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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3080 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (90 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (261 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1139 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (24 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (158 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (176 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (13 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (93 journals)
    - INSURANCE (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (126 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (82 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (27 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (43 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (15 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (522 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (86 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (25 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (137 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (34 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1139 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 126)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 318)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Decision Sciences
  [SJR: 1.586]   [H-I: 82]   [15 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0011-7315 - ISSN (Online) 1540-5915
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1583 journals]
  • Responding to Shipment Delays: The Roles of Operational Flexibility &
           Lead-Time Visibility
    • Authors: Aditya Jain
      Abstract: We consider inventory management of a firm that orders periodically from a distantly located supplier and faces random delays in shipment. We analyze various response strategies that the firm may employ to mitigate the risk of demand–supply mismatch resulting from shipment delays. We categorize these strategies along two dimensions: operational flexibility, defined by the flexible resource employed; and lead-time visibility, defined by the availability of information on shipment delays. For each of the response strategies, we provide analytical characterization of the optimal inventory policy. By comparing the optimal policies across response strategies, we offer insights into the effect of operational flexibility and lead-time visibility on firm's inventory performance. Using an extensive set of numerically solved examples, we provide cost comparison across these strategies—we show that while the operational flexibility mitigates the adverse effect of long lead-times, the lead-time visibility provides protection from lead-time uncertainty. Further, operational flexibility and lead-time visibility enhance each other's values, hence must be employed together to gain their full benefits.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T01:24:34.169862-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12272
       
  • Optimal Pricing and Replenishment of an Expiring Inventoried Product under
           Heterogeneous Consumer Sensitivities
    • Authors: Avi Herbon
      Abstract: Efficient pricing and replenishment decisions have the potential to yield significant increase in revenues. A widespread assumption in existing models of expiring inventories is that consumers are homogeneous in their sensitivities towards the factors that influence demand. Yet, there are numerous scenarios in which consumers may vary in terms of their sensitivities. In addition, most of the current literature addresses expiring inventories for which the perceived quality deteriorates over time, while models of perishables for which the quality remains stable over time (e.g., electronic devices) or increases (e.g., green bananas, or wine) have rarely been suggested. We analytically analyze a joint pricing and replenishment optimization model that aims to maximize the retailer's profit and is general enough to consider these three types of expiring inventories, as well as heterogeneity in consumer sensitivities. In particular, our model considers the effects of remaining shelf-life, price and perceived quality on demand. We obtain the optimal price given any cycle length and derive the FOC (first order condition) for obtaining the optimal cycle length. By numerical study, we show that the seller might gain significant profits in cases where consumers are highly heterogeneous either in their sensitivity to price or in their sensitivity to perceived quality. In contrast, the results indicate that the seller might lose significant profits (up to 16%) when consumers are highly heterogeneous in their sensitivity to expiration. Unexpectedly, the optimal price consumers pay is, in general, only moderately affected by the heterogeneity in consumer sensitivity.
      PubDate: 2017-05-12T00:24:03.556898-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12276
       
  • Return Time Leniency in Online Retail: A Signaling Theory Perspective on
           Buying Outcomes
    • Authors: Shashank Rao; Kang Bok Lee, Brian Connelly, Deepak Iyengar
      Abstract: Merchandise return policies (MRPs) have long been an important area of interest for operations and supply chain management researchers, who have identified some key advantages and disadvantages of offering comprehensive and convenient return policies. However, there is a lack of rigorous scholarship on one key dimension of MRPs—return time leniency. Understood as the amount of time that buyers have within which to return purchased items, return time leniency is often considered one of the leading indicators of a retailer's MRP friendliness. In the current study, we extend prior work on MRPs by introducing a signaling theory perspective to return time leniency. This allows us to develop a more nuanced interpretation of the underlying economics associated with extending the window of time during which returns are accepted. We do so by positioning our study in a retail context where such issues are highly important to consumers—online retail.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05T02:50:26.948211-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12275
       
  • On Academic Rankings, Unacceptable Methods, and the Social Obligations of
           Business Schools
    • Authors: Daniel G. Bachrach; Elliot Bendoly, Danielle Beu Ammeter, Richard Blackburn, Kenneth G. Brown, Gerry Burke, Ty Callahan, Kay Yut Chen, Vikki Haag Day, Alan E. Ellstrand, O. Homer Erekson, Jaime Alonso Gomez, Tim Greenlee, Rob Handfield, Martha L. Loudder, Manoj Malhotra, Kathy Ruby Petroni, Alex Sevilla, Scott Shafer, Margaret Shih, Doug Voss
      Abstract: Inspired by recent discussions of the systematic costs that external rankings impose on academic institutions, and the undeniable shifts in the landscape of institutional data, a concerted and pragmatic re-evaluation of ranking efforts has begun. In this study, multiple administrators and researchers representing both public and private institutions across the United States weigh in on these issues. While reaffirming the social contract we hold with society, we argue that the fundamental methodological shortcomings of existing rankings, and ultimately any ordinal ranking system, limit the value of current rankings. These shortcomings emerge from the conceptualization and the architecture of comparisons, and are evident in survey designs, data collection methods, and data aggregation procedures. Our discussion continues by outlining the minimal requirements that a socially responsible, transparent, flexible, and highly representative rating (vs. ranking) approach should employ. Ultimately, we call on academic institutions and organizing bodies to take a collective stand against existing rankings and to embrace the strategic use of multidimensional alternatives that faithfully serve prospective students, parents, and other key stakeholders. We conclude with a number of suggestions and opportunities for practice-oriented research in the decision sciences aimed to support this fundamental shift in evaluative framing.
      PubDate: 2017-04-25T06:06:26.780374-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12274
       
  • How Unequal Perceptions of User Reviews Impact Price Competition
    • Authors: Pelin Pekgün; Michael R. Galbreth, Bikram P. Ghosh
      Abstract: When a consumer cannot fully assess her valuations of competing products prior to purchase, she must make a purchase decision based on imperfect product information. However, with the advent of online channels for widely disseminating individual user reviews, consumers are now able to learn from the experiences of others and update their expectations regarding product valuations. We analyze the interaction of user reviews and experience uncertainty, with a specific focus on the potential for negative and positive reviews to be weighted differently in a consumer's assessment of the valence of the posted reviews. We find that overweighting of negative reviews by consumers can lead to surprising results in terms of pricing and profits in a competitive context. In particular, if consumer awareness is higher for the lower quality product, it can charge higher prices and realize higher profits in equilibrium than its higher quality competitor when consumers are strongly influenced by negative reviews. We also show that a higher weighting on positive reviews by consumers always helps the firm with a lower consumer awareness. 
      PubDate: 2017-04-20T06:51:09.525835-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12273
       
  • The Impact of Decision Types on Revenue Management Decisions: An
           Experimental Study
    • Authors: Ayşe Kocabıyıkoğlu; Celile Itır Göğüş, Mert Hakan Hekimoğlu
      Abstract: In the standard two-class revenue management model, the decision maker allocates a fixed resource between two customer classes with hierarchical prices and uncertain demand. The normative (i.e., expected revenue-maximizing) allocation is given by Littlewood's Rule, but little is known about how decision makers actually form these decisions. We report results of an experimental study that investigates revenue management decision-making. We find that subjects' behavior is influenced by the decision type. In particular, our subjects reserve more units for the high-end segment when they are asked to set the protection level (the number of units to set aside for the higher priced class) compared to when they set the booking limit (the number of units available for the lower priced class). We propose that this behavioral pattern can be explained by our subjects’ different valuations of revenues from the high- and low-end sales. We also observe that when there is a change in segment prices, although decision makers adjust allocations in the direction suggested by normative theory, the magnitude of adjustments is greater (and hence closer to the normative level) when the source of the price change matches the class whose allocation they determine.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T06:05:37.140551-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12270
       
  • Conceptualizing Wise Management Decision-Making: A Grounded Theory
           Approach
    • Authors: Ali Intezari; David J. Pauleen
      Abstract: This article investigates the role of wisdom in management decision-making. In one of the first empirical studies investigating wisdom and management, 37 CEOs, top managers, and senior executives were interviewed about their perspectives on the concept of wisdom in the business context and its role in management decision-making; the data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The findings introduce a grounded construct of Wise Management Decision-making, in which wise decision-making is understood as an integrated cogni-emotional, reflective process that accounts for internal and external conditions related to the decision, which is made with the well-being of the greatest number of stakeholders in mind. The findings both confirm and challenge previous conceptual studies of wisdom and provide a practical approach to wise management decision-making. The implications of this study are significant as they broaden the view of the practicability of wisdom in management and add greater understanding of the complex nature of decision-making in the business context. For managers, developing wise decision-making abilities in situ should be considered an integrated and multidimensional practice, one that can be learned.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T22:00:31.839643-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12267
       
  • Competition under Diseconomies of Scale: The Role of Subcontracting and
           Single-Sourcing Commitment
    • Authors: Lusheng Shao
      Abstract: This article studies a supplier competition model in situations with flexible resources where suppliers face diseconomies of scale. Under such a situation, it is generally believed that a buyer may split an order across different suppliers; and even if the buyer chooses only one supplier, the winning supplier may subcontract part of the work to the others. My results, however, show that the buyer always prefers to commit to single-sourcing prior to running a procurement auction. This is because such commitment eliminates the “assurance” of getting a positive order from the buyer, thus intensifying supplier competition. I also find that subcontracting may be beneficial (detrimental) to the buyer if the subcontract is determined by the winning (losing) supplier of the bidding game. Finally, I show that, for the case with linear costs, the buyer is always better off when subcontracting is considered.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T20:40:41.673199-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12268
       
  • Leadership, Dominance, and Preeminence in a Channel Structure with a
           Common Retailer
    • Authors: Fang Fang; Haresh Gurnani, Harihara Prasad Natarajan
      Abstract: As firms embrace collaborative principles, partners of varying strengths and standing are coming together to deliver products effectively to consumers. In a two-tier collaborative channel, a partner's relative standing is manifest in the order in which wholesale and retail prices are determined; in turn, standing influences a partner's ability to achieve profits. We propose a framework, based on two factors that specify the strength of partners across channel tiers (channel leadership) and within a tier (echelon dominance) and together determine a partner's standing in the pricing process, to effectively study various channel strength scenarios. Our analysis of Stackelberg games corresponding to these scenarios reveals interesting insights regarding the impact of channel leadership and echelon dominance, both individually and jointly. For instance, we show that the presence of a dominant player in the upstream manufacturing tier benefits both the dominant and the weak manufacturers. The leadership-dominance framework also allows us to study the effect of a retailer's sequencing of its pricing of the two manufacturers’ products. By embedding the retailer's timing choices in channel strength scenarios, we find that both retailer and weak manufacturer prefer that the retailer set prices for the two products simultaneously; in contrast, the echelon-dominant manufacturer benefits from the retailer sequentially pricing the manufacturers’ products. Our analysis also covers preeminent channel leaders that control both wholesale and retail prices, finding that preeminent partners achieve significant gains and consumers benefit from low retail prices. Moreover, the weak manufacturer benefits from the presence of a preeminent manufacturer.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T01:46:05.431072-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12266
       
  • Contract Design with Information Asymmetry in a Supply Chain under an
           Emissions Trading Mechanism
    • Authors: Xin Ma; William Ho, Ping Ji, Srinivas Talluri
      Abstract: We aim to design an appropriate sourcing mechanism with information asymmetry in a supply chain with one manufacturer and multiple suppliers subject to an emissions trading scheme. The manufacturer purchases raw materials from suppliers, who hold private information regarding the green degree—that is, the unit emission rates—of their raw materials. An appropriate strategy must be adopted by the manufacturer for the contract design, including a series of payments and the order quantities; the suppliers are subsequently invited to bid for the contracts. The basic model is formulated to assist the manufacturer in designing a reasonable contract for a single supplier. The characteristics of the optimal order quantity and payoff functions of both the manufacturer and supplier are analyzed. A competitive procurement scenario with multiple suppliers is also discussed. With respect to the diversity of auctions, three different auction types are analyzed, including a green degree auction, a price auction with emissions targets, and a performance-based auction. In addition, an efficient emissions trading policy is established to guide manufacturers regarding how to balance their emission allowances based on the optimal order quantities. Our approach provides an effective decision support system for both the manufacturer and suppliers.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T03:50:37.027107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12265
       
  • ISSUE INFORMATION
    • Pages: 201 - 203
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:03:59.203132-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12248
       
  • IN THIS ISSUE
    • Pages: 204 - 206
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:03:57.886506-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12271
       
  • “Do as I Do and Not as I Say”: Exploring Price-Oriented Maverick
           Buying During Supplier Selection
    • Authors: Marc A. Scott; Gerard Burke, Joseph Szmerekovsky
      Abstract: This article empirically examines the occurrence of price-oriented maverick buying (MB) during supplier selection, in a direct purchasing process context. Drawing on agency theory, maverick buying, and total cost of ownership (TCO) literature, the statistically significant existence of price-oriented MB is investigated and the purchasing manager (PM)-related factors that influence such noncompliant behavior are determined. A discrete choice experiment is designed to simulate a TCO-based supplier selection process in which an established purchasing framework agreement stipulates PMs not necessarily be price-oriented (i.e., select suppliers primarily based on lowest price), and then models PM choice behavior in the supplier selection process (SSP), utilizing a conditional logit model (CLM) to determine PM compliance to the established purchasing framework agreement and identify if price-oriented MB exists. Statistical tests utilizing comprehensive primary and secondary data are then conducted to determine if correlational relationships exist between PM-related factors and PM price-orientation. Results indicate that three PM-related factors bear a significant correlational relationship to PM price-orientation.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T06:20:34.40773-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12262
       
  • Inventory-Related Compensation in Decentralized Organizations
    • Authors: Barbara Schöndube-Pirchegger; Guido Voigt
      Abstract: We consider a principal agent problem in a decentralized organization. The agent holds private precontracting information with respect to an uncertain demand in a single period setting. Being head of a profit center, his only task is to determine the optimal order quantity. We show that using a profit share as the only performance measure to incentivize the agent creates agency costs. In fact, offering a menu of profit-sharing contracts to the agent to pick from, requires rent payments to motivate the agent to always choose the desired contract. This result still holds if a fixed payment is added. Using an inventory-related component as a third measure, however, allows to solve the agency problem and to achieve first best outcomes. Precisely, each contract needs to specify a bonus or a penalty conditioned on the inventory level at the end of the selling season combined with a profit share and a fixed pay. The paper not only demonstrates that first best can be achieved in the described setting, it also provides a theoretical explanation for the observed practice of using inventory-related compensation elements, such as service-level agreements, in organizations.
      PubDate: 2016-12-29T05:56:05.960273-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12261
       
  • Simulation-Based Optimization of Capacitated Assembly Systems under
           Beta-Service Level Constraints
    • Authors: Stefan Woerner; Marco Laumanns, Stephan M. Wagner
      Abstract: We study a class of capacitated assembly systems operated by base-stock policies and address the problem of finding base-stock levels that minimize holding costs under beta-service level (fill rate) constraints over an infinite horizon. To solve this nonconvex constrained optimization problem, we develop a new simulation-based optimization approach using the constrained level method (CLM) and infinitesimal perturbation analysis. The key idea of the algorithm is a novel family of convex approximations of the beta-service level, which is iteratively refined during the course of the algorithm. The algorithm can easily handle integrality requirements for the base-stock levels by combining the CLM with a cutting plane approach without significantly increasing the solution time on typical instances. We apply our approach to a comprehensive multi-echelon assembly benchmark system from the literature and study the algorithm's behavior for different target service levels, capacity configurations, and simulation horizons. A comparison with a state-of-the-art interior point algorithm shows that for realistic capacity constraints, our algorithm is on average 8%–20% better. Compared with the guaranteed service model, our approach reduces costs by 10%–15% while keeping the same service level.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22T01:05:40.790805-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12260
       
  • Can Service Climate Detract from Employee Performance? The Role of
           Experience in Optimizing Satisfaction and Performance Outcomes
    • Authors: Colin B. Gabler; Adam Rapp, Robert Glenn Richey, Frank G. Adams
      Abstract: In this research, we test the curvilinear relationships between service climate perceptions and two employee performance outcomes. Specifically, we propose that while service climate can be beneficial, high levels can actually be detrimental to customer satisfaction and sales performance. Additionally, we propose that a global assessment of employee experience that captures knowledge, skills, and abilities, or KSAs, moderates these curvilinear relationships by providing a means to balance outcome goals. We test our theory using data obtained from 312 employees in a service setting, which we pair with their managers’ assessments of their sales performance as well as satisfaction ratings from their customers. Our results reveal two things: (1) an inverted U-shaped relationship between service climate and sales performance and (2) the level of experience moderates the relationship. These findings suggest that more experienced employees are better able to adjust behaviors to achieve high levels of performance than less experienced employees. Based on these results, we offer theoretical implications and applications for managerial practice.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T01:25:57.086504-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12256
       
  • Centralized versus Decentralized Competition for Price and Lead-Time
           Sensitive Demand
    • Authors: Pelin Pekgün; Paul M. Griffin, Pınar Keskinocak
      Abstract: We study two firms that compete on price and lead-time decisions in a common market. We explore the impact of decentralizing these decisions, as made by the marketing and production departments, respectively, with either marketing or production as the leader. We compare scenarios in which none, one, or both of the firms are decentralized to see whether decentralization can be the equilibrium strategy. We find that under intense price competition, with intensity characterized by the underlying parameters of market demand, firms may suffer from a decentralized structure, particularly under high flexibility induced by high capacity, where revenue-based sales incentives motivate sales/marketing to make aggressive price cuts that often erode profit margins. In contrast, under intense lead-time competition, a decentralized strategy with marketing as the leader can not only result in significantly higher profits, but also be the equilibrium strategy. Moreover, decentralization may no longer lead to lower prices or longer lead-times if the production department chooses capacity along with lead-time. 
      PubDate: 2016-11-12T03:10:43.922361-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12259
       
  • Who Cares About Your Big Day? Impact of Life Events on Dynamics of
           Social Networks
    • Authors: Arati Srinivasan; Hong Guo, Sarv Devaraj
      Abstract: With online social networking having revolutionized the way in which individuals communicate and interact with each other, there is heightened research interest in the dynamics of social networks. This article seeks to contribute to this stream of research by addressing the key question of the impact of major life events, such as getting married or graduating from college, on social network evolution. Consistent with prior studies on the evolution of individuals’ social networks, we specifically focus on two key attributes of an individual's network: indegree of ties and relational embeddedness. By longitudinally analyzing the network activities of a large-scale online social network, we find that the indegree of ties increased significantly following a major life event, and that this impact was stronger for more active users in the network. Interestingly, we also find that the broadcast of major life events served to revive dormant ties as reflected by a decrease in embeddedness following a life event. We also found that one-time life events such as weddings had a greater impact than recurring life events such as birthdays on the evolution of a user's social network. From a research perspective, our study contributes to existing research by focusing on a user's communication network as opposed to friendship network and by emphasizing how exogenous life events add a different dimension to user communication patterns. The importance of life events on social network evolution has important implications for practice as well by providing insights to advertisers as well as to social networking sites.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T01:59:28.835375-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12255
       
  • Innovativeness as an Unintended Outcome of Franchising: Insights from
           Restaurant Chains
    • Authors: Girish Mallapragada; Raji Srinivasan
      Abstract: A growing trend in improving innovation outcomes is to go outside the firm's boundaries. One mechanism by which firms extend organizational boundaries is through franchising their channels. Yet, the effects of franchising on innovation outcomes have been overlooked in the literature. We propose that a firm's emphasis on franchising will affect its organizational innovativeness, conceptualized as product and process innovativeness, independently and with other firm characteristics—franchising experience, firm size, financial leverage, and slack resources. We find support for our hypotheses using a nonlinear seemingly unrelated regression model estimated using panel data from 38 U.S. restaurant chains between 1992 and 2005. The positive effect of the emphasis on franchising on product innovativeness is stronger for firms with high financial leverage, but weaker for firms with high slack resources. For process innovativeness, the effect is stronger for firms with high financial leverage but weaker for large firms, and for firms with high franchising experience and high slack resources. The findings indicate that a firm's emphasis on franchising has contingent effects on product and process innovation outcomes. Thus, franchising emerges as a competing mechanism (to alliances and joint ventures) that extends organizational boundaries and affects organizational innovativeness.
      PubDate: 2016-11-02T01:46:06.293432-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12258
       
  • Strategic Revenue Sharing with Daily Deal Sites: A Competitive Analysis
    • Authors: Pradeep Bhardwaj; S. Sajeesh
      Abstract: Promoting through daily deal sites has become popular in the past few years. Groupon is perhaps the best known provider of these promotions (also known as online discount vouchers) to customers. Daily deals differ from traditional coupons on three important dimensions: (i) They are not offered to consumers directly by firms but are offered through an intermediary, (ii) the promotional depth offered by these localized promotions tends to be higher, and (iii) consumers prepay for the discount vouchers, and then the daily deals site reimburses the retailer a prespecified negotiated percentage of each paid voucher. In this study, we build a theoretical model to explore the profitability of undertaking a daily deals campaign by firms. Our analysis identifies the role of types of consumers in the market, relative bargaining power of the local firms, revenue sharing agreements, and market characteristics, such as degree of product substitutability and extent of competition, on the profitability attained through daily deal promotions. Surprisingly, when demand spillovers exist, an asymmetric outcome, with one firm offering an online discount voucher and the competing firm not offering an online discount voucher, is an equilibrium under some conditions. 
      PubDate: 2016-09-30T08:18:22.704949-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12253
       
  • Designing Products for Adaptability: Insights from Four Industrial Cases
    • Authors: Avner Engel; Tyson R. Browning, Yoram Reich
      Abstract: Developing products that are more easily adaptable to future requirements can increase their overall value. Product adaptability is largely determined by choices about product architecture, especially modularity. Because it is possible to be too modular and/or inappropriately modular, deciding how and where to be modular in a cost-effective way is an important managerial decision. In this article, we gather data from four case studies to model effects of firms’ product architecture decisions at the component level. We optimize an architecture adaptability value (AAV) measure that accounts for both the benefits of more architecture options and the costs of interfaces. The optimal architecture prompted each firm to rearchitect an existing product to increase its expected future profitability. Several insights emerged from the case evidence during this research. (i) Although decomposing an architecture into an increasing number of modules increases product adaptability, the amount of modularity is an insufficient predictor of the adaptability value of a system. AAV, which also accounts for interface costs, provides an improved measure of appropriate modularity. (ii) Managers can influence the path of architectural evolution in the direction of increased value. This influence may diminish but does not disappear as products become more mature. Also, modularity and innovations coevolved, as the new modularizations suggested by AAV optimization prompted and guided searches for further innovations. (iii) When presented with the concepts of options, interface costs, and AAV, the firms’ designers and managers were initially skeptical. However, in each case, the modelers were able to rearchitect an actual product not only with increased AAV by our model (theoretical improvement) but also with actual future benefits for their firm. Postproject reports from each firm confirmed that the AAV modeling and optimization approaches were indeed helpful, equipping them to increase the adaptability, cost-efficiency, lifespan, and overall value of actual products. The evidence suggests that firms can benefit from designing products for adaptability, but that how they do so matters. This study expands our understanding of modularity and adaptability by illuminating managerial decisions and insights about appropriate approaches to each.
      PubDate: 2016-09-28T03:36:39.048691-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12254
       
  • Stages of Supply Chain Disruption Response: Direct, Constraining, and
           Mediating Factors for Impact Mitigation
    • Authors: Christoph Bode; John R. Macdonald
      Abstract: It is well established that supply chain disruptions can have a severe negative impact on firms and general wisdom suggests that this impact can be mitigated by quick responses. Aside from a few anecdotes, however, little is known about the decision-making process that leads to speedy responses and about its impeding and supporting antecedents. Using the organizational information-processing perspective, this empirical study unravels the disruption management process along a sequence of four stages—disruption recognition, disruption diagnosis, response development, and response implementation—and hypothesizes constraining and mediating effects of these stages. The findings contribute to an improved understanding of the role that the decision stages play in mitigating supply chain disruptions, and confirm the prediction that the speed with which information is processed and the stages are worked through positively affects supply chain performance. In addition, the findings suggest that one of the stages, diagnosis, acts as a constraining factor to the other stages. The stages also play a mediating role between the impact that the disruption has and a firm's readiness (prior to a disruption), dependence on a key supplier, and supply chain complexity. This provides guidance to decision makers in the application of resources both prior to a negative event and during a disruption recovery.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T21:10:25.075995-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12245
       
  • The Impact of Product Returns and Retailer's Service Investment on
           Manufacturer's Channel Strategies*
    • Authors: Yusen Xia; Tiaojun Xiao, G. Peter Zhang
      Abstract: We study the distribution channel decision of a manufacturer who considers whether to add an online channel (direct channel) to its brick-and-mortar retailer (indirect channel). The retailer faces the opportunity to invest in store assistance to help consumers choose products and thus reduce product returns. Special attention is given to the impact of product returns and retailer's store assistance investment on manufacturer's dual channel decision. We examine conditions under which the manufacturer uses dual channels and how various relevant factors affect its channel decision under two settings, depending on whether the retailer has its own online store or not. When the retailer does not have its online store, we find that (i) the addition of the direct channel raises the wholesale price; (ii) the direct channel addition hurts the retailer if the nonreplacement rate is low; (iii) the manufacturer has a lower incentive to add the direct channel when the retailer's service cost is lower or its returns reduction rate from service investment is higher; and (iv) the manufacturer should treat its own returns handling cost as a key factor in its channel structure decision. In addition, when the retailer operates an online store, we find that the manufacturer may have an incentive to add a direct channel such that both firms own direct channels.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T03:25:49.637401-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12241
       
  • Integrating Social Network Effects in the Share-Of-Choice Problem
    • Authors: Dilek Gunnec; S. Raghavan
      Abstract: Accounting for social network effects in marketing strategies has become an important issue. Taking a step back, we seek to incorporate and analyze social network effects on new product development and then propose a model to engineer product diffusion over a social network. We build upon the share-of-choice (SOC) problem, which is a strategic combinatorial optimization problem used commonly as one of the methods to analyze conjoint analysis data by marketers in order to identify a product with largest market share, and show how to incorporate social network effects in the SOC problem. We construct a genetic algorithm to solve this computationally challenging (NP-Hard) problem and show that ignoring social network effects in the design phase results in a significantly lower market share for a product. In this setting, we introduce the secondary operational problem of determining the least expensive way of influencing individuals and strengthening product diffusion over a social network. This secondary problem is of independent interest, as it addresses contagion models and the issue of intervening in diffusion over a social network, which are of significant interest in marketing and epidemiological settings.
      PubDate: 2016-09-09T03:25:39.353077-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12246
       
  • Selling Finite Capacity in Bulks*
    • Authors: Amit Eynan; Chakravarthi Narasimhan
      Abstract: We consider a firm that owns a limited capacity for the delivery of services or for the production of customized products. Potential buyers specify the amount of capacity they will require for the execution of their intended services, goods or projects. Based on the size of the requirement, the firm makes a bid while being challenged in various ways: (1) it only knows the underlying probability function from which its customers’ reservation prices are drawn, (2) arrival of additional future requests is stochastic, and, (3) the firm knows in advance neither the magnitude of these potential requests nor the buyer's reservation price. The firm aims to maximize its expected profit by choosing its pricing mechanism.The fact that capacity is demanded in varying amounts distinguishes this problem from most available literature in which standard sizes are sold or partial fulfillment and displacement are permitted. Lacking such allowances presents a new challenge to the firm as in conjunction with pricing it should also address the issue of various sizes requests’ compatibility to achieve optimal utilization of its capacity in order to maximize expected profit. In this article, we consider two approaches of handling this problem: myopic and foresighted. We formulate and analyze the problem to obtain the firm's optimal bidding decisions as well as managerial insight about the optimal bid level and its important role in coordinating buyers’ requests. Furthermore, due to this role, pricing patterns in this environment are different than those in standard unit sales.
      PubDate: 2016-09-07T06:10:38.041188-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12240
       
  • Competition with Asymmetric Experience Uncertainty
    • Authors: Michael R. Galbreth; Bikram Ghosh
      Abstract: The value of an experience good is idiosyncratic to consumers and is not fully realized until after a purchase is made. This uncertainty related to experience, or “experience uncertainty,” has been shown in prior research to have important implications in a competitive context. In this article, we consider two firms that are asymmetric along two dimensions—base quality and the distribution of experience uncertainty. The interaction of these asymmetries shapes consumer demand and thus is an important driver of the equilibrium strategies of competing firms. We show that an increase in the experience uncertainty of one competitor might in fact lead to higher profits for both firms, including the firm whose product has become less certain to consumers. These unexpected results can be understood by examining how experience uncertainty drives endogenous market segmentation and price elasticity. We provide simple conditions under which more experience uncertainty can increase the profits of both competing firms.
      PubDate: 2016-08-29T22:45:39.265207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12244
       
  • Exploring the Effects of the Privacy-Handling Management Styles of Social
           Networking Sites on User Satisfaction: A Conflict Management Perspective
    • Authors: Jie Zhang; Han Li, Xin Luo, Merrill Warkentin
      Abstract: The issue of consumer information privacy, arguably the most substantial and persistent problem confronting e-commerce companies in general and online social networking service providers in particular, often results in unsatisfied customers. Researchers have investigated privacy from various perspectives and in a multitude of settings, yet there have been few attempts to understand privacy versus satisfaction, particularly from the perspective of conflict management. Because users’ privacy can be negatively affected by social networking sites (SNS), this study focuses on the privacy conflicts between SNSs and their users. Drawing on conflict management theory, this article investigates the effects of different conflict management styles exhibited by an SNS on users’ satisfaction with its privacy practices, which then affects their intention to disclose personal information. The SNS examined in this study is Facebook, the most popular SNS with the largest number of users. Data were collected using an online survey and were analyzed using structural equation modeling. The results suggest that the two cooperative conflict management styles demonstrated by the SNS—accommodating and problem-solving—positively affect users’ satisfaction with the privacy practices of the SNS both directly and indirectly through perceived privacy risk control. With regard to uncooperative styles, an avoiding style negatively affects user satisfaction directly, whereas an asserting style negatively affects user satisfaction indirectly through perceived privacy risk. The results also support that satisfaction is positively related to intention; users who are satisfied with the privacy practices of SNSs are more willing to disclose personal information than unsatisfied ones.
      PubDate: 2016-08-23T01:10:41.738452-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12243
       
  • Bundling of Vertically Differentiated Products in a Supply Chain*
    • Authors: Minghui Ma; Suman Mallik
      Abstract: We consider a supply chain consisting of a single manufacturer and a single retailer. The manufacturer produces a basic and a premium product. If desired, a bundle of the two products might also be produced at a unit bundling cost. We allow either the manufacturer or the retailer to produce the bundle from the component products. All products, however, must be sold exclusively through the retailer. Using game theoretic models, we compare and contrast the equilibrium outcomes under retailer bundling and manufacturer bundling scenarios. We show that under manufacturer bundling, the manufacturer never offers the full product line composed of the basic product, the premium product, and the bundle, at equilibrium; while the same does not hold under retailer bundling. We show that total supply chain profit under retailer bundling weakly dominates that under manufacturer bundling and characterize the region in the parameter space where this domination is strict. We explore an extension where there is a capacity constraint in producing one or both of the component products and characterize the equilibrium outcomes. We show that unlike the infinite capacity case, offering the full product line is an equilibrium outcome under manufacturer bundling when the capacity of the premium good is limited.
      PubDate: 2016-08-01T01:05:33.023732-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12238
       
  • A Queueing Theoretic Approach to Set Staffing Levels in Time-Dependent
           Dual-Class Service Systems
    • Authors: J. L. Vile; J. W. Gillard, P. R. Harper, V. A. Knight
      Abstract: This article addresses the optimal staffing problem for a nonpreemptive priority queue with two customer classes and a time-dependent arrival rate. The problem is related to several important service settings such as call centers and emergency departments where the customers are grouped into two classes of “high priority” and “low priority,” and the services are typically evaluated according to the proportion of customers who are responded to within targeted response times. To date, only approximation methods have been explored to generate staffing requirements for time-dependent dual-class services, but we propose a tractable numerical approach to evaluate system behavior and generate safe minimum staffing levels using mixed discrete-continuous time Markov chains (MDCTMCs). Our approach is delicate in that it accounts for the behavior of the system under a number of different rules that may be imposed on staff if they are busy when due to leave and involves explicitly calculating delay distributions for two customer classes. Ultimately, we embed our methodology in a proposed extension of the Euler method, coined Euler Pri, that can cope with two customer classes, and use it to recommend staffing levels for the Welsh Ambulance Service Trust (WAST).
      PubDate: 2016-07-13T23:30:35.910833-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12236
       
  • Energy Performance Contracting in a Competitive Environment
    • Authors: Wenhui Zhou; Weixiang Huang, Sean X. Zhou
      Abstract: Energy Performance Contracting (EPC) is an important and effective energy conservation mechanism, under which an energy service company (ESCO) provides an energy-saving service to its client and shares the resulting energy cost savings. Using a game-theoretic model, we investigate the impacts of EPC on two competing manufacturers, of which one is more energy-efficient in production than the other. The less energy-efficient firm first proposes an energy-saving sharing contract to the more energy-efficient firm, who, if accepting the contract, acts as an ESCO that decides the energy-saving target and helps realize it for the client. Then the firms engage in Cournot competition by producing/selling substitutable products. By solving the equilibrium solutions, we show that under an EPC project, the total production quantity of both firms increases (so the market price of the product decreases) with the ESCO producing less while its client producing more, which also leads to a higher consumer surplus. Meanwhile, both manufactures are better off under EPC and would obtain strictly higher profits when the service cost rate is high. Nevertheless, EPC may not result in a better environmental performance in that the total energy consumption of both firms may be higher under EPC, which happens when the market size is small and the ESCO has not much energy-efficiency advantage over its client. We also study four extensions: When the energy saving service and production decisions are made separately, we find the more energy-efficient firm is worse off when implementing EPC; when the energy-saving sharing ratio is determined by the ESCO instead of the client, the ESCO extracts all the surplus derived from the EPC project while the total energy consumption of both firms is always reduced; when the energy-saving sharing ratio is determined via Nash bargaining, the main insights from the base model remain valid; finally, when the client sets the target of overall cost reduction, it extracts all the surplus derived from the EPC project.
      PubDate: 2016-07-11T00:41:08.693723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12239
       
  • Time-Staged Overtime Staffing for Services with Updated Forecasts and
           Availabilities
    • Authors: Gerard M. Campbell
      Abstract: This article develops a framework for staffing in a service environment when multiple opportunities exist for prescheduling overtime prior to the start of a shift. Demand forecasts improve as the shift approaches, while the availability of workers to be scheduled for overtime decreases. First, a single-shift model is developed and used in computational studies to evaluate the benefits of time-staged overtime staffing, which include slightly lower costs and significant reductions in unscheduled overtime and outside agents. A multi-shift model is then developed to consider constraints on consecutive hours worked and minimum rest intervals between shifts. A multishift computational study shows how the benefits of time-staged overtime staffing depend on problem characteristics when interactions between shifts are considered. The article discusses how single-shift and multishift models relate to each other and alternative ways the models may be used in practice, including decentralized open shift management and centralized overtime scheduling.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T04:20:43.183393-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12237
       
  • Intelligent Aggressiveness: Using Forecast Multipliers, Hybrid
           Forecasting, Fare Adjustment, and Unconstraining Methods to Increase
           Revenue*
    • Authors: Larry R. Weatherford
      Abstract: Many studies have begun the exploration of airlines using intelligent aggressiveness (IA) in unidimensional directions (e.g., forecast multipliers alone). This article uses the sophisticated passenger origin–destination simulator (PODS) to examine the revenue impact of four different IA levers—forecast multipliers, unconstraining, hybrid forecasting (HF) and fare adjustment (FA). We also explore the impacts in two different origin–destination networks. Due to the competitive nature of PODS (two or four airlines competing) and its allowance for customer choice, we are able to assess all the implications, including the impact of spill, upgrades and recapture. We find that with a single IA lever, independent of the network and demand level, in a more-restricted fare environment, the optimal lever is almost always HF with moderate-to-aggressive estimates of willingness-to-pay, with revenue gains of 0.4–4.3% in a large global network, and gains of 1.7–4.2% in a domestic network, depending on demand level and optimization method used. We also test two additional, less-restricted fare environments and find that revenue improvements have a wider range (0.8–6.3%) with a single lever in the larger network. Finally, we explore the impacts of allowing the competitors to use basic IA and the airline of interest to use multiple IA levers.
      PubDate: 2016-07-01T04:15:59.53995-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12228
       
  • Allocating Capacity with Demand Competition: Fixed Factor Allocation
    • Authors: Jianbin Li; Xueyuan Cai, Zhixin Liu
      Abstract: We consider a supply chain consisting of a supplier and two retailers. The supplier sells a single product to the retailers, who, in turn, retail the product to customers. The supplier has limited production capacity, and the retailers compete for the supplier's capacity and are duopolists engaged in Cournot competition for their customers. When the sum of the retailers' orders exceeds the supplier's capacity, the supplier allocates his capacity according to a preannounced allocation rule. We propose a new capacity allocation rule, fixed factor allocation, which incorporates the ideas of proportional and lexicographic allocations: it prioritizes retailers as in lexicographic allocation, but guarantees only a fixed proportion of the total available capacity to the prioritized retailer. We show that (1) the fixed factor allocation rule incorporates lexicographic and proportional allocations from the perspectives of the supplier and the supply chain; (2) under fixed factor allocation, the supply chain profit is not affected by the allocation factor when it is greater than a threshold; (3) the retailers share the supply chain profit with the supplier depending on the value of the allocation factor; and (4) the fixed factor allocation coordinates the supply chain when the market size is sufficiently large. We also compare fixed factor with proportional and lexicographic allocations, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate how the supplier can optimize his capacity level and wholesale price under fixed factor allocation.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T03:21:37.150225-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12234
       
  • The Impact of the Potential Entry of Copycats: Entry Conditions, Consumer
           Welfare, and Social Welfare
    • Authors: Sarah Y. Gao; Wei Shi Lim, Christopher Tang
      Abstract: This article examines the implications of the potential entry of a copycat who produces and sells a copycat (i.e., imitation) product that competes with the incumbent product. By analyzing a two-period dynamic noncooperative game between these two firms, we identify conditions under which the copycat can gain successful market entry. More importantly, we find that the potential entry of a copycat creates (implicit) pressure for the incumbent to lower its selling price; hence, it improves consumer welfare. Finally, we identify conditions under which the potential entry of a copycat can increase social welfare (i.e., consumer welfare and the profit of both firms). 
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T03:21:22.978766-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12235
       
  • Benchmark Schedules for Subcontracted Operations: Decentralization
           Inefficiencies that Arise from Competition and First-Come-First-Served
           Processing
    • Authors: George L. Vairaktarakis; Tolga Aydinliyim
      Abstract: Subcontracting has become a prominent business practice across many industries. Subcontracting of industrial production is generally based on short-term need for additional processing capacity, and is frequently employed by manufacturers to process customer orders more quickly than using only in-house production. In this article, we study a popular business model where multiple manufacturers, each capable of processing his entire workload in-house, have the option to subcontract some of their operations to a single third party with a flexible resource. Each manufacturer can deliver customer orders only after his entire batch of jobs, processed in-house and at the third party, is completed. The third party facility is available to several manufacturers who compete for its use. Current business practice of First-Come-First-Served (FCFS) processing of the subcontracted workloads as well as the competitive Nash equilibrium schedules developed in earlier studies result in two types of inefficiencies; the third party capacity is not maximally utilized, and the manufacturers incur decentralization cost. In this article, we develop models to assess the value created by coordinating the manufacturers' subcontracting decisions by comparing two types of centralized control against FCFS and Nash equilibrium schedules. We present optimal and/or approximate algorithms to quantify the third party underutilization and the manufacturers' decentralization cost. We find that both inefficiencies are more severe with competition than they are when the third party allocates capacity in an FCFS manner. However, in a decentralized setting, a larger percentage of the players prefer Nash equilibrium schedules to FCFS schedules. We extend our analysis to incomplete information scenarios where manufacturers reveal limited demand information, and find that more information dramatically benefits the third party and the manufacturers, however, the marginal benefit of additional information is decreasing. Finally, we discuss an extension wherein each manufacturer's objective takes into account asymmetries in subcontracting, in-house processing, and delay costs.
      PubDate: 2016-06-30T03:20:47.917655-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12231
       
  • Trial or No Trial: Supplying Costly Signals to Improve Profits*
    • Authors: Fan Li; Zelong Yi
      Abstract: Many software and video game firms offer free trials with limited content to help buyers assess the likely value of the goods that they may purchase. This article examines fundamental issues related to the incentives and risks for a monopoly by providing a trial. Assuming that a seller can control the mix of components in a trial, we introduce a new mechanism for buyers’ inference of using a trial. We find that a trial may enable the seller to segment the market and charge a higher price to high-valuation buyers, but can also cause a decline in demand. Moreover, the seller forfeits partial value of a full product through providing a free trial, so the benefit is offset by this cannibalization loss. In addition to the size and content of a trial, the distribution of buyers’ prior belief also affects a trial's ability to convey information. We show that a trial can provide more information if the prior belief is more concentrated in the tails of the distribution.
      PubDate: 2016-06-28T04:40:58.315051-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12233
       
  • A Measure of Throughput Orientation: Scale Development and Nomological
           Validation
    • Authors: Gurjeet Sahi; Mahesh C. Gupta, Pankaj C. Patel
      Abstract: Throughput orientation, although a well-established concept in operations management and well recognized by practitioners, has received limited empirical attention potentially due to lack of a psychometrically validated scale. Based on the tenets of throughput orientation—mindset, methodology, and measurement—we propose and develop a psychometrically validated 26-item scale of throughput orientation (TO). To lower the possibility of nonfalsifiability between TO and performance, we draw on an unexplored context—bank branches in India—where we expect this relationship to be weaker. Furthermore, as throughput in operations is mainly dependent on market demand, market orientation (MO) is proposed as a nomological moderator strengthening the TO-performance relationship. Using a sample of 173 branch managers of a major private bank in India, we validate the throughput orientation scale, and find that MO strengthens the relationship between TO and performance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:55:37.267139-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12227
       
  • Trading on Twitter: Using Social Media Sentiment to Predict Stock Returns
    • Authors: Hong Kee Sul; Alan R. Dennis, Lingyao (Ivy) Yuan
      Abstract: Decision making is often based on the rational assessment of information, but recent research shows that emotional sentiment also plays an important role, especially for investment decision making. Emotional sentiment about a firm's stock that spreads rapidly through social media is more likely to be incorporated quickly into stock prices (e.g., on the same trading day it was expressed), while sentiment that spreads slowly takes longer to be incorporated into stock prices and thus is more likely to predict stock prices on future days. We analyzed the cumulative sentiment (positive and negative) in 2.5 million Twitter postings about individual S&P 500 firms and compared this to the stock returns of those firms. Our results show that the sentiment in tweets about a specific firm from users with less than 171 followers (the median in our sample) had a significant impact on the stock's returns on the next trading day, the next 10 days, and the next 20 days. Interestingly, sentiment in tweets from users with fewer than 171 followers that were not retweeted had the greatest impact on future stock returns. A trading strategy based on these findings produced meaningful economic gains on the order of an 11–15% annual return.
      PubDate: 2016-06-23T23:10:31.045888-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12229
       
  • Classifying Revenue Management: A Taxonomy to Assess Business Practice
    • Authors: Frederick Ng; Paul Rouse, Julie Harrison
      Abstract: As revenue management (RM) techniques evolve there is a need to take stock of how organizations practice RM and the interactions among techniques. This would help practitioners and researchers better understand how RM practice is influenced by the business setting, including those not traditionally associated with advanced RM techniques. Also, it would facilitate investigations of which practices lead to better outcomes in different contexts. Research to date has focused on individual techniques within individual business settings, with limited attention to the range of environments in which RM practice occurs. This suggests a need for a common framework to classify and assess differences in practice. In this article, we present a taxonomy which comprises (i) seven indicators of practice and (ii) a decision tree to measure RM across diverse businesses. We test the classification system in a survey of 232 businesses. Results show the taxonomy provides a comprehensive view of RM practice, with meaningful discrimination across settings. Findings also offer insight into how practices vary across different settings. Our taxonomy contributes to future research by facilitating systematic comparisons of RM practices, the settings in which it is adopted, and its impact on performance.
      PubDate: 2016-06-21T23:25:36.854277-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12230
       
  • The Role of Task Uncertainty in IT Project Team Advice Networks
    • Authors: Mark Keith; Haluk Demirkan, Michael Goul
      Pages: 207 - 247
      Abstract: Advice seeking is often the most critical success factor in today's IT project teams. To understand how advice seekers are motivated, we integrate the antecedents of advice seeking—as defined by network theory (Granovetter, 1983)—into a cost/benefit model based on expectancy theory (Vroom, 1964). To contribute to the research on advice network formation, we integrate the role of task uncertainty—one of the defining characteristics of IT projects—into that research (Wallace & Keil, 2004). Based on a controlled quasi-experiment, this study demonstrates that when task uncertainty is low, individuals with attractive personalities and similar demographics will be sought out for advice more frequently, regardless of their knowledge and resources (i.e., the benefits to the advice seekers). However, when task uncertainty is high, individuals with greater knowledge and access to resources are sought out more often in an advice network. These results provide clarity to prior research that has found mixed results concerning the effectiveness of the traditional antecedents to advice seeking (e.g., knowledge, power, and transactive memory) (e.g., Xu, Kim, & Kankanhalli, 2010a). In addition, project managers may choose to alter their team structure in order to optimize the advice network based on the anticipated level of IT project risk or task uncertainty.
      PubDate: 2016-06-24T03:55:30.808082-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12226
       
  • Generating Supplier Benefits through Buyer-Enabled Knowledge Enrichment: A
           Social Capital Perspective
    • Authors: David S. Preston; Daniel Q. Chen, Morgan Swink, Laura Meade
      Pages: 248 - 287
      Abstract: In accordance with the tenets of social capital theory, the knowledge-based view of the firm, and absorptive capacity theory we provide an integrative research model that sheds light on how suppliers can derive benefits from a strong relationship with key buyers. In particular, we examine three research questions that address: (i) the interrelationships among the three dimensions of buyer–supplier social capital (structural, cognitive, relational); (ii) the mechanism through which buyer–supplier social capital can influence supplier performance; and (iii) the contingency factors that influence the key relationships in the main model. We empirically validate the research model using data collected from a North America-based major electronic components distributor (i.e., the buyer) and 166 of its suppliers. The findings of our data analysis indicate that structural and cognitive social capital influence relational social capital. The findings also support that relational social capital allows for the transfer of knowledge from the buyer to the supplier, which in turn leads to greater supplier cost efficiency and innovation. However, the influence of buyer–supplier relational social capital appears to be less important in lengthier buyer–supplier relationships. The analysis also indicates that the benefits derived from a supplier's knowledge enrichment are significantly greater when the supplier possesses greater exploitative capacity. These findings provide important extensions to theory describing buyer–supplier relationships, as well as providing clear prescriptions for suppliers and relationship managers.
      PubDate: 2016-04-21T06:55:49.136546-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12220
       
  • Visualization of Innovation in Global Supply Chain Networks
    • Authors: Rahul C. Basole; Marcus A. Bellamy, Hyunwoo Park
      Pages: 288 - 306
      Abstract: This methodological note identifies and describes a data-driven visualization approach to study innovations in supply chain networks (ISCN). We demonstrate its value and applicability with illustrative examples to pertinent structure-related ISCN research questions in the global electronics industry. Our visualization approach can be used to reveal and understand important clusters, patterns, trends, and outliers of ISCN not necessarily identified with traditional methods. The broader aim of this note is to demonstrate the complementary value of emerging visual analytic approaches in managerial decision-making contexts and describe how actionable insights can be achieved.
      PubDate: 2016-02-27T02:33:22.194192-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12213
       
  • The Efficacy of a Decision Support System in Enhancing Risk Assessment
           Performance
    • Authors: Qian Song; Siew H. Chan, Arnold M. Wright
      Pages: 307 - 335
      Abstract: A pervasive challenge for decision-makers is evaluating data of varying form (e.g., quantitative vs. qualitative) and credibility in arriving at an overall risk assessment judgment. The current study tests the efficacy of a Decision Support System (DSS) for facilitating auditors’ evaluation and assimilation of financial and nonfinancial information in accurately assessing the risk of material misstatements (RMM) in financial information. Utilizing the proximity compatibility principle, the DSS manipulates the display of cues either in an integral (where pieces of information are displayed on one computer screen) or separable (where pieces of information are displayed on different computer screens) format. Based on cognitive fit theory, we expect that the integral (separable) display best supports financial (nonfinancial) information processing, leading to enhanced risk assessment performance. In addition, we predict that consistent DSS display of financial and nonfinancial information facilitates risk assessment performance. Further, this study accentuates the importance of auditors’ preference for presentation of financial and nonfinancial information and consistent presentation of all the information in strengthening the effect of DSS display format on risk assessment performance. We design a case which includes a seeded high fraud risk. A total of 112 audit seniors participated in the experiment where the DSS display format was manipulated and the auditors’ RMM assessments and display preferences were measured. The results support the hypotheses and highlight the value of the DSS in enhancing risk assessment performance.
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T06:11:09.028006-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12225
       
  • Coordinating a Supply Chain When Facing Strategic Consumers
    • Authors: Tian Li; Man Yu
      Pages: 336 - 355
      Abstract: This article examines the impact of strategic consumers on the efficiency and coordination of a supply chain. We consider a supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a newsvendor retailer selling a seasonal product to strategic consumers, who may choose to wait for clearance sales to maximize their intertemporal utility. Under a prenegotiated supply contract, the retailer chooses retail price and ordering quantity simultaneously. After that, the strategic consumers, who may be heterogeneous in their patience levels, make purchasing decisions. We find that strategic consumer behavior can hurt the supply chain efficiency due to severe double marginalization, and that a simple buyback contract can coordinate the supply chain. Nevertheless, we show that the supply chain does become more difficult to coordinate when strategic consumers are present: the set of buyback contractual terms that coordinate the chain shrinks as consumers are more willing to wait, and the chain profit cannot be arbitrarily allocated between the firms. Contrary to popular intuition, this result implies that the retailer may enjoy some benefit from consumers' strategic waiting. In addition, we find that the retailer's gain is the highest when impatient and patient consumers are comparably mixed in the population. 
      PubDate: 2016-05-24T21:15:31.959261-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12224
       
  • Optimal Strategies for Traditional versus Roth IRA/401(k) Consumption
           During Retirement
    • Authors: James A. DiLellio; Daniel N. Ostrov
      Pages: 356 - 384
      Abstract: We establish an algorithm that produces an optimal strategy for retirees to withdraw funds between their tax-deferred accounts (TDAs), like traditional IRA/401(k) accounts, and their Roth IRA/401(k) accounts, in the context of a financial model based on American tax law. This optimal strategy follows a geometrically simple, intuitive approach that can be used to maximize the size of a retiree's bequest to an heir or, alternatively, to maximize a retiree's portfolio longevity. We give examples where retirees following the approach currently implemented by major investment firms, like Fidelity and Vanguard, will reduce their bequests by approximately 10% or lose 18 months of portfolio longevity compared to our optimal approach. Further, our strategy and algorithm can be extended to many cases where the retiree has additional, known yearly sources of money, such as income from part-time work, taxable investment accounts, and Social Security. 
      PubDate: 2016-04-29T06:11:42.795714-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/deci.12222
       
 
 
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