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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3147 journals)
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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1160 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 163)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 319)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access  
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access  
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Biodegradation
  [SJR: 0.907]   [H-I: 60]   [1 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 1572-9729 - ISSN (Online) 0923-9820
   Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2354 journals]
  • Anaerobic degradation of 1-methylnaphthalene by a member of the
           Thermoanaerobacteraceae contained in an iron-reducing enrichment culture
    • Authors: Sviatlana Marozava; Housna Mouttaki; Hubert Müller; Nidal Abu Laban; Alexander J. Probst; Rainer U. Meckenstock
      Abstract: An anaerobic culture (1MN) was enriched with 1-methylnaphthalene as sole source of carbon and electrons and Fe(OH)3 as electron acceptor. 1-Naphthoic acid was produced as a metabolite during growth with 1-methylnaphthalene while 2-naphthoic acid was detected with naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene. This indicates that the degradation pathway of 1-methylnaphthalene might differ from naphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene degradation in sulfate reducers. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and pyrosequencing revealed that the culture is mainly composed of two bacteria related to uncultured Gram-positive Thermoanaerobacteraceae and uncultured gram-negative Desulfobulbaceae. Stable isotope probing showed that a 13C-carbon label from 13C10-naphthalene as growth substrate was mostly incorporated by the Thermoanaerobacteraceae. The presence of putative genes involved in naphthalene degradation in the genome of this organism was confirmed via assembly-based metagenomics and supports that it is the naphthalene-degrading bacterium in the culture. Thermoanaerobacteraceae have previously been detected in oil sludge under thermophilic conditions, but have not been shown to degrade hydrocarbons so far. The second member of the community belongs to the Desulfobulbaceae and has high sequence similarity to uncultured bacteria from contaminated sites including recently proposed groundwater cable bacteria. We suggest that the gram-positive Thermoanaerobacteraceae degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons while the Desulfobacterales are mainly responsible for Fe(III) reduction.
      PubDate: 2017-11-24
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9811-z
  • A new aerobic chemolithoautotrophic arsenic oxidizing microorganism
           isolated from a high Andean watershed
    • Authors: Javiera M. Anguita; Claudia Rojas; Pablo A. Pastén; Ignacio T. Vargas
      Abstract: Biological arsenic oxidation has been suggested as a key biogeochemical process that controls the mobilization and fate of this metalloid in aqueous environments. To the best of our knowledge, only four aerobic chemolithoautotrophic arsenite-oxidizing (CAO) bacteria have been shown to grow via direct arsenic oxidation and to have the essential genes for chemolithoautotrophic arsenite oxidation. In this study, a new CAO bacterium was isolated from a high Andean watershed evidencing natural dissolved arsenic attenuation. The bacterial isolate, designated TS-1, is closely related to the Ancylobacter genus, in the Alphaproteobacteria class. Results showed that TS-1 has genes for arsenite oxidation and carbon fixation. The dependence of bacterial growth from arsenite oxidation was demonstrated. In addition, a mathematical model was suggested and the kinetic parameters were obtained by simultaneously fitting the biomass growth, arsenite depletion curves, and arsenate production. This research increases the knowledge of chemolithoautotrophic arsenic oxidizing microorganisms and its potential role as a driver for natural arsenic attenuation.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9813-x
  • Whole community transcriptome of a sequencing batch reactor transforming
           2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO)
    • Authors: Jennifer Weidhaas; Alexander Panaccione; Ananda Shankar Bhattacharjee; Ramesh Goel; Angela Anderson; Saraswati Poudel Acharya
      Abstract: Two sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) were run to bio-mineralize 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN) and 3-nitro-1,2,4-triazol-5-one (NTO) in lab scale settings. The reactors were shown to reproducibly biotransform these munitions under aerobic and anaerobic conditions during the operations of these SBRs. Complete removal (100% biotransformation) of DNAN (initially 17.7 ± 5.4 mg L−1) and NTO (initially 15.0 ± 7.1 mg L−1) was observed in an anaerobic SBR when Luria-Bertani (LB) broth was present. In contrast, an aerobic SBR degraded only 58 ± 22% of DNAN (initially 19.7 ± 6.2 mg L−1) and 45 ± 24% of NTO (initially 9.7 ± 6.3 mg L−1) when either LB or glucose was also added indicating that anaerobic conditions are more favorable for biotransformation of these munitions. Transcriptomic analysis of the DNAN and NTO degrading anaerobic SBR revealed upregulation of a putative nitroreductase, hydroxylaminophenol mutases, 4-hydroxylphenyl acetate associated genes, and quinone oxioreductases. Major Bacterial populations included Bacteroidales, Campylobacterales, Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales and Clostridiales. Results from this study can be used to inform investigation of munition degrading organisms and the functional genes responsible.
      PubDate: 2017-11-16
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9814-9
  • The effect of methanogenesis inhibition, inoculum and substrate
           concentration on hydrogen and carboxylic acids production from cassava
    • Authors: Norma C. S. Amorim; Eduardo L. C. Amorim; Mario T. Kato; Lourdinha Florencio; Savia Gavazza
      Abstract: Manipueira is a carbohydrate-rich agro-industrial waste from cassava processing. It is considered well suitable for biotechnological processes, such as hydrogen and carboxylic acids production, due to the high content of easily degradable organic matter. However, the proper methanogenesis inhibition method, inoculum type, and organic loads are factors still limiting the processes. The objective in this work was to evaluate the effects of such factors on byproducts production in anaerobic reactors. Batch experiments were conducted with 2.3-L flasks during two operational phases. In the first phase (P1), inhibition of methanogens in the sludge was evaluated using acetylene (1% v/v of headspace) and heat treatment (120 °C, 1 atm for 30 min). In the second phase (P2), three inoculum types obtained from common anaerobic sludges (bovine rumen and sludges from municipal and textile industrial wastewater treatment plants) were individually assayed. P2 aimed to identify the best inoculum, based on hydrogen production ability, which was tested for three initial concentrations of manipueira in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (10, 20 and 40 g O2/L). Results of P1 indicated that either acetylene or heat treatment efficiently inhibited methanogenesis, with no methane production. However, the maximum H2 production potential by applying heat treatment (~ 563 mL) was more than twice compared with that by acetylene treatment (~ 257 mL); and butyrate was the main carboxylic acid by-product (~ 3 g/L). In P2 experiments after sludge heat treatment, the highest hydrogen yield (1.66 ± 0.07 mol H2/mol glucose) and caproic acid production (~ 2 g/L) were observed at 20 g O2/L of manipueira COD, when bovine rumen was the inoculum. The primary metabolic degradation products in all P2 experiments were ethanol, acetic, butyric, propionic and caproic acids. The finding of caproic acid detection indicated that the applied conditions in manipueira anaerobic degradation favored carbon chain elongation over methanogenesis.
      PubDate: 2017-11-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9812-y
  • Novel MBR_based main stream biological nutrient removal process: high
           performance and microbial community
    • Authors: Chuanyi Zhang; Xinhai Xu; Kuixia Zhao; Lianggang Tang; Siqi Zou; Limei Yuan
      Abstract: For municipal wastewater treatment, main stream biological nutrient removal (BNR) process is becoming more and more important. This lab-scale study, novel MBR_based BNR processes (named A2N-MBR and A2NO-MBR) were built. Comparison of the COD removal, results obtained demonstrated that COD removal efficiencies were almost the same in three processes, with effluent concentration all bellowed 30 mg L−1. However, the two-sludge systems (A2N-MBR and A2NO-MBR) had an obvious advantage over the A2/O for denitrification and phosphorus removal, with the average TP removal rates of 91.20, 98.05% and TN removal rates of 73.00, 79.49%, respectively, higher than that of 86.45 and 61.60% in A2/O process. Illumina Miseq sequencing revealed that Candidatus_Accumulibacter, which is capable of using nitrate as an electron acceptor for phosphorus and nitrogen removal simultaneously, was the dominant phylum in both A2N-MBR and A2NO-MBR process, accounting for 28.74 and 23.98%, respectively. Distinguishingly, major organism groups related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal in A2/O system were Anaerolineaceae_uncultured, Saprospiraceae_uncultured and Thauera, with proportions of 11.31, 8.56 and 5.00%, respectively. Hence, the diversity of dominant PAOs group was likely responsible for the difference in nitrogen and phosphorus removal in the three processes.
      PubDate: 2017-10-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9810-0
  • Biodegradation and chemotaxis of polychlorinated biphenyls, biphenyls, and
           their metabolites by Rhodococcus spp.
    • Authors: Hui Wang; Jinxing Hu; Kai Xu; Xianjin Tang; Xinhua Xu; Chaofeng Shen
      Abstract: Two biphenyl-degrading bacterial strains, SS1 and SS2, were isolated from polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil. They were identified as Rhodococcus ruber and Rhodococcus pyridinivorans based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence, as well as morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics. SS1 and SS2 exhibited tolerance to 2000 and 3000 mg/L of biphenyl. And they could degrade 83.2 and 71.5% of 1300 mg/L biphenyl within 84 h, respectively. In the case of low-chlorinated PCB congeners, benzoate and 3-chlorobenzoate, the degradation activities of SS1 and SS2 were also significant. In addition, these two strains exhibited chemotactic response toward TCA-cycle intermediates, benzoate, biphenyl and 2-chlorobenzoate. This study indicated that, like the flagellated bacteria, non-flagellated Rhodococcus spp. might actively seek substrates through the process of chemotaxis once the substrates are depleted in their surroundings. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that SS1 and SS2 might be good candidates for restoring biphenyl/PCB-polluted environments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-19
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9809-6
  • Potential for cometabolic biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in aquifers with
           methane or ethane as primary substrates
    • Authors: Paul B. Hatzinger; Rahul Banerjee; Rachael Rezes; Sheryl H. Streger; Kevin McClay; Charles E. Schaefer
      Abstract: The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential for two gases, methane and ethane, to stimulate the biological degradation of 1,4-dioxane (1,4-D) in groundwater aquifers via aerobic cometabolism. Experiments with aquifer microcosms, enrichment cultures from aquifers, mesophilic pure cultures, and purified enzyme (soluble methane monooxygenase; sMMO) were conducted. During an aquifer microcosm study, ethane was observed to stimulate the aerobic biodegradation of 1,4-D. An ethane-oxidizing enrichment culture from these samples, and a pure culture capable of growing on ethane (Mycobacterium sphagni ENV482) that was isolated from a different aquifer also biodegraded 1,4-D. Unlike ethane, methane was not observed to appreciably stimulate the biodegradation of 1,4-D in aquifer microcosms or in methane-oxidizing mixed cultures enriched from two different aquifers. Three different pure cultures of mesophilic methanotrophs also did not degrade 1,4-D, although each rapidly oxidized 1,1,2-trichloroethene (TCE). Subsequent studies showed that 1,4-D is not a substrate for purified sMMO enzyme from Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b, at least not at the concentrations evaluated, which significantly exceeded those typically observed at contaminated sites. Thus, our data indicate that ethane, which is a common daughter product of the biotic or abiotic reductive dechlorination of chlorinated ethanes and ethenes, may serve as a substrate to enhance 1,4-D degradation in aquifers, particularly in zones where these products mix with aerobic groundwater. It may also be possible to stimulate 1,4-D biodegradation in an aerobic aquifer through addition of ethane gas. Conversely, our results suggest that methane may have limited importance in natural attenuation or for enhancing biodegradation of 1,4-D in groundwater environments.
      PubDate: 2017-10-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9808-7
  • Novel bacteria capable of degrading phenanthrene in activated sludge
           revealed by stable-isotope probing coupled with high-throughput sequencing
    • Authors: Jibing Li; Dayi Zhang; Mengke Song; Longfei Jiang; Yujie Wang; Chunling Luo; Gan Zhang
      Abstract: The indigenous microorganisms responsible for degrading phenanthrene (PHE) in activated biosludge were identified using DNA-based stable isotope probing. Besides the well-known PHE degraders Burkholderia, Ralstonia, Sinobacteraceae and Arthrobacter, we for the first time linked the taxa Paraburkholderia and Kaistobacter with in situ PHE biodegradation. Analysis of PAH-RHDα gene detected in the heavy DNA fraction of 13C-PHE treatment suggested the mechanisms of horizontal gene transfer or inter-species hybridisation in PAH-RHD gene spread within the microbial community. Additionally, three cultivable PHE degraders, Microbacterium sp. PHE-1, Rhodanobacter sp. PHE-2 and Rhodococcus sp. PHE-3, were isolated from the same activated biosludge. Among them, Rhodanobacter sp. PHE-2 is the first identified strain in its genus with PHE-degrading ability. However, the involvement of these strains in PHE degradation in situ was questionable, due to their limited enrichment in the heavy DNA fraction of 13C-PHE treatment and lack of PAH-RHDα gene found in these isolates. Collectively, our findings provide a deeper understanding of the diversity and functions of indigenous microbes in PHE degradation.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9806-9
  • Effect of influent substrate ratio on anammox granular sludge: performance
           and kinetics
    • Authors: Weiqiang Zhu; Jin Li; Huiyu Dong; Dan Wang; Peiyu Zhang
      Abstract: Effect of influent substrate ratio on anammox process was studied in sequencing batch reactor. Operating temperature was fixed at 35 ± 1 °C. Influent pH and hydraulic retention time were 7.5 and 6 h, respectively. When influent NO2 −-N/NH4 +-N was no more than 2.0, total nitrogen removal rate (TNRR) increased whereas NH4 +-N removal rate stabilized at 0.32 kg/(m3 d). ΔNO2 −-N/ΔNH4 +-N increased with enhancing NO2 −-N/NH4 +-N. When NO2 −-N/NH4 +-N was 4.5, ΔNO2 −-N/ΔNH4 +-N was 1.98, which was much higher than theoretical value (1.32). The IC50 of NO2 −-N was 289 mg/L and anammox activity was inhibited at high NO2 −-N/NH4 +-N ratio. With regard to influent NH4 +-N/NO2 −-N, the maximum NH4 +-N removal rate was 0.36 kg/(m3 d), which occurred at the ratio of 4.0. Anammox activity was inhibited when influent NH4 +-N/NO2 −-N was higher than 5.0. With influent NO3 −-N/NH4 +-N of 2.5–6.5, NH4 +-N removal rate and NRR were stabilized at 0.33 and 0.40 kg/(m3 d), respectively. When the ratio was higher than 6.5, nitrogen removal would be worsened. The inhibitory threshold concentration of NO2 −-N was lower than NH4 +-N and NO3 −-N. Anammox bacteria were more sensitive to NO2 −-N than NH4 +-N and NO3 −-N. TNRR would be enhanced with increasing nitrogen loading rate, but sludge floatation occurred at high nitrogen loading shock. The Han-Levenspiel could be applied to simulate nitrogen removal resulting from NO2 −-N inhibition.
      PubDate: 2017-09-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9807-8
  • Enhanced dimethyl phthalate biodegradation by accelerating phthalic acid
    • Authors: Yingxia Tang; Yongming Zhang; Ling Jiang; Chao Yang; Bruce E. Rittmann
      Abstract: The aerobic biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) is initiated with two hydrolysis reactions that generate an intermediate, phthalic acid (PA), that is further biodegraded through a two-step di-oxygenation reaction. DMP biodegradation is inhibited when PA accumulates, but DMP’s biodegradation can be enhanced by adding an exogenous electron donor. We evaluated the effect of adding succinate, acetate, or formate as an exogenous electron donor. PA removal rates were increased by 15 and 30% for initial PA concentrations of 0.3 and 0.6 mM when 0.15 and 0.30 mM succinate, respectively, were added as exogenous electron donor. The same electron-equivalent additions of acetate and formate had the same acceleration impacts on PA removal. Consequently, the DMP-removal rate, even PA coexisting with DMP simultaneously, was accelerated by 37% by simultaneous addition of 0.3 mM succinate. Thus, lowering the accumulation of PA by addition of an electron increased the rate of DMP biodegradation.
      PubDate: 2017-08-23
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9805-x
  • Pesticide dissipation and microbial community changes in a biopurification
           system: influence of the rhizosphere
    • Authors: M. C. Diez; S. Elgueta; O. Rubilar; G. R. Tortella; H. Schalchli; C. Bornhardt; F. Gallardo
      Abstract: The dissipation of atrazine, chlorpyrifos and iprodione in a biopurification system and changes in the microbial and some biological parameters influenced by the rhizosphere of Lolium perenne were studied in a column system packed with an organic biomixture. Three column depths were analyzed for residual pesticides, peroxidase, fluorescein diacetate activity and microbial communities. Fungal colonization was analyzed by confocal laser scanning microscopy to assess the extent of its proliferation in wheat straw. The L. perenne rhizosphere enhanced pesticide dissipation and negligible pesticide residues were detected at 20–30 cm column depth. Atrazine, chlorpyrifos and iprodione removal was 82, 89 and 74% respectively in the first 10 cm depth for columns with vegetal cover. The presence of L. perenne in contaminated columns stimulated peroxidase activity in all three column depth sections. Fluorescein diacetate activity decreased over time in all column sections with the highest values in biomixtures with vegetal cover. Microbial communities, analyzed by PCR-DGGE, were not affected by the pesticide mixture application, presenting high values of similarity (>65%) with and without vegetal cover. Microbial abundance of Actinobacteria varied according to treatment and no clear link was observed. However, bacterial abundance increased over time and was similar with and without vegetal cover. On the other hand, fungal abundance decreased in all sections of columns after 40 days, but an increase was observed in response to pesticide application. Fungal colonization and straw degradation during pesticide dissipation were verified by monitoring the lignin autofluorescence loss.
      PubDate: 2017-08-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9804-y
  • Characterization of the biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification
           capacity of a bacterial consortium able to degrade the fungicide
    • Authors: Chiara Perruchon; Anastasios Pantoleon; Dimitrios Veroutis; Sara Gallego-Blanco; F. Martin-Laurent; Kalliopi Liadaki; Dimitrios G. Karpouzas
      Abstract: Thiabendazole (TBZ) is a persistent fungicide used in the post-harvest treatment of fruits. Its application results in the production of contaminated effluents which should be treated before their environmental discharge. In the absence of efficient treatment methods in place, biological systems based on microbial inocula with specialized degrading capacities against TBZ could be a feasible treatment approach. Only recently the first bacterial consortium able to rapidly transform TBZ was isolated. This study aimed to characterize its biodegradation, bioremediation and detoxification potential. The capacity of the consortium to mineralize 14C-benzyl-ring labelled TBZ was initially assessed. Subsequent tests evaluated its degradation capacity under various conditions (range of pH, temperatures and TBZ concentration levels) and relevant practical scenarios (simultaneous presence of other postharvest compounds) and its bioaugmentation potential in soils contaminated with increasing TBZ levels. Finally cytotoxicity assays explored its detoxification potential. The consortium effectively mineralized the benzoyl ring of the benzimidazole moiety of TBZ and degraded spillage level concentrations of the fungicide in aqueous cultures (750 mg L−1) and in soil (500 mg kg−1). It maintained its high degradation capacity in a wide range of pH (4.5–7.5) and temperatures (15–37 °C) and in the presence of other pesticides (ortho-phenylphenol and diphenylamine). Toxicity assays using the human liver cancer cell line HepG2 showed a progressive decrease in cytotoxicity, concomitantly with the biodegradation of TBZ, pointing to a detoxification process. Overall, the bacterial consortium showed high potential for future implementation in bioremediation and biodepuration applications.
      PubDate: 2017-07-28
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9803-z
  • Copper stressed anaerobic fermentation: biogas properties, process
           stability, biodegradation and enzyme responses
    • Authors: He Hao; Yonglan Tian; Huayong Zhang; Yang Chai
      Abstract: The effect of copper (added as CuCl2) on the anaerobic co-digestion of Phragmites straw and cow dung was studied in pilot experiments by investigating the biogas properties, process stability, substrate degradation and enzyme activities at different stages of mesophilic fermentation. The results showed that 30 and 100 mg/L Cu2+ addition increased the cumulative biogas yields by up to 43.62 and 20.77% respectively, and brought forward the daily biogas yield peak, while 500 mg/L Cu2+ addition inhibited biogas production. Meanwhile, the CH4 content in the 30 and 100 mg/L Cu2+-added groups was higher than that in the control group. Higher pH values (close to pH 7) and lower oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) values in the Cu2+-added groups after the 8th day indicated better process stability compared to the control group. In the presence of Cu2+, the degradation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and other organic molecules (represented by chemical oxygen demand, COD) generated from hydrolysis was enhanced, and the ammonia nitrogen (NH4 +-N) concentrations were more stable than in the control group. The contents of lignin and hemicellulose in the substrate declined in the Cu2+-added groups while the cellulose contents did not. Neither the cellulase nor the coenzyme F420 activities could determine the biogas producing efficiency. Taking the whole fermentation process into account, the promoting effect of Cu2+ addition on biogas yields was mainly attributable to better process stability, the enhanced degradation of lignin and hemicellulose, the transformation of intermediates into VFA, and the generation of CH4 from VFA.
      PubDate: 2017-07-15
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9802-0
  • Characterization of methyl parathion degradation by a Burkholderia
           zhejiangensis strain, CEIB S4-3, isolated from agricultural soils
    • Authors: Elida C. Popoca-Ursino; Fernando Martínez-Ocampo; Edgar Dantán-González; Enrique Sánchez-Salinas; Ma. Laura Ortiz-Hernández
      Abstract: Through the use of an enrichment technique, we isolated from the agricultural soils of Morelos in central México a strain of Burkholderia zhejiangensis identified as CEIB S4-3, it’s could use the pesticide methyl parathion (MP) as the only source of carbon and degrade completely p-nitrophenol (PNP). For more efficient MP and PNP degradation by the CEIB S4-3 strain, the absence of an extra carbon source, a large inoculum and an MP concentration up to 50 mg/l are required. Sequence and annotation analysis of the draft genome, showed presence of mpd functional gene, which was expressed and its activity on the MP was confirmed. Additionally, the genes coding for enzymes in the benzoquinone pathway (conducted by Gram-negative bacteria) and the benzenotriol pathway (conducted by Gram-positive bacteria) were found, which was corroborated by identification of intermediary metabolites by HPLC. Thus, we propose that B. zhejiangensis CEIB S4-3 uses both degradation pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-07-11
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9801-1
  • Characteristics of nitrogen removal and microbial community in biofilm
           system via combination of pretreated lignocellulosic carriers and various
           conventional fillers
    • Authors: Jing Zhao; Lijuan Feng; Jincheng Dai; Guangfeng Yang; Jun Mu
      Abstract: Each kind of conventional plastic filler (polyurethane filler, SPR-1 suspension filler, TA-II elastic filler and sphere filler) coupled with alkaline pretreated corncob (A.H.corncob) was applied in each bioreactor system for treating polluted water with nitrate and organics. Results demonstrated that addition of A.H.corncob could achieve simultaneous removal of nitrogen and organics, and coupling of SPR-1 suspension filler with A.H.corncob (R2) had the best performance. In coupling system of R2, the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate improved from below 10% to 55.92 ± 18.27% with effluent CODMn concentration maintaining at a low level of 2.67 ± 0.44 mg L−1. Microbial analysis of combined filler system demonstrated that conventional plastic filler mainly accumulated non-solid-phase denitrifiers for both nitrate and organics removal including genera Salipiger, Enterobacteriaceae etc. while A.H.corncob carrier was stronghold of solid-phase denitrifiers (Runella, etc.) directly using lignocellulosic materials as carbon source and fermentative bacteria (Coprococcus, etc.) for supplementing available carbon sources for denitrifiers in the system, which were integrated to achieve simultaneous removal of nitrate and organics.
      PubDate: 2017-07-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9800-2
  • Dimethyl sulfide emission behavior from landfill site with air and water
    • Authors: Yuyang Long; Siyuan Zhang; Yuan Fang; Yao Du; Weijia Liu; Chengran Fang; Dongsheng Shen
      Abstract: Municipal solid waste landfills are responsible for odors affecting the environment and human health. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is one of the major odorous compounds known for its low odor threshold and wide distribution. This study examined the generation, migration and emission of DMS in four artificial landfill-simulating reactors: Reactor 1 and Reactor 2, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic conditions, respectively, without leachate recirculation; and Reactor 3 and Reactor 4, running under anaerobic and semi-aerobic conditions, respectively, with leachate recirculation. From the odor control perspective, aeration can efficiently inhibit maximum DMS headspace concentration by 31.7–93.7%, especially with the functioning of leachate recirculation. However, leachate recirculation in anaerobic conditions may double the DMS emission concentration but may also shorten the period over which DMS is effective because of the upward migration of liquid DMS in the recirculated leachate. The DMS generation was active in the acidification and methane fermentation phase of the simulated landfill and was possibly affected by the volatile fatty acid concentration, chemical oxygen demand, total organic carbon concentration and pH of the leachate, as well as total organic carbon in the refuse. Most significantly, DMS emission can be effectually dealt with by aeration along with leachate recirculation.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9799-4
  • The effect of biodegradation on gammacerane in crude oils
    • Authors: Haiping Huang
      Abstract: Gammacerane is one of the major biomarkers widely used in depositional environment diagnosis, oil family classification, and oil-source correlation. It is generally accepted that gammacerane is more resistant to biodegradation than regular hopanes. However, whether it is biodegradable as well has not been reported in literatures. In order to investigate the effect of biodegradation on gammacerane in crude oils, 69 core samples from two biodegraded petroleum accumulations were geochemically characterized by quantitative GC–MS analysis. All samples are originated from lacustrine source rocks in China and have experienced at least level 8 degree of biodegradation on the scale of Peters and Moldowan (The biomarker guide: interpreting molecular fossils in petroleum and ancient sediments, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, 1993). Both case histories showed the concentration of gammacerane decrease with increasing severity of biodegradation, indicating the destruction of gammacerane by biodegradation. A whole series of 25-norhopanes paralleling the 17α,21β-hopanes (up to C34), together with C28 18-α-25,30-bisnorneohopane, C29 25-nordiahopane and C29 25-norgammacerane, is found in the Liaohe sample suite but C33, C34 25-norhopane and 25-norgammacerane are almost undetectable in the Junggar case. The gammacerane in the Liaohe case study appear to be altered simultaneously with hopanes, although the rate of gammacerane alteration is slower. Its susceptibility to biodegradation is similar to 18α(H)-22,29,30-trisnorneohopane (Ts) and 17α(H)-22,29,30-trisnorhopane (Tm) but more vulnerable than 18α-30-norneohopane (C29 Ts), 15α-methyl-17α(H)-27-norhopane (C30 diahopane) and pregnanes. The gammacerane in the Junggar oils appear to be less biodegradable than the Liaohe case history. It was altered simultaneously with pregnanes and C29 Ts but faster than C30 diahopane. The present data suggest that biodegradation sequence is not universal since the relative rates of biodegradation of different compound classes depend upon specific environmental conditions. Like the case of hopane demethylation, the mechanism of gammacerane biodegradation is not straightforward. While the conversion of gammacerane to 25-norgammacerane is not quantitatively balanced in the Liaohe case history, no 25-norgammacerane has been formed from the degradation of gammacerane in the Junggar case history. The ratio of gammacerane to regular hopanes increases with biodegradation degree especially at extreme levels of degradation, gammacerane index is no longer valid for depositional environment assessment or oil-source correlation.
      PubDate: 2017-06-27
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9798-5
  • Anaerobic digestion of amine-oxide-based surfactants: biodegradation
           kinetics and inhibitory effects
    • Authors: Francisco Ríos; Manuela Lechuga; Alejandro Fernández-Arteaga; Encarnación Jurado; Mercedes Fernández-Serrano
      Abstract: Recently, anaerobic degradation has become a prevalent alternative for the treatment of wastewater and activated sludge. Consequently, the anaerobic biodegradability of recalcitrant compounds such as some surfactants require a thorough study to avoid their presence in the environment. In this work, the anaerobic biodegradation of amine-oxide-based surfactants, which are toxic to several organisms, was studied by measuring of the biogas production in digested sludge. Three amine-oxide-based surfactants with structural differences in their hydrophobic alkyl chain were tested: Lauramine oxide (AO-R12), Myristamine oxide (AO-R14) and Cocamidopropylamine oxide (AO-cocoamido). Results show that AO-R12 and AO-R14 inhibit biogas production, inhibition percentages were around 90%. AO-cocoamido did not cause inhibition and it was biodegraded until reaching a percentage of 60.8%. Otherwise, we fitted the production of biogas to two kinetic models, to a pseudo first-order model and to a logistic model. Production of biogas during the anaerobic biodegradation of AO-cocoamido was pretty good adjusted to the logistics model. Kinetic parameters were also determined. This modelling is useful to predict their behaviour in wastewater treatment plants and under anaerobic conditions in the environment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-31
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9797-6
  • Nitrogen removal performance and operation strategy of anammox process
           under temperature shock
    • Authors: Weiqiang Zhu; Jin Li; Huiyu Dong; Dan Wang; Peiyu Zhang
      Abstract: Sequencing batch reactors were used to study anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process under temperature shock. Both long-term (15–35 °C) and short-term (10–50 °C) temperature effects on nitrogen removal performance were performed. In reactor operation test, the results indicated that ammonium removal rate decreased from 0.35 kg/(m3 day) gradually to 0.059 kg/(m3 day) when temperature dropped from 35 to 15 °C. Although bacteria morphology was not modified, sludge settling velocity decreased with decreasing temperature. In batch test, apparent activation energy (Ea) increased with decreasing temperature, which suggested the activity decrease of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB). Low temperature inhibited AAOB and weakened nitrogen removal performance. The cardinal temperature model with inflection was first used to describe temperature effect on anammox process. Simulated results revealed that anammox reaction could occur at 10.52–50.15 °C with maximum specific anammox activity of 0.50 kg/(kg day) at 36.72 °C. The cold acclimatization of AAOB could be achieved and glycine betaine could slightly improve nitrogen removal performance at low temperature.
      PubDate: 2017-05-05
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9794-9
  • Performance and kinetics of ANAMMOX granular sludge with pH shock in a
           sequencing batch reactor
    • Authors: Jin Li; Weiqiang Zhu; Huiyu Dong; Dan Wang
      Abstract: As an efficient and cost-effective nitrogen removal process, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) could be well operated at suitable pH condition. However, pH shock occurred in different kinds of wastewater and affected ANANNOX process greatly. The present research aimed at studying the performance and kinetics of ANAMMOX granular sludge with pH shock. When influent pH was below 7.5, effluent \({\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) –N and \({\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - }\) –N increased with decreasing pH. At Ph 6.0, effluent \({\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - }\) –N approached 100 mg/L, and the ratios of \(\Delta {\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - } - {\text{N}}:\Delta {\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + } - {\text{N and }}\Delta {\text{NO}}_{3}^{ - } - {\text{N}}:\Delta {\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + } - {\text{N}}\) approached 2.2 and 1.3, respectively. Both greatly deviated from theoretical values. When influent pH was above 7.5, effluent \({\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) –N and \({\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - }\) –N increased with increasing pH. At pH 9.0, ammonium removal rate (ARR) and nitrite removal rate (NRR) decreased to 0.011 ± 0.004 and 0.035 ± 0.004 kg/(m3·d), respectively. Besides, \(\Delta {\text{NO}}_{2}^{ - }\) –N: \(\Delta {\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) –N deviated from theoretical value. Longer recovery time from pH 9.0 than from pH 6.0 indicated that alkaline surroundings inhibited anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AAOB) greater. The sludge settling velocity was 2.15 cm/s at pH 7.5. However, it decreased to 2.02 cm/s when pH was 9.0. Acidic pH had little effect on sludge size, but disintegration of ANAMMOX granule was achieved with pH of 9.0. The Bell-shaped (A) model and the Ratkowsky model were more applicable to simulate the effect resulting from pH shock on ANAMMOX activity (R2 > 0.95), and both could describe ANAMMOX activity well with pH shock. They indicated that qmax was 0.37 kg \(\Delta {\text{NH}}_{4}^{ + }\) –N/(kgMLSS·d) at the optimum pH value (7.47) in present study. The minimum pH during which ANAMMOX occurred was 5.68 while the maximum pH for ANAMMOX reaction was 9.26. Based on nitrogen removal performance with different pH, strongly acidic (pH ≤ 6.5) or alkaline (pH ≥ 8.5) inhibited ANAMMOX process. Besides, ANAMMOX appeared to be more susceptible to alkaline wastewater. Compared to extremely acidic condition (low pH), extremely alkaline condition (high pH) affected ANAMMOX granules much more.
      PubDate: 2017-04-29
      DOI: 10.1007/s10532-017-9793-x
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