to investigate the implementation of self-assessment as a classroom assessment tool among engineering students in Universiti Kuala Lumpur British Malaysian Institute. Specifically, this study intends to investigate the accuracy of engineering students when assessing their own writing skill and the students’ and lecturers’ reactions with regard to the use of self-assessment as one of the classroom tools for assessment in a university language course. The subjects of this study were 137 diploma students from several engineering courses. Data in the form of written assignments were collected throughout the study and analysed via students’ own analyses and lecturers’ evaluation. The findings revealed that majority of the students, most of whom were Malays, would under-rate themselves. With regard to the use of self-assessment in the classroom, most of the students remarked that self-assessment is something positive and most of them viewed the procedure as a meaningful assessing experience.Keywords: Interview; metacognitive; self-assessment; self-efficacy; students’ feedback. ABSTRAKTerdapat banyak kaedah yang disediakan untuk para pensyarah menilai kemajuan pembelajaran para pelajar dan salah satu kaedah yang praktikal adalah melalui penilaian kendiri. Sehubungan dengan itu, para pensyarah sepatutnya mempertimbangkan kebolehan serta minat pelajar untuk menilai kebolehan sendiri. Mereka perlu diberi peluang untuk melibatkan diri dalam proses penilaian. Antara kelebihan penilaian kendiri adalah kebolehan pelajar untuk mengenal pasti kekuatan serta kelemahan mereka, seterusnya memperbaiki kelemahan tersebut. Tujuan utama kajian ini adalah untuk menyiasat pelaksanaan penilaian kendiri sebagai alat penilaian dalam kelas di kalangan pelajar kejuruteraan di Universiti Kuala Lumpur British Malaysian Institute. Secara khusus, kajian ini bertujuan untuk menyiasat ketepatan pelajar fakulti kejuruteraan apabila menilai kemahiran penulisan mereka dan mengetahui reaksi pelajar dan pensyarah berhubung penggunaan penilaian kendiri sebagai salah satu kaedah penilaian di dalam bilik darjah untuk kursus bahasa Inggeris di universiti ini. Subjek kajian ini terdiri daripada 137 pelajar diploma yang dipilih daripada beberapa kursus kejuruteraan. Data dalam bentuk tugasan bertulis yang dikumpul sepanjang kajian dan dianalisis melalui penilaian kendiri di kalangan pelajar dan juga penilaian pensyarah. Hasil kajian telah menunjukkan bahawa majoriti pelajar, yang kebanyakannya terdiri daripada pelajar Melayu, didapati kurang berkeyakinan dalam proses penilaian kendiri. Untuk penggunaan sebagai penilaian kendiri di dalam bilik darjah secara menyeluruh, sebahagian besar daripada mereka berpendapat penilaian kendiri itu sendiri adalah sesuatu yang positif dan kebanyakan mereka melihat prosedur ini sebagai pengalaman yang bernilai serta bermakna.Kata kunci: Temubual; metakognitif; penilaian kendiri; efikasi kendiri; maklum balas pelajar 

      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Application of Binomials in English and Persian (Aplikasi Binomial dalam
           Bahasa Inggeris dan Parsi)

    • Authors: Mohammad Abdollahi-Guilani, Tan Kim Hua
      Abstract: Binomials or word pairs can present themselves differently in languages and cultures and this may result in difficulty in learning and teaching a foreign language. Binomials are formed both linguistically and non-linguistically. A thorough study indicates there are many factors involved in the ordering of words in a pair. The ordering preferences can range from the frequency of words, to semantic features, and to phonological principles. In addition, the significant role of gender should not be downplayed in arranging the components of a binomial. This study has taken advantage of a self-designed questionnaire to support the findings. The participants, aged 18-20, included 179 Iranian i.e. 95 male and 84 female undergraduate students who were asked to read a short paragraph about a couple and choose names not only for the couple but also for their siblings and children. In addition, in some cases, the respondents had to write names for some characters in the made-up story and determine what type of responsibility the children of the family should take up. The results of the study indicated that in addition to the phonological rules which greatly contributed to the precedency of a certain word in a nominal pair, there were other factors that could determine which element should stand first. These parameters are further discussed in the article. The findings of this research can target language teachers in general and English-Persian language teachers/learners in particular. Curriculum designers and lexicographers can also benefit from the findings when designing course materials and writing dictionaries, respectively.Keywords:  Binomials; culture; markedness theory; Persian; word pair
      AbstrakBinomial atau perkataan berpasang boleh dizahirkan dalam pelbagai cara bergantung kepada bahasa dan budaya. Perbezaan ini mungkin menjadi salah satu halangan dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa asing. Binomial boleh terbentuk secara linguistik dan sebaliknya. Kajian menyeluruh telah menunjukkan bahawa terdapat banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi susun atur setiap pasang binomial. Keutamaan susun atur boleh ditentukan berdasarkan kekerapan frekuensi, semantik dan prinsip-prinsip fonologi. Selain itu, peranan jantina tidak patut dipandang remeh dalam menentukan susun atur komponen binomial. Kajian ini telah menggunakan soal selidik bagi menyokong dapatan kajian. 179 orang responden terdiri daripada pelajar sarjanamuda warganegara Iran berumur dalam lingkungan 18-20 tahun. Mereka terbahagi kepada 95 orang lelaki dan 84 orang wanita. Mereka telah diminta untuk membaca satu perenggan pendek (cerita rekaan) mengenai satu pasangan dan kemudian telah diminta untuk menamakan pasangan tersebut, adik-beradik, dan anak-anak mereka. Sebahagian responden juga diminta untuk menulis nama bagi sebahagian karakter dalam cerita rekaan itu dan seterusnya menetapkan peranan yang akan dimainkan oleh anak-anak pasangan tersebut. Hasil kajian mendapati bahawa terdapat faktor lain yang boleh menentukan susun atur elemen binomial selain peraturan fonologi yang merupakan penentu utama. Parameter-parameter ini dibincangkan lebih lanjut dalam artikel. Dapatan kajian ini boleh membantu guru bahasa secara amnya serta guru dan pelajar Parsi khususnya. Para ahli leksikografi dan penggubal kurikulum juga turut mendapat manafaat dalam aktiviti pengkamusan dan penulisan bahan kursus daripada hasil dapatan ini.Kata kunci: Binomial; budaya; teori ‘markedness’; bahasa Parsi; kata berpasang
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Struktur Suku Kata Terbitan Dialek Terengganu (The Derivative Syllable
           Structure of Terengganu Dialect)

    • Authors: Nur Adibah Hasan, Sharifah Raihan Syed Jaafar
      Abstract: Setakat ini, masih belum ada kajian lepas yang memfokuskan tentang struktur suku kata  dialek Terengganu, salah satu dialek yang dituturkan di Malaysia. Kajian lepas oleh Collins dan Asmah membincangkan tentang dialek Terengganu, walau bagaimanapun  hanya melihat aspek-aspek umum dialek tersebut serta tidak meneliti struktur suku katanya. Kajian-kajian lepas selain daripada Collins dan Asmah pula banyak menumpukan kepada dialek-dialek Melayu yang lain. Oleh itu, kajian ini membincangkan struktur suku kata terbitan dialek Terengganu dengan memfokuskan kepada proses perubahan struktur suku kata dan analisis terhadap struktur suku kata dialek Terengganu. Kajian ini menggunakan data dialek Terengganu yang diperolehi daripada siaran radio yang berfrekuensi 88.7 yang meliputi Kuala Terengganu, Marang, Hulu Terengganu dan Setiu. Untuk tujuan ini, analisis tatatingkat kekangan daripada teori Optimaliti yang dibangunkan oleh Prince dan Smolensky diaplikasikan. Pemerhatian daripada data menunjukkan dialek Terengganu mempunyai tiga jenis struktur suku kata iaitu KV, KVK dan KKV. Ketiga-tiga struktur suku kata yang telah dikenal pasti ini mewujudkan perbezaan tatatingkat kekangan. Hasil analisis telah  menghasilkan tatatingkat kekangan seperti berikut: ONSET >> MAKS-IO >> *KODA >> IDENT-IO[F] >> *ONS KOMPLEKS. Kata kunci: Struktur suku kata; dialek Terengganu; fonologi; teori Optimaliti; dialek Melayu
      So far, no previous studies have focused on the syllable structure of the Terengganu dialect which is one of the dialects spoken in Malaysia. Previous studies by Collins and Asmah have discussed Terengganu dialect, however emphasis was on the general aspects of the phonology of the dialect and not its syllable structure.  Many previous studies apart from Collins and Asmah have focused on the other Malay dialects. Therefore, this study discusses the derivative syllable structure of the Terengganu dialect, focusing on the changes and the analysis of the syllable structure. Data of the Terengganu dialect was obtained from the 88.7 radio which covers Kuala Terengganu, Marang, Hulu Terengganu and Setiu. The hierarchical ranking analysis from the Optimality theory which has been developed by Prince and Smolensky was applied. The observation from the data show that this dialect has three types of syllable structures i.e. CV, CVC and CCV. These three syllable structures which have been identified portray the differences in constraint rankings. The analysis yields the following constraint ranking: ONSET >> MAX-IO >> *CODA >> *ONS COMPLEX.Keywords: Syllable structure; Terengganu dialect; phonology; Optimality theory; Malay dialect
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Kata Soal dalam Dialek Perlis (Question Words in Perlis Dialect)

    • Authors: Fazal Mohamed Mohamed Sultan, Noriati Muhamad
      Abstract: Artikel ini membincangkan kata soal dalam dialek Perlis. Data yang digunakan dalam kajian ini diambil daripada kajian lapangan yang dilakukan di negeri Perlis. Perlis adalah sebuah negeri yang kecil; terdiri daripada 3 daerah iaitu Padang Besar, Kangar dan Arau. Namun ketiga-tiga daerah ini mempunyai 22 mukim yang merangkumi 228 buah kampung. Oleh itu untuk memudahkan kajian, kawasan kajian dikenal pasti melalui grid geografi GPS yang telah dilakar berpandukan skala 5km: 1cm. Hasil daripada lakaran itu sebanyak 40 kotak grid telah dihasilkan. Setiap kotak grid itu diwakili oleh sebuah kampung. Sebanyak dua responden daripada setiap kampung telah dikenal pasti berpandukan kriteria NORMs. Data primer ini diperoleh melalui proses temu bual yang dilaksanakan terhadap responden yang menutur dialek Perlis ini. Analisis ini mendapati bahawa kata soal ini boleh dipecahkan kepada dua kategori iaitu kata soal adjung bagi kata mengkala atau bila (bila), gheno atau macam mana (bagaimana), brapa (berapa) dan awat (kenapa)) manakala kata soal komplemen pula bagi kata apa, sapo (siapa) dan mana. Analisis ini mendapati bahawa semua kata soal dalam dialek Perlis mempunyai sifat yang sama iaitu boleh hadir pada kedudukan depan, tengah dan akhir ayat soal. Kajian mendakwa bahawa kesemua kata soal dalam dialek Perlis boleh bersifat bergerak dan in-situ.Kata kunci:Kata soal; Perlis; dialek; analisis deskriptif; partikel This article discusses question words in the Perlis dialect. The data used in this study were taken from a field study conducted in the state of Perlis. Perlis is a small state which composed of three districts such as Padang Besar, Kangar and Arau. However, these three districts comprise of 22 small districts encompassing 228 villages. Therefore to ease the research, the study area was identified through GPS geographical grids which were drawn up in accordance with the scale of 5km: 1cm. As a result of these grids, 40 boxes were produced. Each box of grid represents a village. Two respondents from each village were identified based on NORMs criteria. The primary data were obtained through interviewing the native speakers of the Perlis dialect. This analysis found that the question words can be broken down into two categories, adjunct question words (mengkala or bila (when), gheno or macam mana (how), brapa (how many) and awat (why), while the complement question words are apa, sapo (whom) and where. This analysis found that all the question words in the Perlis dialect have the same properties. They can be found in front, at the middle and at the end of an interogative sentence. This study claims that all the question words in the Perlis dialect can be moved and in-situ as well.Keywords:Question words; Perlis; dialect; descriptive analysis; particle
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Kehidupan Adalah Perjalanan: Analisis Metafora Konseptual dalam Salina dan
           La Vie Devant Soi (Life is a Journey: An Analysis of Conceptual Metaphor
           in Salina and La Vie Devant Soi)

    • Authors: Suziana Mat Saad, Nor Hashimah Jalaluddin, Imran-Ho Abdullah
      Abstract: Makalah ini membincangkan tentang kajian perbandingan metafora konseptual KEHIDUPAN ADALAH PERJALANAN yang dikesan dalam bahasa Melayu dan Perancis. Metafora konseptual membolehkan idea atau domain yang abstrak difahami melalui satu idea atau domain lain yang bersifat konkrit. Dua buah novel, satu novel bahasa Melayu dan satu novel bahasa Perancis menjadi sumber data bagi perbincangan dalam makalah ini. Proses pengenalpastian metafora daripada novel menerapkan pendekatan Prosedur Pengenalpastian Metafora di mana setiap unit leksikal daripada ujaran ini diteliti dengan cermat dan diperhalusi bagi memastikan ia bersifat metaforikal.  Seterusnya, data berkenaan dibahagikan kepada tiga fokus yang berbeza iaitu individu, pemilihan dan implementasi, yang seterusnya dianalisis berdasarkan kerangka Teori Metafora Konseptual serta Teori Metafora Primer dan Kompleks. Hasil analisis mendapati data ini menunjukkan keserasian dengan kerangka teori yang digunakan dan wujudnya bbeberapa metafora primer dan metafora kompleks konvensional.  Di samping itu, dapatan kajian mengukuhkan lagi Teori Metafora Primer dan Kompleks kerana dalam bahasa Melayu dan Perancis metafora konseptual KEHIDUPAN ADALAH PERJALANAN terbina daripada gabungan beberapa metafora primer dan juga kompleks. Situasi demikian didorong oleh pelbagai faktor seperti agama dan moral di samping motivasi dalaman dan juga luaran. Hasil gandingan Teori Metafora Konseptual dan Teori Metafora Primer dan Kompleks menunjukkan bahawa metafora bukan sekadar penggunaan bahasa tetapi mengandungi banyak maklumat ekstra linguistik seperti budaya, gaya pemikiran dan sudut pandang sesebuah masyarakat tentang sesuatu perkara atau isu yang dibincangkan.Kata kunci: Metafora konseptual; metafora primer dan kompleks; bahasa Melayu; bahasa Perancis; gaya pemikiranABSTRACTThis paper discusses a comparative study of conceptual metaphor LIFE IS A JOURNEY between the Malay language and French. Conceptual metaphor allows an abstract idea or a domain to be understood in terms of another idea or domain which is concrete. Two novels, one in Malay and one in French were selected as the data source. The process of identification of the metaphors utilised Metaphorical Identification procedure whereby each lexical unit of this metaphorical expressions was thoroughly investigated. The data were scrutinized to ensure only metaphorical expressions were identified. They were divided into three different focus, namely individual, selection and implementation.  They were further analyzed based on two frameworks namely Conceptual Metaphor Theory and Primary and Complex Metaphor Theory. The analysis shows that they concur with the applied theoretical frameworks. A number of conventional primary and complex metaphors were also found. In addition, the findings reinforced the Primary and Complex Metaphors Theory since in Malay and French conceptual metaphor LIFE IS A JOURNEY has its foundation from a combination of some primary and complex metaphors. Such a situation is driven by many factors such as religion and moral as well as internal and external motivation. The application of Conceptual Metaphor Theory framework along with Primary and Complex Metaphor Theory  has  proven that metaphor is not just about language but contains a lot of extra-linguistic information such as the culture, minds and virtues of the community on a matter or issue that is being discussed.Keywords: Conceptual metaphors; primary and complex metaphor; Malay; French; minds
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Hypermedia Literacy: An Insight into English as a Foreign Language Online
           Reading Processes (Literasi Hypermedia: Suatu Penelitian Proses Pembacaan
           atas Talian dalam Bahasa Inggeris Sebagai Bahasa Asing)

    • Authors: Hazita Azman, Sepideh Mirzaeifard, Zaini Amir
      Abstract: The advent of the Internet has generated new ways of reading for knowledge, suggesting that digital literacy is a necessity for students of this new era. Even so, there is still a dearth of knowledge in the field that can provide rich theoretical descriptions of online reading processes of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) readers in the hypertext environment. This article elucidates the perceptual learning strategies and the metacognitive reading strategies of English as a Foreign Language students in hypertext reading environment. Their perceived preferred practices were elicited through a questionnaire and interviews, while actual observed online behaviours were recorded with Camtasia Studio 7. Based on these data sources, patterns of reading hypermedia texts on an online reading platform were identified and compared using NVivo 9. The findings indicated that the students’ perceived as well as their preferred learning styles and metacognitive reading strategies were mostly not performed or applied by them when they were engaged in the actual hypermedia reading environment. These differences in behaviours were contributed to the reading tasks and hypermedia tools made available by the platform facilitating their reading processes. Most significantly, the study revealed that the types of hypermedia tool available enabled them to modify their previously preferred practices for other ways of reading and comprehending the hypermedia texts. Moreover, the findings have also implied that students reading hypermedia texts online can develop different choices of sensory pathways unique to digital literacy environments. Thus the findings are significant as they contribute towards the currently limited knowledge about electronic literacy and online reading processes.Keywords: Hypermedia reading; hypertext; EFL learning styles; online reading strategies; digital literacyABSTRAKKemunculan Internet telah menghasilkan cara baru untuk membaca dan mengakses pengetahuan, sekaligus menggariskan literasi digital sebagai satu keperluan hakiki pelajar era baru kini. Sungguh pun begitu ilmu serta teori mantap yang memberi penerangan kukuh berkenaan proses pembacaan dan kefahaman pelajar bahasa Inggeris-sebagai-bahasa asing dalam persekitaran hiperteks ini masih kurang mantap. Artikel ini menghuraikan persepsi berkenaan laluan deria dan strategi metakognitif pelajar berkenaan semasa membaca hiperteks atas talian. Kedua-dua persepsi amalan pilihan mereka serta tingkah laku sebenar yang diperhatikan berlaku semasa mereka membaca teks hipermedia atas talian, telah dikenalpastikan dan dibandingkan. Persepsi amalan dalam proses membaca dicungkil melalui soal selidik dan sesi temuduga, sementara tingkah laku sebenar semasa membaca atas talian dirakam melalui Camtasia Studio 7.  Berdasarkan sumber data ini, corak membaca teks hipermedia atas talian telah dianalisis mengguna Nvivo 9. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan pelajar tidak menggunakan gaya pembelajaran dan strategi metakognitif membaca seperti mengikut persepsi mereka, semasa melakukan pembacaan hipermedia atas talian yang sebenar. Perbezaan persepsi dan tingkah laku sebenar telah berlaku akibat kesan dari jenis tugasan bacaan yang diberi dan juga alat hipermedia yang disediakan. Paling ketara, kajian menunjukkan bahawa amalan strategi yang menjadi pilihan biasa kepada pembaca diubah suai untuk membantu mereka memahami teks hipermedia dengan lebih berkesan dan efisyen. Justeru itu adanya alat-alat hipermedia dalam platform bacaan atas talian, proses laluan deria seorang pengguna bahasa Inggeris-sebagai-bahasa asing boleh berubah mengikut persekitaran literasi digital yang dibentuk. Oleh itu dapatan kajian ini amatlah bermakna kerana ia menyumbang kepada pengetahuan literasi elektronik dan proses pembacaan atas talian.Kata kunci: bacaan hipermedia; hiperteks; gaya pembelajaran bahasa Inggeris sebagai bahasa asing; bacaan atas talian; literasi digital
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Many Ways of Being Muslim: The Practice of Immanent Critique in Mohja
           Kahf’s The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf (Kepentingan Kritikan Dalaman
           dalam Pembentukan Identiti Islam di dalam novel The Girl in the Tangerine
           Scarf Karya Mohja Kahf)

    • Authors: Amrah Abdul Majid
      Abstract: There is a stereotypical understanding of Islam as a religion that is inherently hostile to critique and changes, making it no longer relevant in modern age. To dispel this, Irfan Ahmad proposes the theory of immanent critique in the Islamic tradition where doctrines within the Islamic tradition itself are used to to develop different interpretations of religious understanding. This article discusses how this theory is applied in the novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf by Mohja Kahf (2006). It narrates the coming of age story of a young American Syrian Muslim woman, Khadra Shamy, who lives within a pious small Muslim community in Indiana, United States of America. As she lives under the watchful eyes of her parents and the community, she grapples with her understanding and acceptance of various Muslim communities around America who have different ways of practicing the religion. The article uses Ahmad’s theorization to discuss how the practice of critique allows the protagonist to free herself from being governed by specific individuals in her understanding of Islam. The concept allows the protagonist to actively engage with Islamic teachings in order to develop their personal position within the doctrines of the religion. Furthermore, the article also suggests that the practice of critique helps to develop an independent selfhood that is strongly committed to Islam while at the same time, tolerant of differences that may exist in the society that she is living in.Keywords: Islam; immanent critique; novels; Muslim women; Mohja Kahf
      ABSTRAKAgama Islam sering diperkatakan sebagai agama yang tidak boleh menerima kritikan dan perubahan, menjadikannya agama yang lapuk dan tidak boleh dipraktis di zaman moden. Untuk menyangkal dakwaan ini, Irfan Ahmad telah memperkenalkan teori kritikan dalaman yang menggunakan tradisi dan doktrin dalam agama Islam itu sendiri untuk menggalakkan perbincangan ilmiah dan terbuka mengenai Islam. Beliau mengesyorkan bahawa praktis ini dapat membantu penganutnya membentuk pemahaman agama yang tersendiri untuk diamalkan dalam kehidupan harian, sekaligus membuktikan bahawa agama Islam adalah agama sepanjang zaman. Makalah ini membincangkan bagaimana teori ini telah digambarkan di dalam novel The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf (2006), hasil karya Mohja Kahf. Novel ini menceritakan pengalaman Khadra Shamy, seorang wanita Islam berketurunan Syria yang tinggal dan membesar di dalam sebuah komuniti dakwah di Indiana, Amerika Syarikat. Teori kritikan dalaman ini digunakan dalam membincangkan bagaimana beliau menggunakan ilmu yang diperolehi dari pengajian dan pembacaan penulisan mengenai ajaran Islam oleh ulama’-ulama’ tersohor untuk membentuk kefahaman sendiri, yang  membantu beliau untuk membentuk identiti sebagai seorang Muslim yang komited terhadap pendirian agamanya. Ini membolehkan beliau melepaskan diri dari kongkongan ibubapa dan komunitinya yang terlalu tegar dengan identiti dakwah mereka sehingga sering kali tidak dapat menerima perbezaan pendapat di dalam ajaran Islam. Selain itu, konsep kritikan dalaman juga menggalakkan beliau untuk cuba memahami kepelbagaian dan perbezaan komuniti Muslim di Amerika Syarikat, menjadikan Khadra Shamy seorang yang lebih toleran dan berfikiran terbuka dan tidak cepat untuk menghakimi orang lain.  Kata kunci: Islam; kritikan dalaman; novel; wanita Muslim; Mohja Kahf      
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Linguistic Features of Malaysian Students’ Online Communicative Language
           in an Academic Setting: The Case of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
           (Ciri-Ciri Linguistik Bahasa Komunikasi atas Talian Pelajar Malaysia dalam
           Suasana Akademik: Kes Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia)

    • Authors: Fuzirah Hashim, Ahmad Aminuddin Soopar, Bahiyah Abdul Hamid
      Abstract: Social media have gained astounding worldwide growth and popularity and have become prominent in the life of many young people today. According to various research studies in the field of online social networks, social media sites such as Facebook, Twitter and Whatsapp are greatly impacting the lives of youths. These sites have provided a platform whereby the young can create groups based on their common interests and build connections by updating various topics to discuss. However, with social media taking up such a large space in our lives, there is a concern as to whether it is impacting our communicative language; more importantly, our youth’s communicative language. In view of this phenomenon, this article is an attempt to add to the understanding of online communicative language used by youths in social media.  Specifically, it reports on the linguistic features of online communicative language used by youths in an academic setting in Facebook. This study employed two research tools, namely Virtual Ethnography and Content Analysis. Data collected was in the form of screen captures and snippets of conversations.  Content Analysis was employed to look into the occurrences of languages in contact in phenomena such as code mixing, code switching and borrowings of certain words from the first language-second language and vice versa. The findings of the study indicate that the language used by the participants on Facebook consists of a mixture of code switching, code mixing, fillers, emoticons, spelling modifications, foreign language words and colloquial Malaysian English.  Keywords: Online communicative language; social networking space; Facebook; academic setting; linguistic features AbstrakMedia sosial telah tumbuh dengan pesatnya di seluruh dunia dan popularitinya telah menyebabkan ia telah menjadi sebahagian daripada kehidupan anak muda masa kini.  Menurut pelbagai kajian penyelidikan di dalam bidang rangkaian sosial atas talian, laman media sosial seperti Facebook, Twitter dan Whatsapp begitu memberi impak kepada kehidupan golongan muda.  Laman-laman ini telah menyediakan satu platform di mana golongan belia boleh melibatkan diri dalam kumpulan yang mempunyai minat yang sama dari segi disiplin atau bidang dengan mengemaskini pelbagai topik untuk perbincangan atas talian.  Namun, disebabkan media sosial telah mengambil ruang yang besar dalam kehidupan kita, timbul kebimbangan mengenai impaknya terhadap bahasa komunikasi kita; terutamanya bahasa komunikasi belia kita.  Berdasarkan kepada fenomena ini, makalah ini merupakan satu usaha untuk menambahkan pemahaman bahasa komunikasi atas talian yang digunakan oleh belia di media sosial.  Secara khusus, makalah ini akan melaporkan tentang ciri-ciri linguistik bahasa komunikasi atas talian yang digunakan oleh belia dalam suasana akademik di Facebook. Kajian ini menggunakan dua kaedah penyelidikan, iaitu Etnografi Maya dan Analisis Kandungan. Data yang dikumpul adalah dalam bentuk tangkapan skrin dan coretan dalam perbualan. Analisis Kandungan digunakan untuk meneliti penggunaan bahasa dalam fenomena percampuran kod, penukaran kod dan pinjaman kata-kata tertentu daripada bahasa pertama-bahasa kedua dan sebaliknya.  Dapatan kajian menunjukkan bahawa bahasa yang digunakan oleh para peserta di Facebook terdiri daripada campuran daripada penukaran kod, campuran kod, kata-kata pengisi, emotikon, pengubahsuaian ejaan, perkataan bahasa asing dan bahasa pasar Bahasa Inggeris.  Kata kunci: Bahasa komunikasi atas talian; ruangan rangkaian sosial;     Facebook; persekitaran akademik; ciri-ciri linguistik
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Engaging Postgraduate Students in Preparing Research Proposals (Melibatkan
           Pelajar Pascasiswazah dalam Menyediakan Cadangan Penyelidikan)

    • Authors: Pramela Krish, Khazriyati Salehuddin, Norizan A. Razak
      Abstract: Both foreign and local postgraduate candidates of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia come from diverse backgrounds and experiences. These students face several problems especially in writing the research proposals. Hence, to facilitate the process of writing a proposal, they are required to enrol in Research Methodology, a course that is made compulsory for all postgraduate students. This article presents a report on an action research that investigates the research skills of English as a Second Language postgraduates and their research journey while undergoing the Research Methodology course. Data was collected from their weekly journal entries and the interviews conducted on them. This data is also supported with the feedback by the Research Methodology course instructors during the proposal defense sessions. The findings suggest that although the students seemed enthusiastic when writing their proposals, they were not ready when faced with questions about research problems and approaches. It is found that these students did not read extensively to identify the gaps in their research and this hence, resulted in them facing difficulties to write a clear statement of the problem. This also led to poor formulation of their research questions. The findings will be beneficial for instructors and potential supervisors who aim to be better at teaching and supervising potential postgraduate students. Keywords: Research methodology; research skills; research proposals;             supervision; postgraduates ABSTRAKPelajar pascasiswazah tempatan dan luar negara yang menuntut di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia datang dari pelbagai latar belakang dan pengalaman. Sebahagian besar daripada mereka menghadapi pelbagai masalah dalam menulis cadangan penyelidikan. Justeru, untuk memudahkan mereka dalam proses menulis cadangan penyelidikan, kesemua pelajar pascasiszawah di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia diwajibkan mengikuti kursus Metodologi Penyelidikan. Makalah ini membentangkan laporan mengenai kemahiran pelajar pascasiswazah program Bahasa Inggeris sebagai Bahasa Kedua dan perjalanan penyelidikan mereka semasa mengikuti kursus Metodologi Penyelidikan. Data dikumpul dari catatan jurnal mingguan mereka dan sesi temu bual yang dijalankan. Data ini turut disokong oleh maklum balas dari tenaga pengajar kursus Metodologi Penyelidikan sebaik sahaja pelajar selesai mempertahankan cadangan penyelidikan mereka secara lisan. Dapatan menunjukkan bahawa walaupun pada zahirnya para pelajar nampak bersemangat untuk menulis cadangan penyelidikan mereka, namun mereka masih belum bersedia untuk menulis, lebih-lebih lagi apabila berhadapan dengan soalan-soalan tentang permasalahan kajian dan pendekatan kajian. Hal ini terjadi disebabkan oleh pembacaan pelajar yang tidak cukup meluas untuk mereka mengenal pasti kelompangan dalam penyelidikan mereka. Ini menyebabkan mereka menghadapi masalah untuk menulis permasalahan kajian dengan jelas serta membina persoalan kajian yang baik. Hasil kajian ini akan dapat dimanfaatkan oleh tenaga pengajar dan penyelia dalam usaha mereka meningkatkan prestasi pengajaran dan penyeliaan di peringkat pascasiswazah. Kata kunci: Metodologi penyelidikan; kemahiran menyelidik; cadangan             penyelidikan; penyeliaan; pascasiswazah
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Nostalgic Advertisements in Multicultural Malaysia: A Multimodal Analysis
           (Iklan Nostalgia dalam Pelbagai Budaya Malaysia: Satu Analisis Multimodal)

    • Authors: Melissa Shamini, Ganakumaran Subramaniam, Paul Gruba
      Abstract:  Advertisements that feature nostalgia as a theme have been highly successful in their ability to evoke an emotional reaction in consumers thus connecting them to the brand and product being advertised. Nostalgic advertisements are memorable as they prompt consumers to draw from their own past experiences in a positive manner therefore creating a "feel good" factor in consumers. Nostalgia has been a popular theme in many Malaysian television commercials (TVCs) in the past decade. This study examines a Malaysian national day TVC using a thematic multimodal approach to analyse how nostalgia is reinforced through the multimodal elements in the TVC. The analysis includes a discussion of the types of nostalgia elicited by the multimodal elements in the TVC in reference to the socio-cultural context of multicultural Malaysia. The findings reveal how specific multimodal elements in the TVC are used to evoke a sense of collective nostalgia among Malaysians of diverse socio-cultural backgrounds. This study shows that personal, collective, historical or national nostalgia is reinforced in a Malaysian national day TVC by making references to dates, events, images, relationships and values that are significant and meaningful to all Malaysians regardless of ethnicity, religion or belief. Such advertisements serve to transcend ethnic and religious boundaries to create a national mindset that the whole nation can connect with instead of communal or ethnic based ones.   Keywords: Nostalgia; television commercial; multimodal; Malaysia; multicultural.   AbstrakIklan-iklan bertema nostalgia didapati sangat efektif di kalangan penonton kerana dapat membangkitkan rasa emosi penonton yang kemudiannya dikaitkan dengan produk yang diiklankan. Iklan yang membangkitkan nostalgia sukar dilupakan oleh penonton kerana ia menyebabkan penonton mengimbas kembali pengalaman manis zaman lepas mereka dan seterusnya mewujudkan perasaan yang positif dihati penonton. Nostalgia merupakan tema yang semakin popular dalam iklan-iklan televisyen di Malaysia. Kajian ini menggunakan pendekatan analisis multimodal bertema untuk mengkaji cara-cara nostalgia diperkukuh melalui elemen multimodal dalam satu iklan televisyen (TV) Hari Kebangsaan di Malaysia. Analisis ini merangkumi perbincangan tema nostalgia dengan merujuk kepada jenis nostalgia yang dicungkil oleh element multimodal dalam konteks sosio-budaya pelbagai budaya Malaysia. Kajian ini mendedahkan elemen-elemen multimodal dalam iklan TV yang memainkan peranan dalam membangkitkan rasa nostalgia kolektif di kalangan rakyat Malaysia dari pelbagai latar belakang sosio-budaya. Kajian ini turut menunjukkan bahawa nostalgia peribadi, kolektif, sejarah/nasional diperkukuh dalam iklan TV Hari Kebangsaan Malaysia dengan membuat rujukan kepada tarikh, peristiwa, gambar, hubungan insan dan nilai-nilai yang penting dan bermakna kepada semua rakyat Malaysia tanpa mengambil kira faktor etnik, agama atau kepercayaan. Didapati bahawa iklan TV bertema nostalgia yang dikaji berusaha merentasi sempadan etnik dan agama untuk mewujudkan pemikiran kolektif dan semangat kenegaraan di kalangan rakyat Malaysia yang berbilang kaum. Katakunci: Nostalgia; iklan televisyen; multimodal; Malaysia; pelbagai budaya
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Influence of Social Networking on Malaysian Female Secondary Students: A
           Qualitative Study across Three Schools (Pengaruh Rangkaian Sosial ke atas
           Pelajar Sekolah Menengah di Malaysia: Satu Kajian Kualitatif di Tiga Buah

    • Authors: Thang Siew Ming, Noorizah Mohd Noor, Ng Lay Shi, Adzuhaidah Md Taha, Noor Baizura Abdul Aziz
      Abstract: Social networking (SN) allows individuals to make connections with each other for both social and business purposes.  The purpose of this research study is to find out the influence of SN on students from three Malaysian secondary schools by comparing their attitudes and behaviour towards SN besides finding out whether they are aware of the risks and danger involved, and how they handle them. These schools are all normal day schools and are located in three different types of school environments in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur namely: urban, suburban and rural. Focus groups interviews were conducted on these students who were asked to give their response to seven scenarios depicting negative situations involving SN such as texting, cyberbullying, and hacking and identity theft.  The findings revealed that these students were not very different from those in the west in that they are aware of risks involving in SN and will stay clear of risky behaviours.  However, students in these three schools handled the problems related to SN in a more direct manner compared to the elite students in Thang et al.'s (2016) study. In particular, students in School C which is a rural school seemed to be less perturbed over the negative consequences of SN compared to students in the other schools.   Keywords: Malaysian teenagers; cyberbullying; social networking; attitudes; risks ABSTRAKRangkaian Sosial (RS) membolehkan individu berkomunikasi antara satu sama lain untuk tujuan sosial dan perniagaan. Matlamat kertas kajian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh RS ke atas pelajar-pelajar perempuan dari tiga buah sekolah menengah di Malaysia dengan membandingkan sikap dan tingkah laku mereka terhadap RS dan mengetahui sama ada mereka sedar akan risiko dan bahaya yang terlibat disamping bagaimana mereka menanganinya. Sekolah-sekolah ini adalah sekolah harian biasa dan terletak di tiga jenis persekitaran yang berlainan di sekitar Selangor dan Kuala Lumpur iaitu bandar, pinggir bandar dan luar bandar.  Temubual kumpulan fokus dijalankan keatas pelajar-pelajar ini untuk mendapat reaksi mereka terhadap 7 senario yang memaparkan situasi negatif yang melibatkan RS seperti pemesejan teks, buli siber, penggodaman dan kecurian identiti. Dapatan kajian menunjukkan pelajar-pelajar ini tidak begitu berbeza dengan pelajar di negara barat dari segi kesedaran mereka terhadap risiko dan lantas menjauhi dari tingkah laku berisiko. Selain dari itu, didapati pelajar-pelajar ini menangani masalah yang berkaitan dengan RS secara langsung berbanding dengan pelajar di sekolah elit dalam kajian oleh Thang et al. (2016). Pelajar-pelajar Sekolah C, sebuah sekolah luar bandar, seolah-olah tidak peduli dengan kesan negatif RS berbanding dengan pelajar-pelajar lain. Kata kunci: Remaja Malaysia; buli siber; rangkaian sosial; sikap; risiko 
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Aspek Kesejajaran dalam Perbilangan Adat berdasarkan Analisis Stilistik (A
           Stylistic Analysis of Parallelism in Customary Sayings)

    • Authors: Mohammad Fadzeli Jaafar, Idris Aman, Norsimah Mat Awal
      Abstract: Perbilangan adat ialah kalimat berangkap yang disampaikan dalam bentuk puisi.  Sejauh ini telah banyak kajian yang dilakukan tentang perbilangan adat, misalnya dari aspek kesusasteraan dan kebahasaan.  Bagaimanapun, kajian awal ini lebih tertumpu pada pengkategorian perbilangan adat, iaitu teromba atau gurindam.  Kajian kebahasaan pula hanya memberi perhatian pada aspek gaya bahasa dan kesantunan.  Hooykaas dalam kajiannya pernah merumuskan bahawa salah satu aspek yang penting dalam perbilangan ialah kewujudan unsur perulangan dan kesejajaran. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengenal pasti pola dan makna kesejajaran dalam perbilangan.  Peraturan kesejajaran yang dikemukakan oleh Short telah diaplikasi.  Kajian ini akan menggunakan kumpulan perbilangan adat yang disebut sebagai Jelebu Customary Songs and Sayings, yang diterbitkan oleh Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society pada tahun 1918 dan 1965.  Data kajian ini dianalisis berdasarkan tema atau domain, misalnya domain perkahwinan dan jenayah.  Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa kesejajaran dalam perbilangan adat hanya ditemui dalam rangkap.  Pola kesejajaran dalam perbilangan menggunakan struktur perulangan dan kesejajaran.  Dari segi hubungan makna pula, kesejajaran dalam perbilangan adat memperlihatkan hubungan sinonim dan antitetik, iaitu unsur kesejajaran mempunyai makna leksikal yang sama atau kontras.  Ditemui juga bahawa perbilangan cenderung menggunakan leksikal berunsur alam dan kata-kata adat sebagai unsur kesejajaran.  Kajian ini telah menyumbang dari aspek bentuk dan makna kesejajaran dalam perbilangan adat, dan hubungannya dengan sistem Adat Perpatih.Kata kunci: Perbilangan adat; perulangan; kesejajaran sinonim; kesejajaran       antitetik; Adat Perpatih Customary sayings are verses presented in poetry form. There have been countless researches conducted on customary sayings from literary and language perspectives. Those earlier studies for example literary studies on the one hand, tend to focus on the categorization of the customary sayings into teromba or gurindam. Language studies on the other hand, tend to focus on language styles and politeness. Based on his study, Hooykaas concluded that one of the important aspects in sayings is the presence of repetition and parallelism. This study aims to identify the patterns and meanings of parallelism in sayings. Short’s guidelines on parallelism was adopted. This study uses a compilation of customary sayings known as Jelebu Customary Songs and Sayings that was published by Straits Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1918 and 1965. Data were analyzed by theme or domain, such as marriage and the law. Findings from the study show that parallelism in customary sayings are found in the verses only. The parallelism patterns in the sayings display repetition and parallelism structures. In terms of meaning, parallelism in customary sayings exhibits a relationship between synonyms and antithetic because the lexical meaning in parallelism is either similar or contradictory. In addition, it was also discovered that words used in the sayings are words that relate to the universe and words on customs to build the parallel structure. This study has contributed information on forms and meaning of parallelism in customary sayings and its tie to the Adat Perpatih.  Keywords: Customary sayings; repetition; synonym parallelism; antithetic         parallelism; Adat Perpatih
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Mixed-Method Approach on Motivational Orientations of Learning Arabic as a
           Foreign Language in Malaysia (Kaedah Campuran dalam Kajian Orientasi
           Motivasi terhadap Pembelajaran Bahasa Arab sebagai Bahasa Asing di

    • Authors: Ashinida Aladdin
      Abstract: Arabic is always perceived as a language for Muslims specifically Malays in Malaysia because it is a multi-cultural, multi-racial and multi-religion country. The main purpose of this study is to examine the non-Muslim Malaysian learners’ motivational orientations towards learning Arabic as a foreign language in the Malaysian context. A mixed method research approach was adopted in order to answer the research questions in which the instruments of the questionnaire for quantitative data and semi-structured interview were selected for qualitative data collection. The questionnaire was administered to 207 non-Muslim Malaysian learners of Arabic (NMMLAs), while the semi-structured interviews involved 20 respondents. Data from the semi-structured interviews were used to further reinforce the quantitative data collected from the questionnaires, thus providing a deeper understanding and richer representation of the NMMLAs’ orientations for learning Arabic as a foreign language. In determining the underlying orientations toward learning Arabic, the NMMLAs show three types of orientations namely instrumental, intrinsic and integrative. It appears that instrumental orientation is the strongest reason for learning Arabic as the need to fulfil the university requirement. Encouragingly, the NMMLAs show moderate motivation toward both the intrinsic and integrative orientation in learning Arabic. It is hoped that this study provides new insights and perspectives into teaching and learning of the Arabic language to non-Muslim learners in the Malaysian context as well as to offer the teaching of Arabic in a wider context. Keywords: Arabic; foreign language; motivation orientation; mixed-method; Malaysia ABSTRAKBahasa Arab sentiasa dianggap sebagai bahasa untuk orang Islam atau lebih khusus untuk orang Melayu di Malaysia kerana ia adalah sebuah negara berbilang budaya, berbilang kaum dan agama. Objektif utama kajian ini adalah untuk mengkaji orientasi motivasi pelajar Malaysia yang bukan beragama Islam yang mempelajari bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa asing dalam konteks Malaysia. Pendekatan penyelidikan menggunakan kaedah campuran digunakan bagi menjawab persoalan kajian. Instrumen kajian merangkumi soal selidik sebagai instrument pengumpulan data kuantitatif manakala temu bual separa berstruktur merupakan instrumen untuk pengumpulan data secara kualitatif. Soal selidik tersebut diedarkan kepada 207 reponden yang mempelajari bahasa Arab sebagai asing di universiti. Manakala temu bual separa berstruktur melibatkan 20 responden. Data daripada temu bual separa berstruktur telah digunakan bagi mengukuhkan lagi data kuantitatif yang diperolehi daripada soal selidik. Kaedah campuran dipilih untuk kajian ini kerana ia memberi pemahaman yang lebih mendalam kepada kajian yang dijalankan terhadap orientasi motivasi yang dipamerkan oleh responden dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab sebagai bahasa asing. Dapatan kajian mendapati responden menunjukkan tiga jenis orientasi motivasi dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab. Orientasi instrumental merupakan motivasi yang sangat kuat untuk responden mempelajari bahasa Arab iaitu sebagai memenuhi keperluan universiti. Namun, kajian juga mendapati dapatan yang menggalakkan, dimana responden juga menunjukkan motivasi sederhana terhadap orientasi intrinsik dan integratif dalam mempelajari bahasa Arab. Implikasi kajian ini diharapkan agar ianya dapat memberi perspektif baru dalam pengajaran dan pembelajaran bahasa Arab kepada pelajar bukan Islam dalam konteks di Malaysia dan juga untuk konteks yang lebih luas. Kata kunci: Bahasa Arab; bahasa asing; orientasi motivasi; kaedah campuran; Malaysia
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • An Optimality Analysis of Malay Loanwords in Japanese (Analisis Optimaliti
           Kata Pinjaman Bahasa Melayu dalam Bahasa Jepun)

    • Authors: Aznur Aisyah, Zaharani Ahmad
      Abstract: ABSTRACTThis study aimed to examine and explain the phonology of Malay loanwords in Japanese using Optimality Theory. The analysis was based on secondary data extracted from the Senyum magazine published in Malaysia that utilises Japanese language in its writing. The relevant data which was selected manually, was then analysed and explained using a constraints-based approach of Optimality Theory. This article focuses on vowel lengthening and epenthesis repair strategies that occur during the borrowing process from Malay to Japanese. The vowel lengthening repair strategy followed by vowel epenthesis are evoked from the syllable structure of Japanese, particularly the coda condition. The word that ends with /CVC/ (Consonant+ar/or/ur) will be changed to /CV:CV/ (Consonant+ a:ɾɯ/ o:ɾɯ/ ɯ:ɾɯ). This kind of loanword adaptation process will undergo vowel lengthening and the coda consonant will resyllabified as an onset of the following syllable. This study has suggested a set of markedness and faithfulness constraints that are hierarchically ranked in the grammar. The interaction between the constraints has successfully been accounted for the phonology of loanword adaptation in Japanese. The increase in the number of Japanese in Malaysia since the implementation of Malaysia My Second Home programme has led to a wider exposure of Malay words to the Japanese. Therefore, this research will not only benefit linguists, it will also enhance the Malaysian society’s understanding of Japanese pronunciation as it differs from the Malay phonology. It will help to eliminate the confusion that may occur during conversation between Japanese and Malays and vice versa. Keywords:  Japanese phonology, optimality theory, Malay phonology, loanword, coda condition ABSTRAK  Kajian ini bertujuan menghuraikan dan menjelaskan fenomena perubahan fonologi yang berlaku dalam kata pinjaman bahasa Melayu yang diserap masuk ke dalam bahasa Jepun menggunakan kerangka Teori Optimaliti. Sumber kajian ini merupakan data sekunder dari majalah Senyum yang diterbitkan di Malaysia dalam bahasa Jepun. Data yang relevan telah dipilih secara manual dan kemudian dianalisis dan diterangkan berdasarkan pendekatan kekangan dalam teori Optimaliti. Kertas kerja ini memfokuskan mengenai fenomena pemanjangan vokal dan penyisipan yang berlaku semasa proses peminjaman kata bahasa Melayu ke dalam Bahasa Jepun akibat daripada kekangan struktur suku kata khususnya syarat koda. Kata yang diakhiri dengan struktur suku kata /KVK/ (Konsonan+ar/or/ur) akan berubah menjadi /KV:KV/  (Konsonan+ a:ɾɯ/ o:ɾɯ/ ɯ:ɾɯ). Strategi perubahan fonologi ini melibatkan pemanjangan vokal dan konsonan yang berada di posisi koda pula melalui penyukuan semula dengan menjadi onset serta diikuti dengan penyisipan vokal. Kajian ini telah mencadangkan susunan set kekangan kebertandaan dan kesetiaan bagi setiap kes yang dibincangkan. Interaksi antara kekangan-kekangan ini berjaya menangani dan menjelaskan fenomena perubahan fonologi yang berlaku secara teoretis. Peningkatan jumlah masyarakat Jepun di Malaysia sejak program Malaysia My Second Home dilancarkan telah menjadikan orang Jepun lebih terdedah kepada perkataan dalam bahasa Melayu. Oleh yang demikian, kajian ini bukan sahaja memberi manfaat kepada ahli linguistik, tetapi juga kepada masyarakat Malaysia untuk memahami sebutan bahasa Jepun yang didapati berbeza daripada fonologi bahasa Melayu, dan ini dapat mengelakkan daripada berlakunya kekeliruan semasa berkomunikasi diantara orang Melayu dan orang Jepun dan sebaliknya. Kata kunci: Fonologi bahasa Jepun; teori optimaliti; fonologi bahasa Melayu; kata pinjaman; syarat koda 
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • The Alienated Clara: Intersectionality Perspectives in Adrienne
           Kennedy's The Owl Answers (Clara Yang Terpinggir: Perspektif
           Intersektionaliti di dalam Drama Adrienne Kennedy The Owl Answers)

    • Authors: Latifah Ismaeel Jabboury, Ruzy Suliza Hashim, Anita Harris Satkunananthan
      Abstract: Critical works on Adrienne Kennedy’s The Owl Answers have been limited to the domains of surrealism and to the frame of literary criticism which situate Clara, the protagonist of The Owl Answers within a psychological context. Many critics find that the play is a portrait of a black woman who is searching for home and belonging in a world of discrimination and inequality. Clara is often regarded as a mixed-raced woman of fragmented psyche who remains confused about her identity. Within the perspective of intersectionality, however, we contend that the study of Clara’s character acquires new dimensions of analysis. This article addresses Clara’s alienation within the scope of three intersectional categories of her identity: race, gender and hybridity. Although she couldn’t hide her blackness, Clara tries her best to identify with her father’s white legacy, but all her efforts have been futile. As she recognizes that she has no hope at all to belong to this legacy, she feels entirely frustrated. The tragic outcome of The Owl Answers owes to psychological trauma experienced by Clara. We interrogate the overlapping oppressions endured by Clara through a study of how these three interlocking categories combine to shape her alienation right up to the point where it causes her to take her own life. Keywords: Clara; The Owl Answers; alienation; Adrienne Kennedy; intersectionality ABSTRAKPenulisan kritis mengenai drama Adrienne Kennedy The Owl Answers sebelum ini terhad kepada domain-domain surrealisme serta rangka analisis kesusasteraan yang menghadkan Clara, watak utama The Owl Answers kepada pemahaman konteks psikologi. Ramai penganalisis berpendapat bahawa drama ini menggambarkan potret seorang wanita Afrika-Amerika yang mencari tempat di mana beliau tidak terpinggir di dalam dunia yang penuh diskriminasi dan ketidakadilan. Clara kerapkali diperlihatkan sebagai seorang wanita kacukan yang mempunyai ketidakpastian mengenai identitinya sendiri, dan ini menyebabkan ia mengalami pergolakan jiwa. Namun demikian, apabila peribadi Clara dianalisa daripada perspektif intersektionaliti, dimensi-dimensi baru peribadi beliau dapat diketengahkan. Berikutan daripada tujahan argumen ini, artikel ini mempertengahkan peminggiran Clara melalui skop tiga kategori intersektionaliti: bangsa, gender dan hibriditi. Analisa artikel ini bertujuan mempersoal serta menyerlahkan penganiayaan yang dialami oleh Clara dengan mengkaji bagaimana ketiga-tiga kategori interseksionaliti yang bertindihan telah membentuk peminggiran yang dialaminya. Untuk mencapai tujuan ini, artikel ini menggarap kaedah teoretikal interseksional untuk mengkaji dimensi peminggiran yang dialami oleh wanita-wanita kacukan Amerika-Afrika seperti yang terserlah di dalam drama ini. Kata Kunci: Clara; The Owl Answers; peminggiran; Adrienne Kennedy; interseksionaliti
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Power, Dominance and Homosocial Solidarity in Young Men’s Cyber Talk
           (Kuasa, Dominasi dan Perpaduan Homososial dalam Interaksi Siber Remaja

    • Authors: Azianura Hani Shaari, Shahrul Nazmi Sannusi
      Abstract: Men and women speak differently as their linguistic behavior reflects their gender identity and signifies their position in the society. This article discusses the conversational style of men in the online communication environment, using the Kiesling’s framework of men’s language. A documentation of naturally occurring conversations on Facebook was made over a 12-month period whereby data is categorized and analysed using Content Analysis, WordSmith Tools 5.0 and MS Word Advanced Find Function. Purposive sampling was employed in selecting the participants. The sample consisted of 60 males and 60 females to allow for comparison. Language produced by the male participants, however, remained as the central issue of the analysis as well as discussion. If Kiesling’s framework discusses men’s language from the western sociocultural perspectives, findings of the present research indicated a list of variables of men’s discourse in the specific context of the Malaysian online communication environment. Apart from that, the findings have demonstrated some culturally-embedded elements of power, dominance, and homosocial solidarity as well as a strong use of masculine speech forms in this specific context of male’s interaction. Finally, the findings have also suggested some significant aspects of men’s discourse in the specific context of the Malaysian online communication environment. Keywords: Power; dominance; homosocial solidarity; men’s language; online communication environment      Abstrak Lelaki dan wanita bertutur secara berbeza disebabkan tingkah laku bahasa yang mencerminkan identiti jantina dan menandakan kedudukan mereka dalam masyarakat. Kertas kerja ini membincangkan tentang gaya perbualan lelaki dalam persekitaran komunikasi dalam talian di Malaysia. Dapatan kajian dianalisis dengan menggunakan kerangka bahasa lelaki yang disarankan oleh Kiesling. Dokumentasi perbualan yang berlaku secara semula jadi di Facebook telah dibuat dalam tempoh 12 bulan di mana data dikategorikan dan dianalisis menggunakan kaedah analisis kandungan, WordSmith Tools 5.0 dan MS Word Advanced Find Function. Kaedah persampelan bertujuan telah digunakan dalam memilih peserta. Sampel kajian terdiri daripada 60 lelaki dan 60 perempuan untuk tujuan perbandingan. Bagaimanapun, bahasa yang dihasilkan oleh peserta remaja lelaki kekal sebagai isu utama analisis serta perbincangan. Jika rangka kerja Kiesling ini membincangkan bahasa kaum lelaki daripada perspektif sosial and budaya barat, hasil kajian ini menunjukkan senarai pembolehubah wacana remaja lelaki dalam konteks persekitaran komunikasi dalam talian di Malaysia. Selain itu, hasil kajian telah menunjukkan beberapa elemen budaya terpendam seperti kuasa, dominasi dan perpaduan homososial serta penggunaan perkataan maskulin dalam interaksi khusus kaum remaja lelaki di Malaysia. Akhir sekali, dapatan kajian ini juga telah mencadangkan beberapa pembolehubah penting wacana remaja lelaki dalam konteks persekitaran komunikasi dalam talian di Malaysia. Kata kunci: Kuasa; dominasi; perpaduan homososial; bahasa remaja lelaki; interaksi atas talian
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Migrasi dan Keselamatan (Migration and Security)

    • Authors: Aini Fatihah Roslam, Firdaus Misran
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
  • Malay Poisons and Charm Cures

    • Authors: Puteh Noraihan A Rahman
      PubDate: 2017-05-02
      Issue No: Vol. 87, No. 1 (2017)
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
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