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  Subjects -> BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (Total: 3181 journals)
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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1164 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 176)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 326)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Management and Business Application     Open Access  
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Benefit : Jurnal Manajemen dan Bisnis     Open Access  
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 10)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 49)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 43)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Amazonica
  [SJR: 0.32]   [H-I: 18]   [5 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0044-5967
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [712 journals]
  • Genetic diversity of Gossypium barbadense from the central
           Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Amazon Basin is a center of diversity of Gossypium barbadense and the strategy for conservation of this genetic resource depends on the knowledge of the diversity maintained in Amazonas State. During two expeditions, in 2012 and 2014, plants were collected in ten municipalities in the state of Amazonas, in the central Brazilian Amazon region. The molecular diversity was estimated by SSR markers for 50 samples collected in 2012. The morphological diversity of 24 plants collected in 2014 was assessed ex situ and compared to that of 50 plants of the same and other cotton varieties from other Brazilian states. Most of plants evaluated in situ in Amazonas had purple petioles and veins (82%), associated to medicinal use, and kidney seeds (78%). The ex situ morphological analysies showed that G. barbadense plants from the Amazonas state: i) presented higher similarity to cotton plants from other northern Brazilian states, and ii) were grouped separately from those of other northern Brazilian states by descriptor analysis. Both the molecular (H=0.41) and morphological (H=0.38±0.02) diversity among the collected plants was considered intermediary. Our study indicates the distinctiveness of Amazon cottons, and contributes to demonstrate the discrimination power of multicategorical traits.RESUMO A bacia Amazônica é um centro de diversidade de Gossypium barbadense e a estratégia de manutenção desse recurso genético depende do conhecimento da diversidade da espécie mantida no Estado do Amazonas. Em 2012 e 2014 plantas desta espécie foram coletadas em dez municípios na região centro-leste do Estado. A diversidade molecular por marcadores microssatélites foi mensurada para 50 amostras da coleta de 2012. A diversidade morfológica de 24 plantas coletadas em 2014 foi medida ex situ e comparada com a de 50 amostras desta e de outras variedades de algodão de outros estados do Brasil. A maioria das plantas do Amazonas apresentou folhas arroxeadas (82%), associadas a uso medicinal, e sementes unidas, do tipo rim-de-boi (78%). A análise morfológica ex situ mostrou que G. barbadense coletado no estado do Amazonas: i) tem maior similaridade com plantas da mesma espécie de outros estados da Região Norte do Brasil e ii) se agrupam entre si de forma diferenciada das plantas de outros estados. A diversidade molecular (H = 0,41) e morfológica (H = 0,38 ± 0,02) entre os acessos foi considerada intermediária. Nosso estudo indica o caráter distintivo dos algodões amazônicos, e contribui para demonstrar o poder de discriminação de variáveis multicategóricas.
       
  • Silvicultural performance of five forest species in the central Brazilian
           Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Planting of forest species of timber interest helps to reduce the deforestation pressure on the Amazon forest, promotes sustainable development of the producing region and generates ecological benefits. The objective of this work was to evaluate the survival rate and growth of four native (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata and Jacaranda copaia) and one exotic (Acacia mangium) species in monospecific plantations (spacing of 2 x 2 m) established on areas previously used for grazing, in Itacoatiara, State of Amazonas, Brazil. When the trees were four years old, we collected biometric data [height at 1.30 m (DBH, cm), crown projection area (CPA, m2), total height (Ht, m), commercial cylinder volume (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], and qualitative data from visual diagnosis [survival rate (S, %), nutritional status (NS, G = good, D = deficient, %), and phytosanitary status (PS, S = satisfactory, N = non-satisfactory, %)]. Three plots of 128 m2, with 32 plants each, were evaluated for each species. Jacaranda copaia, followed by Dipteryx odorata and Parkia decussata, were the recommended species for planting in areas with edaphoclimatic conditions similar to those of the present work, due to their better performance according to most of the variables.RESUMO Plantios de espécies florestais de interesse madeireiro contribuem para diminuir a pressão sobre a floresta amazônica, proporcionam o desenvolvimento sustentável na região e geram benefícios ecológicos. Este estudo objetivou avaliar a sobrevivência e o crescimento de quatro espécies nativas (Swietenia macrophylla, Parkia decussata, Dipteryx odorata e Jacaranda copaia) e uma exótica (Acacia mangium), em plantios monoespecíficos (espaçamento de 2 x 2 m) estabelecidos em áreas anteriormente ocupadas por pastagem, em Itacoatiara, Amazonas. Aos quatro anos de idade, foram obtidos dados biométricos [diâmetro à altura de 1,30 m do solo (DBH, cm), área de projeção de copa (CPA, m2), altura total (Ht, m), volume comercial do cilindro (Vcyl, m3 ha-1)], e dados qualitativos obtidos por diagnose visual [taxa de sobrevivência (S; %), estado nutricional (NS, G: bom; D: deficiente; %) e estado fitossanitário (PS, S: satisfatório; NS: não-satisfatório; %). Para cada espécie considerou-se três parcelas de 128 m2, cada uma com 32 plantas. Jacaranda copaia, seguida de Dipteryx odorata e Parkia decussata, foram as espécies mais recomendadas para o plantio em áreas com condições edafoclimáticas semelhantes às do presente trabalho, devido ao seu melhor desempenho para a maioria das variáveis.
       
  • Optimal selective logging regime and log landing location models: a case
           study in the Amazon forest

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Reduced-impact logging is a well known practice applied in most sustainable forest management plans in the Amazon. Nevertheless, there are still ways to improve the operational planning process. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create an integer linear programming (ILP) to fill in the knowledge gaps in the decision support system of reduced impact logging explorations. The minimization of harvest tree distance to wood log landing was assessed. Forest structure aspects, income and wood production were set in the model, as well as the adjacency constraints. Data are from a dense ombrophylous forest in the western Brazilian Amazon. We applied the phytosociological analysis and BDq method to define the selective logging criteria. Then, ILP models were formulated to allow the application of the constraints. Finally, 32 scenarios (unbalanced forest, UF, and balanced forest, BF) were generated and compared with real executed plans (RE). Robust results were achieved and the expected finding of each scenario was met. The feasibility to integrate ILP models in uneven-aged forest management projects was endorsed. Consequently, the UF and BF scenarios tested were efficient and concise, introducing new advances for forest management plans in the Amazon. The proposed models have a high potential to improve the selective logging activities in the Amazon forest.RESUMO A exploração de impacto reduzido é uma prática bem conhecida e aplicada na maioria dos planos de manejo florestal sustentável na Amazônia. Todavia, ainda há a possibilidade de melhoria do processo de planejamento da operação. Diante da falta de métodos auxiliares à tomada de decisão, o objetivo do trabalho foi desenvolver modelos de programação linear inteira (PLI) para suprir esta demanda. Considerou-se a minimização da distância entre as árvores exploradas e os pátios de estocagem de madeira. Aspectos estruturais, econômicos e produtivos foram incorporados ao modelo, bem como restrições de adjacência. Os dados derivam de uma floresta ombrófila densa na Amazônia Ocidental. Previamente, utilizou-se uma análise fitossociológica e o método BDq como critério de remoção. Posteriormente, modelos de PLI foram formulados para exemplificar as aplicações. Finalmente, 32 cenários (para floresta desbalaceada, UF, e floresta balanceada, BF) foram gerados e comparados com o plano executado no campo (RE). Resultados robustos foram obtidos e atenderam às expectativas de cada cenário. A viabilidade da integração dos modelos de PLI em projetos de manejo de florestas ineqüiâneas foi testado. Os cenários UF e BF testados foram eficientes e concisos, confirmando seu potencial para aumentar a eficiência de planos de exploração madeireira e manejo florestal na Amazônia.
       
  • Population fluctuations in the pink hibiscus mealybug and its natural
           enemies in Annona squamosa (Annonaceae) in Roraima, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), a species of economic interest, especially for fruit plants, is expanding on the South American continent. Information about the population dynamics of this pest associated with control by natural enemies and cultural practices is fundamental for its management. Our objective was to study the population fluctuations in M. hirsutus and its natural enemies in a sugar-apple (Annona squamosa) orchard in Roraima, northern Brazil. Trees were evaluated monthly over a 12-month period. Infestation rates by M. hirsutus and its parasitism were also estimated for potential host plants around the study area. Highest infestation occurred in August and February-March. Alternative hosts were infested during the off-season, mainly fruit. Lacewings and the parasitoid Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) were abundant natural enemies. Average parasitism by A. kamali in fruits was 50%, with highest rates in periods of greatest infestation by M. hirsutus. Fruitification pruning reduced M. hirsutus populations.RESUMO Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae), praga de inúmeras espécies, especialmente frutíferas, está se expandindo no continente sul-americano. Informações sobre sua dinâmica, inimigos naturais e práticas culturais são importantes para seu manejo. Nosso objetivo foi estudar as flutuações da população em M. hirsutus e seus inimigos naturais em um pomar de ata (Annona squamosa) em Roraima, Brasil. As árvores foram avaliadas mensalmente ao longo de um período de 12 meses e as taxas de infestação por M. hirsutus e parasitismo foram estimadas. A maior infestação ocorreu em agosto de 2014 e entre fevereiro e março de 2015. Hospedeiros alternativos foram infestados durante a entressafra da ata. Bicho-lixeiro e o parasitoide Anagyrus kamali (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) foram os inimigos naturais mais importantes. O parasitismo médio por A. kamali nos frutos foi de 50%, com maiores taxas nos períodos de maior infestação por M. hirsutus. A poda de frutificação reduziu as populações de M. hirsutus.
       
  • Seeds of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis, Euphorbiaceae) as a feed
           ingredient for juvenile tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, and matrinxã,
           Brycon amazonicus (Characidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) is a plant native to the Peruvian Amazon with seeds that contain 24 to 29% protein, and levels of vitamin A and E and omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids that are suitable for fish nutrition. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the use of sacha inchi seeds as an ingredient in the diets of tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) and matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus). The acceptance and effect of three levels of sacha inchi seed meal (0, 15 and 30%) in fish feed was evaluated in a randomized experiment, testing groups of 12 juvenile tambaquis (29.8 ± 1.0 g, 11.0 ± 1.4 cm) and groups of eight juvenile matrinxãs (34.8 ± 1.3 g, 13.7 ± 1.0 cm). Growth performance and body composition of the fish were determined at the end of the experiment. An effect of the sacha inchi diet was only observed for feed conversion of tambaquis, which was worst at the highest level of sacha inchi seed. In conclusion, sacha inchi can be added to feed juvenile tambaquis at a level of 15%, and juvenile matrinxãs at 30% without compromising growth performance and body parameters of the fish.RESUMO Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis) é uma planta nativa da Amazônia peruana cujas sementes contém 24-29% de proteína, além de vitamina A e E e ácidos graxos polinsaturados ômega 3 em níveis adequados para a nutrição de peixes. Dessa forma, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o uso de sementes de sacha inchi como ingrediente em rações para o tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) e matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus). Níveis de inclusão de sacha inchi nas rações e aceitação foram avaliados em um delineamento experimental inteiramente aleatorizado, avaliando três grupos de 12 juvenis de tambaqui (29,8 ± 1,0 g; 11,0 ± 1,4 cm) e três grupos de oito juvenis de matrinxãs (34,8 ± 1,3 g; 13,7 ± 1,0 cm) alimentados com rações contendo 0, 15 ou 30% de farelo de sementes de sacha inchi. O crescimento e a composição corporal dos peixes foram avaliados ao final do experimento. Um efeito da ração com sacha inchi foi somente observado para a conversão alimentar de tambaquis, que foi pior no maior nível de semente de sacha inchi. Em conclusão, sacha inchi pode ser adicionada na alimentação de juvenis de tambaqui até o nível de 15% e na de juvenis de matrinxã até 30% sem comprometimento do desempenho e dos parâmetros corporais.
       
  • The influence of sex ratio on the reproduction of pirarucu, Arapaima
           gigas
    , in captivity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Because sex ratio in the broodstock can influence the reproductive behaviour of a species, the influence of sex ratio on the reproductive success of pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, in captivity was assessed. Pirarucu breeders were stocked in 0.10-0.13 ha earthen ponds at three sex ratios in quadruplicate: one male to one female (1M1F); one male to two females (1M2F); and two males to one female (2M1F). Eight spawning events occurred, seven of them with the 1M1F sex ratio, which was the most successful of the three tested sex ratios.RESUMO A proporção sexual de reprodutores pode influenciar o comportamento reprodutivo de uma espécie. Em função disso, avaliou-se o efeito da estocagem de reprodutores em diferentes proporções sexuais no sucesso reprodutivo do pirarucu, Arapaima gigas, em cativeiro. Reprodutores foram estocados em viveiros de 0,10-0,13 ha, distribuídos em três tratamentos (proporções sexuais), com quatro repetições cada: (1M1F) um macho e uma fêmea, (1M2F) um macho e duas fêmeas; e (2M1F) dois machos e uma fêmea. Foram observadas oito desovas, sendo a proporção sexual 1M1F a mais eficiente, apresentando sete desovas. Sugere-se, portanto, que a proporção sexual de um macho para cada fêmea é mais adequada para a reprodução do pirarucu em cativeiro.
       
  • First record of Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae (Eoacantocephala,
           Neochinorhynchidae) on Colossoma macropomum (Characidae) in a fish farm in
           Roraima, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Severe infections by the acanthocephalan Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae were reported in Colossoma macropomum in fish farms in northern Brazil. The occurrence of the parasite is recorded for the first time in the state of Roraima, Brazil, along with its parasite indexes. Fifty C. macropomum from a fish farm were analyzed. We collected a total of 13474 individual parasites. Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae had a prevalence of 100%, and mean intensity and mean abundance of 269.48. Significant positive correlations were observed between fish standard length, weight and relative condition factor and the number of parasites. Our results showed evident loss of body mass in the parasitized fish. Fish farmers in Roraima should be advised to manage the infection of C. macropomum by N. buttnerae, as massive infections of this parasite can deteriorate the health of the fish.RESUMO Infecções severas pelo acantocéfalo Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae foram relatados em Colossoma macropomum em fazendas no norte do Brasil. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o primeiro registro de ocorrência deste parasita no estado de Roraima, Brasil, relatando seus índices parasitários. Cinquenta C. macropomum de uma fazenda foram analisados. Coletamos um total de 13474 parasitas. Neoechinorhynchus buttnerae mostrou uma prevalência de 100%, com uma intensidade média e abundância média de 269,48. O comprimento padrão, peso e fator de condição relativo dos peixes foram correlacionados positiva e significativamente com o número de parasitas. Nossos resultados mostraram perda evidente de massa corporal nos peixes. Nosso registro da presença de N. buttnerae infectando C. macropomum no estado de Roraima é um alerta aos piscicultores, pois infecções massivas podem deteriorar a saúde dos peixes.
       
  • Floristic composition, structure and soil-vegetation relations in the
           three white-sand soil patches in central Amazonia

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Amazonian white-sand vegetation presents a set of unique features, such as the dominance of a few species, high endemism and low species richness, which differentiate it from other Amazonian forests. Soil parameters have long been recognized as the main drivers of white-sand vegetation (WSV) characteristics. However, how they influence the composition, richness and structure of this vegetation type is still poorly understood. In this study we investigated the variation in floristic composition between patches and the soil-vegetation relations in three central Amazonian WSV patches. We tested whether slight differences in soil properties are linked with differences in floristic composition, species richness and forest structure in adjacent patches. In each patch three plots of 50 x 50 m were sampled (a total of 2.25 ha). Soil samples were collected for each plot. The sampling cutoff for arboreal individuals was DBH ≥ 5 cm. We sampled a total of 3956 individuals belonging to 40 families and 140 species. In each patch only a few species were dominant, but the dominant species varied among patches. Differences among patches were significant, but plots in the same patch tended to have similar species composition. The variable sum of bases (SB) was directly related to species composition, however, species richness and forest structure were not related to soil parameters. Even small variations in soil parameters can change species composition in WSV, although these variations do not necessarily influence the richness and other structural parameters.RESUMO As campinaranas amazônicas apresentam uma série de características únicas, como a dominância de poucas espécies, alto grau de endemismos e baixa riqueza de espécies, que as diferenciam de outras formações florestais amazônicas. Parâmetros edáficos têm sido apontados como os principais responsáveis pelas características das campinaranas. Contudo, como estes parâmetros influenciam a composição, riqueza e estrutura deste tipo de vegetação ainda é pouco entendido. Neste estudo investigamos a variação estrutural, a composição florística e a relação solo-vegetação em três áreas de campinarana na Amazônia central, com intuito de testar se pequenas diferenças nos parâmetros edáficos do solo estão relacionados com diferenças na composição, riqueza e estrutura do componente arbóreo em áreas de campinarana adjacentes. Em cada área foram amostradas três parcelas de 50 x 50 m (totalizando 2.25 ha), com o critério de inclusão para os indivíduos de DAP ≥ 5 cm. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em cada parcela. O número total de indivíduos amostrados foi 3956, pertencendo a 40 famílias e 140 espécies. Em cada área poucas espécies foram dominantes, mas estas variaram entre as áreas. Diferenças entre as áreas foram significativas, porém parcelas da mesma área tenderam a ter composição florística similar. A variável soma de bases (SB) foi diretamente relacionada à composição de espécies; contudo, riqueza de espécies e estrutura florestal não foram relacionadas a nenhum dos parâmetros do solo amostrados. Concluimos que mesmo pequenas variações nos parâmetros edáficos do solo podem mudar a composição de espécies em campinaranas, embora esta variação não necessariamente influencie a riqueza e outros parâmetros estruturais da vegetação.
       
  • Acaricidal activity of extracts from different structures of Piper
           tuberculatum against larvae and adults of Rhipicephalus microplus

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The strategies to control the cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus are based mainly on the use of synthetic pesticides. However, the emergence, establishment, and development of resistance of ticks is rendering the main chemical groups ineffective. Finding new molecules to effectively control infestations by R. microplus is necessary to maintain the productivity of cattle herds, particularly of taurine breeds established in equatorial and tropical regions of the world. Ethanol extracts from the leaves, stems, and fruits of Piper tuberculatum were evaluated in bioassays at concentrations of 50, 25, 12.50, 6.25, 3.12 and 1.56 mg mL-1. The concentrations lethal to 50% of the individuals (LC50) of tick larvae after 24 hours of exposure were 3.62, 3.99 and 5.30 mg mL-1 for fruit, stem and leaf extracts, respectively. Against the engorged females, the highest efficacy rates were obtained at the concentration of 50 mg mL-1, corresponding to 71.57%, 68.38% and 37.03% of the fruit, leaf and stem extracts, respectively. The main effect of the ethanol extracts was on the egg hatching rate of ticks, with a reduction of 55.63% for the fruit and leaf extracts, and 20.82% for the stem extract. The results show that P. tuberculatum is a promising source of molecules for use as active ingredients in pesticide formulations for R. microplus control.RESUMO Estratégias de controle do carrapato dos bovinos, Rhipicephalus microplus, fundamentam-se na utilização de pesticidas. Os principais grupos químicos utilizados atualmente mostram-se ineficazes devido ao surgimento de populações resistentes. A pesquisa de novas moléculas com eficiência acaricida é uma necessidade para manutenção da produtividade dos rebanhos bovinos estabelecidos em regiões de clima tropical. Avaliamos a atividade de Piper tuberculatum para o controle de fêmeas ingurgitadas e larvas de R. microplus através de bioensaios de imersão de adultos e de pacotes de larvas. As concentrações avaliadas foram de 50; 25; 12,50; 6,25; 3,12 e 1,56 mg mL-1 de extrato etanólico de folha, talo e fruto de P. tuberculatum. As concentrações letais para 50% dos indivíduos (CL50) após 24 horas de exposição de larvas de R. microplus foram 3,62; 3,99 e 5,30 mg mL-1 para os extratos etanólicos de fruto, talo e folha, respectivamente. Para fêmeas ingurgitadas, a maior eficácia resultou da concentração de 50 mg mL-1 de extrato de fruto (71.57%). O principal efeito dos extratos etanólicos de P. tuberculatum foi sobre a eclodibilidade, com uma redução de 55.63% para extratos de fruto e folha. P. tuberculatum mostra-se promissora como fonte de moléculas candidatas a uso em pesticidas, em formulações destinadas ao controle das infestações de R. microplus.
       
  • Metabolites from endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus and their in vitro
           effect against the causal agent of tuberculosis

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Tuberculosis (TB) remains one of the most deadly communicable infectious diseases, causing 1.4 million deaths in 2015 worldwide due to many conditions, including the inadequate treatment and the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains of the causal agent, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Therefore, drugs developed from natural sources, as microorganisms and plant extracts, are a frequent target for the research and discovery of antimicrobial compounds. The current study started the characterization of compounds produced by an Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from copaíba (Copaifera multijuga) that efficiently inhibits M. tuberculosis by releasing the compounds into the fermentation broth under specific culture conditions. A preliminary assay was carried out with a correlate species, M. smegmatis, aiming to detect an antimicrobial effect related to A. fumigatus fermentation broth. The direct use of this substrate in antibiosis assays againstM. tuberculosis H37Rv strain (ATCC 27294) allowed the detection of antimicrobial activity with a minimal inhibitory concentration of 256 μg mL-1, demonstrating that purification processes developed by the Biotage Flash Chromatography System are robust and reliable techniques for purification of compounds from natural sources. Also, this chromatographic system can be used in combination with specific biochemical tests, improving the search for reliable results. We conclude that this fraction can express a broad action range, inhibiting both Mycobacterium species used as target organisms.RESUMO A tuberculose continua a ser uma das doenças infecciosas transmissíveis mais mortais, causando 1,4 milhão de mortes em 2015 em todo o mundo devido a vários fatores, incluindo o tratamento inadequado e o surgimento de cepas multirresistentes do agente causal, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Portanto, as drogas desenvolvidas a partir de fontes naturais, como micro-organismos e extratos de plantas, são um alvo freqüente para a pesquisa e descoberta de compostos antimicrobianos. O presente estudo foi um ponto de partida para caracterizar compostos produzidos por um Aspergillus fumigatus isolado de copaíba (Copaifera multijuga) que inibe eficientemente M. tuberculosis, liberando os compostos no caldo de fermentação em condições de cultura específicas. Realizou-se um ensaio preliminar com uma espécie correlata, M. smegmatis, com o objetivo de detectar um efeito antimicrobiano relacionado ao caldo de fermentação de A. fumigatus. O uso direto deste substrato em ensaios de antibiose contra a estirpe H37Rv de M. tuberculosis (ATCC 27294) permitiu a detecção de atividade antimicrobiana com uma concentração inibitória mínima de 256 μg mL-1, demonstrando que os processos de purificação desenvolvidos pelo Biotage Flash Chromatography System são técnicas robustas e confiáveis para purificar compostos de fontes naturais. Além disso, este sistema cromatográfico pode ser usado em combinação com testes bioquímicos específicos, melhorando a busca de resultados confiáveis. Concluímos que esta fração pode expressar uma ampla gama de ação, inibindo ambas as espécies de Mycobacterium utilizadas como organismos-alvo.
       
  • First phytochemical description of essential oils from Piper cachimboense
           (Piperales, Piperaceae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Piper cachimboense is recorded only for the Amazon region of Brazil and Colombia, and the objective of this study was to report the first phytochemical assessment of the composition of the essential oils (EOs) from this species collected in the Amazon rainforest, in Novo Progresso, Pará State, Brazil. Samples of leaves were subjected to hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus. The chemical identification was carried out by gas chromatography. The yield of oils was of 11.03 ± 5.94% for fresh leaves, and 1.07 ± 0.27% for dry leaves. The analysis showed 36 volatile compounds from fresh leaves and 49 from dried leaves. Main constituents in EOs of both fresh and dried leaves from P. cachimboense were (E)-caryophyllene, germacrene-D, γ-amorfene, δ-cadinene and apiole.RESUMO Piper cachimboense é registrada apenas para a região amazônica do Brasil e Colômbia, e o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar, pela primeira vez, a composição fitoquímica dos óleos essenciais (OEs) desta espécie coletada na floresta amazônica, em Novo Progresso/PA, Brasil. Amostras de folhas foram submetidas a hidrodestilação em aparelho tipo Clevenger. A identificação química foi realizada por cromatografia gasosa e o rendimento dos óleos foi de 11,03 ± 5,94% para as folhas frescas e de 1,07 ± 0,27% para as folhas secas. A análise mostrou 36 compostos voláteis para folhas frescas e 49 para folhas secas. Os constituintes principais dos OEs de folhas frescas e secas de P. cachimboense foram (E)-cariofileno, germacreno-D, γ-amorfeno, δ-cadineno e apiol.
       
  • Assessment of WASH scenarios in urban and rural schools of a small city in
           the Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study analyzed environmental aspects of county and state managed public schools within Tefé county in the Brazilian Amazon, using the WASH concept (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) developed by UNICEF and OMS. WASH is a strategy used since 1995, when child mortality rates were on the rise. Research was conducted using a questionnaire applied to employees of 19 primary and secondary schools, and based on WASH principles. After its application, we used an observation checklist to assess the state of the schools’ physical structure. We also conducted water quality analyses. All schools presented water contamination with total coliforms and 26% did not conduct any type of water treatment. The number of toilets in all schools was insufficient, and 47% of schools presented bathroom irregularities. The presence of flies was observed in 52%, and the accumulation of rubbish in 31% of the schools. This study demonstrates an emerging need to improve issues of water, sanitation, and hygiene in Tefé schools in order to minimize the risk of illness, which influences school routines and individual learning processes. We suggest greater investments in and care of educational institutions, stemming from both public policies and the mobilization of the local population around these issues.RESUMO Este estudo avaliou alguns aspectos do ambiente das escolas públicas municipais e estaduais do município de Tefé, localizado na Amazônia brasileira, através do conceito WASH (água, saneamento e higiene) desenvolvido por UNICEF e a OMS. O WASH é uma estratégia utilizada desde 1995, quando os índices de mortalidade infantil estavam em crescimento. O estudo foi realizado a partir da aplicação de um questionário para os funcionários de 19 escolas de ensino primário ao médio, elaborado com base nos preceitos de WASH. Na sequência, foi utilizada uma lista de observação para verificação da estrutura física. Também foram realizadas analises da qualidade da água. Todas as escolas apresentaram contaminação da água por coliformes totais e 26% não aplicam nenhum tipo de tratamento à água. Em todas as escolas a quantidade de sanitários foi insuficiente, e em 47% as instalações sanitárias apresentarem irregularidades. A presença de moscas foi observada em 52% das escolas, além do acúmulo de entulho em 31% dessas instituições. Com este estudo, constatou-se a necessidade emergente de melhorias nas questões de água, saneamento e higiene nas escolas de Tefé, visando minimizar riscos de doenças que influenciam a vida escolar e o aprendizado dos alunos. Recomendamos maiores investimentos e cuidados nas instituições escolares, tanto a partir de políticas públicas, quanto partindo da mobilização da população.
       
  • Errata

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study analyzed environmental aspects of county and state managed public schools within Tefé county in the Brazilian Amazon, using the WASH concept (Water, Sanitation and Hygiene) developed by UNICEF and OMS. WASH is a strategy used since 1995, when child mortality rates were on the rise. Research was conducted using a questionnaire applied to employees of 19 primary and secondary schools, and based on WASH principles. After its application, we used an observation checklist to assess the state of the schools’ physical structure. We also conducted water quality analyses. All schools presented water contamination with total coliforms and 26% did not conduct any type of water treatment. The number of toilets in all schools was insufficient, and 47% of schools presented bathroom irregularities. The presence of flies was observed in 52%, and the accumulation of rubbish in 31% of the schools. This study demonstrates an emerging need to improve issues of water, sanitation, and hygiene in Tefé schools in order to minimize the risk of illness, which influences school routines and individual learning processes. We suggest greater investments in and care of educational institutions, stemming from both public policies and the mobilization of the local population around these issues.RESUMO Este estudo avaliou alguns aspectos do ambiente das escolas públicas municipais e estaduais do município de Tefé, localizado na Amazônia brasileira, através do conceito WASH (água, saneamento e higiene) desenvolvido por UNICEF e a OMS. O WASH é uma estratégia utilizada desde 1995, quando os índices de mortalidade infantil estavam em crescimento. O estudo foi realizado a partir da aplicação de um questionário para os funcionários de 19 escolas de ensino primário ao médio, elaborado com base nos preceitos de WASH. Na sequência, foi utilizada uma lista de observação para verificação da estrutura física. Também foram realizadas analises da qualidade da água. Todas as escolas apresentaram contaminação da água por coliformes totais e 26% não aplicam nenhum tipo de tratamento à água. Em todas as escolas a quantidade de sanitários foi insuficiente, e em 47% as instalações sanitárias apresentarem irregularidades. A presença de moscas foi observada em 52% das escolas, além do acúmulo de entulho em 31% dessas instituições. Com este estudo, constatou-se a necessidade emergente de melhorias nas questões de água, saneamento e higiene nas escolas de Tefé, visando minimizar riscos de doenças que influenciam a vida escolar e o aprendizado dos alunos. Recomendamos maiores investimentos e cuidados nas instituições escolares, tanto a partir de políticas públicas, quanto partindo da mobilização da população.
       
 
 
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