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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1145 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 123)
American Economic Journal : Economic Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 96)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 321)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Development and Learning in Organizations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Amazonica
  [SJR: 0.32]   [H-I: 18]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0044-5967
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [724 journals]
  • Chemical and physical properties of an anthropogenic dark earth soil from
           Bragança, Para, Eastern Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Although anthropogenic dark earth (ADE) is generally found in non-floodable land, it also occurs on floodplains but, there is no information about the chemical and physical characteristics of ADE in this environment. In this study, we propose to check the hypothesis that a Gleysol, classified as ADE, presents improved chemical and physical conditions than an adjacent soil, no anthropogenic. Thus, the objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the top layer of two ADE profiles in a Gleysol and compare them with an adjacent soil. Samples were taken from two areas classified as ADE in Bragança, Pará State, Brazil, at the "Jabuti" archaeological site, and from an adjacent non-anthropogenic site. Disturbed and undisturbed soil samples were collected at the soil depth of 0.05-0.10 m for chemical (pH, potential acidity, exchangeable cations, and soil organic carbon) and physical (soil particle size distribution, particles density, water retention curve, total porosity, microporosity, macroporosity, and bulk density) analysis. The two areas of ADE in a Gleysol, showed improved soil chemical properties compared to the adjacent soil, particularly in relation to phosphorus and calcium levels that contributed to higher cation exchange capacity which, in turn, was positively related to organic carbon content. Changes in soil physical properties were less noticeable but both areas of ADE presented higher water retention capacity, particularly at low tension. The improved conditions of the ADE soil under Gleysols shows that these areas are adequate for soil cultivation, especially with plants adapted to floodplain.RESUMO Embora as terras pretas antropogênicas (TPA) geralmente são encontradas em áreas de terra firme, elas também ocorrem em áreas e várzeas, mas, não há informações sobre as características químicas e físicas de TPA neste ambiente. Neste estudo, nós propomos verificar a hipótese de que um Gleissolo, classificado como TPA, apresenta melhores condições químicas e físicas do que o solo adjacente, não antropogênico. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi caracterizar as propriedades químicas e físicas da camada superficial de dois perfis de TPA em um Gleissolo e compará-los com um solo adjacente. Amostras de solo foram coletadas em duas áreas classificadas como TPA em Bragança, Estado do Pará, Brasil, no sítio arqueológico "Jabuti" e em uma área adjacente não antropogênica. Amostras de solo com estrutura deformada e indeformada foram coletadas na profundidade de 0,05-0,10 m para análises químicas (pH, acidez potencial, cátions trocáveis, e carbono orgânico do solo) e físicas (distribuição do tamanho das partículas do solo, densidade de partículas, curva de retenção de água, porosidade total, microporosidade, macroporosidade e densidade do solo). As duas áreas de TPA em Gleissolo, apresentaram melhores propriedades químicas comparadas com o solo adjacente, principalmente em relação aos níveis de fósforo e cálcio que contribuíram para a maior capacidade de troca catiônica que, por sua vez, foi positivamente relacionada com o conteúdo de carbono orgânico. Mudanças nas propriedades físicas do solo foram menos pronunciadas, mas as duas áreas de TPA exibiram maior capacidade de retenção de água, sobretudo em baixa tensão.
  • Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants in Imperatriz, State of
           Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The study of medicinal plants reveals locally important plant species often useful for the discovery of new drugs. The objective of this research was to conduct an ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used by the population of the Imperatriz city, State of Maranhão, Northeastern Brazil. Two hundred and five interviews were conducted, resulting in the collection of 60 plant species from 31 plant families. The highest number of species belongs to Fabaceae, followed by Lamiaceae, Asteraceae and Euphorbiaceae. The most reported species were Chenopodium ambrosioides, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Lippia alba, and Plectranthus barbatus. The main plant parts used were leaves (63.3%), bark (16.7%), fruits (6.7%), roots (6.7%), seeds (3.3), stems (1.7%) and latex (1.7%). Major administration routes were by oral (81.7%) or nasal via (1.6%) and topical application (16.7%) The plants were used to mitigate various health problems including pain, asthma, hypertension, gastritis, inflammation, influenza, and tuberculosis. The collected data shows that local population uses medicinal plants for treatment of several diseases and this study can serve as a basis for future chemical and pharmacological investigation, which can lead to the discovery of new therapeutic agents.RESUMO O estudo de plantas medicinais são em geral significativos em revelar espécies de plantas localmente importantes, principalmente para a descoberta de fármacos. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um levantamento etnobotânico das plantas medicinais utilizadas pela população da cidade de Imperatriz no estado do Maranhão, Nordeste do Brasil. 205 entrevistas foram realizadas resultando na coleção de 60 espécies de 31 famílias de plantas. Fabaceae teve o maior número de espécies, seguido por Lamiaceae, Asteraceae e Euphorbiaceae. As espécies mais utilizadas foram Chenopodium ambrosioides, Myracrodruon urundeuva, Lippia alba e Plectranthus barbatus. As principais partes foram as folhas (63,3%), cascas (16,7%), frutos (6,7%), raízes (6,7%), sementes (3,3%), caule (1,7%) e látex (1,7%). As vias de administração mais frequentes foram oral (81,7%), tópica (16,7%) e nasal (1,6%). As plantas são utilizadas para diversos problemas de saúde como dores em geral, asma, hipertensão, gastrite, inflamação, gripe e tuberculose. Os dados mostram que população local utiliza plantas medicinais para tratamento de várias doenças e este estudo pode servir de base para estudos químicos e farmacológicos futuros que levem ao descobrimento de novos agentes terapêuticos.
  • The use of medicinal plants by rural populations of the Pastaza province
           in the Ecuadorian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Mera, Santa Clara and Pastaza municipalities are located in the Ecuadorian Amazon region. The objective of the study was to identify plant species used in traditional medicine by small farmers of these localities, and to classify these plants according to locality, farmer ethnicity and purposes of use. It was also investigated whether the use of medicinal plants differs between the ethnic groups. Data were collected by applying a questionnaire and personal interview with 213 farmers belonging to two ethnicities (Kichwa and mestizo), and to different municipalities (Mera, Santa Clara and Pastaza). Generated data were analyzed using contingency tables and frequency and the most representative species were determined by proportion analysis comparison. A total of 34 families and 52 species of medicinal plants were identified. The most used species was Ilex guayusa which was cited 48 times. Santa Clara municipality and Kichwa farmers used the highest number of species. These species belonged to the Lamiaceae and Solanacease family, and the plants were used for treating stomach pain, cold and inflammations. There were significant differences (Chi square test p < 0.05) between localities and ethnicities (Kichwa and mestizo). There were differences in the use of medicinal plant species among members of the Kichwa ethnicity and mestizo farmers, depending on locality, being Ilex guayusa the most used species.RESUMO A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em três municípios da Província de Pastaza, (Mera, Santa Clara e Pastaza), na Amazônia equatoriana. O objetivo do estudo foi identificar espécies vegetais utilizadas na medicina tradicional pelos agricultores nestas localidades e classificar as espécies segundo a localidade, etnia do produtor e as aflições nas que eram utilizadas. Alem disso, na pesquisa analisaram-se as diferença de uso das plantas entre as etnias Kichwa e Mestiça. A metodologia do trabalho consistiu na aplicação de questionários e entrevistas pessoais com 213 agricultores das diferentes etnias. Utilizaram-se as tabelas de contingência por freqüência de uso com os dados gerados, para determinar as espécies mais representativas e em cada grupo realizou-se comparação por análise de proporções. Os principais resultados mostraram a existência de 52 espécies de plantas medicinais pertencente a 34 famílias. A espécie mais utilizada foi Ilex guayusa com 48 registros. Os produtores Kichwa do município Santa Clara registraram o maior número de espécies pertencente às famílias Lamiaceae e Solanacease e as plantas foram utilizadas para tratamento de dor de estômago, gripe e inflamações. A prova de "chi quadrado" mostrou diferenças (p < 0,05) entre os municípios e as etnias. Conclui-se que existe diferença no uso de plantas medicinais entre as localidades e os grupos étnicos estudados. A espécie Ilex guayusa foi a planta medicinal mais usada pelos agricultores independentemente da localidade e a etnia.
  • Nursery growth and rhizobia symbiosis of scandent Leguminosae species
           native to the Amazon region

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT A great number of species and individuals of scandent legumes establishing symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria occurs in the Amazon Forest. These symbiosis probably play an important role in contributing to nitrogen incorporation in this ecossystem. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the growth of eight species of scandent legumes in five nursery substrates; to compare nodulation with rhizobia strains introduced or native to these substrates; and to characterize phenotypically and genetically these rhizobia. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with five replications. Five to seven months after seedling emergency, according to the legume species, growth and nodulation parameters were determined. Rhizobia identification of strains was carried out by 16S rRNA gene partial sequencing. The survival of seedlings after the transplanting varied from 93 to 98%, in Ultisol (Argissolo in Brazilian classification), collected in primary forest, and fertilized with all nutrients, except nitrogen (ULTfert); and in a clay and sand mixture, in a ratio 3:2 (CONV), respectively. Species with height superior to 30 cm, in general, grew better in substrates with higher fertility: ULTfert and Humic Gley soil (HG). Seven out of the eight species were able to nodulate. The percentage of nodulation per substrate was: SAND, washed sand with mixed inoculum of 100 rhizobia strains plus fertilization (100), HG (80), CONV (100), ULT, A-horizon of red-yellow Ultisol collected in the Ducke Forest Reserve (Manaus) (44), and ULTfert (55%). Bradyrhizobium spp. were isolated from nodules of all species and substrates. Burkolderia fungorum was isolated from Dalbergia inundata. For Dalbergia riedelli and Dalbergia inundata, this is the first report on the identification of symbiotic strains. Scandent legumes present high survival of seedlings in nursery, and develop better in substrates with higher fertility, and generally present symbiosis with Bradyrhizobium.RESUMO Um grande número de espécies e indivíduos de leguminosas escandentes estabelecendo simbiose com bactérias fixadoras de nitrogênio ocorrem na floresta Amazônica. Estas simbioses provavelmente desempenham importante papel, contribuindo para incorporação de nitrogênio neste ecossistema. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram avaliar o crescimento de oito espécies de leguminosas escandentes em cinco substratos no viveiro; comparar a nodulação com as estirpes de rizóbio introduzidas ou nativas destes substratos; e caracterizar esses rizóbios fenotípica e geneticamente. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições. Cinco a sete meses após a emergência das mudas parâmetros de crescimento e nodulação foram determinados. A identificação das estirpes de rizóbios foi feita pelo sequenciamento parcial do gene 16S rRNA. A sobrevivência das mudas após o transplante variou de 93 a 98%, em um Argissolo (Ultisol de acordo com a classificação da USDA), coletado em floresta primária e adubado com todos os nutrientes, exceto nitrogênio (ULTfert), e na mistura argila e areia, na proporção 3:2 (CONV), respectivamente. Espécies que apresentaram altura superior a 30 cm, no geral, cresceram melhor nos substratos de maior fertilidade: ULTfert e solo Glei Húmico (GH). Das oito espécies estudadas, sete nodularam. A porcentagem de nodulação por substrato foi: AREIA, areia lavada com inóculo misto de 100 estirpes de rizóbio mais adubação (100), GH (80), CONV (100), ULT, horizonte A de Argissolo vermelho-amarelo coletado na Reserva Florestal Ducke (Manaus) (44) e ULTfert (55%). Bradyrhizobium spp. foram isolados de nódulos de todas as espécies e substratos. Burkolderia fungorum foi isolada de Dalbergia inundata. Este é o primeiro relato de identificação de estirpes simbióticas para Dalbergia riedelli e Dalbergia inundata. Leguminosas escandentes apresentaram alta sobrevivência de mudas em casa de vegetação e desenvolveram-se melhor em substratos com maior fertilidade e, geralmente, estabeleceram simbiose com Bradyrhizobium.
  • Potential for shistosomiasis in a municipality of Rondônia, Brazilian

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Schistossomiasis is a parasitic disease, caused by helminths of the genus Schistosoma and transmitted in Brazil by snails of the genus Biomphalaria. The municipality of Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon Region, has unusually registered more than 900 cases of schistosomiasis in the last 10 years. The aim of this study was to investigate de potential of transmission of schsitosomiasis in Ouro Preto do Oeste. A total of 1,196 people in a risk area for the disease transmission were requested to answer a clinical-epidemiological survey and to collect feces samples for examination. All the samples that underwent examination resulted negative for S. mansoni. Two hundred and sixty-eight snails were collected in the locality of Ouro Preto do Oeste in 32 different locations. Among these, 44% were classified as belonging to the genus Biomphalaria. Another sample of snails (146 specimens), collected at the same sites, were submitted to an in vitro challenge with Schistosoma mansoni, and none of them were able to transmit the parasite. Finally, we discuss the epidemiological importance of these findings and the lack of attention to a patient with the disease in a non-endemic area. We failed to detected any association between shistossomiasis and the snails from the genus Biomphalaria, that exists in the local, as the planorbids were unable to transmit Shistosoma mansoni. Perhaps the small sample and/or the stool examination technique can have contributed to the results. Further studies, in other localities of Rondônia and with a greater sample could put some light in this question.RESUMO A esquistossomose é uma doença parasitária, causada por helmintos do gênero Schistosoma e transmitida no Brasil por caramujos do gênero Biomphalaria. O município de Ouro Preto do Oeste, Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira, notificou, de forma não usual, mais de 900 casos de esquistossomose mansônica nos últimos 10 anos. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o potencial de transmissão da esquistossomose em Ouro Preto do Oeste. Um total de 1.196 pessoas residindo em áreas de risco para a transmissão da doença foram abordadas para responderem um questionário clínico-epidemiológico e realização de exame parasitológico de fezes. Todas as amostras foram negativas para S. mansoni. Duzentos e sessenta e oito caramujos foram coletados em Ouro Preto do Oeste, de 32 localidades diferentes. Entre estes, 44% foram classificados como pertencendo ao gênero Biomphalaria. Outra amostra de caramujos (146 exemplares), coletada nos mesmos locais, foi submetida in vitro a cepas de Schistosoma mansoni, sendo todos incapazes de transmitirem o parasito. Por fim, discute-se a importância epidemiológica desses achados e a falta de atenção ao paciente portador da parasitose em áreas indenes. O estudo não conseguiu demonstrar a ocorrência de transmissão na localidade e nem a habilidade dos planorbídeos locais transmitirem Shistosoma mansoni. Talvez o pequeno tamanho da amostra e/ou a técnica de exame de fezes (pouco sensível) possam ter contribuído para este resultado. Estudos futuros, em outras localidades e com uma amostra maior podem colocar um pouco de luz nesta questão.
  • Accuracy of the malaria epidemiological surveillance system data in the
           state of Amazonas

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The Epidemiological Surveillance System for Malaria (SIVEP-Malaria) is the Brazilian governmental program that registers all information about compulsory reporting of detected cases of malaria by all medical units and medical practitioners. The objective of this study is to point out the main sources of errors in the SIVEP-Malaria database by applying a data cleaning method to assist researchers about the best way to use it and to report the problems to authorities. The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the data collected by the surveillance system and its accuracy. The SIVEP-Malaria data base used was for the state of Amazonas, Brazil, with data collected from 2003 to 2014. A data cleaning method was applied to the database to detect and remove erroneous records. It was observed that the collecting procedure of the database is not homogeneous among the municipalities and over the years. Some of the variables had different data collection periods, missing data, outliers and inconsistencies. Variables depending on the health agents showed a good quality but those that rely on patients were often inaccurate. We showed that a punctilious preprocessing is needed to produce statistically correct data from the SIVEP-Malaria data base. Fine spatial scale and multi-temporal analysis are of particular concern due to the local concentration of uncertainties and the data collecting seasonality observed. This assessment should help to enhance the quality of studies and the monitoring of the use of the SIVEP database.RESUMO O Sistema de Vigilância Epidemiológica de Malária (SIVEP-Malária) é um programa governamental brasileiro que arquiva automaticamente todas as informações sobre casos de malária registrados em todas as unidades de saúde e consultórios medicos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a qualidade dos dados coletados pelo sistema de vigilância e sua precisão. Foram utilizados os dados do SIVEP-Malária para o estado do Amazonas, Brasil, de 2003 a 2014. Um método de limpeza de dados foi aplicado para detectar e remover registros errôneos. Observamos que a coleta de dados não é homogênea entre os municipios e ao longo dos anos. Algumas variaveis tinham diferentes padrões de coleta, falta de dados, dados discrepantes e inconsistências. Dados que dependem do agente de saúde possuem boa qualidade mas aqueles que dependem dos pacientes são frequentemente imprecisos. Mostramos que um pre-processamento meticuloso é necessário para produzir dados estatisticamente corretos a partir do SIVEP-Malária. Analises em escala espacial detalhada ou multi-temporais são particularmente afetadas devido à concentração local de incertezas e a sazonalidade observada na coleta de dados. Esta avaliação deve auxiliar a melhorar os estudos e monitoramentos que fazem uso dos dados do SIVEP.
  • Patterns of mollusc distribution in mangroves from the São Marcos Bay,
           coast of Maranhão State, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The diversity and distribution of molluscs from the Amazon Coast of Maranhão State, Brazil, are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate how molluscs in two mangrove creeks (Buenos Aires and Tronco) at the São Marcos Bay, coast of the Maranhão State, respond to spatial and temporal variations in the environment. Sampling was performed in the intertidal area along three zones established using a straight line transect of 100 m. Abiotic variables of water and sediment were measured at each creek. We found 5,912 specimens belonging to 23 species and 15 families of epifaunal and infaunal molluscs. The patterns of their distribution in the two creeks were different. Salinity, dissolved oxygen, and rainfall were the main variables that affected the temporal distribution of molluscs. We found low species richness in the overall mollusc composition. Diversity in the Buenos Aires Creek was lower than that observed in the Tronco Creek, possibly because of activities of a port located in proximity to the former. The spatial distribution of molluscs along the zones followed an abundance and diversity gradient, mainly influenced by exposure time during low tide. Port activities may influence the patterns of mollusc distribution in the surrounding mangroves, and we thus highlight the importance of management and monitoring of these areas.RESUMO A diversidade e distribuição de moluscos na Costa Amazônica do Estado do Maranhão, Brasil, são pobremente conhecidas. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar como os moluscos em dois igarapés de manguezal (Buenos Aires e Tronco) na Baía de São Marcos, costa do Estado do Maranhão, respondem a variações espaciais e temporais no ambiente. A amostragem foi conduzida no entre-marés ao longo de três zonas estabelecidas a partir de um transecto em linha reta de 100 m. As variáveis abióticas de água e sedimento foram medidas para cada igarapé. Foram contabilizados 5.912 espécimes pertencentes a 23 espécies e 15 famílias na epifauna e endofauna. Os padrões de distribuição de moluscos foram distintos entre os dois igarapés. Salinidade, oxigênio dissolvido e precipitação foram as principais variáveis ​​que influenciaram a distribuição temporal dos moluscos. Observou-se baixa riqueza de espécies na composição geral de moluscos. A diversidade no igarapé Buenos Aires foi menor do que a observada no igarapé Tronco, possivelmente por causa das atividades portuárias nas proximidades do primeiro. A distribuição espacial vertical de moluscos ao longo das zonas seguiu um gradiente de abundância e diversidade influenciado principalmente pelo tempo de exposição durante a maré baixa. As atividades portuárias podem estar influenciando os padrões de distribuição de moluscos nos manguezais do entorno, portanto destacamos a importância do manejo e monitoramento dessas áreas.
  • Chemometric identification and nutritional evaluation of three species of
           Lutjanidae (Perciformes) from the Amazonian Atlantic Coast based on fatty
           acid profiles

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The fatty acid (FA) profiles of fish species with a similar genetic or geographic origin are important quality parameters that attract bioecological interest because they are influenced by the nutritional habits of the species. The aim of this study was to determine the proximate compositions and FA profiles of heart, brain and muscle tissues from three fish species (Lutjanus purpureus, Lutjanus synagris and Ocyurus chrysurus) captured from the Amazonian Atlantic Coast. In addition to performing nutritional analysis of the FA profiles, principal components analysis (PCA) was performed as a chemometric tool to discriminate among the species. Lutjanus synagris had the highest protein content (18.23%), while O. chrysurus possessed the highest lipid content (4.25%). All of the nutritional quality parameters (the n-6/n-3 and Σ polyunsaturated FA/Σ saturated FA ratios and dietary indices of atherogenicity and thrombogenicity) of the FA profiles of the three species are of interest to consumers. In general, the predominant FA in the tissues of all species analyzed was palmitic acid, followed by stearic acid. Oleic acid was predominant among the monounsaturated FAs, while docosahexaenoic acid was the most prevalent polyunsaturated FA. Chemometric analysis was an effective tool for fish identification. PCA showed that the FA profiles of the brain tissues were optimal for discriminating among the species, with O. chrysurus showing the most different FA profile from the others. The muscle FA profile was the most useful for identifying L. purpureus.RESUMO Perfis de ácidos graxos (AGs) de espécies de peixes com uma origem genética ou geográfica semelhante são importantes parâmetros de qualidade e apresentam interesse bioecológico, uma vez que são influenciados pelos hábitos nutricionais das espécies. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a composição centesimal e os perfis de AGs do coração, cérebro e músculo de três espécies de peixes (Lutjanus purpureus, Lutjanus synagris e Ocyurus chrysurus) capturados na Costa Atlântica Amazônica. Além de fornecer uma análise nutricional dos perfis de AGs, uma análise de componentes principais (ACP) foi realizada como uma ferramenta quimiométrica para discriminar entre as espécies. Lutjanus synagris teve o maior teor de proteína (18,23%), enquanto O. chrysurus apresentou a maior concentração de lipídios (4,25%). Todos os parâmetros de qualidade nutricional (as proporções de n-6/n-3 e ΣPUFAs/ΣSFAs, e os índices dietéticos de aterogenicidade e trombogenicidade) dos perfis de AGs nas três espécies se mostraram de interesse para os consumidores. Em geral, o AGs predominante nos tecidos de todas as espécies analisadas foi o ácido palmítico, seguido pelo ácido esteárico. O ácido oléico foi predominante entre os AGs monoinsaturados, enquanto que o ácido docosahexaenoico foi o mais prevalente entre a classe poliinsaturada. A análise quimiométrica foi uma ferramenta eficaz para identificação dos peixes. A ACP mostrou que os perfis de AGs dos tecidos cerebrais foram melhores para discriminar entre as espécies, com O. Ocyurus mostrando o perfil de AGs mais diferente em relação às outras espécies. O perfil de AGs do músculo foi o mais útil para a identificação de L. purpureus.
  • Oleanonic acid from Lippia lupulina (Verbenaceae) shows strong in vitro
           antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal activity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease affect millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions. Drugs used currently to treat such diseases often present undesirable side effects and low efficiency. The aim of this work was to identify extracts and isolated compounds from the genus Lippia with leishmanicidal and trypanocidal activity. Fifteen extracts from different plant parts of Lippia species with partially known chemical compositions, four partition fractions, six compounds and a mixture of four interconverting flavanones previously isolated from Lippia salviaefolia and Lippia lupulina were assayed in vitro towards epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi and promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis. The root extract of L. lupulina had potent activity against T. cruzi and L. amazonensis (IC50 of 20.0 and 54.5 µg mL-1, respectively). The triterpenoid oleanonic acid showed the strongest activity against these protozoans (IC50 of 18.5 and 29.9 µM, respectively). Our results indicate that Lippia plants and their derivatives deserve further investigation in the search for new antiprotozoal drugs, particularly for the treatment of leishmaniasis and Chagas disease.Leishmaniose e doença de Chagas afetam milhões de pessoas em regiões tropicais e subtropicais. As drogas atualmente usadas para tratar estas doenças frequentemente apresentam efeitos colaterais indesejáveis e baixa eficiência. Este trabalho teve como objetivo encontrar extratos, frações e compostos isolados de espécies do gênero Lippia com atividades leishmanicida e tripanocida. Quinze extratos de diferentes partes de plantas do gênero Lippia, com composições químicas parcialmente conhecidas, quatro frações de partição, seis substâncias e uma mistura de quatro flavanonas interconversíveis isolados de Lippia salviaefolia e Lippia lupulina foram testados, in vitro, frente a formas epimastigotas de Trypanosoma cruzi e promastigotas de Leishmania amazonensis. O extrato etanólico das raízes de L. lupulina apresentou atividade potente contra T. cruzi e L. amazonensis (IC50 de 20,0 e 54,5 µg mL-1, respectivamente), enquanto que o ácido oleanônico mostrou as atividades mais fortes contra estes protozoários, com IC50 de 18,5 e 29,9 µM, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam que espécies do gênero Lippia e seus derivados merecem investigações adicionais na busca por novas terapias antiprotozoárias, especialmente para o tratamento de leishmaniose e doença de Chagas.
  • Milk and açaí berry pulp improve sensorial acceptability of
           kefir-fermented milk beverage

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Kefir grains are a symbiotic biomass (yeast and bacteria) commonly used to produce milk probiotic fermented beverages. The aim of this study was to produce a mixed beverage of whole milk and açaí (Euterpe oleracea) berry pulp fermented by two different kefir cultures: one specific for milk and one specific for sugared water, adapted to milk. Based on the fermentation yield, pH and sensory analysis, the culture adapted to milk obtained the best results in a composition (g 100 g-1) of 70 of whole milk and 30 of açaí berry pulp, at room temperature (~25°C), without agitation and fermented for 24 h. The results obtained by this formulation were an increase of 12% in the kefir biomass, 93% of fermentation yield, pH 5.10 and overall sensory acceptance of 7.05.RESUMO Kefir é uma biomassa simbiótica (leveduras e bactérias) comumente aplicada na obtenção de bebidas fermentadas probióticas de leite. O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir uma bebida fermentada mista de leite integral e polpa de açaí (Euterpe oleracea) a partir de duas culturas diferentes de kefir: uma original de leite e outra original de água açucarada e adaptada ao leite. Com base na conversão, pH e análise sensorial, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a cultura adaptada na composição (g 100 g-1) de 70% de leite e 30% de polpa de açaí, sem controle de temperatura (temperatura ambiente ~25° C) e sem agitação e por 24 h de fermentação. Esta formulação apresentou 12% de aumento da biomassa, 93% de conversão, pH 5,10 e uma aceitação global de 7,05.
  • Updated checklist of Hemerobiidae (Neuroptera) from Brazil and new
           distributional records in the Neotropical Region

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Hemerobiidae (Insecta, Neuroptera) is a cosmopolitan clade that comprises about 600 described species distributed into 26 genera. Since the publication of revisions to Hemerobius, Megalomus, Nusalala and Nomerobius, new records have been added in literature and taxonomic modifications have occurred at the genus level. The aim of this study was to update a checklist of Hemerobiidae species from Brazil and of specimens deposited at Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brazil; in order to summarize the geographical data of species in Brazilian states and in the Neotropical Region and to present new distributional data. The INPA collection holds 19 nominal species (55.2% of the all specimens identified at species level) of hemerobiids into eight genera and six subfamilies, mainly from the Neotropical Region; the remaining studied specimens were identified to the genus level. Megalomus marginatus is reported for the first time in Brazil and Nusalala dispar in Ecuador. Moreover, ten new records for the Brazilian states are presented: two to Nusalala tessellata and Hemerobius, and one each to Megalomus impudicus, Notiobiella maculata, Sympherobius ariasi, Megalomus, Nusalala and Sympherobius.RESUMO Hemerobiidae (Insecta, Neuroptera) é um clado cosmopolita com cerca de 600 espécies descritas e distribuídas em 26 gêneros. Eles são predadores de afídeos, coccídeos e outros insetos de corpo macio. Após a publicação das revisões de Hemerobius, Megalomus, Nusalala e Nomerobius ocorreram modificações taxonômicas em nível de gênero e novos registros de distribuição geográfica. O objetivo deste estudo é produzir uma lista das espécies de Hemerobiidae do Brasil e dos espécimes depositados na Coleção de Invertebrados do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisa da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, Brasil, de forma a sumarizar os dados geográficos das espécies em estados brasileiros e na Região Neotropical e, apresentar novos dados de distribuição geográfica. No INPA existem 19 espécies nominais de Hemerobiidae (55,2% dos exemplares estudados) de oito gêneros e seis subfamílias; o restante dos espécimes estudados foi identificado em nível genérico. Megalomus marginatus é relatada pela primeira vez para o Brasil e Nusalala dispar para o Equador (Celica). Além disso, dez novos registros para os estados brasileiros são apresentados: dois para Nusalala tessellata e Hemerobius, um para Megalomus impudicus, Notiobiella maculata, Sympherobius ariasi, Megalomus, Nusalala e Sympherobius.
  • Description of the reproductive behavior of Symphysodon aequifasciatus
           (Cichlidae) in captivity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The blue discus (Symphysodon aequifasciatus) is often sold for ornamental purposes. It is a neotropical cichlid from South America, which is native to the rivers of the Amazon basin of Brazil, Peru and Colombia. The purpose of this study was to characterize the reproductive behavior of S. aequifasciatus and identify features that can later be used by breeders to facilitate the handling and reproduction of this species in captivity. The experiment was divided into two stages: the first dealt with partner selection and couple formation to observe the behaviors of territoriality, pursuing, fleeing, biting, stay, protecting and cleaning of the substrate. The second stage documented mating behavior, nesting and parental care, to observe vibration, spawning, permanence with the offspring, aeration of eggs, cleaning of spawning, color change and shift-taking in parental care. The results of the study allowed identifying disputes for and establishment of territory, as well as the selection and cleaning of the substrate for spawning performed by both sexes. The parental care was observed from spawning in the substrate until the care for the larvae. It was found that the reproductive success of this species is closely linked to biparental care observed during the entire reproductive process and early stages of the hatchings.RESUMO Dentre as espécies de ciclídeos neotropicais comercializados para ornamentação, destaca-se o acará-disco (Symphysodon aequifasciatus), que é um ciclídeo neotropical originário da América do Sul, pertencente aos rios da bacia Amazônica do Brasil, Peru e Colômbia. Este estudo caracteriza o comportamento reprodutivo do acará disco (S. aequifasciatus) identificando características que posteriormente possam ser identificadas por criadores e utilizadas para facilitar o manejo e reprodução desta espécie em cativeiro. O experimento foi dividido em duas etapas, a primeira com a escolha de parceiro e formação do casal, e a segunda com acasalamento, desova e cuidado parental. Na primeira etapa foram observados os comportamentos de territorialidade, perseguição, fuga, mordida, permanência, proteção e limpeza do substrato, enquanto que na segunda etapa os comportamentos observados nesta etapa foram: tremor, desova, permanência com a prole, aeração dos ovos, limpeza da desova, mudança de coloração e revezamento do cuidado parental. Como resultado foi possível constatar disputa e estabelecimento de território, bem como a seleção e limpeza do substrato para a desova realizada por ambos os sexos. O cuidado parental foi observado desde a desova no substrato até o cuidado com as larvas e o sucesso reprodutivo desta espécie está intimamente ligado ao cuidado biparental observado por durante todo o processo reprodutivo e estágio inicial dos filhotes.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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