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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3247 journals)
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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1193 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Admisi dan Bisnis     Open Access  
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
American Enterprise Institute     Free  
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Anuario Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 320)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription  
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 9)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
BizInfo (Blace) Journal of Economics, Management and Informatics     Open Access  
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Boletim Técnico do Senac     Open Access  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 36)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 46)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business Ethics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 41)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal  
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 12)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Amazonica
  [SJR: 0.32]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0044-5967
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [715 journals]
  • Allometric equations for total, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon
           of the Amazonian forest type known as campinarana

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Amazon forest comprises many different forest types, amongst them are campinas and campinaranas, which occur on Amazonian sandy soils, representing 2.65% of Amazonian territory. An understanding of the ecology and quantification of the environmental goods and services of campinaranas is key to their conservation. Based on a direct method to estimate biomass and carbon content of campinarana, we harvested and weighted 89 trees and other forest components in ten randomly allocated plots of 100 m2 (10 x 10 m) and 11 additional trees outside the plots. The data allowed us to describe how biomass is distributed amongst campinarana vegetation and amongst tree compartments. We developed allometric equations to estimate the total, above- and below-ground biomass and carbon stock of this forest type. We used a Weibull function to test if the diameter distribution of the individual trees sampled was consistent with the diameter distribution of the forest type. We also tested if terra-firme forest biomass equations could be used to estimate campinarana biomass, and whether a correction factor based on dominant height would reduce the error from these estimates. Allometric equations are considered to be the most reliable and rapid method for calculating forest biomass, and are used in forest management and climate change studies. These are the first total biomass equations developed for central Amazonian campinaranas. The best fitted allometric equation for total fresh biomass was: ln (Total Biomass) = -1.373 + 2.546 * ln DBH (R ² = 0.98, Sxy% = 4.19%).RESUMO Entre as diversas fitofisionomias da Floresta Amazônica estão as campinas e campinaranas, que ocorrem sobre solos arenosos, ocupando 2,65% de seu território. Baseando-se no método direto, com a finalidade de estimar carbono e biomassa de uma campinarana na Amazônia Central, derrubamos, medimos e pesamos 89 árvores e outros componentes florestais em dez parcelas de 100 m² (10 x 10m) alocadas aleatoriamente, e mais 11 árvores fora das parcelas. A partir dos dados coletados, desenvolvemos equações alométricas para estimar a biomassa total, aérea e de raízes e o estoque de carbono para esse tipo florestal. A função Weibull foi utilizada para comprovar que a distribuição diamétrica das árvores coletadas é análoga a esse tipo florestal. Verificamos, ainda, qual o erro gerado ao se estimar a biomassa da campinarana utilizando equações desenvolvidas para florestas densas de terra-firme, e se o uso de um fator de correção baseado na altura dominante reduziria esse erro. O uso de equações alométricas é considerado o método mais preciso e rápido na obtenção da biomassa florestal, e é utilizado em questões ligadas, entre outras, às áreas de manejo florestal e de clima. Essas são as primeiras equações de biomassa total desenvolvidas para campinaranas nesta região da Amazônia. A melhor equação ajustada para estimar a biomassa total foi: ln(PFtotal) = -1,373 + 2,546 * ln(DAP) (R²=0,98; Sxy%= 4,19).
       
  • Genetic diversity among accessions of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis)
           by phenotypic characteristics analysis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) is native to the Amazon region and has a high seed content of mono and polyunsaturated fatty acids, making it interesting for the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industry. The purpose of this study was to analyze sacha inchi genetic diversity and describe accessions based on phenotypic characteristics. Fruits and seeds of 25 accessions from the sacha inchi genebank of Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental in Manaus, Amazonas state, were sampled and biometrically measured. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, Mahalanobis distance, canonical correlation, and genetic diversity among and within accessions by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). There were significant differences among the means of the analyzed traits, but no significant canonical correlation for the groups of traits. According to AMOVA, approximately 60% of the observed variation was within accessions. The results showed variability among accessions, and that the variation within accessions should be explored to obtain best results in breeding programs.RESUMO Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) é nativa da região amazônica e suas sementes tem um alto teor de ácidos graxos mono e poliinsaturados, tornando-a interessante para a indústria farmacêutica e cosmética. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar a diversidade genética de sacha inchi e caracterizar os acessos com base em características fenotípicas. Foi realizada coleta e biometria de frutos e sementes de 25 acessos do banco de germoplasma de sacha inchi da Embrapa Amazônia Ocidental em Manaus-AM. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variância, distância de Mahalanobis, correlação canônica e diversidade genética por análise de variância molecular (AMOVA). Houve diferenças significativas entre as médias das variáveis analisadas, contudo, não houve correlação canônica significativa para os grupos de variáveis. De acordo com AMOVA, aproximadamente 60% da variação observada esteve dentro de acessos. Os resultados mostram variabilidade entre acessos, sendo importante explorar a variação intra-acessos para obter melhores resultados em programas de melhoramento.
       
  • Development of a quality index scheme and shelf-life study for whole
           tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The study developed a sensory scheme based on the Quality Index (QI) and estimated the shelf-life for whole tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum (Cuvier, 1818), stored in ice, assessing and determining the most appropriate chemical, physical, bacteriological and quality sensory parameters and their changes during storage time. Ninety six fish were evaluated at 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19 and 22 days of ice-storage. The developed quality index (QI) showed four main quality attributes with a total of 29 demerit scores. The skin mucus and odor, as well as general appearance and ventral elasticity had a great importance for the statistical model applied, while eyes, gill mucus and dorsal elasticity showed lower significance for tambaqui QI. The pH showed few variations during the ice storage. Nitrogen bases, as well as the total count of specific spoilage bacteria, had a linear correlation with storage time. The QI proved to be efficient to assess tambaqui quality and loss of sensory quality over the storage period. The results suggest that whole, ice-stored Colossoma macropomum is fit for consumption until the 22nd day.RESUMO O estudo desenvolveu um protocolo sensorial baseado no Método do Índice de Qualidade (IQ), estimando a vida útil do tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, inteiro e conservado em gelo, avaliando e determinando as principais alterações físico-químicas, microbiológicas, os parâmetros sensoriais e suas alterações durante o armazenamento em gelo. Noventa e seis peixes foram avaliados no dia 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, 19 e 22 de armazenamento em gelo. O índice de qualidade desenvolvido (IQ) apresentou quatro principais atributos de qualidade com um total de 29 pontos de demérito. O muco e odor da pele, assim como a aparência geral e elasticidade ventral, apresentaram uma maior importância para o modelo estatístico aplicado, enquanto que os olhos, muco das brânquias e elasticidade dorsal mostraram menor significância para o IQ do tambaqui. O pH apresentou poucas variações durante o armazenamento em gelo. As bases nitrogenadas voláteis totais, bem como a contagem total de bactérias específicas de deterioração, apresentaram correlação linear com o tempo de armazenamento. O IQ mostrou-se eficiente para avaliar a qualidade do tambaqui e as perdas da qualidade sensorial ao longo do período de armazenamento. Os resultados sugerem que o tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, inteiro e conservado em gelo é considerado adequado para consumo até o 22° dia de armazenamento.
       
  • Survey of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) in Amazon
           rainforest fragments in Acre, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The State of Acre, in the southwestern Brazilian Amazon, harbors high biodiversity and a high degree of endemisms. Nevertheless, there are few studies on the diversity of social wasps occurring in this region. This study presents a list of social wasps (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistinae) collected actively with attractive bait in three rainforest fragments in Acre. A total of 758 wasps belonging to 11 genera and 36 species were collected. Nineteen species were new distribution records for Acre and three others were new records for Brazil. Based on our results, further investigations should lead to a significant increase in Polistinae diversity in this region, producing information for biogeographic studies and management of natural areas.RESUMO O estado do Acre é parte da Amazônia Ocidental brasileira, uma área que abriga uma grande biodiversidade e alto grau de endemismos. Contudo, poucos estudos investigaram a diversidade de vespas sociais nesta região. Este trabalho apresenta os resultados de uma amostragem de vespas sociais (Hymenoptera,Vespidae, Polistinae) em três fragmentos de floresta primária no estado do Acre. As vespas foram coletadas ativamente com o uso de solução atrativa. Um total de 758 vespas, pertencentes a 11 gêneros e 36 espécies, foi amostrado, sendo 19 dessas espécies novos registros de distribuição para o Acre e três novos registros para o Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que novas investigações devem levar a um aumento significativo da diversidade de espécies de vespas Polistinae conhecida para a região. Nosso estudo produziu subsídios de grande utilidade para estudos biogeográficos e fornece informações importantes para a tomada de decisões sobre o manejo de áreas naturais.
       
  • Diversity patterns of hawkmoths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) in the canopy of
           an ombrophilous forest in Central Amazon, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Sphingidae attracted to light were systematically collected in an Amazonian forest canopy. Sampling occurred at a height of 34 m in an upland primary rainforest plateau in the Cueiras River basin, located within the Experimental Station of Tropical Silviculture, Manaus municipality, Amazonas, Brazil. The hawkmoths were collected using a vertical white sheet illuminated by a 250 W mixed mercury light and a 20 W black-light (BLB) fluorescent tube. Monthly collections were carried out from January to December 2004, during three nights of lunar transition from third quarter moon to new moon between 6 p.m. and 6 a.m. We sampled 1748 specimens, represented by 1485 males and 263 females, belonging to 52 species and 21 genera. Xylophanes comprised the highest number of species (seven), followed by Erinnyis, with six species. The most abundant species were Pseudosphinx tetrio (169 specimens), Pachylia darceta (162), Erinnyis ello ello (154), Isognathus excelsior (151) and Callionima parce (139). The species accumulation curve showed that the species richness tended to stabilize by the eighth month. We also observed that species composition altered significantly throughout the night period. All presented hawkmoth records are new for the canopy in the central Amazon.RESUMO Foram realizadas coletas sistemáticas de Sphingidae no dossel de floresta ombrófila densa na Amazônia central utilizando-se armadilha luminosa. As coletas ocorreram em uma floresta primária de terra firme, na bacia do Rio Cuieiras, a 34 m de altura na torre da Estação Experimental de Silvicultura Tropical, Manaus, Amazonas, Brasil. Foi utilizado um lençol branco iluminado com uma lâmpada de luz mista de mercúrio e uma lâmpada de luz negra UV-BLB. As mariposas foram coletadas mensalmente durante o ano de 2004, em três noites consecutivas de lua minguante e/ou lua nova, sempre das 18:00 às 06:00h. Foram coletados 1748 espécimes, dos quais 769, por serem comuns, foram identificados, marcados e soltos. Foram obtidos 1485 machos e 263 fêmeas, pertencentes a 21 gêneros e 52 espécies. Xylophanes foi representado por sete espécies, seguido por Erinnyis com seis. As espécies mais abundantes foram Pseudosphinx tetrio (169 espécimes), Pachylia darceta (162), Erinnyis ello ello (154), Isognathus excelsior (151) e Callionima parce (139). A curva de acumulação de espécie mostrou que em torno do oitavo mês de coleta, a riqueza de espécies tendeu a estabilizar. Foi possível observar ainda que a composição de esfingídeos mudou significativamente ao longo da noite. Todos os registros são novos para o dossel de floresta na Amazônia central.
       
  • Insects of forensic importance associated to cadaveric decomposition in a
           rural area of the Andean Amazon, Caquetá, Colombia

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Forensic entomology is a frequently used tool to estimate the time interval between death and the discovery of the corpse. Succession of arthropods associated with cadaveric decomposition was monitored in a rural area of the Municipality of Florencia, Department of Caquetá, Colombia. Three pigs (Sus scrofa) were used as study models. Insect sampling, and monitoring of carcasses and environmental conditions were carried out every five hours. The total time from death to skeletonization was of 545 hours (22.7 days). A total of 30833 insect individuals were collected. Specimens were distributed in nine orders, 46 families, 95 genera and 106 species. Diptera was the most abundant, with 23215 individuals (75.3%), followed by Coleoptera, with 3711 individuals (12%), and Hymenoptera, with 3154 individuals (10.2%). Immature stages of Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps, Hemilucilia semidiaphana and Ophyra aenescens were the main species involved in tissue consumption and acceleration of the decomposition process. Due to the presence of ants Cheliomyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. and Dinoponera sp., and coleopterans Hister sp., Acylophorus sp. and Philonthus spp., it was not possible to obtain sufficient Diptera egg masses for rearing the colonizing species. These results can be used as a standard to determine the postmortem interval in criminal investigations in the rural area of the Andean Amazon, Caquetá, Colombia.RESUMO A entomologia forense é uma ferramenta frequentemente utilizada para estimar o intervalo de tempo entre a morte e a descoberta do corpo. Na área rural do município de Florencia, Caquetá, foi monitorada a sucessão de artrópodes associados à decomposição cadavérica, utilizando como modelo de estudo os cadáveres de três porcos (Sus scrofa). A amostragem de insetos e coleta de dados ambientais foram realizadas a cada cinco horas. A duração total do processo desde a morte até a esqueletização foi de 545 horas (22,7 dias). Foram coletados 30833 espécimes de insetos, distribuídos em nove ordens, 46 famílias, 95 gêneros e 106 espécies. Diptera foi o grupo mais representativo, com 23215 indivíduos (75,3%), seguido de Coleoptera, com 3711 indivíduos (12%) e Hymenoptera, com 3154 indivíduos (10,2%). Os estágios imaturos de Cochliomyia macellaria, Chrysomya albiceps, Hemilucilia semidiaphana e Ophyra aenescens foram as principais espécies envolvidas no consumo de tecidos e na aceleração do processo de decomposição. Devido à presença de formigas Cheliomyrmex sp., Camponotus sp. e Dinoponera sp. e de besouros Hister sp., Acylophorus sp. e Philonthus spp., não foi possível obter massas de ovos de Diptera suficientes para a criação de espécies colonizadoras. Nosso estudo fornece subsídios para determinar o intervalo post-mortem em investigações policiais e promover a entomologia forense em uma área rural da Amazônia Andina na Colômbia.
       
  • Ecological studies of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera): Can sampling
           effort be reduced without losing essential taxonomic and ecological
           information'

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the potential for the reduction of sampling effort in studies of ephemeropteran nymphs in Brazilian Amazon streams, Pará State, Brazil, without the loss of ecological information (species composition, abundance, and richness), and the congruence of different levels of taxonomic resolution (morphospecies, genus, family and functional group). Test groups of 15, 10 and five subsamples were selected from the 20 subsamples collected per stream (40 streams sampled), and were compared in terms of their species richness and abundance (ANOVA), and composition (Procrustes). Taxonomic resolution was also analyzed in Procrustes. Species abundance (F(3, 156) = 25.426; p < 0.001) and richness (F(3, 156) = 13.866, p < 0.001) varied significantly among sample groups, while the results of the 15-S group were statistically similar, in both cases, to those of the 20-S group. A similar pattern was found for species composition. The genus-level taxonomic resolution produced results 99% similar to those found for the species-level data. The results indicate that the reduction in sampling effort from 20 to 15 subsamples per site and a genus-level taxonomic resolution would not affect the reliability of analyses significantly. A reduction of five samples per site would result in a decrease of effort in the field and the amount of material to be processed, reducing laboratory time. In addition to a reduction in the time and resources needed to identify specimens, the adoption of a genus-level taxonomic resolution could help minimize errors of under- or over-estimation in the processing of the results.RESUMO O presente estudo avaliou o potencial para redução do esforço amostral em estudos com ninfas de Ephemeroptera em igarapés amazônicos, no estado do Pará, Brasil, sem perder informações ecológicas (composição de espécies, abundância e riqueza), além de verificar se existe congruência entre diferentes níveis de resolução taxonômica (morfoespécie, gênero, família e grupo funcional). Grupos reduzidos de 15, 10 e cinco subamostras de um controle de 20 amostras de cada um dos 40 igarapés amostrados, foram comparados quanto a riqueza de táxons e abundância (ANOVA) e composição (Procrustes). A resolução taxonômica também foi avaliada através do Procrustes. A abundância (F(3, 156) = 25,426; p < 0,001) e riqueza (F(3, 156) = 13,866, p < 0,001) variaram significativamente entre os grupos de amostras, porém, os resultados tanto de riqueza quanto de abundância dos grupos 15-S foram estatisticamente similares aos de 20-S. O mesmo padrão foi encontrado para riqueza de espécies. A resolução taxonômica a nível de gênero obteve 99% de congruência com a de morfoespécie. Esses resultados indicam que a diminuição de 20 subamostras para 15, e a redução da identificação de morfoespécie para gênero não afetaria a significância das análises. A redução de cinco amostras por local de coleta poderia resultar em uma diminuição do esforço em campo e do material para ser processado em laboratório, reduzindo o tempo de triagem e identificação. Ainda, para reduzir tempo e recursos financeiros gastos para coleta e identificação dos organismos, a identificação apenas a nível genérico poderia minimizar erros de sub ou super estimativa no processamento dos resultados.
       
  • Biting the hand that feeds you: wedge-billed hummingbird is a nectar
           robber of a sicklebill-adapted Andean bellflower

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT I report on nectar robbing behavior of the wedge-billed hummingbird, Schistes geoffroyi (Trochilidae) on the Andean bellflower, Centropogon granulosus (Campanulaceae). Many species of Centropogon are characterized by an abruptly curved corolla tube which is likely specialized for pollination by sicklebill hummingbirds (Eutoxeres), as evident from the matching curvature of flower and bill. Nectar robbing has been documented for some Centropogon spp., but not for sicklebill pollinated C. granulosus. Given recent developments and interest in the Centropogon-sicklebill mutualism, it is pertinent to document any natural history observations that may underlie the ecology and evolution of this pollination system. The establishment of wedge-billed hummingbird as a nectar robber of C. granulosus calls for a new assessment of the ecology and evolution of the highly specialized Centropogon-sicklebill mutualism.RESUMEN Informo sobre el comportamiento de robo de néctar del colibrí pico cuña, Schistes geoffroyi (Trochilidae) en la flor campanulada neotropical, Centropogon granulosus (Campanulaceae). Muchas especies de Centropogon se caracterizan por tener una flor tubular curvada de distintas formas y probablemente especializadas para ser polinizadas por los colibríes de pico curvo (Eutoxeres), como es evidente a partir de la curvatura tanto de la flor como del pico. Debido a la exclusividad de este mutualismo, el robo de néctar ha sido ocasionalmente documentado en Centropogon. Aquí amplío el estudio de robo de néctar de Centropogon incluyendo a Schistes geoffroyi. Esta expansión puede ser un indicador de la alta especialización entre el mutualismo de Centropogon y el colibrí de pico curvo, siendo esta más susceptible al robo de néctar de lo que pensaba previamente. Esto genera preguntas acerca de la evolución de la especialización y parasitismo en este grupo tropical, tanto de las campanuladas como de los colibríes.
       
  • Death-feigning behaviour in Iphisa elegans: the second reported case in
           the Family Gymnophthalmidae (Reptilia: Squamata)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Death-feigning behaviour occurs when the animal simulates a state of immobility. This behaviour is described for some lizard families, among them the family Gymnophthalmidae with only one record. Iphisa elegans is a diurnal and terrestrial Amazonian gymnophtalmid lizard. It has cryptic behavior and moves rapidly on the ground, hindering observations of its behavior. We report a case at the Comodoro Municipality, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. An adult male of I. elegans, when manipulated, turned its venter up and put itself in a death-feigning posture. This species is preyed upon by birds, snakes and other lizards¸ possibly behaving this way when the cryptic behaviour or escape attempt fails. More studies are necessary to evaluate the efficiency of this behaviour, as well as its frequency of occurrence, using individuals of both sexes. We also suggest to evaluate if the orange venter of males could have any antipredation advantage.RESUMO Fingir-se de morto é um comportamento no qual o animal simula um estado de imobilidade. Esse comportamento é descrito em algumas famílias de lagartos, dentre as quais, a família Gymnophthalmidae com apenas um registro. Iphisa elegans é um lagarto gymnoftalmídeo amazônico diurno e terrestre. Possui comportamento críptico e move-se rapidamente pelo solo, dificultando observações de seu comportamento. Reportamos um caso no município de Comodoro, Estado do Mato Grosso, Brasil: um macho adulto de I. elegans, quando manipulado, virou seu ventre para cima e fingiu-se de morto. Esta espécie é predada por pássaros, serpentes e outros lagartos, possivelmente portando-se dessa forma quando o comportamento críptico ou tentativa de fuga falham. São necessários mais estudos para observar a eficiência desse comportamento, assim como sua frequência de ocorrência, usando indivíduos de ambos os sexos. Também sugerimos que deve ser avaliado se a coloração alaranjada no ventre dos machos poderia fornecer alguma vantagem antipredação.
       
  • Filling gaps in the distribution of the white-winged vampire bat, Diaemus
           youngii (Phyllostomidae, Desmodontinae): new records for southern Amazonia
           

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Bats of the subfamily Desmodontinae are the only hematophagous mammals, represented by three species. Among them, Diaemus youngii has the fewest records in Brazil, being poorly known demographically and ecologically. We report the first record of D. youngii for Mato Grosso state, in central-western Brazil, and provide additional records for the states of Rondônia and Tocantins, in northern Brazil, extending the known distribution of D. youngii in the southern Amazon region.RESUMO Os morcegos da subfamília Desmodontinae compreendem as únicas três espécies de mamíferos hematófagos. Entre elas, Diaemus youngii é a espécie com menor número de registros no Brasil, sendo pouco conhecida demográfica e ecologicamente. Nós relatamos o primeiro registro de D. youngii para o estado do Mato Grosso, no centro-oeste do Brasil, e fornecemos registros adicionais para os estados de Rondônia e Tocantins, no norte do Brasil. Os registros ampliam a distribuição conhecida de D. youngii no sul da região amazônica.
       
  • Antioxidant activity and physicochemical characteristics of honeys from
           the eastern Amazon region, Brazil

    • Abstract: RESUMO O mel é um produto natural que apresenta várias propriedades benéficas para a saúde, tais como atividade antinflamatória, antioxidante e antimicrobiana, as quais dependem de sua composição. Neste contexto, as propriedades físico-químicas (cor, pH, conteúdo de cinzas, umidade, açúcares e compostos fenólicos totais) e a atividade antioxidadente (capacidade de remoção do radical DPPH) de méis de abelhas Apis mellifera de Santarém, na principal região de produção de mel na Amazônia Oriental, Brasil, foram avaliadas. A maioria das amostras teve cor escura e apresentaram-se ácidas. Os teores de cinzas e a umidade variaram de 0,112 a 0,318 e de 14,751 a 17,514, respectivamente. O teor de açúcares redutores vairou entre 62,873 e 91,563%. O teor total de compostos fenólicos foi mais elevado que os já reportados na literatura, variando entre 15,22 e 16,51 mg g−1 e 17,70 e 18,94 mg g−1 para amostras de mel protegidas e expostas à radiação UV, respectivamente. A quercetina foi encontrada apenas no mel que foi protegido da luz, com teores variando entre 0,24 e 0,43 mg g−1. A ausência de quercetina nas amostras de mel expostas à luz sugere que a radiação UV pode ter degradado esse composto. Todas as amostras apresentaram máxima capacidade de remover o radical DPPH próxima a 50%. Houve correlação inversa entre a cor e o pH, cinzas, açúcares redutores e teor de umidade, e correlação positiva entre a cor e o teor de composto fenólicos e a atividade antioxidante.ABSTRACT Honey is a natural product that has several beneficial properties for health, such as anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, which depend on its composition. In this context, physicochemical properties (colour, pH, ash, moisture, sugars, and total phenolic contents) and antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging ability) of Apis mellifera honeys from Santarém, the main honey production area in the eastern Amazon region, were evaluated. Most samples were dark in colour and acidic. The ash and moisture contents ranged from 0.112 to 0.318 and from 14.751 to 17.514, respectively. The reducing sugars content was 62.873-91.563%. The total amount of phenolic compounds was higher than normally reported, ranging between 15.22 and 16.51 mg g−1 and 17.70 and 18.94 mg g−1, for honey after and before exposure to light, respectively. Quercetin was found only in honey that had been protected from light, with values ranging from 0.24 to 0.43 mg g-1. The absence of quercetin in the samples of honey exposed to light suggests that UV radiation has degraded this compound. All samples presented maximum radical scavenging capacity close to 50%. Our results showed inverse correlations between the colour and pH, ash, reducing sugars, and moisture content, and positive correlations between the colour and the concentration of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity.
       
  • Agricultural land use and cover change in the Cerrado/Amazon ecotone: A
           case study of the upper Teles Pires River basin

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The upper Teles Pires River basin is a key hydrological resource for the state of Mato Grosso, but has suffered rapid land use and cover change. The basin includes areas of Cerrado biome, as well as transitional areas between the Amazon and Cerrado vegetation types, with intensive large-scale agriculture widely-spread throughout the region. The objective of this study was to explore the spatial and temporal dynamics of land use and cover change from 1986 to 2014 in the upper Teles Pires basin using remote sensing and GIS techniques. TM (Thematic Mapper) and TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) sensor images aboard the Landsat 5 and Landsat 8, respectively, were employed for supervised classification using the “Classification Workflow” in ENVI 5.0. To evaluate classification accuracy, an error matrix was generated, and the Kappa, overall accuracy, errors of omission and commission, user accuracy and producer accuracy indexes calculated. The classes showing greatest variation across the study period were “Agriculture” and “Rainforest”. Results indicated that deforested areas are often replaced by pasture and then by agriculture, while direct conversion of forest to agriculture occured less frequently. The indices with satisfactory accuracy levels included the Kappa and Global indices, which showed accuracy levels above 80% for all study years. In addition, the producer and user accuracy indices ranged from 59-100% and 68-100%, while the errors of omission and commission ranged from 0-32% and 0-40.6%, respectively.RESUMO A bacia hidrográfica do alto Teles Pires é estratégica e de grande importância para o estado de Mato Grosso e vem sofrendo mudanças significativas em seu uso e ocupação do solo. A bacia está inserida no bioma Cerrado, bem como em áreas de transição entre os biomas Amazônia e Cerrado, com intensa atividade agropecuária em toda sua extensão. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a dinâmica espaço-temporal das mudanças do uso e ocupação do solo na bacia do alto Teles Pires entre 1986 a 2014. Para tanto, imagens do sensor TM (Thematic Mapper) e TIRS (Thermal Infrared Sensor) a bordo dos satélites Landsat 5 e Landsat 8, respectivamente, foram empregadas para uma classificação supervisionada utilizando o “Classification Workflow” disponível no software ENVI 5.0. Para avaliar a acurácia da classificação, uma matriz de erros foi gerada e os índices Kappa, exatidão Global e os erros de omissão, comissão, usuário e produtor foram calculados. As classes que apresentaram as maiores variações durante o período de estudo foram “Agricultura” e “Floresta”. O estudo indicou que as áreas desmatadas são frequentemente substituidas por pastagem e, em seguida, por agricultura. Em contraste, áreas convertidas diretamente para agricultura são menos representativas. Os índices de acurácia apresentaram valores satisfatórios, com valores do índice Kappa e exatidão Global acima de 80% em todos os anos avaliados. Adicionalmente, os erros do produtor e usuário variaram entre 59-100% e 68-100%, ao passo que os erros de omissão e comissão variaram entre 0-32% e 0-40.6%, respectivamente.
       
 
 
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