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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3070 journals)
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    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1145 journals)
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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1145 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
American Economic Journal : Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 96)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Cliometrica
  [SJR: 0.522]   [H-I: 11]   [1 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1863-2513 - ISSN (Online) 1863-2505
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2341 journals]
  • Human capital formation from occupations: the ‘deskilling
           hypothesis’ revisited
    • Authors: Alexandra M. de Pleijt; Jacob L. Weisdorf
      Pages: 1 - 30
      Abstract: Abstract We use HISCLASS to code the occupational titles of over 30,000 English male workers according to the skill content of their work. We then track the evolution of the sampled working skills across three centuries of English history, from 1550 to 1850. We observe a modest rise in the share of ‘high-quality workmen’ deemed necessary by Mokyr and others to facilitate the Industrial Revolution, including machine erectors and operators. But we also find remarkable growth in the share of unskilled workers, rising from 20 % in the late sixteenth century to nearly 40 % in the early nineteenth century, caused mainly by falling shares of semi-skilled, blue-collar workers. Close inspection of the occupational structures within the main sectors of production suggests that deskilling occurred in agriculture and industry alike, prompted by land concentration in agriculture and workshop-to-factory changes in industry.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0140-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Market potential and city growth: Spain 1860–1960
    • Authors: Rafael González-Val; Daniel A. Tirado-Fabregat; Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal
      Pages: 31 - 61
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we employ parametric and nonparametric techniques to analyse the effect of market potential on the structure and growth of Spanish cities during the period 1860–1960. Even though a few attempts have been made to analyse whether market potential might influence urban structures, this period is especially interesting because it is characterised by advances in the economic integration of the national market together with an intense process of industrialisation. By using an elaborated measure of market potential at the city level, our results show a positive influence of this market potential on city growth, although this influence is heterogeneous over time. Only changes in the market potential from 1900 have a significant effect on population growth.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-015-0139-9
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Non-financial hurdles for human capital accumulation: landownership in
           Korea under Japanese rule
    • Authors: Bogang Jun; Tai-Yoo Kim
      Pages: 63 - 92
      Abstract: Abstract This study examined the relationship between land inequality and human capital accumulation in the Korean colonial period by using a panel data set from 1934 to 1942. Evidence of the adverse relationship between land inequality and the accumulation of human capital has thus far only been presented by using data from Western countries and from countries that achieved industrialization not under colonial occupation but by their own economic interest. The presented findings thus contribute to the body of knowledge on this topic and confirm the generalizability of the Galor model by analyzing the unique Korean context under Japanese rule in the early twentieth century. It is the first study to present evidence that inequality in landownership had an adverse effect on the level of public education in the Korean colonial period (i.e., it is a non-financial hurdle for human capital accumulation). By using a fixed effects model and a fixed effects two-stage least squares model with an instrumental variable estimation, this study exploits variation in inequality in land concentration across regions in Korea, accounting for the unobserved heterogeneity across these regions. Overall, this analysis establishes a highly significant adverse effect of land inequality on education in the Korean colonial period.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-015-0138-x
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A contribution to the analysis of historical economic fluctuations
           (1870–2010): filtering, spurious cycles, and unobserved component
           modeling
    • Authors: José Luis Cendejas; Félix-Fernando Muñoz; Nadia Fernández-de-Pinedo
      Pages: 93 - 125
      Abstract: Abstract Time series filtering methods such as the Hodrick–Prescott (HP) filter, with a consensual choice of the smoothing parameter, eliminate the possibility of identifying long swing cycles (e.g., Kondratieff type) or, alternatively, may distort periodicities that are in fact present in the data, giving rise, for example, to spurious Kuznets-type cycles. In this paper, we propose filtering Maddison’s time series for the period 1870–2010 for a selection of developed countries using a less restrictive filtering technique that does not impose but instead estimates the cutoff frequency. In particular, we use unobserved component models that optimally estimate the smoothing parameter. Using this methodology, we identify cycles of periods, primarily in the range of 4–7 years (Juglar-type cycles), and a number of patterns of cyclical convergence. We analyze the historical processes underlying this last empirical finding: Peacetime periods, monetary arrangements, trade and investment flows, and industrial boosts are confluent forces driving the economic dynamism. After 1950, we observe a common business cycle factor that groups all economies, which is consistent with the consolidation of the so-called second globalization.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-015-0135-0
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • Long waves in prices: new evidence from wavelet analysis
    • Authors: Marco Gallegati; Mauro Gallegati; James B. Ramsey; Willi Semmler
      Pages: 127 - 151
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we apply wavelet analysis to study the dynamics of long-term movements in wholesale prices for the USA, the UK and France over the period 1791–2012. The application of wavelet analysis to long-term historical price series allows us to detect long waves in prices whose periodization is remarkably similar to those provided in the literature for the pre-World War II period. Moreover, we find evidence on the existence of long waves in prices also after World War II, a period in which long waves are generally difficult to detect because of the positive trend displayed by prices. The comparison between the long wave components extracted through wavelets and the Christiano–Fitzgerald band-pass filter suggests that wavelets provide a reliable and straightforward technique for analyzing long waves dynamics in time series exhibiting quite complex patterns such as historical data.
      PubDate: 2017-01-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-015-0137-y
      Issue No: Vol. 11, No. 1 (2017)
       
  • A game-theoretic analysis of the Waterloo campaign and some comments on
           the analytic narrative project
    • Authors: Philippe Mongin
      Abstract: Abstract The paper has a twofold aim. On the one hand, it provides what appears to be the first game-theoretic modeling of Napoléon’s last campaign, which ended dramatically on June 18, 1815, at Waterloo. It is specifically concerned with the decision Napoléon made on June 17, 1815, to detach part of his army and send it against the Prussians, whom he had defeated, though not destroyed, on June 16 at Ligny. Military strategists and historians agree that this decision was crucial but disagree about whether it was rational. Hypothesizing a zero-sum game between Napoléon and Blücher, and computing its solution, we show that dividing his army could have been a cautious strategy on Napoléon’s part, a conclusion which runs counter to the charges of misjudgment commonly heard since Clausewitz. On the other hand, the paper addresses some methodological issues relative to “analytic narratives”. Some political scientists and economists who are both formally and historically minded have proposed to explain historical events in terms of properly mathematical game-theoretic models. We liken the present study to this “analytic narrative” methodology, which we defend against some of objections that it has aroused. Generalizing beyond the Waterloo case, we argue that military campaigns provide an especially good opportunity for testing this new methodology.
      PubDate: 2017-04-06
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0162-0
       
  • The transmission of the financial crisis in 1907: an empirical
           investigation
    • Authors: Ellis W. Tallman; Jon R. Moen
      Abstract: Abstract Using an extensive high-frequency data set, we investigate the transmission of financial crisis specifically focusing on the Panic of 1907, the final severe panic of the National Banking Era (1863–1913). We trace the transmission of the crisis from New York City trust companies to the New York City national banks through direct and indirect interconnections. Trust companies held cash balances at national banks and these balances were liquidated as trust companies suffered depositor runs. Secondly, trust companies and national banks were notable creditors to the New York Stock Exchange; when trusts were suffering runs, the call loan market on the stock exchange seized. The crisis spread to the interior banks after the New York Clearing House banks restricted the convertibility of deposits into cash. Bond returns were sharply negative in the 2 weeks following the suspension. The suspension of convertibility produced a currency premium, which in turn attracted gold imports from Europe. The New York Clearing House had only limited capability to fight the panic through its use of clearing house loan certificates. The gold imports ultimately restored liquidity to financial markets.
      PubDate: 2017-03-25
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0161-1
       
  • North and south: long-run social mobility in England and attitudes toward
           welfare
    • Authors: Nina Boberg-Fazlić; Paul Sharp
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, we examine the long-run social mobility experience in England. We present evidence for surprisingly constant levels of social mobility over the period 1550–1749, despite huge structural changes. Examining regional differences, we show that the North of England exhibited higher rates of social mobility than the South. We link this to the hypothesis that historically high levels of social mobility can lead to a culture of non-acceptance of redistribution and welfare provision. Taking advantage of the fact that welfare provision was determined at the local level at the time, we are able to compare social mobility rates and welfare spending within a single country. Consistent with the hypothesis, we find evidence for historically higher levels of social mobility as well as lower welfare spending and less acceptance of redistribution in the North.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0160-2
       
  • Public debt and economic growth in Spain, 1851–2013
    • Authors: Vicente Esteve; Cecilio Tamarit
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper we investigate the long-run relationship between public debt and economic growth in the Spanish economy for the period 1851–2013. We develop a cliometric analysis of the debt–growth nexus using novel time series methods. We find some support for a negative relationship between both variables, but no clear evidence of a debt threshold. The estimated long-run elasticity in a one-break model shows a tendency to decrease over time from a nonsignificant 0.011 to a −0.070, indicating that a 10 percentage increase in the public debt-to-GDP ratio is associated with 0.70 percentage points lower real economic growth. Indeed, we find for the first subsample (1851–1939) either “decoupling” or “saturation,” while in the second subsample (1940–2000) the long-run elasticity coefficient becomes negative and significant. When we extend our analysis up to 2013, we find a break in 1971 coinciding with the twilight of Franco’s dictatorship and the Spanish transition to democracy.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-017-0159-8
       
  • Hysteresis and persistent long-term unemployment: the American Beveridge
           Curve of the Great Depression and World War II
    • Authors: Gabriel P. Mathy
      Abstract: Abstract Long-term unemployment plagued the American economy of the Great Depression. The stigma of a long unemployment spell made reentering employment difficult even during the brisk economic recovery, which lead to unemployment hysteresis and persistently high joblessness. Unemployment figures disaggregated by duration confirm the importance of hysteresis for the Great Depression, as the long-term unemployed were less likely to return to gainful employment until the war. Using the theoretical framework of the Beveridge Curve, I find that hysteresis was a significant problem during the 1930s, but that the essentially unlimited labor demand during the World War II provided jobs even to the long-term unemployed. As a result, labor market conditions in the 1950s resembled those of the 1920s prior to the Depression and so the labor market scars of the Great Depression were healed.
      PubDate: 2017-01-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0158-1
       
  • Human capital formation in the long run: evidence from average years of
           schooling in England, 1300–1900
    • Authors: Alexandra M. de Pleijt
      Abstract: Abstract In this paper, I quantify average years of education present in the English population between 1307 and 1900. The estimates are based on extensive source material on literacy rates, number of primary and secondary schools and enrolment figures. An additional distinction is made on the basis of gender and of level of schooling. The trends in the data are indicative of significant increases in the level of educational attainment during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. This remarkable growth in schooling was followed by a strong decline in average years of education after ca. 1720. Whilst one in seven boys entered secondary schooling at the end of seventeenth century, this had decreased to one in thirty by the 1880s. Overall, the trends in the data suggest that education was beneficial to pre-industrial economic growth, but this was not sustained following the initial stage of the industrialisation process.
      PubDate: 2016-12-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0156-3
       
  • Farm mechanization on an otherwise ‘featureless’ plain: tractors on
           the Northern Great Plains and immigration policy of the 1920s
    • Authors: Byron Lew; Bruce Cater
      Abstract: Abstract The 1920s marked the beginning of the diffusion of the gasoline tractor in North American agriculture. The tractor was a labor-saving technology by virtue of its speed of operation, reducing labor input per acre. During the same decade, immigration policies of the USA and Canada diverged sharply. While the USA implemented immigration quotas, Canada admitted large flows of Eastern Europeans, provided their destination was the Prairie West. With the essentially homogeneous nature of the plain on either side of the international border, this divergence in policy sets up a natural experiment that allows us to test the effects of different changes in labor supply on the adoption of labor-saving agricultural technology. We show that although Canadian farmers had earlier adopted tractors at the same rate as farmers in the USA, the relatively slower rate of adoption of the tractor on the Canadian Prairies following the policy divergence can be attributed to Canada’s shift to a more open immigration policy. We conclude that changes to macro-policies can have unexpected consequences as illustrated by this example of tractor diffusion.
      PubDate: 2016-12-08
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0157-2
       
  • Private banks in early Michigan, 1837–1884
    • Authors: Christopher Bailey; Tarique Hossain; Gary Pecquet
      Abstract: Abstract Using a comprehensive new data set on private (noncorporate) banks, we examine the business and business environment of private banking and exchange brokering in the state of Michigan from 1837 to the 1880s. The Michigan experience provides an example of the effect of widespread exchange brokers in an economy. We use econometric models to explain the determinants of the numbers of private banks in the state. We find that private banks were substitutes for locally issued state bank currency and were complements with adjacent states’ bank currency. With the demise of heterogeneous currencies, private banks transitioned their core business from exchange brokering to general banking. In both the antebellum and postbellum eras, private banks tended to exist when and where larger incorporated banks did not. Following the collapse of free banking in Michigan in the antebellum years, this was virtually the entire state. During the 1860s and 1870s, corporate banks used private banks as a root source to build on.
      PubDate: 2016-12-02
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0155-4
       
  • Inequality in the very long run: Malthus, Kuznets, and Ohlin
    • Authors: Peter H. Lindert; Jeffrey G. Williamson
      Abstract: Abstract What happened to the inequality of real income and wealth before, during, and after the Industrial Revolution? Just as the usual Industrial Revolution era (1750-1850) has been revised by historians of economic growth, so too the articles in this issue follow the lead of Van Zanden (1995) in opening up a new inequality history for earlier eras and other continents. Three of them offer new evidence on European wealth and income inequality movements in pre-industrial and industrial epochs. The fourth offers a new perspective on Latin American experience since the late nineteenth century, reporting a twentieth-century experience quite unlike the Great Leveling that Kuznets and others saw in Europe and the USA from World War 1 to the 1970s.
      PubDate: 2016-11-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0153-6
       
  • Deviant behaviour? Inequality in Portugal 1565–1770
    • Authors: Jaime Reis
      Abstract: Abstract This study offers an estimate of Portuguese income inequality over a period of more than 200 years. It is presented in three widely spaced benchmarks: 1565, 1700 and 1770. This entirely new index is based in large measure on a little-researched annual personal income tax (décima) instituted in 1641. It covered all social classes, including nobility and clergy and every form of household earnings, and permits therefore a singularly accurate measure. It allows us to conclude that, in contrast with early modern Europe in general, Portugal experienced a notable decline in economic inequality. Several freshly minted quantitative indicators enable us to conclude that the burden of the explanation for this apparently ‘deviant’ behaviour can be ascribed to changes in the functional distribution of income. Significant transformations in Portuguese agriculture—towards labour-intensive products like maize and wine—permanently shifted the wage–rental ratio in favour of labour. The skill premium fell but its contribution was relatively modest. It was a time of sustained economic growth, but this was not associated with pronounced urbanization or industrialization.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0152-7
       
  • Latin American earnings inequality in the long run
    • Authors: Leticia Arroyo Abad; Pablo Astorga Junquera
      Abstract: Abstract This paper traces between-group earnings inequality for six Latin American countries over two centuries based on wage and income series compiled from a large array of primary and secondary sources. We find that inequality varied substantially by country and by period, questioning the notion that colonial legacies largely dominated the evolution of inequality. There is a broader inequality trajectory over the long run in the form of an “m” pattern with peaks around 1880 and the 1990s and a trough around 1920/1930s. Export-led growth does not necessarily imply a rise in inequality, while the import-substitution industrialisation efforts did not translate into a more egalitarian distribution of income. More notably, Latin America’s experience does not exhibit the great inequality levelling as seen in the North Atlantic economies from the 1930s to the 1970s.
      PubDate: 2016-11-01
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0150-9
       
  • The rich in historical perspective: evidence for preindustrial Europe (ca.
           1300–1800)
    • Authors: Guido Alfani
      Abstract: Abstract This article provides an overview of long-term changes in the relative conditions of the rich in preindustrial Europe. It covers four pre-unification Italian states (Sabaudian State, Florentine State, Kingdom of Naples and Republic of Venice) as well as other areas of Europe (Low Countries, Catalonia) during the period 1300–1800. Three different kinds of indicators are measured systematically and combined in the analysis: headcount indexes, the share of the top rich, and richness indexes. Taken together, they suggest that overall, during the entirety of the early modern period the rich tended to become both more prevalent and more distanced from the other strata of society. The only period during which the opposite process took place was the late Middle Ages, following the Black Death epidemic of the mid-fourteenth century. In the period from ca. 1500 to 1800, the prevalence of the rich doubled. In the Sabaudian State, the Florentine State and the Kingdom of Naples, for which reconstructions of regional wealth distributions exist, in about the same period the share of the top 10 % grew from 45–55 to 70–80 %—reaching almost exactly the same level which has recently been suggested as the European average at 1810. Consequently, the time series presented here might be used to add about five centuries of wealth inequality trends to current debates on very long-term changes in the relative position of the rich.
      PubDate: 2016-10-21
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0151-8
       
  • Income and its distribution in preindustrial Poland
    • Authors: Mikołaj Malinowski; Jan Luiten van Zanden
      Abstract: Abstract This article presents per capita GDP and income distribution estimates for preindustrial Poland. It is based on a social table for the Voivodeship of Cracow in 1578. Our evidence indicates that income in Poland was distributed more equally than in contemporary Holland. However, the extraction rate was much higher than in the North Sea area. Furthermore, income inequality in the countryside of the Voivodeship was higher than inequality in Cracow. This can be explained by the demesne economy based on serfdom that was prevalent in agriculture. Using trends in real wages and urbanisation, we also project Polish GDP forwards and backwards in time. Our results indicate that Polish per capita GDP was below that of Western Europe as early as the fifteenth century. This gap persisted despite moderate growth of the Polish economy in the sixteenth century. In the seventeenth century, Poland impoverished and became even poorer than Asian economies for which similar estimates are available. Poland recovered slightly in the eighteenth century but continued to lag behind Western Europe.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0154-5
       
  • The role of production factor quality and technology diffusion in
           twentieth-century productivity growth
    • Authors: Antonin Bergeaud; Gilbert Cette; Rémy Lecat
      Abstract: Abstract The twentieth century was a period of exceptional growth, driven mainly by the increase in total factor productivity (TFP). Using a database of 17 OECD countries over the 1890–2013 period, this paper integrates production factor quality into the measure of TFP, namely by factoring the level of education of the working-age population into the measure of labor and the age of equipment in the measure of capital stock. We then estimate how the diffusion of technology impacts the growth of this newly measured TFP through two emblematic general purpose technologies, electricity and information and communication technologies (ICT). Using growth decomposition methodology from instrumental variable estimates, this paper finds that education levels contribute most significantly to growth, while the age of capital makes a limited, although significant, contribution. Quality-adjusted production factors explain less than half of labor productivity growth in the largest countries except for Japan, where capital deepening posted a very large contribution. As a consequence, the “one big wave” of productivity growth (Gordon in Am Econ Rev 89(2):123–128, 1999), as well as the ICT productivity wave for the countries which experienced it, remains only partially explained by quality-adjusted factors, although education and technology diffusion contribute to explain the earlier wave in the USA in the 1930s–1940s. Finally, technology diffusion, as captured through our two general purpose technologies, leaves unexplained between 0.6 and 1 percentage point of yearly growth, as well as a large proportion of the two twentieth-century technology waves. These results both support a significant lag in the diffusion of general purpose technologies and raise further questions on a wider view on growth factors, including changes in the production process, management techniques and financing practices. Measurement problems may also contribute to the unexplained share of growth.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0149-2
       
  • The role of production factor quality and technology diffusion in
           twentieth-century productivity growth
    • Authors: Antonin Bergeaud; Gilbert Cette; Rémy Lecat
      Abstract: Abstract The twentieth century was a period of exceptional growth, driven mainly by the increase in total factor productivity (TFP). Using a database of 17 OECD countries over the 1890–2013 period, this paper integrates production factor quality into the measure of TFP, namely by factoring the level of education of the working-age population into the measure of labor and the age of equipment in the measure of capital stock. We then estimate how the diffusion of technology impacts the growth of this newly measured TFP through two emblematic general purpose technologies, electricity and information and communication technologies (ICT). Using growth decomposition methodology from instrumental variable estimates, this paper finds that education levels contribute most significantly to growth, while the age of capital makes a limited, although significant, contribution. Quality-adjusted production factors explain less than half of labor productivity growth in the largest countries except for Japan, where capital deepening posted a very large contribution. As a consequence, the “one big wave” of productivity growth (Gordon in Am Econ Rev 89(2):123–128, 1999), as well as the ICT productivity wave for the countries which experienced it, remains only partially explained by quality-adjusted factors, although education and technology diffusion contribute to explain the earlier wave in the USA in the 1930s–1940s. Finally, technology diffusion, as captured through our two general purpose technologies, leaves unexplained between 0.6 and 1 percentage point of yearly growth, as well as a large proportion of the two twentieth-century technology waves. These results both support a significant lag in the diffusion of general purpose technologies and raise further questions on a wider view on growth factors, including changes in the production process, management techniques and financing practices. Measurement problems may also contribute to the unexplained share of growth.
      PubDate: 2016-10-12
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0149-2
       
  • Biological well-being in late nineteenth-century Philippines
    • Authors: Jean-Pascal Bassino; Marion Dovis; John Komlos
      Abstract: Abstract This paper investigates the biological standard of living in the Philippines toward the end of Spanish rule. We investigate levels, trends, and determinants of physical stature from the birth cohorts of the 1860s to the 1890s using data on 23,000 Filipino soldiers enlisted by the US military between 1901 and 1913. We estimate average heights and use province-level information for investigating the determinants of biological well-being. We find that at 159.3 cm (62.7 inches), the average height of soldiers born in the mid-1870s was very short even for the time. The low biological standard of living observed in late nineteenth-century Philippines was not due to the tropical disease environment alone since greater heights were recorded for the same period in other parts of Asia with a similar climate. The results also indicate a decline of more than 1.5 cm (0.6 inches) in the height of soldiers born between the early 1870s and the late 1880s. This decline occurred at a time when there was an expansion of commercial activity in cash crop production for export. Heights did not regain the level of the 1870s until the late 1930s and early 1940s.
      PubDate: 2016-09-10
      DOI: 10.1007/s11698-016-0147-4
       
 
 
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