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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3070 journals)
    - ACCOUNTING (88 journals)
    - BANKING AND FINANCE (261 journals)
    - BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1145 journals)
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    - ECONOMIC SYSTEMS, THEORIES AND HISTORY (170 journals)
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    - PUBLIC FINANCE, TAXATION (32 journals)
    - TRADE AND INDUSTRIAL DIRECTORIES (2 journals)

BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1145 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 124)
American Economic Journal : Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 97)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 322)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Business Ethics: A European Review
  [SJR: 0.834]   [H-I: 13]   [16 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0962-8770 - ISSN (Online) 1467-8608
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • A Simple and Mild Approach for the Synthesis of p-Xylene from Bio-Based
           2,5-Dimethyfuran by Using Metal Triflates
    • Authors: Lingli Ni; Jiayu Xin, Huixian Dong, Xingmei Lu, Xiaomin Liu, Suojiang Zhang
      Abstract: The production of aromatic platform chemicals from biomass-derived feedstocks is of considerable importance in biomass conversion. However, the development of effective routes with simple steps and under mild conditions is still challenging. In this work, we report an original route for the direct synthesis of p-xylene from 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid catalyzed by scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim]NTf2) under mild conditions. An overall 63 % selectivity towards p-xylene and 78 % selectivity towards aromatics were obtained at 90 % conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran by enhancing the dehydration and introducing an extra one-pot decarboxylation step. Furthermore, various dienes and dienophiles were employed as reactants to extend the substrate scope. The aromatic compounds were obtained in moderate yields, which proved the potential of the method to be a generic approach for the conversion of bio-based furanics into renewable aromatics.A triflate synthesis of xylene: Renewable p-xylene is directly synthesized from biomass-derived 2,5-dimethylfuran and acrylic acid over scandium(III) triflate (Sc(OTf)3) and H3PO4 in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ([Emim]NTf2) under mild conditions. A subsequent one-pot decarboxylation step results in an overall 63 % selectivity towards p-xylene at 90 % conversion of 2,5-dimethylfuran.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T03:25:40.378183-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700020
       
  • Direct Synthesis of Dimethyl Carbonate from Carbon Dioxide and Methanol at
           Room Temperature Using Imidazolium Hydrogen Carbonate Ionic Liquid as a
           Recyclable Catalyst and Dehydrant
    • Authors: Tianxiang Zhao; Xingbang Hu, Dongsheng Wu, Rui Li, Guoqiang Yang, Youting Wu
      Abstract: The direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and CH3OH was achieved at room temperature with 74 % CH3OH conversion in the presence of an imidazolium hydrogen carbonate ionic liquid ([CnCmIm][HCO3]). Experimental and theoretical results reveal that [CnCmIm][HCO3] can transform quickly into a CO2 adduct, which serves as an effective catalyst and dehydrant. Its dehydration ability is reversible. The energy barrier of the rate-determining step for the DMC synthesis is only 21.7 kcal mol−1. The ionic liquid can be reused easily without a significant loss of its catalytic and dehydrating ability.We can do both: An imidazolium hydrogen carbonate ionic liquid can serve as both a recyclable catalyst (C) and dehydrant (D) for the direct synthesis of dimethyl carbonate (DMC) from CO2 and CH3OH at room temperature (see scheme). A high conversion of CH3OH and excellent selectivity of DMC are obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T09:46:15.537116-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700128
       
  • Direct Access to Primary Amines and Particle Morphology Control in
           Nanoporous CO2 Sorbents
    • Authors: Nesibe A. Dogan; Ercan Ozdemir, Cafer T. Yavuz
      Abstract: Chemical tuning of nanoporous, solid sorbents for ideal CO2 binding requires unhindered amine functional groups on the pore walls. Although common for soluble organics, post-synthetic reduction of nitriles in porous networks often fails due to insufficient and irreversible metal hydride penetration. In this study, a nanoporous network with pendant nitrile groups, microsphere morphology was synthesized in large scale. The hollow microspheres were easily decorated with primary amines through in situ reduction by widely available boranes. The CO2 capture capacity of the modified sorbent was increased to up to four times that of the starting nanoporous network with a high heat of adsorption (98 kJ mol−1). The surface area can be easily tuned between 1 and 354 m2 g−1. The average particle size (ca. 50 μm) is also quite suitable for CO2 capture applications, such as those with fluidized beds requiring spheres of micron sizes.Smooth access: Nitrile groups in linear polymers can be readily reduced in solution. However, this reduction is challenging in insoluble network polymers, since reducing agents cannot easily access the nitrile groups. The porous polymers reported in this work undergo complete reduction of nitrile pendant groups into amines (−NH2) without sacrificing porosity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T09:46:12.330725-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700190
       
  • Corporate volunteering: A bibliometric analysis from 1990 to 2015
    • Authors: Suska Dreesbach-Bundy; Barbara Scheck
      Abstract: This article describes a quantitative examination of corporate volunteering research in the form of a bibliometric analysis. Using author, journal, geography, epistemological, and industry data from 115 refereed and 445 non-refereed publications published during 1990–2015, we identify corporate volunteering as a rather young research field. Although the field has progressively developed, it is still limited in magnitude, with recent signs of stagnation. The current state is characterized by moderate publication and author activity rates, with a shift toward more peer-reviewed publications conducted in coauthorship, mostly in the disciplines of business, management, and ethics; a focus on financial services as well as the professional service sector; few high-impact studies; and a narrow geographic spread, with North America as the market leader and a rising interest in Western European countries. Findings on the field's prevalent research orientation further indicate a strong employee-centered focus emphasizing the underlying business case. However, in contrast to the overarching concept of corporate social responsibility research, a relatively large share of the corporate volunteering literature also addresses society-related issues, namely, corporates' relationship with non-profits.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T00:10:35.602044-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12148
       
  • Hydrogen-Treated Rutile TiO2 Shell in Graphite-Core Structure as a
           Negative Electrode for High-Performance Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries
    • Authors: Javier Vázquez-Galván; Cristina Flox, Cristian Fàbrega, Edgar Ventosa, Andres Parra, Teresa Andreu, Joan Ramón Morante
      Abstract: Hydrogen-treated TiO2 as an electrocatalyst has shown to boost the capacity of high-performance all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) as a simple and eco-friendly strategy. The graphite felt-based GF@TiO2:H electrode is able to inhibit the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), which is a critical barrier for operating at high rate for long-term cycling in VRFBs. Significant improvements in charge/discharge and electron-transfer processes for the V3+/V2+ reaction on the surface of reduced TiO2 were achieved as a consequence of the formation of oxygen functional groups and oxygen vacancies in the lattice structure. Key performance indicators of VRFB have been improved, such as high capability rates and electrolyte-utilization ratios (82 % at 200 mA cm−2). Additionally, high coulombic efficiencies (ca. 100 % up to the 96th cycle, afterwards >97 %) were obtained, demonstrating the feasibility of achieving long-term stability.Hydrogen-treated TiO2-covered electrodes: A rutile shell is built around a graphite felt electrode to increase its selectivity for the V3+/V2+ redox reaction and to inhibit the hydrogen evolution reaction. The shell is partially reduced in hydrogen, forming oxygen vacancies in the TiO2 structure, which enhances the catalytic activity for the vanadium negative reaction. This results in an electrode that is suitable for vanadium redox flow batteries at high rates (up to 300 mA cm−2) and for long-term cycling.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T04:15:32.435096-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700017
       
  • Influence of Catalyst Acid/Base Properties in Acrolein Production by
           Oxidative Coupling of Ethanol and Methanol
    • Authors: Aleksandra Lilić; Simona Bennici, Jean-François Devaux, Jean-Luc Dubois, Aline Auroux
      Abstract: Oxidative coupling of methanol and ethanol represents a new route to produce acrolein. In this work, the overall reaction was decoupled in two steps, the oxidation and the aldolization, by using two consecutive reactors to investigate the role of the acid/base properties of silica-supported oxide catalysts. The oxidation of a mixture of methanol and ethanol to formaldehyde and acetaldehyde was performed over a FeMoOx catalyst, and then the product mixture was transferred without intermediate separation to a second reactor, in which the aldol condensation and dehydration to acrolein were performed over the supported oxides. The impact of the acid/base properties on the selectivity towards acrolein was investigated under oxidizing conditions for the first time. The acid/base properties of the catalysts were investigated by NH3-, SO2-, and methanol-adsorption microcalorimetry. A MgO/SiO2 catalyst was the most active in acrolein production owing to an appropriate ratio of basic to acidic sites.It′s all about the ratio: The focus of this work is to understand how the amount and strength of the acid/base sites influence the acrolein yield obtained by oxidative coupling of alcohols in the gas phase. The graphic shows the acrolein yield as a function of the basic/acidic sites ratio. A Mg/Si amphoteric catalyst with slightly dominant acidic character shows better catalytic performance than more basic catalysts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T08:35:33.345415-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700230
       
  • A Sustainable One-Pot, Two-Enzyme Synthesis of Naturally Occurring
           Arylalkyl Glucosides
    • Authors: Ivan Bassanini; Jana Krejzová, Walter Panzeri, Daniela Monti, Vladimir Křen, Sergio Riva
      Abstract: A sustainable, convenient, scalable, one-pot, two-enzyme method for the glucosylation of arylalkyl alcohols was developed. The reaction scheme is based on a transrutinosylation catalyzed by a rutinosidase from A. niger using the cheap commercially available natural flavonoid rutin as glycosyl donor, followed by selective “trimming” of the rutinoside unit catalyzed by a rhamnosidase from A. terreus. The process was validated with the syntheses of several natural bioactive glucosides, which could be isolated in up to 75 % yield without silica-gel chromatography.Two in one: A one-pot, two-enzyme synthesis of arylalkyl glucosides exploiting the activity of a rutinosidase and a rhamnosidase is developed. The cheap, nontoxic, natural flavonoid rutin is used as glycosyl donor, the target glucosides are isolated in up to 75 % yield without using protective groups, activating agents, or silica-gel chromatography, and quercetin is recovered as valuable byproduct.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:22:17.893156-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700136
       
  • Solar Cell Materials by Design: Hybrid Pyroxene Corner-Sharing VO4
           Tetrahedral Chains
    • Authors: Fedwa El-Mellouhi; Akinlolu Akande, Carlo Motta, Sergey N. Rashkeev, Golibjon Berdiyorov, Mohamed El-Amine Madjet, Asma Marzouk, El Tayeb Bentria, Stefano Sanvito, Sabre Kais, Fahhad H. Alharbi
      Abstract: Hybrid organic–inorganic frameworks provide numerous combinations of materials with a wide range of structural and electronic properties, which enable their use in various applications. In recent years, some of these hybrid materials—especially lead-based halide perovskites—have been successfully used for the development of highly efficient solar cells. The large variety of possible hybrid materials has inspired the search for other organic–inorganic frameworks that may exhibit enhanced performance over conventional lead halide perovskites. In this study, a new class of low-dimensional hybrid oxides for photovoltaic applications was developed by using electronic structure calculations in combination with analysis from existing materials databases, with a focus on vanadium oxide pyroxenes (tetrahedron-based frameworks), mainly due to their high stability and nontoxicity. Pyroxenes were screened with different cations [A] and detailed computational studies of their structural, electronic, optical and transport properties were performed. Low-dimensional hybrid vanadate pyroxenes [A]VO3 (with molecular cations [A] and corner-sharing VO4 tetrahedral chains) were found to satisfy all physical requirements needed to develop an efficient solar cell (a band gap of 1.0–1.7 eV, strong light absorption and good electron-transport properties).A chain for the better: A new class of materials for photovoltaic applications has been developed, based on low-dimensional hybrid vanadate pyroxenes [A]VO3 (with molecular cations [A] and corner-sharing VO4 tetrahedral chains). These materials were found to satisfy the physical requirements needed to develop an efficient solar cell (a band gap of 1.0–1.7 eV, strong light absorption and good electron-transport properties).
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:11:37.80115-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700121
       
  • Reliable Performance Characterization of Mediated Photocatalytic
           Water-Splitting Half Reactions
    • Authors: Lihao Han; Meng Lin, Sophia Haussener
      Abstract: Photocatalytic approaches using two sets of semiconductor particles and a pair of redox-shuttle mediators are considered as a safe and economic solution for solar water splitting. Here, accurate experimental characterization techniques for photocatalytic half reactions are reported, investigating the gas as well as the liquid products. The methods are exemplified utilizing photocatalytic titania particles in an iron-based aqueous electrolyte for effective oxygen evolution and mediator reduction reactions under illumination. Several product characterization methods, including an optical oxygen sensor, pressure sensor, gas chromatography, and UV/Vis spectroscopy are used and compared for accurate, high-resolution gas-products and mediator conversion measurements. Advantages of each technique are discussed. A high Faraday efficiency of 97.5±2 % is calculated and the reaction rate limits are investigated.A closer look: Various reliable characterization methods for a photocatalytic reactor consisting of semiconductor particles and mediator shuttles are proposed. The method is exemplified utilizing photocatalytic titania particles in an iron-based aqueous electrolyte for effective oxygen evolution and mediator reduction reactions under illumination. Several product characterization methods, including an optical oxygen sensor, pressure sensor, gas chromatography, and UV/Vis spectroscopy are used and compared.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:19:08.477796-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601901
       
  • Assessing mission drift at venture capital impact investors
    • Authors: Dilek Cetindamar; Banu Ozkazanc-Pan
      Abstract: In this article, we consider a recent trend whereby private equity available from venture capital (VC) firms is being deployed toward mission-driven initiatives in the form of impact investing. Acting as hybrid organizations, these impact investors aim to achieve financial results while also targeting companies and funds to achieve social impact. However, potential mission drift in these VCs, which we define as a decoupling between the investments made (means) and intended aims (ends), might become detrimental to the simultaneous financial and social goals of such firms. Based on a content analysis of mission statements, we assess mission drift and the hybridization level of VC impact investors by examining their missions (ends/goals) and their investment practices (means) through the criteria of social and financial logic. After examining eight impact-oriented VC investors and their investments in 164 companies, we find mission drift manifest as a disparity between the means and ends in half of the VC impact investors in our sample. We discuss these findings and make suggestions for further studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T04:10:26.546619-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12149
       
  • Desire to be ethical or ability to self-control: Which is more crucial for
           ethical behavior'
    • Authors: Tuvana Rua; Leanna Lawter, Jeanine Andreassi
      Abstract: Promoting ethical decisions and behaviors is challenging for any organization. Yet managers are still required to make ethical decisions under conditions which deplete their self-control resources, such as high stress and long hours. This study examines the relationships among symbolic and internal moral identity, self-control, and ethical behavior, and investigates whether self-control acts as the mechanism through which moral identity leads to ethical behavior. Findings indicate that internal moral identity overrides symbolic moral identity in the relationship with self-control and that self-control fully mediates the relationship between internal moral identity and ethical behavior. The implications for organizations is that while rules, procedures, and ethics training are useful, managers with a strong moral compass will be more likely to practice self-control leading to more ethical behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-23T02:10:28.317949-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12145
       
  • When organizations are too good: Applying Aristotle's doctrine of the mean
           to the corporate ethical virtues model
    • Authors: Muel Kaptein
      Abstract: Aristotle's doctrine of the mean states that a virtue is the mean state between two vices: a deficient and an excessive one. The Corporate Ethical Virtues (CEV) Model defines the mean and the corresponding deficient vice for each of its seven virtues. This paper defines for each of these virtues the corresponding excessive vice and explores why organizations characterized by these excessive vices increase the likelihood that their employees will behave unethically. The excessive vices are patronization, pompousness, lavishness, zealotry, overexposure, talkativeness, and oppressiveness.
      PubDate: 2017-02-22T00:05:24.874875-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12147
       
  • The influence of media, positive perception, and identification on
           survey-based measures of corruption
    • Authors: Heungsik Park; Jimoon Lee
      Abstract: This study examines the influence of some suspected sources of bias on perceptions of public sector corruption. These sources include dependence on two types of media as information sources about corruption: traditional and social media, positive perception of public employees, and social identification with public employees. Data were collected through a face-to-face survey of the general public in South Korea. The sample comprised 472 respondents evenly dispersed across the country. Through regression analysis, we found that dependence on traditional media—but not social media—significantly increased the perceived level of corruption. However, positive perceptions of and social identification with public employees were negatively associated with it, showing that these factors may skew respondents' perceptions of corruption. The results have implications for practitioners and researchers who design, implement, or evaluate anti-corruption policies, suggesting the need for caution when making use of survey results.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T01:10:26.89739-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12143
       
  • Business ethics searches: A socioeconomic and demographic analysis of U.S.
           Google Trends in the context of the 2008 financial crisis
    • Authors: Christophe Faugère; Olivier Gergaud
      Abstract: A socioeconomic and demographic analysis of U.S. Google Trends for queries about Business Ethics and Greed is proposed in the context of the 2008 financial crisis. The framework is grounded in the ethical decision-making literature. Two models using micro and macro-type variables are tested using GLM and GEE regression techniques. The frequency of these Google queries varies positively with the ratio of females, educational attainment, younger adult age, some measures of economic hardship or inequalities, and the lesser the weight of the finance industry represented in each State. The frequency of queries intensifies for these same socioeconomic and demographic categories, in the aftermath of the financial crisis. This article is the first to study the salience of business ethics as an issue in the empirical literature using a nationwide database. It also provides a first empirical study in the specialized literature on “ethics in a time of crisis”. This study lays a preliminary groundwork to identify pro-ethical reform segments of the population, with practical use for financial regulatory agencies.
      PubDate: 2017-01-23T04:10:42.951003-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12138
       
  • Engaging with environmental stakeholders: Routes to building environmental
           capabilities in the context of the low carbon economy
    • Authors: Polina Baranova; Maureen Meadows
      Pages: 112 - 129
      Abstract: The transition to a low carbon economy demands new strategies to enable organizations to take advantage of the potential for “green” growth. An organization's environmental stakeholders can provide opportunities for growth and support the success of its low carbon strategies, as well as potentially acting as a constraint on new initiatives. Building environmental capabilities through engagement with environmental stakeholders is conceptualized as an important aspect for the success of organizational low carbon strategies. We examine capability building across a range of sectors affected by the sustainability agenda, including construction, rail, water, and health care. We identify a number of emergent environmental stakeholders and explore their engagement with the development of environmental capabilities in the context of the transition toward a low carbon economy. Our conceptual framework offers a categorization of environmental stakeholders based on their position in relation to a focal organization and the potential for the development of environmental capabilities.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T00:00:23.610131-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12141
       
  • CSR and the workplace attitudes of irregular employees: The case of
           subcontracted workers in Korea
    • Authors: Mohammad A. Ali; Heung-Jun Jung
      Pages: 130 - 146
      Abstract: In recent years, there has been a noticeable increase in organizational trends to hire irregular workers. This inclination, in a time of great flux and uncertainty, exacerbates human resource issues faced by firms. We argue that corporate social responsibility (CSR) can be an important antecedent to improve the workplace attitudes of irregular workers and as a result reduce the negative impact on organizations of the increased use of an irregular workforce. Hence, we explore the relationship between perceived CSR (composite and disaggregated) and unfairness perception and social relations of subcontracted workers with regular workers. We further attempt to explain these relationships through the mediating effects of psychological contract violation and organizational identity, respectively. Our analysis supports a negative effect of composite and external CSR on unfairness perception and positive effect on social relations. Additionally, our results support partial mediating roles of psychological contract violation and organizational identity. Theoretical and practical implications of the results are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T03:41:03.400827-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12146
       
  • Leadership styles and corporate social responsibility management: Analysis
           from a gender perspective
    • Authors: Maria del Mar Alonso-Almeida; Jordi Perramon, Llorenc Bagur-Femenias
      Pages: 147 - 161
      Abstract: Companies' perceptions of corporate social responsibility (CSR) have been only partially analyzed from an individual perspective that focuses on personal characteristics and professional backgrounds. However, a gap exists in the research on manager leadership styles and CSR perceptions from a gender perspective. Therefore, this article analyzes differences in attitudes toward various dimensions of CSR by focusing on the leadership styles—transformational, dominance, and dual perspectives—of male and female managers in Spain. A total of 391 respondents in top management positions in Spain were surveyed. The findings revealed similarities and differences between genders with respect to leadership styles and CSR perceptions by dimension using a univariate analysis. A causal model that employed structural equation modeling was also estimated. The findings suggest that for transformational and dual leadership styles, Spanish women may be more adaptable and effective at pursuing company sustainability than Spanish men. However, dominance leadership was found to be the worst leadership style for deploying a CSR strategy. A number of conclusions for business management can be drawn, and some directions for future research are provided.
      PubDate: 2017-01-05T00:25:23.968971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12139
       
  • The role of female directors in promoting CSR practices: An international
           comparison between family and non-family businesses
    • Authors: Lázaro Rodríguez-Ariza; Beatriz Cuadrado-Ballesteros, Jennifer Martínez-Ferrero, Isabel-María García-Sánchez
      Pages: 162 - 174
      Abstract: This article analyzes a panel of 550 international firms, for the period 2004 to 2010, to compare the role of female directors in family and non-family firms in promoting responsible practices. Many studies have associated the presence of women on the board with a higher degree of socially responsible commitment. However, we found that this is much less so in family firms than in non-family firms. In family firms, corporate social responsibility (CSR) commitment does not vary significantly with the presence of female directors, as the latter tend to behave in accordance with the family orientation toward CSR. This orientation depends on the stakeholders being addressed, with greater social responsibility shown toward external stakeholders than internal ones.
      PubDate: 2017-01-10T22:35:25.223867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12140
       
  • Institutional investors as stewards of the corporation: Exploring the
           challenges to the monitoring hypothesis
    • Authors: Mila R. Ivanova
      Pages: 175 - 188
      Abstract: The study explores the challenges UK-based institutional investors face when trying to monitor investee companies and influence their social, environmental, and governance practices. Consistent with previous research, I find that misalignment of interests within the investment chain and dispersed ownership are factors which inhibit investor activism. However, other underexplored challenges include lack of investee company transparency and investor experience in activism, as well as low client demand for engagement and internal conflicts of interest. The results contribute to the literature on institutional investor activism by using direct empirical evidence to systematically discuss the challenges to stewardship. Given the intensification of media and regulatory attention on shareholders in the post-global financial crisis era, coupled with investors’ growing awareness and practice of stewardship, the research opens new avenues for enquiry which go beyond the on-going debate about the monitoring versus short-termism roles of institutional investors.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T05:00:37.836948-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12142
       
  • Political dependence, social scrutiny, and corporate philanthropy:
           Evidence from disaster relief
    • Authors: Yongqiang Gao; Taïeb Hafsi
      Pages: 189 - 203
      Abstract: This study explores why and how firms respond to social demands through philanthropic giving in the context of a severe natural disaster. Drawing on Marquis and Qian's organizational response model to government signals, we integrate resource dependence theory and institutional theory to build a two-step model of organizational response to social needs, in situations of disaster relief. We argue that firms depending more on the government for support are more likely to donate in disaster relief, while firms who receive more scrutiny from the government and the general public and firms having more slack resources are likely to donate more. Evidence from Chinese listed companies' donations to the 2008 Sichuan earthquake largely supports our predictions. This study provides a more precise understanding of the corporate philanthropic decision process, decoupling the drivers of philanthropic giving, and those determining the amount given. Theoretical and practical implications are suggested.
      PubDate: 2017-02-02T03:36:07.705002-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12144
       
  • Cover Picture: Metal–Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and
           Flexible Energy-Storage Devices (ChemSusChem 8/2017)
    • Authors: Jun Young Oh; Yeonsu Jung, Young Shik Cho, Jaeyoo Choi, Ji Ho Youk, Nina Fechler, Seung Jae Yang, Chong Rae Park
      Pages: 1642 - 1642
      Abstract: The Cover picture shows a metal–phenolic carbon nanocomposite that is designed and assembled by metal– organic coordination. The phenolic groups on tannic acid facilitate the aqueous dispersion and crosslinking of carbon nanotubes and provide redox-active sites for pseudocapacitance. The resulting materials exhibit high strength, flexibility, and stable volumetric capacitance in bending conditions. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Oh et al. on page 1675 in Issue 8, 2017 (
      DOI : 10.1002/cssc.201601615).
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T08:05:27.191274-05:
       
  • Inside Cover: An Eco-Friendly, Tunable and Scalable Method for Producing
           Porous Functional Nanomaterials Designed Using Molecular Interactions
           (ChemSusChem 8/2017)
    • Authors: Joseph R. H. Manning; Thomas W. S. Yip, Alessia Centi, Miguel Jorge, Siddharth V. Patwardhan
      Pages: 1643 - 1643
      Abstract: The Inside Cover picture shows the purification of silica using a new room-temperature “greener” route compared to the traditional calcination approach. The new route reduces energy cost by 95 %, recovers 100 % of the template, yet completely purifies silica within minutes. Below, the mechanism for this greener approach is shown, with template molecules (red) being controllably removed from silica (grey). More details can be found in the Full Paper by Manning et al. on page 1683 in Issue 8, 2017 (
      DOI : 10.1002/cssc.201700027).
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T08:05:26.200435-05:
       
  • Metal–Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and Flexible
           Energy-Storage Devices
    • Authors: Jun Young Oh; Yeonsu Jung, Young Shik Cho, Jaeyoo Choi, Ji Ho Youk, Nina Fechler, Seung Jae Yang, Chong Rae Park
      Pages: 1644 - 1644
      Abstract: Invited for this month′s cover is the group of Chong Rae Park at Seoul National University. The image shows that metal– phenolic network on carbon nanotubes can provide unique capacitive performances and mechanical properties for supercapacitor electrodes. The Full Paper itself is available at 10.1002/cssc.201601615.“This newly designed supercapacitor electrode will open a platform toward the development of flexible energy storage devices…” This and more about the story behind the research that inspired the Cover image is presented in the Cover Profile. Read the full text of the corresponding research at 10.1002/cssc.201601615. View the Front Cover here: 10.1002/cssc.201700550.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T08:05:29.283342-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700549
       
  • Recent Progress in Metal–Organic Frameworks and Their Derived
           Nanostructures for Energy and Environmental Applications
    • Authors: Zhiqiang Xie; Wangwang Xu, Xiaodan Cui, Ying Wang
      Pages: 1645 - 1663
      Abstract: Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), as a very promising category of porous materials, have attracted increasing interest from research communities due to their extremely high surface areas, diverse nanostructures, and unique properties. In recent years, there is a growing body of evidence to indicate that MOFs can function as ideal templates to prepare various nanostructured materials for energy and environmental cleaning applications. Recent progress in the design and synthesis of MOFs and MOF-derived nanomaterials for particular applications in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and heavy-metal-ion detection and removal is reviewed herein. In addition, the remaining major challenges in the above fields are discussed and some perspectives for future research efforts in the development of MOFs are also provided.Cleaning up with MOFs: Recent progress in the design and synthesis of metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-derived nanomaterials for applications in lithium-ion batteries, sodium-ion batteries, supercapacitors, dye-sensitized solar cells, and heavy-metal-ion detection and removal is reviewed. Remaining major challenges in these fields are discussed and some perspectives for future research efforts in the development of MOFs are also provided.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T06:05:48.710724-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601855
       
  • Asymmetric Chemoenzymatic Reductive Acylation of Ketones by a Combined
           Iron-Catalyzed Hydrogenation–Racemization and Enzymatic Resolution
           Cascade
    • Authors: Osama El-Sepelgy; Aleksandra Brzozowska, Magnus Rueping
      Pages: 1664 - 1668
      Abstract: A general and practical process for the conversion of prochiral ketones into the corresponding chiral acetates has been realized. An iron carbonyl complex is reported to catalyze the hydrogenation–dehydrogenation–hydrogenation of prochiral ketones. By merging the iron-catalyzed redox reactions with enantioselective enzymatic acylations a wide range of benzylic, aliphatic and (hetero)aromatic ketones, as well as diketones, were reductively acylated. The corresponding products were isolated with high yields and enantioselectivities. The use of an iron catalyst together with molecular hydrogen as the hydrogen donor and readily available ethyl acetate as acyl donor make this cascade process highly interesting in terms of both economic value and environmental credentials.An inexpensive iron carbonyl complex catalyzes the hydrogenation of ketones and the subsequent racemization of the resulting alcohols. The iron-catalyzed redox reactions were combined with lipase-catalyzed enantioselective acylation of the formed alcohol. This cooperative catalytic system was applied in the asymmetric reductive acylation of different prochiral ketones by a hydrogenation/dynamic kinetic resolution cascade.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T03:42:13.578325-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700169
       
  • Acidic Zeolite L as a Highly Efficient Catalyst for Dehydration of
           Fructose to 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in Ionic Liquid
    • Authors: Zhongsen Ma; Hualei Hu, Zhongqiang Sun, Wenting Fang, Jian Zhang, Longfei Yang, Yajie Zhang, Lei Wang
      Pages: 1669 - 1674
      Abstract: Zeolite L was synthesized by the hydrothermal method and post-treated by NH4 exchange to adjust its acidity. The samples were systematic characterized by various techniques including XRD, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, N2 adsorption–desorption, scanning electron microscopy, pyridine IR spectroscopy, and NH3 temperature-programmed desorption. The results demonstrated that the NH4-exchange post-treatment increased the surface area, micropore volume, and acidity of zeolite L. The catalytic performance of the samples was tested in the dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide, [bmim]Br). 99.1 % yield of HMF was obtained when the KL-80 °C-1 h sample (KL zeolite treated with 1 m NH4NO3 solution at 80 °C for 1 h) was used. The high efficiency could be attributed to the appropriate acid properties of the catalyst. The zeolite catalyst could be reused four times without significant decrease in activity.Zeolite catalysis: Zeolite L is synthesized by the hydrothermal method, post-treated by NH4 exchange to adjust its acidity, and characterized by various techniques. In the dehydration of fructose catalyzed by modified zeolite L in the ionic liquid [bmim]Br, 99.1 % yield of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is obtained.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T02:10:24.405554-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700239
       
  • Metal–Phenolic Carbon Nanocomposites for Robust and Flexible
           Energy-Storage Devices
    • Authors: Jun Young Oh; Yeonsu Jung, Young Shik Cho, Jaeyoo Choi, Ji Ho Youk, Nina Fechler, Seung Jae Yang, Chong Rae Park
      Pages: 1675 - 1682
      Abstract: Future electronics applications such as wearable electronics depend on the successful construction of energy-storage devices with superior flexibility and high electrochemical performance. However, these prerequisites are challenging to combine: External forces often cause performance degradation, whereas the trade-off between the required nanostructures for strength and electrochemical performance only results in diminished energy storage. Herein, a flexible supercapacitor based on tannic acid (TA) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with a unique nanostructure is presented. TA was self-assembled on the surface of the CNTs by metal–phenolic coordination bonds, which provides the hybrid film with both high strength and high pseudocapacitance. Besides 17-fold increased mechanical strength of the final composite, the hybrid film simultaneously exhibits excellent flexibility and volumetric capacitance.Flexible electrodes: A metal–phenolic carbon nanocomposite film is designed and assembled by metal–organic coordination. The phenolic groups of tannic acid facilitate the aqueous dispersion and cross-linking of carbon nanotubes and provide redox-active sites for pseudocapacitance. The resulting materials exhibit high strength, flexibility, and stable volumetric capacitance under bending conditions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T02:55:32.554322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601615
       
  • An Eco-Friendly, Tunable and Scalable Method for Producing Porous
           Functional Nanomaterials Designed Using Molecular Interactions
    • Authors: Joseph R. H. Manning; Thomas W. S. Yip, Alessia Centi, Miguel Jorge, Siddharth V. Patwardhan
      Pages: 1683 - 1691
      Abstract: Despite significant improvements in the synthesis of templated silica materials, post-synthesis purification remains highly expensive and renders the materials industrially unviable. In this study this issue is addressed for porous bioinspired silica by developing a rapid room-temperature solution method for complete extraction of organic additives. Using elemental analysis and N2 and CO2 adsorption, the ability to both purify and controllably tailor the composition, porosity and surface chemistry of bioinspired silica in a single step is demonstrated. For the first time the extraction is modelled using molecular dynamics, revealing that the removal mechanism is dominated by surface-charge interactions. This is extended to other additive chemistry, leading to a wider applicability of the method to other materials. Finally the environmental benefits of the new method are estimated and compared with previous purification techniques, demonstrating significant improvements in sustainability.Green silica: By applying green chemistry principles to the synthesis and purification of bioinspired silica a cleaner, cheaper and readily scalable method for silica production is developed, representing a significant technological advance.
      PubDate: 2017-03-29T09:46:18.909376-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700027
       
  • Efficient Cleavage of Lignin–Carbohydrate Complexes and Ultrafast
           Extraction of Lignin Oligomers from Wood Biomass by Microwave-Assisted
           Treatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent
    • Authors: Yongzhuang Liu; Wenshuai Chen, Qinqin Xia, Bingtuo Guo, Qingwen Wang, Shouxin Liu, Yixing Liu, Jian Li, Haipeng Yu
      Pages: 1692 - 1700
      Abstract: Lignocellulosic biomass is an abundant and renewable resource for the production of biobased value-added fuels, chemicals, and materials, but its effective exploitation by an energy-efficient and environmentally friendly strategy remains a challenge. Herein, a facile approach for efficiently cleaving lignin–carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast fractionation of components from wood by microwave-assisted treatment with deep eutectic solvent is reported. The solvent was composed of sustainable choline chloride and oxalic acid dihydrate, and showed a hydrogen-bond acidity of 1.31. Efficient fractionation of lignocellulose with the solvent was realized by heating at 80 °C under 800 W microwave irradiation for 3 min. The extracted lignin showed a low molecular weight of 913, a low polydispersity of 1.25, and consisted of lignin oligomers with high purity (ca. 96 %), and thus shows potential in downstream production of aromatic chemicals. The other dissolved matter mainly comprised glucose, xylose, and hydroxymethylfurfural. The undissolved material was cellulose with crystal I structure and a crystallinity of approximately 75 %, which can be used for fabricating nanocellulose. Therefore, this work promotes an ultrafast lignin-first biorefinery approach while simultaneously keeping the undissolved cellulose available for further utilization. This work is expected to contribute to improving the economics of overall biorefining of lignocellulosic biomass.Faster with microwaves: A choline chloride/oxalic acid dihydrate deep eutectic solvent (DES) is used for fractionation of wood lignocellulose (WL). A combination of DES and microwave irradiation has a synergetic effect on efficiently cleaving lignin–carbohydrate complexes and ultrafast fractionation of WL. The extracted lignin fraction is of low molecular weight, low polydispersity, and high purity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-01T07:10:36.030472-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601795
       
  • Predictive Guide for Collective CO2 Adsorption Properties of Mg−Al
           Mixed Oxides
    • Authors: Hyuk Jae Kwon; Soonchul Kwon, Jeong Gil Seo, In Sun Jung, You-Hwan Son, Chan Hyun Lee, Ki Bong Lee, Hyun Chul Lee
      Pages: 1701 - 1709
      Abstract: Although solid adsorption processes offer attractive benefits, such as reduced energy demands and penalties compared with liquid absorption processes, there are still pressing needs for solid adsorbents with high adsorption capacities, thermal efficiencies, and energy-intensive regeneration in gas-treatment processes. The CO2 adsorption capacities of layered double oxides (LDOs), which are attractive solid adsorbents, have an asymmetric volcano-type correlation with their relative crystallinities. Furthermore, new collective adsorption properties (adsorption capacity, adsorptive energy and charge-transfer amount based on the adsorbent weight) are proposed based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations and measured surface areas. The correlation of these collective properties with their crystallinities is in good agreement with the experimentally measured CO2 adsorptive capacity trend, providing a predictive guide for the development of solid adsorbents for gas-adsorption processes.Magma cum laude: The CO2 adsorption capacities of layered double oxides (LDOs) have an asymmetric volcano-type correlation with their relative crystallinities. The correlation of their adsorption capacity, adsorptive energy, and charge transfer with their crystallinities is in good agreement with the experimentally measured CO2 adsorption capacity, providing a predictive guide for the development of solid adsorbents for gas-adsorption processes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:28:11.383718-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601581
       
  • An In-Depth Structural Study of the Carbon Dioxide Adsorption Process in
           the Porous Metal–Organic Frameworks CPO-27-M
    • Authors: Breogán Pato-Doldán; Mali H. Rosnes, Pascal D. C. Dietzel
      Pages: 1710 - 1719
      Abstract: The CO2 adsorption process in the family of porous metal–organic framework materials CPO-27-M (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn) was studied by variable-temperature powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction under isobaric conditions. The Rietveld analysis of the data provided a time-lapse view of the adsorption process on CPO-27-M. The results confirm the temperature-dependent order of occupation of the three adsorption sites in the pores of the CPO-27-M materials. In CPO-27-M (M=Mg, Mn, Co, Ni, and Zn), the adsorption sites are occupied in sequential order, primarily because of the high affinity of CO2 for the open metal sites. CPO-27-Cu deviates from this stepwise mechanism, and the adsorption sites at the metal cation and the second site are occupied in parallel. The temperature dependence of the site occupancy of the individual CO2 adsorption sites derived from the diffraction data is reflected in the shape of the volumetric sorption isotherms. The fast kinetics and high reversibility observed in these experiments support the suitability of these materials for use in temperature- or pressure-swing processes for carbon capture.All about adsorption: A time-lapse view of the CO2 adsorption process in the CPO-27-M family is obtained with the help of powder synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The results provide insights into the host–guest structures of the CO2 molecules within the metal–organic frameworks on the molecular level and the temperature-dependent order of occupation of the different adsorption sites in the pores.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:19:11.689676-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601752
       
  • An Efficient and Reusable Embedded Ru Catalyst for the Hydrogenolysis of
           Levulinic Acid to γ-Valerolactone
    • Authors: Zuojun Wei; Jiongtao Lou, Chuanmin Su, Dechao Guo, Yingxin Liu, Shuguang Deng
      Pages: 1720 - 1732
      Abstract: To achieve a higher activity and reusability of a Ru-based catalyst, Ru nanoparticles were embedded in N-doped mesoporous carbon through a hard-template method. The catalyst showed excellent catalytic performance (314 h−1 turnover frequency) and recyclability (reusable five times with 3 % activity loss) for the hydrogenolysis of levulinic acid to γ-valerolactone. Compared with the mesoporous carbon without N-doping and conventional activated carbon, the introduction of N-dopant effectively improved the dispersion of Ru nanoparticles, decreased the average size of Ru nanoparticles to as small as 1.32 nm, and improved the adsorption of levulinic acid, which contributed to the increase in the activity of the catalyst. Additionally, the embedding method increased the interaction between Ru nanoparticles and carbon support in contrast with the conventional impregnation method, thus preventing the Ru nanoparticles from migration, aggregation, and leaching from the carbon surface and therefore increasing the reusability of the catalyst.Stability through doping: The embedding of Ru nanoparticles in N-doped mesoporous carbon effectively improve the dispersion and decrease the average size of the Ru nanoparticles, improve the adsorption of levulinic acid, and increase the interaction between Ru and the support. The strategy prevents the Ru nanoparticles from migration, aggregation, and leaching, and consequently increases the reusability of the catalyst.
      PubDate: 2017-03-22T07:27:24.705322-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601769
       
  • Size-Dependent Activity of Palladium Nanoparticles: Efficient Conversion
           of CO2 into Formate at Low Overpotentials
    • Authors: Motiar Rahaman; Abhijit Dutta, Peter Broekmann
      Pages: 1733 - 1741
      Abstract: Remarkable size-dependent activity of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) towards formate production is evident at very low overpotentials (−0.1 to −0.5 V vs. RHE). Size-selective PdNPs, chemically synthesized at sizes of 3.8–10.7 nm, effected an electrochemical CO2 reduction reaction in aqueous 0.5 m NaHCO3. The faradaic efficiency of formate production (FEformate) on 3.8 nm PdNPs exceeded 86 % at E=−0.1 V versus RHE, whereas on 6.5 nm PdNPs an even higher FEformate of 98 % was observed. However, FEformate decreased for larger PdNPs. The superior efficiency towards formate production at low overpotentials is rationalized in terms of a changed catalytic pathway through PdH phases. The observed maximum in the formate efficiency for a mean particle size of about 6.5 nm is discussed in terms of counterbalancing the size-dependent effects of a competing CO2 reduction reaction and a parasitic hydrogen evolution reaction. Production rates of formate are also remarkably high at −0.3 V versus RHE with 539.9 and 452.3 ppm h−1 mgPd−1 for the 6.5 and 3.8 nm PdNPs, respectively.Smaller isn't better: The size-dependent activity of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) towards formate production has been studied at low overpotentials for NPs with sizes of 3.8–10.7 nm. A maximum of 98 % in the formate efficiency was observed for the 6.5 nm PdNPs. The size dependency of the formate efficiency is related to the counterbalancing effects of a competing CO2 reduction reaction and a parasitic hydrogen evolution reaction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-14T09:10:33.691991-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601778
       
  • Artificial Photosynthesis of Alcohols by Multi-Functionalized
           Semiconductor Photocathodes
    • Authors: Yuqian Zhang; Bo Han, Yanjie Xu, Dongning Zhao, Yongjian Jia, Rong Nie, Zhouhe Zhu, Fengjuan Chen, Jianguo Wang, Huanwang Jing
      Pages: 1742 - 1748
      Abstract: Novel artificial photosynthesis systems are devised as cells of dye/Pd/NR-MOx (M=Ti, Zn)∥CoPi/W:BiVO4 that convert efficiently CO2 to alcohols. The photocathodes are aminofunctionalized, palladium-deposited, and in situ sensitized nano-TiO2 or ZnO/FTO (FTO: fluorine-doped tin oxide) electrodes that are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), TEM, XRD, UV/Vis spectra, and evaluated by electrochemical techniques. The cell of dye/Pd/S-TiO2∥CoPi/W:BiVO4 uniquely generates ethanol under irradiation of 200 mW cm−2, reaching 0.56 % quantum efficiency (QE) at −0.56 V and 0.13 % QE without external electron supply. The cell of dye/Pd/ N-ZnO∥CoPi/W:BiVO4 produces solely methanol at a rate of 42.8 μm h−1 cm−2 at −0.56 V of a Si solar cell, which is far less than the electrochemical voltage of water splitting (1.23 V). Its QE reaches to 0.38 %, which is equal to plants. The isotopic labeling experiments confirm the carbon source and oxygen releasing. The selectivity for alcohols of multi-functionalized semiconductors is discussed.Photo-prepared alcohols: New artificial photosynthesis cells composed of organic–inorganic composite photocathode consisting of TiO2/ZnO mimicking the photosystem I (PS I) and Calvin cycle and BiVO4 mimicking photosystem II (PS II) are devised, fabricated, and used to convert CO2 to ethanol or methanol as unique product powered by a silica solar cell mimicking the membrane voltage.
      PubDate: 2017-03-30T01:07:12.484552-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601828
       
  • Improving Cellulose Dissolution in Ionic Liquids by Tuning the Size of the
           Ions: Impact of the Length of the Alkyl Chains in Tetraalkylammonium
           Carboxylate
    • Authors: Xiangqian Meng; Julien Devemy, Vincent Verney, Arnaud Gautier, Pascale Husson, Jean-Michel Andanson
      Pages: 1749 - 1760
      Abstract: Twenty ionic liquids based on tetraalkylammonium cations and carboxylate anions have been synthesized, characterized, and tested for cellulose dissolution. The amount of cellulose dissolved in these ionic liquids depends strongly on the size of the ions: from 0 to 22 wt % cellulose can be dissolved at 90 °C. The best ionic liquids are less viscous and ammonium carboxylate based ionic liquids can dissolve as much as imidazolium-based ones. The viscosity of an ionic liquid can be decreased by the addition of DMSO as a cosolvent. After the addition of cosolvent, similar amounts of cellulose per ions are reached for most ionic liquids. As observed by rheology, ionic liquids with the longest alkyl chains form a gel when a high amount of cellulose is dissolved; this drastically limits their potential. Molecular simulations and IR spectroscopy have also been used with the aim of understanding how molecular interactions differ between efficient and inefficient ionic liquids.Optimum size determination: A series of ionic liquids are investigated for their ability to dissolve cellulose. The amount of cellulose dissolved in these ionic liquids depends strongly on the size of the ions. Molecular simulations and IR spectroscopy have also been used to understand how molecular interactions differ between efficient and inefficient ionic liquids.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T08:40:36.13828-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601830
       
  • Porous Zirconium–Furandicarboxylate Microspheres for Efficient Redox
           Conversion of Biofuranics
    • Authors: Hu Li; Xiaofang Liu, Tingting Yang, Wenfeng Zhao, Shunmugavel Saravanamurugan, Song Yang
      Pages: 1761 - 1770
      Abstract: Biofuranic compounds, typically derived from C5 and C6 carbohydrates, have been extensively studied as promising alternatives to chemicals based on fossil resources. The present work reports the simple assembly of biobased 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) with different metal ions to prepare a range of metal–FDCA hybrids under hydrothermal conditions. The hybrid materials were demonstrated to have porous structure and acid–base bifunctionality. Zr-FDCA-T, in particular, showed a microspheric structure, high thermostability (ca. 400 °C), average pore diameters of approximately 4.7 nm, large density, moderate strength of Lewis-base/acid centers (ca. 1.4 mmol g−1), and a small number of Brønsted-acid sites. This material afforded almost quantitative yields of biofuranic alcohols from the corresponding aldehydes under mild conditions through catalytic transfer hydrogenation (CTH). Isotopic 1H NMR spectroscopy and kinetic studies verified that direct hydride transfer was the dominant pathway and rate-determining step of the CTH. Importantly, the Zr-FDCA-T microspheres could be recycled with no decrease in catalytic performance and little leaching of active sites. Moreover, good yields of C5 (i.e., furfural) or C4 products [i.e., maleic acid and 2(5H)-furanone] could be obtained from furfuryl alcohol without oxidation of the furan ring over these metal–FDCA hybrids. The content and ratio of Lewis-acid/base sites were demonstrated to dominantly affect the catalytic performance of these redox reactions.All from Biomass: Biobased 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) assembled with zirconium under solvothermal conditions can give mesoporous Zr–FDCA microspheres functionalized with enhancive Lewis-acid/base centers, which are demonstrated to be highly active and selective for catalytic transfer hydrogenation and oxidation of biofuranics to corresponding alcohols and C4 products, respectively. The robust and sustainable catalytic system shows great potential for efficient valorization of biofuranics.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T04:21:46.754082-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201601898
       
  • Ultrathin Mesoporous RuCo2O4 Nanoflakes: An Advanced Electrode for
           High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitors
    • Authors: Deepak P. Dubal; Nilesh R. Chodankar, Rudolf Holze, Do-Heyoung Kim, Pedro Gomez-Romero
      Pages: 1771 - 1782
      Abstract: A new ruthenium cobalt oxide (RuCo2O4) with a unique marigold-like nanostructure and excellent performance as an advanced electrode material has been successfully prepared by a simple electrodeposition (potentiodynamic mode) method. The RuCo2O4 marigolds consist of numerous clusters of ultrathin mesoporous nanoflakes, leaving a large interspace between them to provide numerous electrochemically active sites. Strikingly, this unique marigold-like nanostructure provided excellent electrochemical performance in terms of high energy-storage capacitance (1469 F g−1 at 6 A g−1) with excellent rate proficiency and long-lasting operating cycling stability (ca. 91.3 % capacitance retention after 3000 cycles), confirming that the mesoporous nanoflakes participate in the ultrafast electrochemical reactions. Furthermore, an asymmetric supercapacitor was assembled using RuCo2O4 (positive electrode) and activated carbon (negative electrode) with aqueous KOH electrolyte. The asymmetric design allowed an upgraded potential range of 1.4 V, which further provided a good energy density of 32.6 Wh kg−1 (1.1 mWh cm−3). More importantly, the cell delivered an energy density of 12.4 Wh kg−1 even at a maximum power density of 3.2 kW kg−1, which is noticeably superior to carbon-based symmetric systems.Asymmetric supercapacitors! RuCo2O4 with a unique marigold-like nanostructure is prepared by a simple electrodeposition method. The material shows excellent performance as an advanced electrode material, including high energy-storage capacitance (1469 F g−1 at 6 A g−1) with excellent rate proficiency and long-lasting operating cycling stability (ca. 91.3 % capacitance retention after 3000 cycles).
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T07:50:53.440095-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700001
       
  • Electrochemical Behavior of PEDOT/Lignin in Ionic Liquid Electrolytes:
           Suitable Cathode/Electrolyte System for Sodium Batteries
    • Authors: Nerea Casado; Matthias Hilder, Cristina Pozo-Gonzalo, Maria Forsyth, David Mecerreyes
      Pages: 1783 - 1791
      Abstract: Biomass-derived polymers, such as lignin, contain quinone/ hydroquinone redox moieties that can be used to store charge. Composites based on the biopolymer lignin and several conjugated polymers have shown good charge-storage properties. However, their performance has been only studied in acidic aqueous media limiting their applications mainly to supercapacitors. Here, we show that PEDOT/lignin (PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) biopolymers are electroactive in aprotic ionic liquids (ILs) and we move a step further by assembling sodium full cell batteries using PEDOT/lignin as electrode material and IL electrolytes. Thus, the electrochemical activity and cycling of PEDOT/lignin electrodes was investigated in 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMPyrTFSI), 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (BMPyrFSI), 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (EMImTFSI) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (EMImFSI) IL electrolytes. The effects of water and sodium salt addition to the ILs were investigated to obtain optimum electrolyte systems for sodium batteries. Finally, sodium batteries based on PEDOT/lignin cathode with imidazolium-based IL electrolyte showed higher capacity values than pyrrolidinium ones, reaching 70 mAhg−1. Our results demonstrate that PEDOT/lignin composites can serve as low cost and sustainable cathode materials for sodium batteries.Sustai-Na-ble batteries: Electroacitivity of PEDOT/lignin (PEDOT: poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)) biopolymer is studied in aprotic ionic liquids, demonstrating an effective cathode/electrolyte system that is applied to develop sustainable sodium batteries. These results open up the possibility to use other lignin-derived cathodes in sodium batteries as well as PEDOT/lignin in other electrochemical devices using ionic liquids as electrolytes.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T09:06:07.821737-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700012
       
  • Catalytic Biodiesel Production Mediated by Amino Acid-Based Protic Salts
    • Authors: Jingbo Li; Zheng Guo
      Pages: 1792 - 1802
      Abstract: Hetero- and homogeneous acid catalysts are effective catalysts for the production of biodiesel from oils containing high free fatty acids. The protic salts synthesized from natural amino acids were examined for catalytic activity and efficiency for the esterification of oleic acid after structural identification and characterization. In the esterification reaction of oleic acid with methanol, [Asp][NO3] was the best catalyst, and its high activity correlated to its high Hammett acidity. The optimal reaction conditions for the esterification of oleic acid to achieve 97 % biodiesel yield were: 70 °C, 10 % catalyst loading (w/w, on oleic acid basis), methanol/oleic acid ratio 7.5:1, and 5 h. Generally, [Asp][NO3] could be a good catalyst for the esterification of oleic acid with alcohols with chain lengths of up to six. The biodiesel yield of 93.86 % obtained from palm fatty acid distillate implies that the catalyst has potential for industrial application. A study of the kinetics indicated that the reaction followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with an activation energy and pre-exponential of 57.36 kJ mol−1 and 44.24×105 min−1, respectively. The aspartic acid-derived protic salt is a promising, operationally simply, sustainable, renewable, and possibly biodegradable catalyst for the conversion of free fatty acids into biodiesel.Protic salts for biorenewable fuels: Amino acid-derived protic salts catalyze biodiesel production from free fatty acids. The preparation of the protic salts is a simple protonation process, and only water is required. The industrial waste oil, palm fatty acid distillate, is converted into biodiesel in a sustainable process. The renewability, biodegradeability, and nontoxicity of amino acids make this process green and sustainable.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T09:11:09.859479-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700026
       
  • Honeycomb-like Nitrogen and Sulfur Dual-Doped Hierarchical Porous
           Biomass-Derived Carbon for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries
    • Authors: Manfang Chen; Shouxin Jiang, Cheng Huang, Xianyou Wang, Siyu Cai, Kaixiong Xiang, Yapeng Zhang, Jiaxi Xue
      Pages: 1803 - 1812
      Abstract: Honeycomb-like nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon/sulfur composites (NSHPC/S) are successfully fabricated for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries. The effects of nitrogen, sulfur dual-doping on the structures and properties of the NSHPC/S composites are investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and charge/discharge tests. The results show that N, S dual-doping not only introduces strong chemical adsorption and provides more active sites but also significantly enhances the electronic conductivity and hydrophilic properties of hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon, thereby significantly enhancing the utilization of sulfur and immobilizing the notorious polysulfide shuttle effect. Especially, the as-synthesized NSHPC-7/S exhibits high initial discharge capacity of 1204 mA h g−1 at 1.0 C and large reversible capacity of 952 mA h g−1 after 300 cycles at 0.5 C with an ultralow capacity fading rate of 0.08 % per cycle even at high sulfur content (85 wt %) and high active material areal mass loading (2.8 mg cm−2) for the application of high energy density Li–S batteries.From lotus plumule: A facile, low-cost, and high yield approach for preparing honeycomb-like nitrogen, sulfur dual-doped hierarchical porous carbon/sulfur composite (NSHPC/S) from biomass (lotus plumule) is proposed. The unique structure of the porous carbon and the synergistic effect of dual-doping with strong physical and chemical adsorption for polysulfides show outstanding long-term cycling stability in Li–S batteries.
      PubDate: 2017-03-27T02:10:32.184036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700050
       
  • Solvent- and Halogen-Free Modification of Biobased Polyphenols to
           Introduce Vinyl Groups: Versatile Aromatic Building Blocks for Polymer
           Synthesis
    • Authors: Antoine Duval; Luc Avérous
      Pages: 1813 - 1822
      Abstract: Various biobased polyphenols (lignins and condensed tannins) were derivatized with vinyl ethylene carbonate, a functional cyclic carbonate, to obtain multifunctional aromatic polymers bearing vinyl groups. The reaction was optimized on a condensed tannin and soda lignin. In both cases, full conversion of the phenol groups was achieved in only 1 h at 150 °C without solvent and with K2CO3 as a cheap and safe catalyst. This reaction was later applied to other condensed tannins and technical lignins (Kraft and organosolv), showing only little dependence on the chemical structure of the polyphenols. The obtained derivatives were thoroughly characterized by 1H and 31P NMR spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and size-exclusion chromatography. The developed method was compared with previously published protocols for the introduction of vinyl groups on lignin, and shows promising advances toward the modification of biobased polyphenols according to green chemistry principles. The obtained macromolecules show great potential as highly versatile biobased aromatic building blocks for the synthesis of polymers through, for example, radical, metathesis, or thiol–ene reactions.Green vinyls: Vinyl groups are grafted quantitatively onto the phenolic OH groups of lignins and tannins in a solvent- and halogen-free reaction. Vinyl ethylene carbonate, a functional five-membered cyclic carbonate, is used as reagent, and K2CO3 as a cheap and safe catalyst. The obtained biobased aromatic macromolecules containing vinyl groups are versatile building blocks for polymer synthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:06:10.357052-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700066
       
  • High Areal Capacity Si/LiCoO2 Batteries from Electrospun Composite Fiber
           Mats
    • Authors: Ethan C. Self; Michael Naguib, Rose E. Ruther, Emily C. McRen, Ryszard Wycisk, Gao Liu, Jagjit Nanda, Peter N. Pintauro
      Pages: 1823 - 1831
      Abstract: Freestanding nanofiber mat Li–ion battery anodes containing Si nanoparticles, carbon black, and poly(acrylic acid) (Si/C/PAA) are prepared using electrospinning. The mats are compacted to a high fiber volume fraction (≈0.85), and interfiber contacts are welded by exposing the mat to methanol vapor. A compacted+welded fiber mat anode containing 40 wt % Si exhibits high capacities of 1484 mA h g−1 (3500 mA h g-1Si) at 0.1 C and 489 mA h g−1 at 1 C and good cycling stability (e.g., 73 % capacity retention over 50 cycles). Post-mortem analysis of the fiber mats shows that the overall electrode structure is preserved during cycling. Whereas many nanostructured Si anodes are hindered by their low active material loadings and densities, thick, densely packed Si/C/PAA fiber mat anodes reported here have high areal and volumetric capacities (e.g., 4.5 mA h cm−2 and 750 mA h cm−3, respectively). A full cell containing an electrospun Si/C/PAA anode and electrospun LiCoO2-based cathode has a high specific energy density of 270 Wh kg−1. The excellent performance of the electrospun Si/C/PAA fiber mat anodes is attributed to the: i) PAA binder, which interacts with the SiOx surface of Si nanoparticles and ii) high material loading, high fiber volume fraction, and welded interfiber contacts of the electrospun mats.Spin it round: Particle/polymer electrospinning is used to prepare nanofiber mats containing Si nanoparticles, carbon powder, and poly(acrylic acid), which are characterized as anodes for Li–ion batteries. The fiber mats exhibit high gravimetric, areal, and volumetric capacities (e.g., 1484 mA h g−1, 4.5 mA h cm−2, and 750 mA h cm−3 at 0.1 C). A full cell containing an electrospun Si-based anode and an electrospun LiCoO2-based fiber mat cathode has a high energy density of 270 Wh kg−1 at 0.1 C.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T03:42:39.522621-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700096
       
  • p-Cymene as Solvent for Olefin Metathesis: Matching Efficiency and
           Sustainability
    • Authors: Artur V. Granato; Alexandra G. Santos, Eduardo N. dos Santos
      Pages: 1832 - 1837
      Abstract: The underexploited biorenewable p-cymene is employed as a solvent for the metathesis of various substrates. p-Cymene is a nontoxic compound that can be obtained in large amounts as a side product of the cellulose and citrus industry. For the cross-metathesis of estragole with methyl acrylate, this solvent prevents the consecutive double-bond isomerization of the product and affords the best yield of all solvents tested. Undesired consecutive isomerization is a major challenge for many substrates in olefin metathesis, including pharmaceutical precursors, and the use of p-cymene as a solvent may be a way to prevent it. This solvent results in a better metathesis performance than toluene for the three substrates tested in this work, matching its performance for two other substrates.Green metathesis solvent: p-Cymene, which can be produced from rejects of the cellulose and citrus industry, is an excellent solvent for the Ru-catalyzed metathesis of various substrates. It prevents the undesired consecutive double-bond isomerization and delivers better yields than other biorenewable solvents.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T04:21:22.824923-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700116
       
  • Interfacial Engineering of Perovskite Solar Cells by Employing a
           Hydrophobic Copper Phthalocyanine Derivative as Hole-Transporting Material
           with Improved Performance and Stability
    • Authors: Xiaoqing Jiang; Ze Yu, Jianbo Lai, Yuchen Zhang, Maowei Hu, Ning Lei, Dongping Wang, Xichuan Yang, Licheng Sun
      Pages: 1838 - 1845
      Abstract: In high-performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs), hole-transporting materials (HTMs) play an important role in extracting and transporting the photo-generated holes from the perovskite absorber to the cathode, thus reducing unwanted recombination losses and enhancing the photovoltaic performance. Herein, solution-processable tetra-4-(bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino)phenoxy-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc-OTPAtBu) was synthesized and explored as a HTM in PSCs. The optical, electrochemical, and thermal properties were fully characterized for this organic metal complex. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs employing this CuPc derivative as a HTM was further investigated, in combination with a mixed-ion perovskite as a light absorber and a low-cost vacuum-free carbon as cathode. The optimized devices [doped with 6 % (w/w) tetrafluoro-tetracyano-quinodimethane (F4TCNQ)] showed a decent power conversion efficiency of 15.0 %, with an open-circuit voltage of 1.01 V, a short-circuit current density of 21.9 mA cm−2, and a fill factor of 0.68. Notably, the PSC devices studied also exhibited excellent long-term durability under ambient condition for 720 h, mainly owing to the introduction of the hydrophobic HTM interlayer, which prevents moisture penetration into the perovskite film. The present work emphasizes that solution-processable CuPc holds a great promise as a class of alternative HTMs that can be further explored for efficient and stable PSCs in the future.Lighten up: Solution-processable tetra-4-(bis(4-tert-butylphenyl)amino)phenoxy-substituted copper phthalocyanine (CuPc-OTPAtBu) is synthesized and explored as a hole-transporting material (HTM) in perovskite solar cells, showing a decent efficiency of 15.0 % together with excellent long-term stability.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:19:13.84817-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700150
       
  • One-Pot Process for Hydrodeoxygenation of Lignin to Alkanes Using Ru-Based
           Bimetallic and Bifunctional Catalysts Supported on Zeolite Y
    • Authors: Hongliang Wang; Hao Ruan, Maoqi Feng, Yuling Qin, Heather Job, Langli Luo, Chongmin Wang, Mark H. Engelhard, Erik Kuhn, Xiaowen Chen, Melvin P. Tucker, Bin Yang
      Pages: 1846 - 1856
      Abstract: The synthesis of high-efficiency and low-cost catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of waste lignin to advanced biofuels is crucial for enhancing current biorefinery processes. Inexpensive transition metals, including Fe, Ni, Cu, and Zn, were severally co-loaded with Ru on HY zeolite to form bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts. These catalysts were subsequently tested for HDO conversion of softwood lignin and several lignin model compounds. Results indicated that the inexpensive earth-abundant metals could modulate the hydrogenolysis activity of Ru and decrease the yield of low-molecular-weight gaseous products. Among these catalysts, Ru-Cu/HY showed the best HDO performance, affording the highest selectivity to hydrocarbon products. The improved catalytic performance of Ru-Cu/HY was probably a result of the following three factors: (1) high total and strong acid sites, (2) good dispersion of metal species and limited segregation, and (3) high adsorption capacity for polar fractions, including hydroxyl groups and ether bonds. Moreover, all bifunctional catalysts proved to be superior over the combination catalysts of Ru/Al2O3 and HY zeolite.Lignin to advanced biofuels: High yields (26–32 wt %) of alkanes in jet fuel or diesel range are directly produced through aqueous-phase hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) conversion of softwood lignin catalyzed by Ru-based bimetallic catalysts supported on zeolite Y. These bimetallic and bifunctional catalysts show high efficiency compared with the combination catalysts Ru/Al2O3 and HY zeolite.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T09:11:21.068842-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201700160
       
  • Back Cover: Efficient Cleavage of Lignin–Carbohydrate Complexes and
           Ultrafast Extraction of Lignin Oligomers from Wood Biomass by
           Microwave-Assisted Treatment with Deep Eutectic Solvent (ChemSusChem
           8/2017)
    • Authors: Yongzhuang Liu; Wenshuai Chen, Qinqin Xia, Bingtuo Guo, Qingwen Wang, Shouxin Liu, Yixing Liu, Jian Li, Haipeng Yu
      Pages: 1857 - 1857
      Abstract: The Back Cover picture shows an ultrafast and low energy-consuming biomass refinery approach. Efficient cleaving lignin–carbohydrate complexes and fractionation of wood lignocellulose was realized by the combination of deep eutectic solvent heating at 80 °C and microwave irradiation for 3 min. The extracted lignin fraction is of low molecular weight, low polydispersity, and high purity. The undissolved cellulose was easily available for further utilization. This work contributes to improving the economics of overall refining of biomass and developing renewable energy utilization. More details can be found in the Full Paper by Liu et al. on page 1692 in Issue 8, 2017 (
      DOI : 10.1002/cssc.201601795).
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T06:41:01.130824-05:
       
  • Flexible Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Nitrogen-Doped Graphene
           Hydrogels with Embedded Nickel Hydroxide Nanoplates
    • Authors: Hao Xie; Shaochun Tang, Dongdong Li, Sascha Vongehr, Xiangkang Meng
      Abstract: To push the energy density limit of supercapacitors (SCs), new electrode materials with hierarchical nano-micron pore architectures are strongly desired. Graphene hydrogels that consist of 3 D porous frameworks have received particular attention but their capacitance is limited by electrical double layer capacitance. In this work, we report the rational design and fabrication of a composite hydrogel of N-doped graphene (NG) that contains embedded Ni(OH)2 nanoplates that is cut conveniently into films to serve as positive electrodes for flexible asymmetric solid-state SCs with NG hydrogel films as negative electrodes. The use of high-power ultrasound leads to hierarchically porous micron-scale sheets that consist of a highly interconnected 3 D NG network in which Ni(OH)2 nanoplates are well dispersed, which avoids the stacking of NG, Ni(OH)2, and their composites. The optimal SC device benefits from the compositional features and 3 D electrode architecture and has a high specific areal capacitance of 255 mF cm−2 at 1.0 mA cm−2 and a very stable, high output cell voltage of 1.45 V, which leads to an energy density of 80 μW h cm−2 even at a high power of 944 μW cm−2, considerably higher than that reported for similar devices. The devices exhibit a high rate capability and only 8 % capacitance loss over 10 000 charging cycles as well as excellent flexibility with no clear performance degradation under strong bending.Bend me, shape me: We report the fabrication of a new composite hydrogel of N-doped graphene (NG) that contains embedded Ni(OH)2 nanoplates. Asymmetric solid-state supercapacitors prepared from such hydrogel films as positive electrodes deliver high energy densities. The high output cell voltage allows a light-emitting diode to be operated with a single capacitor.
      PubDate: 2016-04-20T05:28:08.5687-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201600150
       
  • Intra-stakeholder alliances in plant-closing decisions: A stakeholder
           theory approach
    • Authors: Yves Fassin; Simone de Colle, R. Edward Freeman
      Pages: 97 - 111
      Abstract: This article discusses plant-closing decisions by multinational enterprises (MNEs) applying a stakeholder theory approach. In particular, we focus on the emergence of “intra-stakeholder alliances,” that is, alliances among the various stakeholder groups of a specific corporation. We analyze the emergence of stakeholder alliances in reaction to MNEs' decisions to terminate production locally and discuss their influence on the outcomes of such decisions. Our research is inspired by two exceptional case studies of two multinational breweries that announced their decisions to close niche breweries in small towns in Italy and Belgium. In both cases, the initial decision was ultimately reversed through the actions of intra-stakeholder alliances. We combine insights from stakeholder theory and the social movement literature to analyze the action and influence of intra-stakeholder alliances in seven cases of plant-closing decisions. We conclude by formulating four general propositions that can provide guidance to MNE management in plant-closing decisions. Our findings extend managerial stakeholder theory, show how this approach can improve strategic management analysis, emphasize the importance of the relationships among (local) stakeholders in the (global) value-creation process, and shed light on the collective action and influence of intra-stakeholder alliances.
      PubDate: 2016-12-06T05:36:51.3325-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/beer.12136
       
 
 
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