for Journals by Title or ISSN
for Articles by Keywords
help
  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3126 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (93 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (268 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1157 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (23 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (166 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (180 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (13 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (93 journals)
    - INSURANCE (23 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (125 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (83 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (27 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (43 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (15 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (525 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (89 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (24 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (138 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (35 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1157 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 151)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 30)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 48)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access  
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access  
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Computer Law & Security Review
  [SJR: 0.382]   [H-I: 17]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0267-3649
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3043 journals]
  • A comparison of data protection legislation and policies across the EU
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Bart Custers, Francien Dechesne, Alan M. Sears, Tommaso Tani, Simone van der Hof
      Although the protection of personal data is harmonized within the EU by Directive 95/46/EC and will be further harmonized by the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in 2018, there are significant differences in the ways in which EU member states implemented the protection of privacy and personal data in national laws, policies, and practices. This paper presents the main findings of a research project that compares the protection of privacy and personal data in eight EU member states: France, Germany, the UK, Ireland, Romania, Italy, Sweden, and the Netherlands. The comparison focuses on five major themes: awareness and trust, government policies for personal data protection, the applicable laws and regulations, implementation of those laws and regulations, and supervision and enforcement. The comparison of privacy and data protection regimes across the EU shows some remarkable findings, revealing which countries are frontrunners and which countries are lagging behind on specific aspects. For instance, the roles of and interplay between governments, civil rights organizations, and data protections authorities vary from country to country. Furthermore, with regard to privacy and data protection there are differences in the intensity and scope of political debates, information campaigns, media attention, and public debate. New concepts like privacy impact assessments, privacy by design, data breach notifications and big data are on the agenda in some but not in all countries. Significant differences exist in (the levels of) enforcement by the different data protection authorities, due to different legal competencies, available budgets and personnel, policies, and cultural factors.

      PubDate: 2017-10-04T05:04:09Z
       
  • Professional Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5


      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Editor's foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Steve Saxby


      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • New member of the CLSR Editorial Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5


      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Treatment of biometrically processed personal data: Problem of uniform
           practice under EU personal data protection law
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Darius Štitilis, Marius Laurinaitis
      The application of biometric technologies has become almost commonplace. They can help to raise the security level and make identification and authentication procedures easy, fast and convenient. Biometric technologies are widely used to process personal data. They are particularly favoured in business. The present research primarily conducted in the corporate sphere has revealed that treatment of biometric data by individual nation states essentially differs. Some nation states have chosen to prohibit any use of biometric technologies in processing personal data. However, such use is acceptable in certain cases where the processing entails no sensitive data or threat to personal privacy. Thus, the question of data attribution to sensitive data becomes relevant. The valid EU law on personal data protection expresis verbis does not regulate processing biometric data in detail leaving member states freedom of choice. Meanwhile, the General Data Protection Regulation leaves no alternatives, ascribing biometric data to sensitive data, subject to a prohibition for processing that may be deemed an extreme position and justification of which is uncertain. Therefore, the authors of the publication present their insights and evaluations by classifying personal data processing by means of biometric technologies into two groups. Such classification directly affects evaluation of personal data processing from the legal point of view. The key conclusion made by the authors is that in certain cases where the risk to privacy is minor, the use of biometric technologies to process personal data should not be prohibited. The practice of non-prohibition would encourage the use of biometric technologies equally applicable in all EU member states. The present context has prompted the authors to discuss possible consequences and effects of the adopted regulation and suggest carrying out reliable research in the field and urging an immediate discussion of stakeholders.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Using biometric-based identification systems in Brazil: A review on low
           cost fingerprint techniques on-the-go
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Márjory Da Costa-Abreu, Stephen Smith
      Automatic authentication has become an essential service in several public areas. However, although the technology related with this kind of service has evolved, the price tag of its use is not affordable for most countries. In the so-called “under developed” counties, such as Brazil, South Africa and India, for example, registration systems are often paper-based and/or cover only a fraction of the population. Thus, the reality is that there is an increasing gap into the usage of such technologies amongst different countries and it can be a factor that makes development more difficult and, therefore, less inclusive. One of the main technologies used for automatic identity prediction is based on biometrics analysis, which can distinguish physical or behavioural features to help overcome the traditional paper-based identity systems. Despite the limitations already mentioned, Brazil is known to have introduced several different uses of biometric-based technologies for authentication. However, the use of these technologies is not always ideal and, since the population size is a key factor, it is essential to select the most affordable option which is not necessarily the most adequate for the country's needs. This paper will focus on establishing what biometric-based solutions exist in Brazil today, highlighting the main challenges, as well as briefly proposing a new prototype for mobile fingerprint acquisition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Impact of innovation on competition law: From the perspective of
           ad-blocking applications
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Liyang Hou
      Innovation was traditionally protected for its outcome in particular under intellectual property laws. However, this approach has gradually reached its limit when more innovation needs to be stimulated. Antitrust law has thus developed a ‘process-oriented’ protection, despite the fact that such a new approach slightly intrudes on the exclusivity of property rights. However, less has been discussed so far on how anti-unfair competition law has been affected by innovation. Anti-unfair competition law targets conduct that dishonestly takes advantage of other competitors, thus traditionally having its core analytical framework built upon tort law. While the ‘outcome-oriented’ approach is still satisfactory from many perspectives, its drawbacks have been extensively revealed with the recent challenge of ad-blocking applications. At first sight, the traditional approach may be justified. However, closer examination unfolds the risk of stifling innovation. Therefore, this article advances a new economic interpretation on the business model of online media operation, the target of ad-blocking applications, namely the ‘combined sale’ model vis-à-vis the traditional ‘single product’ model. It is finally concluded that the process-oriented approach should prevail over the traditional outcome oriented approach where the combined sale model is involved.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • A legal framework for an elderly healthcare platform: A privacy and data
           protection overview
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Angelo Costa, Aliaksandra Yelshyna, Teresa C. Moreira, Francisco C.P. Andrade, Vicente Julián, Paulo Novais
      Cognitive problems are increasingly affecting the population, with the elderly being the ones most affected. This problem requires a new approach in terms of medical and social actions, personalisation, and services. The Ambient Assisted Living area provides solutions to allow elderly people to stay in their homes safely and with the appropriate care. The number of Ambient Assisted Living projects is increasing rapidly, leading to large commercial deployment, and most of these projects disregard the privacy and data protection of the users and the information that they process and save. The iGenda project is a Cognitive Assistant inserted in the Ambient Assisted Living area that provides help to users in their daily lives. However, since it requires the transfer of a large amount of private and personal data between the modules of the platform, fundamental rights may be at stake. This paper presents the iGenda platform, the principle rights of data protection and transmission, legal guarantees and latent ethical concerns. Furthermore, the dichotomy between current developments and legal and ethical aspects are explained. To overcome this problem, legal considerations and ethical considerations are presented, embracing appropriate solutions to features that present any threat.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • The problem of binary distinction in cloud computing and the necessity for
           a different approach: Positions of the European Union and Canada
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Pardis Moslemzadeh Tehrani, Johan Shamsuddin Bin Hj Sabaruddin, Dhiviya A.P. Ramanathan
      The development of Cloud Computing is an undisputable fact that is present in this modern era. It is a widely used system, which consists of users from ordinary individuals to multinational companies. However, despite its benefits, there is a problem of accountability in Cloud Computing. Accountability is vital for the allocation of responsibility to ensure the non-existence of threats concerning privacy and security of personal data stored in a Cloud. Both these issues are interconnected because one will not be able to exercise the principle of accountability by omitting the allocation of responsibility. Due to the complexity of the Cloud Computing infrastructure, the line in the distinguishing the role of controller and processor is blurred. This article serves to provide a better understanding of the role of Cloud Computing as well as to configure the need for either a modified or a completely different approach. Furthermore, this article will discuss the different approaches whilst providing a detailed analysis of the roles of the controller and processor. Clear and unambiguous roles and responsibilities will help to reinforce the principle of accountability. This article will compare the positions of Canada and the European Union, because the Canadian approach provides a different outlook since they do not follow the same binary distinction concept in allocating responsibility for controller and processor. This discussion hopes to bring awareness for the discrepancies in the current system and attempts to recommend a possible outcome to curb the problems relevant to this issue.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Is it possible to grant legal personality to artificial intelligence
           software systems'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Paulius Čerka, Jurgita Grigienė, Gintarė Sirbikytė
      The purpose of this paper is to determine whether Systems of Artificial Intelligence (SAI) can be deemed subjects of law. This aim is formulated according to the technical capabilities integrated in SAI and the SAI's ability to interact independently with other legal subjects. SAI features, such as direct connection with intellectual skills, the ability to understand, learn and make autonomous decisions may cause situations where autonomous systems based on AI will make decisions which will be in the best interests of individuals, even though conflicting with the user's own will. To consider the possibility of SAI being recognized as possessing legal personality, we analyse the concept and features of SAI and define its operating principles. We give hypothetical examples to demonstrate the necessity of SAIs being recognized as such. The paper undertakes legal personality analysis of SAI performed: (i) using the philosophical and legal concepts of a subject (person); (ii) discussing artificial (unnatural subjects of law) as an alternative to the recognition of legal personality of SAI; (iii) using elements of legal personality set for natural and legal persons. The analysis leads to the conclusion that the scope of SAI rights and obligations will not necessarily be the same as the scope of rights and obligations of other subjects of law. Thus, SAI could only have rights and obligations that are strictly defined by legislators. This conclusion suggests that the result of this paper may be its use in further research defining the scope of SAI rights and obligations.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • A review of the legal and regulatory frameworks of Nigerian Cybercrimes
           Act 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Felix E. Eboibi
      As a sequel to the liberalization of the Nigerian telecommunication sector in late 1990s, Nigeria experienced tremendous growth in telecommunications usage and internet penetration because of the proliferation of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and Cybercafés. Consequently, fraudsters started using the internet, instead of the regular mails and fax to perpetrate crimes on cyberspace. International and domestic reports adjudged Nigeria as major global hub of cyber criminal activity, being one of the countries with the highest rates of cybercrime perpetration in the world. The Nigerian government became alarmed with the misuse of the cyberspace by the fraudsters and based on the quest to tackle the menace inaugurated in 2003 a Presidential Committee and subsequent initiatives to investigate the activities of these fraudsters on cyberspace and fashion out a legal and regulatory framework to circumvent the menace of cybercrime. Unfortunately, it took the Nigerian government over a decade to enact a cybercrime legal and regulatory framework after being exposed to the severe negative implications for national economic development, national security, international relations and also human rights and human security. This paper examines Nigeria's legal and regulatory response to cybercrime. It espouses an analysis of the adequacy of the legal and regulatory frameworks in existence to curtail cybercrime in Nigeria.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Electronic protests: Hacktivism as a form of protest in Uganda
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Rukundo Solomon
      In a number of reported incidents government ministry and agency websites in Uganda have been defaced as a form of protest in a phenomenon known as ‘hacktivism’. The all-pervading digital age has affected virtually every facet of our lives and ‘hacktivists’ argue that this applies to the effective modes of protest available. Hacking and in effect hacktivism has been criminalised under the Computer Misuse Act 2011. This paper examines the viability of hacktivism as a legitimate form of protest in Uganda's legal regime, particularly under article 29 of the Constitution of the Republic of Uganda 1995, which guarantees freedom of expression.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • EU update
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5
      Author(s): Kit Burden
      This is the latest edition of the DLA Piper column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • The sharing economy in China: Regulation or de-regulation for
           innovation'
    • Abstract: Publication date: October 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 5


      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • The General Data Protection Regulation and the rise of certification as a
           regulatory instrument
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 23 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Eric Lachaud
      The endorsement of certification in Article 42 and 43 of the General Data Protection Regulation (hereinafter GDPR) extends the scope of this procedure to the enforcement of fundamental rights. The GDPR also leverages the high flexibility of this procedure to make of certification something else than a voluntary process attesting the conformity with technical standards. This paper argues that the GDPR turned certification into a new regulatory instrument in data protection, I suggest to call it monitored self-regulation, seeking to fill the gap between self-regulation and traditional regulation in order to build a regulation continuum.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Can small users recover from the cloud'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Roger Clarke
      Large numbers of small organisations and prosumers have shifted away from managing data on their own devices and are now heavily reliant on service-providers for both storage and processing of their data. Most such entities are also dependent on those service-providers to perform backups and enable data recovery. Prior work defining users' backup needs was applied to this context in order to establish specifications for appropriate backup arrangements. A sample of service-providers was assessed against those specifications. Their backup and recovery mechanisms were found to fall seriously short of the need.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Global social media vs local values: Private international law should
           protect local consumer rights by using the public policy exception'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Julia Hornle
      This article focuses on the relationship between forum selection clauses, choice of law clauses and data protection and privacy protection. In particular, it discusses the question whether and why jurisdiction and choice of law clauses used in the terms of social media providers should not be enforced against social media users located in a different jurisdiction. The article distinguishes between the contractual, private law analysis and the application of public policy as part of the private international law analysis. The contract law analysis is centred on doctrines such as unconscionability, which in turn examines issue such as fairness and overwhelming bargaining power of one party. By contrast, the public policy analysis in private international law focuses on fundamental rights, legality of contractual clauses according to the local law of the forum and the interests of justice. It is argued here that both aspects (contractual and public policy doctrines) are paramount for achieving not only justice between the parties of a dispute but also ensuring good administration of justice in the public interest.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Pricing privacy – the right to know the value of your personal data
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Gianclaudio Malgieri, Bart Custers
      The commodification of digital identities is an emerging reality in the data-driven economy. Personal data of individuals represent monetary value in the data-driven economy and are often considered a counter performance for “free” digital services or for discounts for online products and services. Furthermore, customer data and profiling algorithms are already considered a business asset and protected through trade secrets. At the same time, individuals do not seem to be fully aware of the monetary value of their personal data and tend to underestimate their economic power within the data-driven economy and to passively succumb to the propertization of their digital identity. An effort that can increase awareness of consumers/users on their own personal information could be making them aware of the monetary value of their personal data. In other words, if individuals are shown the “price” of their personal data, they can acquire higher awareness about their power in the digital market and thus be effectively empowered for the protection of their information privacy. This paper analyzes whether consumers/users should have a right to know the value of their personal data. After analyzing how EU legislation is already developing in the direction of propertization and monetization of personal data, different models for quantifying the value of personal data are investigated. These models are discussed, not to determine the actual prices of personal data, but to show that the monetary value of personal data can be quantified, a conditio-sine-qua-non for the right to know the value of your personal data. Next, active choice models, in which users are offered the option to pay for online services, either with their personal data or with money, are discussed. It is concluded, however, that these models are incompatible with EU data protection law. Finally, practical, moral and cognitive problems of pricing privacy are discussed as an introduction to further research. We conclude that such research is needed to see to which extent these problems can be solved or mitigated. Only then, it can be determined whether the benefits of introducing a right to know the value of your personal data outweigh the problems and hurdles related to it.

      PubDate: 2017-09-26T04:53:39Z
       
  • Enter the quagmire – the complicated relationship between data
           protection law and consumer protection law
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 14 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Dan Jerker B. Svantesson
      This article examines the complex relationship between consumer protection law and data protection law, particularly within the EU's online environment, and highlights the problems that stem from this complexity. It suggests that, while there are significant similarities between their respective sources, tools and purposes, there are also arguable differences between consumer protection law and data protection law. One such arguable difference is found in that, while consumer protection law can be seen to merely set a floor in its pursuit of a sufficiently high level of consumer protection, data protection law – due to its clearly articulated dual purposes of (a) protecting individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and (b) providing for the free movement of such data – sets both a floor and a ceiling. Having discussed the relationship between consumer protection law and data protection law in more detail, the argument is made that it seems possible to conclude that the balance struck in the Data Protection Directive, and soon in the General Data Protection Regulation, places limitations on consumer protection law. The implications of this conclusion are then examined briefly in the context of some matters currently coming before the CJEU and the contours of a framework are presented, addressing situations where a data protection-based liability claim is pursued against a third-party non-controller under consumer protection law.

      PubDate: 2017-09-20T04:30:20Z
       
  • European national news
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 September 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Nick Pantlin
      This article tracks developments at the national level in key European countries in the area of IT and communications and provides a concise alerting service of important national developments. It is co-ordinated by Herbert Smith Freehills LLP and contributed to by firms across Europe. This column provides a concise alerting service of important national developments in key European countries. Part of its purpose is to complement the Journal's feature articles and briefing notes by keeping readers abreast of what is currently happening “on the ground” at a national level in implementing EU level legislation and international conventions and treaties. Where an item of European National News is of particular significance, CLSR may also cover it in more detail in the current or a subsequent edition.

      PubDate: 2017-09-07T13:42:37Z
       
  • Data integration in IoT ecosystem: Information linkage as a privacy threat
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 August 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Nishtha Madaan, Mohd Abdul Ahad, Sunil M. Sastry
      Internet of things (IoT) is changing the way data is collected and processed. The scale and variety of devices, communication networks, and protocols involved in data collection present critical challenges for data processing and analyses. Newer and more sophisticated methods for data integration and aggregation are required to enhance the value of real-time and historical IoT data. Moreover, the pervasive nature of IoT data presents a number of privacy threats because of intermediate data processing steps, including data acquisition, data aggregation, fusion and integration. User profiling and record linkage are well studied topics in online social networks (OSNs); however, these have become more critical in IoT applications where different systems share and integrate data and information. The proposed study aims to discuss the privacy threat of information linkage, technical and legal approaches to address it in a heterogeneous IoT ecosystem. The paper illustrates and explains information linkage during the process of data integration in a smart neighbourhood scenario. Through this work, the authors aim to enable a technical and legal framework to ensure stakeholders awareness and protection of subjects about privacy breaches due to information linkage.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:40:10Z
       
  • Asia Pacific news
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 August 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Gabriela Kennedy
      This column provides a country-by-country analysis of the latest legal developments, cases and issues relevant to the IT, media and telecommunications' industries in key jurisdictions across the Asia Pacific region. The articles appearing in this column are intended to serve as ‘alerts’ and are not submitted as detailed analyses of cases or legal developments.

      PubDate: 2017-09-02T13:40:10Z
       
  • Professional Board
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 4


      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:50:11Z
       
  • Three new members of the CLSR editorial and professional boards
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): Steve Saxby


      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:50:11Z
       
  • Digital exhaustion of copyright after CJEU judgment in Ranks and
           Vasiļevičs
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review, Volume 33, Issue 4
      Author(s): Simon Geiregat
      In its UsedSoft and Ranks judgments the CJEU interprets the concept of distribution and its digital exhaustion with regard to copyright on computer programs. Both concepts are read in a way that deviates from their meaning concerning copyright on other works. The reasons for that divergence are analysed and criticised. The Computer Programs Directive should be interpreted in conformity with the WIPO Copyright Treaty. Case law should distinguish between the specific rationales that underlie certain aspects of the exhaustion doctrine. The CJEU's autonomous interpretation of the sale condition for exhaustion is unfortunate, among other things because downloaded copies are not goods subject to transferrable ownership. Copyright law is not digital property law. The sale concept is drifting away from its original meaning. Concerning the exceptions to the reproduction right on programs, it is upheld that back-ups cannot be provided to third parties. Subsequent acquirers of programs by contrast do qualify as lawful acquirers who can benefit from the exception for intended use. Calling on this exception, the Court seems to set course to the recognition of a resale and/or download right of some kind. In sum, the meaning of exhaustion has evolved from a boundary of an exclusive right, over a higher norm to a subjective right of a third party. In reality, the debate could be simplified by looking at rights rather than copies. With regard to the supply of digital content, the simultaneous existence of a material-object and licence contract should be recognised. The former can be a sales or service contract. On-line deliveries are services. Whoever holds a right to a service, can principally transfer that right and the licence to third parties. Applying the same rationales that underlie the exhaustion doctrine would mean that clauses preventing such transfers are void. The actual exhaustion doctrine however need not be applied.

      PubDate: 2017-07-24T04:50:11Z
       
  • Asia Pacific news
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Gabriela Kennedy
      This column provides a country-by-country analysis of the latest legal developments, cases and issues relevant to the IT, media and telecommunications' industries in key jurisdictions across the Asia Pacific region. The articles appearing in this column are intended to serve as ‘alerts’ and are not submitted as detailed analyses of cases or legal developments.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T18:19:53Z
       
  • EU update
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 July 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Kit Burden
      This is the latest edition of the DLA Piper column on developments in EU law relating to IP, IT and telecommunications. This news article summarises recent developments that are considered important for practitioners, students and academics in a wide range of information technology, e-commerce, telecommunications and intellectual property areas. It cannot be exhaustive but intends to address the important points. This is a hard copy reference guide, but links to outside web sites are included where possible. No responsibility is assumed for the accuracy of information contained in these links.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T18:19:53Z
       
  • European national news
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Nick Pantlin
      This article tracks developments at the national level in key European countries in the area of IT and communications and provides a concise alerting service of important national developments. It is co-ordinated by Herbert Smith Freehills LLP and contributed to by firms across Europe. This column provides a concise alerting service of important national developments in key European countries. Part of its purpose is to complement the Journal's feature articles and briefing notes by keeping readers abreast of what is currently happening “on the ground” at a national level in implementing EU level legislation and international conventions and treaties. Where an item of European National News is of particular significance, CLSR may also cover it in more detail in the current or a subsequent edition.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T18:19:53Z
       
  • Privacy, consent and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 July 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Rajen Akalu
      The consent model of privacy protection assumes that individuals control their personal information and are able to assess the risks associated with data sharing. The model is attractive for policy-makers and automakers because it has the effect of glossing over the conceptual ambiguities that are latent in definitions of privacy. Instead of formulating a substantive and normative position on what constitutes a reasonable expectation of privacy in the circumstance, individuals are said to have control over their data. Organizations have obligations to respect rights to notice, access and consent regarding the collection, use and disclosure of personal data once that data has been shared. The policy goal becomes how to provide individuals with control over their personal data in the consent model of privacy protection. This paper argues that the privacy issues raised by vehicular ad hoc networks make this approach increasingly untenable. It is argued that substantive rules that establish a basic set of privacy norms regarding the collection, use and disclosure of data are necessary. This can be realized in part via a privacy code of practice for the connected vehicle. This paper first explores the relationship between privacy, consent and personal information in relation to the connected car. This is followed by a description of vehicular ad hoc networks and a survey of the technical proposals aimed at securing data. The privacy issues that will likely remain unsolved by enhancing individual consent are then discussed. The last section provides some direction on how a code of practice can assist in determining when individual consent will need to be enhanced and when alternatives to consent will need to be implemented.

      PubDate: 2017-07-11T18:19:53Z
       
  • The impact of China's 2016 Cyber Security Law on foreign technology firms,
           and on China's big data and Smart City dreams
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Max Parasol
      Chinese officials are increasingly turning to a policy known as Informatisation, connecting industry online, to utilise technology to improve efficiency and tackle economic developmental problems in China. However, various recent laws have made foreign technology firms uneasy about perceptions of Rule of Law in China. Will these new laws, under China's stated policy of “Network Sovereignty” (“网络主权” “wangluo zhuquan”) affect China's ability to attract foreign technology firms, talent and importantly technology transfers' Will they slow China's technology and Smart City drive' This paper focuses on the question of whether international fears of China's new Cyber Security Law are justified. In Parts I and II, the paper analyses why China needs a cyber security regime. In Parts III and IV it examines the law itself.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T15:59:24Z
       
  • Interdisciplinarity in practice: Challenges and benefits for privacy
           research
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Daniel Le Métayer, Mathias Bossuet, Fanny Coudert, Claire Gayrel, Francisco Jaime, Christophe Jouvray, Antonio Kung, Zhendong Ma, Antonio Maña
      The goal of this paper is to draw the lessons learned from a project that involved security systems engineers, computer scientists, lawyers and social scientists. Since one of the goals of the project was to propose actual solutions following the privacy by design approach, its aim was to go beyond multidisciplinarity and build on the variety of expertise available in the consortium to follow a true interdisciplinary approach. We present the challenges before describing the solutions adopted by the project to meet them and the outcomes and benefits of the approach. We conclude with some lessons to be drawn from this experience and recommendations for future interdisciplinary projects.

      PubDate: 2017-07-02T15:59:24Z
       
  • Online price discrimination and personal data: A General Data Protection
           Regulation perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Richard Steppe
      The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) contains various provisions with relevance to online price discrimination. This article, which analyses a number of essential elements on this junction, aims to provide a theory on whether, and, if so, how the GDPR affects price discrimination based on the processing of personal data. First, the contribution clarifies the concept of price discrimination, as well as its typology and relevance for big data settings. Subsequent to studying this topic in the context of the Commission's Digital Single Market strategy, the article tests the applicability of the GDPR to online price personalisation practices by applying criteria as ‘personal data’ and ‘automated processing’ to several discriminatory pricing cases and examples. Secondly, the contribution evaluates the possible lawfulness of price personalisation under the GDPR on the basis of consent, the necessity for pre-contractual or contractual measures, and the data controller's legitimate interests. The paper concludes by providing a capita selecta of rights and obligations pertinent to online discriminatory pricing, such as transparency obligations and the right to access, as well as the right to rectify the data on which price discrimination is based, and the right not to be subject to certain discriminatory pricing decisions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T15:48:51Z
       
  • Editor's foreword
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Steve Saxby


      PubDate: 2017-06-21T15:48:51Z
       
  • Between a rock and two hard places: WhatsApp at the crossroad of
           competition, data protection and consumer law
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Nicolo Zingales
      On 11 May 2017, the Italian antitrust and consumer protection authority (Autorità Garante della Concorrenza e del Mercato, or AGCM) adopted two decisions in its proceedings against WhatsApp. Both proceedings, initiated under the consumer protection mandate of AGCM, relate to WhatsApp's terms of service and privacy policy (together referred to as “ToS” hereinafter). In particular, one qualified as “unfair” and “aggressive” WhatsApp's process of obtaining user consent for its updated ToS, while the other established the unfairness of specific clauses of WhatsApp's ToS. This comment will address the former decision, while making reference to other proceedings opened against the consumer communication service or its mother company in relation to its latest ToS update.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T15:48:51Z
       
  • Competition law and interoperability in cloud computing
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 June 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Sylvia Song
      The cloud computing industry is a swiftly growing sector, with many providers hailing it as a “digital revolution” that will render traditional IT business models obsolete within ten years. Although still under development, the range of circumstances to engage in monopolistic and anti-competitive behaviour in the cloud services market are numerous. Suppliers can engage in tying, exclusive dealing, and refusing to share vital information to allow the creation of technically compatible products. Monopolistic behaviour and pricing strategies can also restrict innovation and result in a lessening of competition. This paper reviews the European laws that have a direct effect on competition in the cloud computing industry. In addition to competition law, other areas of law have an impact on competition in cloud services. Merger regulations for example have a direct effect by controlling market concentrations in the cloud and technology industry. Interoperability has emerged as a key policy and legal consideration in cases concerning competition and merger laws. The concept of interoperability has arisen in cloud computing cases, as well as other areas of law that indirectly impact upon openness and competition. These areas include intellectual property and standardisation. As new areas of interest arise that raise enforcement challenges for regulators, the author maintains that current laws are adequate to meet the competition concerns in the diverse cloud services market.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T08:14:26Z
       
  • Data protection authorities and information technology
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 29 May 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Charles Raab, Ivan Szekely
      The ability of data protection authorities (DPAs) to gain and deploy sufficient knowledge of new technological developments in their regulation of personal-information practices is an important consideration now and for the future. However, DPAs' capacity to keep abreast of these developments has been questionable, and improvements in this are a matter of concern, especially given DPAs' task requirements under the European Union's (EU) General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). This article reports the findings of a recent survey of EU DPAs that explore the problems they have in comprehending new technologies and how they are dealing with them.

      PubDate: 2017-06-02T10:37:54Z
       
  • Building the wall: Addressing cybersecurity risks in medical devices in
           the U.S.A. and Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Timothy Webb, Sumer Dayal
      Cybersecurity in medical devices has become a pressing issue in modern times. Technological progress has simultaneously benefited health care and created new risks. Through examining regulatory guidance, this article establishes that stakeholders have a shared responsibility to address cybersecurity threats that can affect such devices. Manufacturers and health care providers should consider identification, detection and prevention steps at the pre-market and post-market stages. End users and medical practitioners should practice good cyber hygiene to mitigate cybersecurity risks. Collectively, increased collaboration across all stakeholders is fundamental to ensure effective protection.

      PubDate: 2017-05-28T10:27:35Z
       
  • European regulatory framework for person carrier robots
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): E. Fosch Villaronga, A. Roig
      The aim of this paper is to establish the grounds for a future regulatory framework for Person Carrier Robots, which includes legal and ethical aspects. Current industrial standards focus on physical human–robot interaction, i.e. on the prevention of harm. Current robot technology nonetheless challenges other aspects in the legal domain. The main issues comprise privacy, data protection, liability, autonomy, dignity, and ethics. The paper first discusses the need to take into account other interdisciplinary aspects of robot technology to offer complete legal coverage to citizens. As the European Union starts using impact assessment methodology for completing new technologies regulations, a new methodology based on it to approach the insertion of personal care robots will be discussed. Then, after framing the discussion with a use case, analysis of the involved legal challenges will be conducted. Some concrete scenarios will contribute to easing the explanatory analysis.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:46:13Z
       
  • Enabling valid informed consent for location tracking through privacy
           awareness of users: A process theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 April 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Aggeliki Tsohou, Eleni Kosta
      People use mobile devices for an increasing variety of purposes in order to enjoy the vast possibilities; they check the local weather, road traffic, personalised local news, their personalised favourite social network, etc. At the same time, application developers and market stores deploy mobile applications that collect vast amounts of information on mobile users, such as their age, gender, location or specific phone identifiers. Numerous studies illustrate that mobile applications collect valuable information about users and use it for profiling the users for their own purposes or sell this information for commercial interests. Therefore, the topic of consent to information processing becomes increasingly more interesting for researchers, legal experts and practitioners. In this paper, the authors examine the issue of valid informed consent for location tracking by mobile phone users. They first analyse the legal premises for informed consent that represent requirements for mobile application developers and providers who request consent. However, the ones who actually give consent are the mobile users and therefore their understanding of consent is of paramount importance. Extensive literature is missing on empirical studies examining the topic from the users' perception perspective. For that reason, the authors conduct an empirical investigation with mobile users and present their findings in the form of a process theory. The process theory reveals how users' valid informed consent for location tracking can be obtained, starting from enhancing reading the privacy policy to stimulating privacy awareness and enabling informed consent. The paper includes a discussion section in which the authors describe the implications of the process theory for the different stakeholders and offer recommendations deriving from the empirical findings. The contribution is addressed to software and mobile application developers and providers, technology regulation researchers and policy makers, as well as security and privacy researchers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-03T07:46:13Z
       
  • The use of Big Data: A Russian perspective of personal data security
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2017
      Source:Computer Law & Security Review
      Author(s): Anna Konstantinovna Zharova, Vladimir Mikhailovich Elin
      This article examines the impact of Big Data technology on Russian citizens' constitutional rights to a private life. There are several laws in the Russian Federation covering data privacy and protection, but these are proving inadequate to protect the citizens' rights in the face of the ever-increasing use of massive data sets and their analysis by Big Data tools. One particular problem in this regard is that datasets of anonymised records currently not covered under personal data laws (because they do not identify individuals) can, in fact, be used to identify data subjects (the individuals to whom the data refers) when combined and analysed using Big Data tools. Furthermore, existing sanctions for misuse of personal data are minor, and often fail to act as a deterrent when the commercial benefits of exploiting user data (e.g. through targeted advertising) are so much greater. From the point of view of companies handling Big Data, a general confusion over definitions and responsibilities is making compliance with the law difficult, leaving most to come up with their own forms of best practice, rather than being able to follow clear industry recommendations. The article examines existing laws and oversight bodies, discusses how the current provisions are inadequate to deal with new developments in Big Data, and proposes recommendations for amending and updating existing laws and policies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-26T04:45:10Z
       
 
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
Fax: +00 44 (0)131 4513327
 
Home (Search)
Subjects A-Z
Publishers A-Z
Customise
APIs
Your IP address: 54.166.203.76
 
About JournalTOCs
API
Help
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-2016