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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3182 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (97 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (270 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1165 journals)
    - CONSUMER EDUCATION AND PROTECTION (24 journals)
    - COOPERATIVES (4 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SCIENCES: GENERAL (175 journals)
    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (190 journals)
    - FASHION AND CONSUMER TRENDS (13 journals)
    - HUMAN RESOURCES (95 journals)
    - INSURANCE (24 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL COMMERCE (128 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND AID (85 journals)
    - INVESTMENTS (27 journals)
    - LABOR AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS (45 journals)
    - MACROECONOMICS (15 journals)
    - MANAGEMENT (534 journals)
    - MARKETING AND PURCHASING (92 journals)
    - MICROECONOMICS (24 journals)
    - PRODUCTION OF GOODS AND SERVICES (138 journals)
    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (35 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1165 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 179)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 327)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access  
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access  
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Cliometrica
  [SJR: 0.522]   [H-I: 11]   [4 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1863-2513 - ISSN (Online) 1863-2505
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2355 journals]
  • Public health improvements and mortality in interwar Tokyo: a Bayesian
           disease mapping approach
    • Authors: Kota Ogasawara; Shinichiro Shirota; Genya Kobayashi
      Pages: 1 - 31
      Abstract: Recent studies have found that modern water supply systems played an important role in mitigating the mortality risks in major US cities in the early twentieth century. Modern water supply systems were installed also in Japanese cities during the interwar period. This study examines how the modern water supply system in Tokyo City reduced mortality risks in the interwar period. By employing a Bayesian disease mapping approach with a block-level lattice dataset of Tokyo for 1930, we found that wider access to purified water through water supply systems played an important role in mitigating mortality risks during the study period. Our estimation results show that clean water accounted for approximately 41.3 and 34.9 % of improvements in crude and child death rates, respectively, between 1921 and 1937 in Tokyo.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0148-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Biological well-being in late nineteenth-century Philippines
    • Authors: Jean-Pascal Bassino; Marion Dovis; John Komlos
      Pages: 33 - 60
      Abstract: This paper investigates the biological standard of living in the Philippines toward the end of Spanish rule. We investigate levels, trends, and determinants of physical stature from the birth cohorts of the 1860s to the 1890s using data on 23,000 Filipino soldiers enlisted by the US military between 1901 and 1913. We estimate average heights and use province-level information for investigating the determinants of biological well-being. We find that at 159.3 cm (62.7 inches), the average height of soldiers born in the mid-1870s was very short even for the time. The low biological standard of living observed in late nineteenth-century Philippines was not due to the tropical disease environment alone since greater heights were recorded for the same period in other parts of Asia with a similar climate. The results also indicate a decline of more than 1.5 cm (0.6 inches) in the height of soldiers born between the early 1870s and the late 1880s. This decline occurred at a time when there was an expansion of commercial activity in cash crop production for export. Heights did not regain the level of the 1870s until the late 1930s and early 1940s.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0147-4
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The role of production factor quality and technology diffusion in
           twentieth-century productivity growth
    • Authors: Antonin Bergeaud; Gilbert Cette; Rémy Lecat
      Pages: 61 - 97
      Abstract: The twentieth century was a period of exceptional growth, driven mainly by the increase in total factor productivity (TFP). Using a database of 17 OECD countries over the 1890–2013 period, this paper integrates production factor quality into the measure of TFP, namely by factoring the level of education of the working-age population into the measure of labor and the age of equipment in the measure of capital stock. We then estimate how the diffusion of technology impacts the growth of this newly measured TFP through two emblematic general purpose technologies, electricity and information and communication technologies (ICT). Using growth decomposition methodology from instrumental variable estimates, this paper finds that education levels contribute most significantly to growth, while the age of capital makes a limited, although significant, contribution. Quality-adjusted production factors explain less than half of labor productivity growth in the largest countries except for Japan, where capital deepening posted a very large contribution. As a consequence, the “one big wave” of productivity growth (Gordon in Am Econ Rev 89(2):123–128, 1999), as well as the ICT productivity wave for the countries which experienced it, remains only partially explained by quality-adjusted factors, although education and technology diffusion contribute to explain the earlier wave in the USA in the 1930s–1940s. Finally, technology diffusion, as captured through our two general purpose technologies, leaves unexplained between 0.6 and 1 percentage point of yearly growth, as well as a large proportion of the two twentieth-century technology waves. These results both support a significant lag in the diffusion of general purpose technologies and raise further questions on a wider view on growth factors, including changes in the production process, management techniques and financing practices. Measurement problems may also contribute to the unexplained share of growth.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0149-2
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Human capital formation in the long run: evidence from average years of
           schooling in England, 1300–1900
    • Authors: Alexandra M. de Pleijt
      Pages: 99 - 126
      Abstract: In this paper, I quantify average years of education present in the English population between 1307 and 1900. The estimates are based on extensive source material on literacy rates, number of primary and secondary schools and enrolment figures. An additional distinction is made on the basis of gender and of level of schooling. The trends in the data are indicative of significant increases in the level of educational attainment during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This remarkable growth in schooling was followed by a strong decline in average years of education after ca. 1720. Whilst one in seven boys entered secondary schooling at the end of seventeenth century, this had decreased to one in thirty by the 1880s. Overall, the trends in the data suggest that education was beneficial to pre-industrial economic growth, but this was not sustained following the initial stage of the industrialisation process.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0156-3
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Hysteresis and persistent long-term unemployment: the American Beveridge
           Curve of the Great Depression and World War II
    • Authors: Gabriel P. Mathy
      Pages: 127 - 152
      Abstract: Long-term unemployment plagued the American economy of the Great Depression. The stigma of a long unemployment spell made reentering employment difficult even during the brisk economic recovery, which lead to unemployment hysteresis and persistently high joblessness. Unemployment figures disaggregated by duration confirm the importance of hysteresis for the Great Depression, as the long-term unemployed were less likely to return to gainful employment until the war. Using the theoretical framework of the Beveridge Curve, I find that hysteresis was a significant problem during the 1930s, but that the essentially unlimited labor demand during the World War II provided jobs even to the long-term unemployed. As a result, labor market conditions in the 1950s resembled those of the 1920s prior to the Depression and so the labor market scars of the Great Depression were healed.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0158-1
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • Private banks in early Michigan, 1837–1884
    • Authors: Christopher Bailey; Tarique Hossain; Gary Pecquet
      Pages: 153 - 180
      Abstract: Using a comprehensive new data set on private (noncorporate) banks, we examine the business and business environment of private banking and exchange brokering in the state of Michigan from 1837 to the 1880s. The Michigan experience provides an example of the effect of widespread exchange brokers in an economy. We use econometric models to explain the determinants of the numbers of private banks in the state. We find that private banks were substitutes for locally issued state bank currency and were complements with adjacent states’ bank currency. With the demise of heterogeneous currencies, private banks transitioned their core business from exchange brokering to general banking. In both the antebellum and postbellum eras, private banks tended to exist when and where larger incorporated banks did not. Following the collapse of free banking in Michigan in the antebellum years, this was virtually the entire state. During the 1860s and 1870s, corporate banks used private banks as a root source to build on.
      PubDate: 2018-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0155-4
      Issue No: Vol. 12, No. 1 (2018)
       
  • The integration of economic history into economics
    • Authors: Robert A. Margo
      Abstract: In the USA today the academic field of economic history is much closer to economics than it is to history in terms of professional behavior, a stylized fact that I call the “integration of economic history into economics.” I document this using two types of evidence—use of econometric language in articles appearing in academic journals of economic history and economics; and publication histories of successive cohorts of Ph.D.s in the first decade since receiving the doctorate. Over time, economic history became more like economics in its use of econometrics and in the likelihood of scholars publishing in economics, as opposed to, say, economic history journals. But the pace of change was slower in economic history than in labor economics, another subfield of economics that underwent profound intellectual change in the 1950s and 1960s, and there was also a structural break evident for post-2000 Ph.D. cohorts. To account for these features of the data, I sketch a simple, overlapping generations model of the academic labor market in which junior scholars have to convince senior scholars of the merits of their work in order to gain tenure. I argue that the early cliometricians—most notably, Robert Fogel and Douglass North—conceived of a scholarly identity for economic history that kept the field distinct from economics proper in various ways, until after 2000 when their influence had waned.
      PubDate: 2018-01-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-018-0170-8
       
  • Inequality in the very long run: Malthus, Kuznets, and Ohlin
    • Authors: Peter H. Lindert; Jeffrey G. Williamson
      Pages: 289 - 295
      Abstract: What happened to the inequality of real income and wealth before, during, and after the Industrial Revolution' Just as the usual Industrial Revolution era (1750-1850) has been revised by historians of economic growth, so too the articles in this issue follow the lead of Van Zanden (1995) in opening up a new inequality history for earlier eras and other continents. Three of them offer new evidence on European wealth and income inequality movements in pre-industrial and industrial epochs. The fourth offers a new perspective on Latin American experience since the late nineteenth century, reporting a twentieth-century experience quite unlike the Great Leveling that Kuznets and others saw in Europe and the USA from World War 1 to the 1970s.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0153-6
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Deviant behaviour' Inequality in Portugal 1565–1770
    • Authors: Jaime Reis
      Pages: 297 - 319
      Abstract: This study offers an estimate of Portuguese income inequality over a period of more than 200 years. It is presented in three widely spaced benchmarks: 1565, 1700 and 1770. This entirely new index is based in large measure on a little-researched annual personal income tax (décima) instituted in 1641. It covered all social classes, including nobility and clergy and every form of household earnings, and permits therefore a singularly accurate measure. It allows us to conclude that, in contrast with early modern Europe in general, Portugal experienced a notable decline in economic inequality. Several freshly minted quantitative indicators enable us to conclude that the burden of the explanation for this apparently ‘deviant’ behaviour can be ascribed to changes in the functional distribution of income. Significant transformations in Portuguese agriculture—towards labour-intensive products like maize and wine—permanently shifted the wage–rental ratio in favour of labour. The skill premium fell but its contribution was relatively modest. It was a time of sustained economic growth, but this was not associated with pronounced urbanization or industrialization.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0152-7
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • The rich in historical perspective: evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca.
           1300–1800)
    • Authors: Guido Alfani
      Pages: 321 - 348
      Abstract: This article provides an overview of long-term changes in the relative conditions of the rich in preindustrial Europe. It covers four pre-unification Italian states (Sabaudian State, Florentine State, Kingdom of Naples and Republic of Venice) as well as other areas of Europe (Low Countries, Catalonia) during the period 1300–1800. Three different kinds of indicators are measured systematically and combined in the analysis: headcount indexes, the share of the top rich, and richness indexes. Taken together, they suggest that overall, during the entirety of the early modern period the rich tended to become both more prevalent and more distanced from the other strata of society. The only period during which the opposite process took place was the late Middle Ages, following the Black Death epidemic of the mid-fourteenth century. In the period from ca. 1500 to 1800, the prevalence of the rich doubled. In the Sabaudian State, the Florentine State and the Kingdom of Naples, for which reconstructions of regional wealth distributions exist, in about the same period the share of the top 10 % grew from 45–55 to 70–80 %—reaching almost exactly the same level which has recently been suggested as the European average at 1810. Consequently, the time series presented here might be used to add about five centuries of wealth inequality trends to current debates on very long-term changes in the relative position of the rich.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0151-8
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Latin American earnings inequality in the long run
    • Authors: Leticia Arroyo Abad; Pablo Astorga Junquera
      Pages: 349 - 374
      Abstract: This paper traces between-group earnings inequality for six Latin American countries over two centuries based on wage and income series compiled from a large array of primary and secondary sources. We find that inequality varied substantially by country and by period, questioning the notion that colonial legacies largely dominated the evolution of inequality. There is a broader inequality trajectory over the long run in the form of an “m” pattern with peaks around 1880 and the 1990s and a trough around 1920/1930s. Export-led growth does not necessarily imply a rise in inequality, while the import-substitution industrialisation efforts did not translate into a more egalitarian distribution of income. More notably, Latin America’s experience does not exhibit the great inequality levelling as seen in the North Atlantic economies from the 1930s to the 1970s.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0150-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland
    • Authors: Mikołaj Malinowski; Jan Luiten van Zanden
      Pages: 375 - 404
      Abstract: This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate was much higher than in the North Sea area. Furthermore, income inequality in the countryside of the Voivodeship was higher than inequality in Cracow. This can be explained by the demesne economy based on serfdom that was prevalent in agriculture. Using trends in real wages and urbanisation, we also project Polish GDP forwards and backwards in time. Our results indicate that Polish per capita GDP was below that of Western Europe as early as the fifteenth century. This gap persisted despite moderate growth of the Polish economy in the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century, Poland impoverished and became even poorer than Asian economies for which similar estimates are available. Poland recovered slightly in the eighteenth century but continued to lag behind Western Europe.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0154-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Domestic exchange rate determination in Renaissance Florence
    • Authors: G. Geoffrey Booth; Sanders S. Chang
      Pages: 405 - 445
      Abstract: We explore the price-setting protocol used by the money-changers guild, the Arte del Cambio, to set the exchange rate between domestic gold and silver coins in Renaissance Florence, a precursor in purpose and set-up to the contemporary system of posting interest rates. We show that the protocol is evolutionarily stable and designed to converge to the efficient price, which had important implications to the political economy of Florence and the stability of its monetary system. We also show that the predicted dynamics of convergence are consistent with surviving exchange rates from 1389 to 1432, thereby linking the empirical properties of the historical data to the institutional features of the guild that generated them.
      PubDate: 2017-09-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0146-5
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 3 (2017)
       
  • Transatlantic wage gaps and the migration decision: Europe–Canada in
           the 1920s
    • Authors: Alex Armstrong; Frank D. Lewis
      Pages: 153 - 182
      Abstract: As has been seen in other contexts, workers in similar occupations earned much higher wages in Canada than Europe during the 1920s. This observation and related aspects of immigration are addressed with a life-cycle model of the migration decision. The characteristics of immigrants from five European countries: Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, and Sweden, are explored in a way that sheds light not just on those population flows but on the process of immigration generally. We draw on passenger manifests from immigrant ships for information on the individual migrants. Simulations, based partly on the these manifests, reveal that the costs of migration, borrowing constraints, concern for status, and country-specific taste preferences account for key immigrant characteristics, and help explain the large wage differentials that persisted despite Canada’s relatively open immigration policy.
      PubDate: 2017-05-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0141-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 2 (2017)
       
  • Heterogeneous treatment effects of safe water on infectious disease: Do
           meteorological factors matter'
    • Authors: Kota Ogasawara; Yukitoshi Matsushita
      Abstract: Mortality from waterborne infectious diseases remains a serious issue globally. Investigating the efficient laying plan of waterworks to mitigate the risk factors for such diseases has been an important research avenue for industrializing countries. While a growing body of the literature has revealed the mitigating effects of water-purification facilities on diseases, the heterogeneous treatment effects of clean water have been understudied. The present study thus focuses on the treatment effect heterogeneity of piped water with respect to the external meteorological environment of cities in industrializing Japan. To estimate the varying effects, we implement fixed-effects semivarying coefficient models to deal with the unobservable confounding factors, using a nationwide city-level panel dataset between 1922 and 1940. We find evidence that the magnitude of safe water on the reduction in the typhoid death rate is larger in cities with a higher temperature, which is consistent with recent epidemiological evidence. These findings underscore the importance of the variations in the external meteorological conditions of the municipalities that install water-purification facilities in developing countries.
      PubDate: 2017-11-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0169-6
       
  • Getting over naïve scientism c. 1950: what Fogel and North got wrong
    • Authors: Deirdre Nansen McCloskey
      Abstract: Fogel and North, both of them old radicals in the 1950s, received the Nobel Memorial Prize in 1993 for their advocacy—and practice—during the 1960s and 1970s of quantitative methods and especially of basic economic thinking in the study of the economic past. Both were scientific giants, and great teachers and advocates. But even giants make mistakes, and in both cases the mistakes became more evident in the decades after they received the glittering prize. Fogel’s late-career studies of health and welfare, though admirably serious examples of applied economics right to the end, were less scientifically pioneering than his work on railways or slavery. North’s much more influential advocacy—and very much less his practice—of neo-institutionalism, by contrast, was probably a scientific error. Fogel realized more and more the salience of ethics in the economy, and even taught (philosophically unsophisticated) courses on business ethics. North drifted further and further from the essentially ethical underpinnings of an innovative economy, speaking of “brain science” rather than the mind-scanning equipment of the humanities, and led his many followers in the drift.
      PubDate: 2017-11-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0168-7
       
  • A cliometric counterfactual: what if there had been neither Fogel nor
           North'
    • Authors: Claude Diebolt; Michael Haupert
      Abstract: 1993 Nobel laureates Robert Fogel and Douglass North were pioneers in the “new” economic history, or cliometrics. Their impact on the economic history discipline is great, though not without its critics. In this essay, we use both the “old” narrative form of economic history, and the “new” cliometric form to analyze the impact each had on the evolution of economic history.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0167-8
       
  • Key forces behind the decline of fertility: lessons from childlessness in
           Rouen before the industrial revolution
    • Abstract: To better understand the forces underlying fertility decisions, we look at the forerunners of fertility decline. In Rouen, France, completed fertility dropped between 1640 and 1792 from 7.4 to 4.2 children. We review possible explanations and keep only three: increases in materialism, in women’s empowerment, and in returns to education. The methodology is one of analytic narrative, bringing together descriptive evidence with a theoretical model. We accordingly propose a theory showing that we can discriminate between these explanations by looking at childlessness and its social gradient. An increase in materialism or, under certain conditions, in women’s empowerment, leads to an increase in childlessness, while an increase in the return to education leads to a decrease in childlessness. Looking at the Rouen data, childlessness was clearly on the rise, from 4% in 1640 to 10% at the end of the eighteenth century, which appears to discredit the explanation based on increasing returns to education, at least for this period.
      PubDate: 2017-09-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0166-9
       
  • Gallman revisited: blacksmithing and American manufacturing,
           1850–1870
    • Authors: Jeremy Atack; Robert A. Margo
      Abstract: In nineteenth-century America, blacksmiths were a fixture in every village, town, and city, producing a diverse range of products from axes to wheels and services from repairs to horse shoeing. In constructing his historical GNP accounts, Gallman opted to exclude these “jacks-of-all-trades” from the manufacturing sector, classifying them instead as part of the service sector. However, using establishment-level data for blacksmiths from the federal censuses of manufactures for 1850, 1860, and 1870, we re-examine that choice and show that blacksmiths were an important, if declining, source of manufactured goods. Moreover, as quintessential artisan shops, a close analysis of their structure and operation helps resolve several key puzzles regarding industrialization in the nineteenth century. As “jacks-of-all-trades,” they were generally masters of none (except for their service activities). Moreover, the historical record reveals that several of those who managed to achieve mastery moved on to become specialized manufacturers of that specific product. Such specialized producers had higher productivity levels than those calling themselves blacksmiths producing the same goods, explaining changes in industry mix and the decline of the blacksmith in manufacturing.
      PubDate: 2017-08-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0165-x
       
  • A city of trades: Spanish and Italian immigrants in
           late-nineteenth-century Buenos Aires, Argentina
    • Authors: Leticia Arroyo Abad; Blanca Sánchez-Alonso
      Abstract: The city of Buenos Aires in the 1890s is an extreme case in immigration history since the native workers accounted for less than one-third of the labour force. In this paper, we look at the labour market performance of Argentineans vis-à-vis the largest two immigrant groups, Italians and the Spaniards. We find that, on average, Argentineans enjoyed higher wages, but workers specialised in particular occupations by nationality. Immigrants clustered in occupations with lower salaries. Despite higher literacy levels and the language advantage, Spaniards did not outperform Italians in earnings. Ethnic networks facilitated the integration of immigrants into the host society and played a role in the occupation selection of immigrants. Our results suggest that Italian prosperity in Buenos Aires was not based on superior earnings or skills but on older and powerful networks.
      PubDate: 2017-05-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0164-y
       
 
 
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