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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1142 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 1566 Journals sorted alphabetically
4OR: A Quarterly Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Abacus     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Acta Amazonica     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Acta Commercii     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Acta Oeconomica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Acta Scientiarum. Human and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Œconomica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Nicolai Copernici Zarządzanie     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AD-minister     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ADR Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Advances in Economics and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
AfricaGrowth Agenda     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
African Journal of Business and Economic Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Business Ethics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
African Review of Economics and Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Afyon Kocatepe Üniversitesi İktisadi ve İdari Bilimler Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Agronomy     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Akademika : Journal of Southeast Asia Social Sciences and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Alphanumeric Journal : The Journal of Operations Research, Statistics, Econometrics and Management Information Systems     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Economic Journal : Applied Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 133)
American Journal of Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 51)
American Journal of Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
American Journal of Economics and Business Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
American Journal of Economics and Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
American Journal of Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Health Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
American Journal of Medical Quality     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
American Law and Economics Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
ANALES de la Universidad Central del Ecuador     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de l'Institut Henri Poincare (C) Non Linear Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Annals in Social Responsibility     Full-text available via subscription  
Annals of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Annals of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Applied Developmental Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Applied Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Applied Economics Letters     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Applied Economics Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Applied Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Applied Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Applied Stochastic Models in Business and Industry     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Arab Economic and Business Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Business Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Argomenti. Rivista di economia, cultura e ricerca sociale     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ASEAN Economic Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 313)
Asia Pacific Viewpoint     Hybrid Journal  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Operational Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Asian Case Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Asian Development Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Asian Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Economic Policy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Accounting and Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Business Ethics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Social Sciences and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Asian Journal of Sustainability and Social Responsibility     Open Access  
Asian Journal of Technology Innovation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Asian-pacific Economic Literature     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Atlantic Economic Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Cottongrower, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Australian Economic Papers     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Australian Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Australian Journal of Maritime and Ocean Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Balkan Region Conference on Engineering and Business Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Banks in Insurance Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
BBR - Brazilian Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Benchmarking : An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
BER : Consumer Confidence Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Economic Prospects : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription  
BER : Economic Prospects : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Intermediate Goods Industries Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Manufacturing Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Motor Trade Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
BER : Retail Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Retail Survey : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Building and Construction : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Manufacturing : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Survey of Business Conditions in Retail : An Executive Summary     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BER : Trends : Full Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BER : Wholesale Sector Survey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Berkeley Business Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bio-based and Applied Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Biodegradation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Biology Direct     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Black Enterprise     Full-text available via subscription  
Board & Administrator for Administrators only     Hybrid Journal  
Border Crossing : Transnational Working Papers     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Briefings in Real Estate Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Journal of Industrial Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 48)
Brookings Trade Forum     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
BRQ Business Research Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Building Sustainable Legacies : The New Frontier Of Societal Value Co-Creation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Bulletin of Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Bulletin of Geography. Socio-economic Series     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of the Dnipropetrovsk University. Series : Management of Innovations     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business & Entrepreneurship Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Business & Information Systems Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business & Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Business : Theory and Practice / Verslas : Teorija ir Praktika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Business and Economic Research     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Business and Management Horizons     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Business and Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business and Management Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Business and Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business and Professional Communication Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business and Society Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Business Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Ethics: A European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Business Horizons     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Business Information Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Business Management and Strategy     Open Access   (Followers: 40)
Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Business Strategy and the Environment     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Business Strategy Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Business Strategy Series     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Business Systems & Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Business Systems Research Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Business, Management and Education     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Business, Peace and Sustainable Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos EBAPE.BR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cambridge Journal of Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 56)
Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences / Revue Canadienne des Sciences de l Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Canadian Journal of Economics/Revue Canadienne d`Economique     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Canadian journal of nonprofit and social economy research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Capitalism Nature Socialism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Case Studies in Business and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
CBU International Conference Proceedings     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Business Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Central European Journal of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
CESifo Economic Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Chain Reaction     Full-text available via subscription  
Challenge     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
China & World Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China Economic Journal: The Official Journal of the China Center for Economic Research (CCER) at Peking University     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
China Economic Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
China Finance Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
China Nonprofit Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Chinese Economy     Full-text available via subscription  
Ciência & Saúde Coletiva     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
CLIO América     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cliometrica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
COEPTUM     Open Access  
Community Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Compensation & Benefits Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Competitive Intelligence Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Competitiveness Review : An International Business Journal incorporating Journal of Global Competitiveness     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Computational Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Computational Mathematics and Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Computer Law & Security Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Computers & Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Construction Innovation: Information, Process, Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contextus - Revista Contemporânea de Economia e Gestão     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Contributions to Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Communications An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Corporate Philanthropy Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Corporate Reputation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Creative and Knowledge Society     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Creative Industries Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
CRIS - Bulletin of the Centre for Research and Interdisciplinary Study     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Crossing the Border : International Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Cuadernos de Administración (Universidad del Valle)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economía     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Economia - Latin American Journal of Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cuadernos de Estudios Empresariales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Opinion in Creativity, Innovation and Entrepreneurship     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
De Economist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Decision Analysis     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Decision Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Decision Support Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Defence and Peace Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
der markt     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Desenvolvimento em Questão     Open Access  
Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)

        1 2 3 4 5 6 | Last

Journal Cover Acta Amazonica
  [SJR: 0.32]   [H-I: 18]   [3 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 0044-5967
   Published by SciELO Homepage  [721 journals]
  • Hematological and biochemical responses of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas,
           Arapaimidae) fed with diets containing a glucomannan product derived from
           yeast and algae

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT The hematological and biochemical responses of pirarucu fingerlings (Arapaima gigas) fed with diets containing different concentrations of a glucomannan product derived from yeast and algae were evaluated in order to ascertain the effect of these diets on fish physiology. Four treatments were conducted, with three replications, with 12 fish in each tank. The product evaluated (MycosorbA+(r)) was incorporated into the commercial diet, at four concentrations: 0, 1, 2 and 4, called M0%, M0.1%, M0.2% and M0.4%, respectively. After 45 days of feeding, blood samples from six fish in each replicate were collected to perform the analyses. Their weight and length were determined to calculate the condition factor and weight gain, but no differences (P > 0.05) were observed among the treatments. No changes to the hematocrit, hemoglobin or erythrocyte levels or to the hematimetric indices of the pirarucus were observed. The glucose and triglyceride levels of the pirarucus in the M0.1% and M0.2% groups were significantly lower than those of the M0% group. The M0.2% group showed higher albumin levels (P < 0.05) than M0% and M0.4%. The M0.4% group showed a total cholesterol level that was significantly higher than in all other treatments. MycosorbA+(r) contributed towards increasing the levels of defense cells in A. gigas. It would be possible to use this product at concentrations of between 0.1% and 0.2%, given that they increase the levels of some defense cells and plasma albumin concentrations, without changes to hematological parameters, cholesterol and triglyceride plasma levels or condition factor.RESUMO As características hematológicas e bioquímicas de alevinos de pirarucu Arapaima gigas alimentados com diferentes concentrações de mananoligossacarídeos derivados de leveduras e algas na dieta foram avaliadas para verificar o efeito sobre sua fisiologia. Quatro tratamentos foram conduzidos com três repetições (12 peixes em cada). O produto avaliado (MycosorbA+(r)) foi incorporado à ração comercial, em quatro níveis: 0, 1, 2 e 4 g kg-1 de ração, denominados M0%, M0,1%, M0,2% e M0,4%, respectivamente. Após 45 dias de alimentação, amostras de sangue de seis peixes de cada repetição foram coletadas para realização das análises. O peso e comprimento foram obtidos para cálculo do fator de condição e ganho de peso, entretanto, não foram observadas diferenças (P>0,05) entre os tratamentos. Assim como não foram observadas alterações nos valores de hematócrito, hemoglobina, eritrócitos e índices hematimétricos dos pirarucus. A concentração de glicose e triglicérides dos pirarucus dos grupos M0,1% e M0,2% foram significativamente menores que o tratamento M0%. Os peixes do tratamento M0,2% apresentaram níveis de albumina maior (P<0,05) que do M0% e M0,4%. Os peixes alimentados com M0,4% mostraram nível de colesterol total significativamente maior que todos os demais tratamentos. MycosorbA+(r) contribuiu para o aumento das células de defesa de A. gigas, podendo ser utilizado nas concentrações de 0,1% a 0,2%, devido ao aumento do número de certas células de defesa e dos níveis plasmáticos de albumina e por não ter sido observadas outras alterações nos parâmetros hematológicos, nos níveis plasmáticos de colesterol e triglicérides e no fator de condição.
  • Generic additions to the Rapateaceae of Rondônia, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Rapateaceae is a monocot family centered in the Guiana Shield region of South America. This article reports four generic additions to the Rapateaceae of Rondônia, a state in northern Brazil. Cephalostemon gracilis (Poepp. & Endl.) R.H.Schomb., Duckea cyperaceoidea (Ducke) Maguire, Monotrema xyridoides Gleason, and Schoenocephalium cucullatum Maguire were recorded in lowland savannas and open white-sand ecosystems in the state. These findings extend significantly the known diversity of the Rapateaceae taxa occurring in Rondônia, and represent an extension of their geographical distribution to a Brazilian state with no part of its territory in the Guiana Shield.RESUMO Rapateaceae é uma família de monocotiledôneas centrada na região do Escudo das Guianas da América do Sul. Este artigo relata o registro de quatro gêneros de Rapateaceae para o estado de Rondônia, norte do Brasil. Cephalostemon gracilis (Poepp. & Endl.) R.H.Schomb., Duckea cyperaceoidea (Ducke) Maguire, Monotrema xyridoides Gleason e Schoenocephalium cucullatum Maguire são registrados em áreas de baixa altitude, ocorrendo em savanas e ecossistemas de campinas e campinaras no estado. Estas descobertas aumentam significativamente a diversidade conhecida de táxons de Rapateaceae para Rondônia, bem como representam uma extensão de sua distribuição geográfica para um estado que não tem nenhuma parte de seu território incluído no Escudo das Guianas.
  • Elaboration and characterization of snack bars made with ingredients from
           the Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Snack bars were launched on the market as an alternative for people seeking healthier food options. They are popular portable snacks commonly eaten between meals. This study aimed to develop snack bars made with tapioca flour, Brazil nut and native fruit pulps (açaí, cupuaçu, muruci and taperebá) as well as to assess their physical, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory attributes. The preferred concentration of fruit pulp was 10% in the açaí bar, and 15% in the cupuaçu, muruci and taperebá bars. The acceptance rate of the açaí bars was greater than 70% for the attributes appearance, color, texture, and overall impression, but was lower for flavour. This result may be related to the eating habits of some panelists, who eat açaí pulp without adding any other ingredients that can impart the unique flavour of the fruit. The cupuaçu and muruci snack bars had higher sensory acceptance than the açaí and taperebá bars; therefore, they are more likely to have better market prospects.RESUMO Como uma alternativa para as pessoas que procuram opções para uma alimentação saudável, as barras de cereais foram lançadas no mercado. Elas são populares como alimentos portáteis e podem ser consumidas entre as refeições. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver e determinar as variáveis físicas, físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais de barras de cereais à base de farinha de tapioca, castanha-do-brasil e polpas de frutas regionais (açaí, cupuaçu, muruci e taperebá). A concentração preferida de polpa na barra sabor açaí foi de 10% e nas barras sabor cupuaçu, muruci e taperebá de 15%. O índice de aceitação da barra sabor açaí foi superior a 70% nos atributos aparência, cor, textura e impressão global e inferior no sabor. Este comportamento pode estar relacionado à cultura de alguns provadores, os quais têm o hábito de consumir a polpa de açaí sem adição de qualquer outro ingrediente que possa mascarar o sabor intrínseco e peculiar do fruto. As barras sabor cupuaçu e muruci, por apresentarem maior aceitação sensorial, quando comparadas às barras sabor açaí e taperebá, têm melhores perspectivas de mercado caso sejam comercializadas.
  • Disentangling structural patterns of natural forest fragments in a savanna
           matrix in the eastern Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Natural fragments are an important source of richness for the management and conservation of a local flora. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fragmentation on the structure and composition of the plant communities of forest fragments (FF) in Alter do Chão, eastern Brazilian Amazonia. The study sample consisted of 25 FF and nine continuous forest (CF) sites. We compared plant density and species richness between site categories by t-tests, analyzed the differences in composition by cluster analysis, and assessed the effect of fragment size and distance to CF on the basal area and diameter of FF assemblages by linear regression. Individual trees and shrubs with DBH ≥1.27 cm were measured in 2x250 m plots. 17,078 individuals were recorded - 75.32% in FF and 24.68% in CF, comprising 475 species, 216 genera and 64 families. Myrtaceae and Fabaceae were the most abundant families in both FF and CF. Average species richness in FF and CF was statistically different. The 20 species with the highest importance values were similar in FF and CF. The average plant diameter was similar in FF and CF, suggesting that both are "mature" forests composed of thin individuals. Average diameter and total basal area showed a negative relationship with distance to CF and fragment area, respectively. Similarity analysis revealed two groups, one composed exclusively of portions of fragmented forest. Fragments and continuous forest differed in species composition, but were similar in structure. Diameter distribution in fragments was similar to that of primary forests.RESUMO Fragmentos naturais constituem importante fonte de recursos para o manejo e conservação da flora local. Este trabalho avaliou o efeito da fragmentação sobre a estrutura e a composição das comunidades de plantas de fragmentos florestais (FF), em Alter do Chão, na Amazônia oriental brasileira. Foram amostrados 25 sítios em FF e nove em floresta contínua (CF). Analisamos a diferença na densidade de plantas e na riqueza de espécies entre FF e CF por teste-t, e na composição por análise de agrupamento. Utilizou-se regressão linear para avaliar o efeito do tamanho dos fragmentos e distância à CF sobre a área basal e diâmetro. Os indivíduos com DAP ≥1,27 cm foram medidos em parcelas de 2x250 m. Foram registrados 17.078 indivíduos, 75,32% nos FF e 24,68% na CF, distribuídos em 475 espécies, 216 gêneros e 64 famílias. As famílias Myrtaceae e Fabaceae foram as mais abundantes em ambos FF e CF. A riqueza média diferiu significativamente entre FF e CF. As 20 espécies com maior valor de importância foram semelhantes nos FF e CF. O diâmetro médio nos FF e CF foi semelhante, sugerindo tratar-se em ambos casos de florestas "maduras" compostas por indivíduos finos. O diâmetro médio e a área basal total mostraram relação negativa com a distância à CF e área dos fragmentos, respectivamente. A análise de similaridade revelou dois grupos, um deles composto exclusivamente por fragmentos. Composicionalmente, os fragmentos diferiram da floresta contínua, sendo estruturalmente semelhantes entre si, evidenciando distribuição diamétrica semelhante à das florestas primárias.
  • Differencial efficiency of two sampling methods in capturing non-volant
           small mammals in an area in eastern Amazonia

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study was the first to evaluate the efficiency of trapping methods in the study of small mammals in the Carajás National Forest, southeastern Brazilian Amazon. It is an area with a unique vegetation type (metalofilic savannah or Canga). The aims of this study were to compare the efficiency of two trapping methods (i.e. live-traps and pitfalls), the bait types used, and evaluate if trapping success varied seasonally. We used four sampling grids, each with six parallel transects. The trap effort for live-traps and pitfalls was 51,840 trap*nights and 10,800 bucket*nights, respectively. We used three types of bait: a paste of peanut butter and sardines, bacon, and bananas. We placed one type of bait in each trap, alternating between points. We recorded 26 species of small mammals, 11 from the order Didelphimorphia and 15 from the order Rodentia. Pitfalls captured a higher number of species compared with live-traps. The capture rate, the mortality rate and the quantity of juveniles and adults did not differ significantly between methods. Capture rate for pitfalls differed significantly between seasons. The majority of species were captured by a single method. Species were equally attracted to the traps regardless of the type of bait used. Some of our results differed significantly from other studies in Amazonia and such variation should be taken into account when designing survey methods for Amazonian small mammals.RESUMO Este estudo foi o primeiro a avaliar a eficiência de métodos de captura de pequenos mamíferos não-voadores na Floresta Nacional de Carajás, sudeste da Amazônia brasileira. É uma área que apresenta características fitofisionômicas exclusivas (savana metalófila ou Canga) e sofre pressão da atividade mineradora. Os objetivos desse estudo foram comparar a eficiência de dois métodos de captura e de três tipos de iscas, bem como se a eficiência dos métodos variou sazonalmente. Nós usamos quatro grades de amostragem, cada uma com seis trilhas paralelas. Capturas com armadilhas de gaiola (live-traps) e armadilhas de caída (pitfall traps) foram realizadas durante três estações secas e três úmidas. O esforço total de captura foi de 51.840 armadilhas*noite e 10.800 baldes*noite para live-traps e pitfalls, respectivamente. Três tipos de isca (pasta de amendoim com sardinha, bacon e banana) foram usadas de forma alternada em todas as armadilhas. Nós registramos 26 espécies de pequenos mamíferos, 11 da ordem Didelphimorphia e 15 da ordem Rodentia. Pitfalls capturaram mais espécies que live-traps. As taxas de captura e de mortalidade e a proporção de jovens e adultos não diferiram entre os métodos. O sucesso de captura diferiu sazonalmente apenas para pitfalls. A maioria das espécies foi capturada preferencialmente ou exclusivamente por um dos dois métodos. As espécies foram igualmente atraídas por todos os tipos de iscas. Nossos resultados diferiram de outros obtidos na Amazônia, o que deve ser levado em consideração em desenhos amostrais para pequenos mamíferos na região.
  • Use and traditional knowledge of Byrsonima crassifolia and B.
           coccolobifolia (Malpighiaceae) in a Makuxi community of the Roraima
           savanna, northern Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Byrsonima crassifolia and B. coccolobifolia, popularly known as mirixis, muricis, mantecos or nances, are common fruit species in the Amazonian savannas. Their fruits are used in the preparation of juices and other beverages, while the other parts of the plants are used for different purposes in some indigenous communities. The aim of the present ethnobotanical study was to investigate the knowledge and traditional uses of mirixis in the Darora Indigenous Community, of the Makuxi ethnicity, in the São Marcos Indigenous Land, state of Roraima, northern Brazil. The knowledge on these species among the residents was analyzed considering their gender and age. A survey was carried out by means of semi-structured interviews with 60 respondents (36 men and 24 women), between 18 and 84 years of age. Data from the interviewees was compared between genders and two age groups (< 40 and ≥ 40 years of age). Ethnobotanical indices (Informant diversity value; Informant equability value) were calculated, and no significant differences were found in the diversity of uses between genders (U = 283.0000, p > 0.05) and age groups (U = 359.5000, p > 0.05), indicating that the knowledge on the species is evenly distributed among residents. Results show that both species are used for different purposes in the food, fuelwood and medicinal categories in the Darora Community, and this knowledge is widely shared among adult men and women of all ages.RESUMO Byrsonima crassifolia e B. coccolobifolia, popularmente conhecidas como mirixis, muricis, mantecos ou nances, são espécies de frutíferas comuns que ocorrem nas savanas amazônicas. Os seus frutos são utilizados na preparação de sucos e outras bebidas, enquanto outras partes das plantas são utilizadas para diferentes fins em algumas comunidades indígenas. O objetivo do presente estudo etnobotânico foi investigar o conhecimento e usos tradicionais dos mirixis na Comunidade Indígena Darora, da etnia Makuxi, na Terra Indígena São Marcos, no estado de Roraima. Este trabalho analisou o conhecimento dessas espécies entre os moradores da comunidade. A pesquisa foi realizada por meio de entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 60 participantes (36 homens e 24 mulheres), entre 18 e 84 anos de idade. Os dados das entrevistas foram comparados entre gêneros e dois grupos de idade (< 40 anos de idade e ≥ 40 anos de idade). Índices etnobotânicos (Valor de diversidade do informante; Valor de equabilidade do informante) foram calculados, e não houve diferenças significativas na diversidade de usos entre os gêneros (U = 283,0000, p > 0,05) e grupos de idade (U = 359,5000, p > 0,05), indicando que o conhecimento das espécies é uniformemente distribuído entre os moradores. Os resultados mostraram que ambas as espécies são usadas com finalidades nas categorias alimentícia, combustível e medicinal na Comunidade Darora, e o conhecimento é amplamente compartilhado entre homens e mulheres, independentemente da faixa etária.
  • Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum compactum (Lutz, 1928) (Trematoda,
           Diplostomidae) infecting the eyes of Plagioscion squamosissimus (Heckel,
           1840) (Perciformes, Scienidae) from Lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Austrodiplostomum compactum is a digenetic trematode whith metacercariae that occur in the eyes of a wide variety of fish species. In Brazil, A. compactum metacercariae have been reported in many fish species, but there are only a few studies in the Amazon region. Due to the lack of information in the Amazon, the aim of this study was to report the occurrence of A. compactum metacercariae in the eyes of 15 specimens of Plagioscion squamosissimus from the Lake Catalão, in Amazonas, Brazil. Fishes were collected using gill nets placed randomly in the lake, euthanized in a field laboratory, and had their eyes dissected and examined under a stereomicroscope. A total of 801 metacercariae were registered infecting the eyes of the hosts with a parasitic prevalence of 100%. There was a significant positive correlation between the number of metacercariae recorded and the standard body length of fishes. No significant correlation was found between the number of metacercariae and the weight and relative condition factor (Kn) of the hosts. Values of the variance-to-mean ratio and Green's index suggested an aggregate distribution of the parasites in the hosts, with a low degree of aggregation. This is the first report of occurrence of A. compactum parasitizing a fish in the Lake Catalão.RESUMO Austrodiplostomum compactum é um trematódeo digenético cuja metacercária ocorre nos olhos de uma grande variedade de espécies de peixes. No Brasil, metacercárias deste parasita foram relatadas em diversas espécies de peixes, mas existem poucos estudos na região amazônica. Devido à falta de informação na região amazônica, o objetivo deste estudo foi relatar a ocorrência de metacercárias de A. compactum nos olhos de 15 espécimes de Plagioscion squamosissimus provenientes do Lago Catalão, Amazonas, Brasil. Os peixes foram coletados usando redes de pesca distribuídas aleatoriamente no lago e sacrificados em laboratório de campo, onde os olhos foram removidos e examinados sob microscópio estereoscópico. Um total de 801 metacercárias foram registradas infectando os olhos do hospedeiro, com uma prevalência parasitária de 100%. Houve uma correlação positiva significativa entre o número de metacercárias e o comprimento padrão dos peixes. Nenhuma correlação significativa entre o número de metacercárias e o peso e o fator de condição relativa (Kn) dos hospedeiros foi evidenciada. Valores do índice de dispersão e do índice de Green sugerem uma distribuição agregada dos parasitas com um baixo grau de agregação nos hospedeiros. Este é o primeiro relato da ocorrência de A. compactum parasitando um peixe no Lago Catalão.
  • Metazoan fauna parasitizing Peckoltia braueri and Pterygoplichthys
           pardalis (Loricariidae) catfishes from the northeastern Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT This study investigated the metazoan parasite fauna in Peckoltia braueri and Pterygoplichthys pardalis from a tributary of the Amazon River system, in northern Brazil. In P. braueri, 630 parasites were collected, belonging to Unilatus unilatus, Nothogyrodactylus sp., Genarchella genarchella, Proteocephalus sp., Gorytocephalus elongorchis, Dolops longicauda and Hirudinea gen. sp., with a dominance of monogenean species. In P. pardalis, 120 parasites were collected, belonging to U. unilatus, Acanthostomum gnerii and Gorytocephalus elongorchis, and this acanthocephalan was the dominant species. In both hosts, the parasites presented clumped distribution, high prevalence, low abundance, low Shannon diversity, and low species richness, with a predominance of helminth species. In P. braueri, host length was positively correlated with parasite species richness and Shannon index. There was no difference in the body condition of parasitized and non-parasitized fishes in either host. This was the first report of these parasites in P. braueri and P. pardalis.RESUMO Este estudo investigou a fauna de parasitos metazoários em Peckoltia braueri e Pterygoplichthys pardalis de um tributário do sistema do Rio Amazonas, no Amapá, norte do Brasil. Em P. braueri foram coletados 630 parasitos das espécies Unilatus unilatus, Nothogyrodactylus sp., Genarchella genarchella, Proteocephalus sp., Gorytocephalus elongorchis, Dolops longicauda e Hirudinea gen. sp., com dominância das espécies de monogenoideas. Em P. pardalis foram coletados 120 parasitos das espécies U. unilatus, Acanthostomum gnerii e Gorytocephalus elongorchis, sendo este acantocéfalo a espécie dominante. Os parasitos em ambos hospedeiros apresentaram dispersão agregada, elevada prevalência, baixa abundância, baixa diversidade de Shannon e baixa riqueza de espécies, com predominância de espécies de helmintos. Em P. braueri, o comprimento dos hospedeiros apresentou correlação positiva com a riqueza de espécies de parasitos e o índice de Shannon. Não houve diferença entre a condição corporal de peixes parasitados e não parasitados para os dois hospedeiros. Este foi o primeiro relato desses parasitos para P. braueri e P. pardalis.
  • Parasitic diversity of a wild Satanoperca jurupari population, an
           ornamental cichlid in the Brazilian Amazon

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Assessment of biodiversity is fundamental for the understanding of ecological interactions, but fish parasites were neglected in biodiversity estimates for a long time. The aim of this paper was to investigate the diversity of parasites in Satanoperca jurupari in the Amazon River system in Brazil. Of the fish examined, 90.0% were parasitized by one or more species of protozoans and metazoans, and a total of 3,110,094 parasites were collected. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithum juruparii, Clinostomum marginatum, Posthodiplostomum sp., Genarchella genarchella, Argulus multicolor and Ergasilus coatiarus were found. However, I. multifiliis and P. pillulare were the most prevalent, abundant and dominant parasites, while A. multicolor and G. genarchella were the least prevalent and abundant parasites. The parasites had an aggregate dispersion, but E. coatiarus and the endoparasite species had a higher aggregation pattern. The species richness of parasites varied from 1 to 8 species per host, the Brillouin index varied from 0.32 to 1.09 and evenness varied from 0.01 to 0.47. The host size did not influence the diversity indices and the abundance of parasites, which did not affect the body condition of the hosts. Satanoperca jurupari is a new host for G. genarchella.RESUMO A avaliação da biodiversidade é fundamental para a compreensão das interações ecológicas, mas os parasitas de peixes foram negligenciados nas estimativas de biodiversidade durante muito tempo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a diversidade de parasitos em Satanoperca jurupari do sistema do Rio Amazonas no Brasil. Dos peixes examinados, 90,0% estavam parasitados por uma ou mais espécies de protozoários e metazoários, e um total de 3.110.094 parasitos foram coletados. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Piscinoodinium pillulare, Sciadicleithum juruparii, Clinostomum marginatus, Posthodiplostomum sp., Genarchella genarchella, Argulus multicolor e Ergasilus coatiarus foram os parasitos encontrados. Porém, I. multifiliis e P. pillulare foram os parasitos mais prevalentes, abundantes e dominantes, enquanto A. multicolor e G. genarchella foram os parasitas menos prevalentes e abundantes. Estes parasitas tiveram uma dispersão agregada, mas E. coatiarus e os endoparasitos apresentaram um padrão de agregação mais elevado. A riqueza de espécies de parasitos variou de 1 a 8 espécies por hospedeiro, o índice de Brillouin variou de 0,32 a 1,09 e a uniformidade variou de 0.01 a 0.47. O tamanho dos hospedeiros não influenciou os índices de diversidade e abundância parasitária, que não afetaram a condição corporal dos peixes. Satanoperca jurupari é um novo hospedeiro para G. genarchella.
  • Long time not seen: Expanding the records of Loxosceles amazonica
           (Araneae: Sicariidae) in the Amazonas state, Brazil

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Spiders of the genus Loxosceles, commonly known as brown recluse spiders, can cause serious accidents in humans. Their venom has a powerful proteolytic and hemolytic action. Each year these spiders are the cause of a great number of araneism in Brazil. This work presents new records of Loxosceles amazonica for the municipal districts of Manaus and Iranduba, Amazonas, Brazil.RESUMO As aranhas do gênero Loxosceles, conhecidas como aranhas marrons, podem causar sérios acidentes em humanos. O veneno destas aranhas possui potente ação proteolítica e hemolítica. A cada ano estas aranhas são responsáveis pelo maior número de araneísmos no Brasil. Este trabalho apresenta novos registros de Loxosceles amazonica para o estado do Amazonas, Brasil.
  • Couple formation and spawning between two female Discus Fish (Symphysodon
           aequifasciatus - Cichlidae) in captivity

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT In an experiment performed to characterize the reproductive behavior of the discus fish in captivity, couple formation with two females was observed. The observations were carried out in captivity, based on ad libitum methodology. Adult individuals were allowed to naturally form couples. The couple formation was considered when individuals performed the substrate cleaning behavior. Fifteen couples were selected. The eggs of three couples did not initiate embryonic development and became infeasible within three days after spawning. We found that these spawnings belonged to all-female couples. The sex of the individuals in same-sex couples was confirmed through subsequent couple formation and spawning of fertile eggs with known males. Eggs were deposited by one or both females in the same-sex couples. Double spawnings were larger and differentially colored. The motivations that lead individuals of the same sex to form couples in this species are still unknown.RESUMO Em um experimento realizado para caracterizar o comportamento reprodutivo de acarás disco em cativeiro, observou-se a formação de casais com duas fêmeas. As observações foram realizadas em condições ex situ, com base na metodologia ad libitum. Grupos de indivíduos adultos foram distribuídos em aquários para formação espontânea de casais. A formação de um casal foi considerada quando os indivíduos apresentaram o comportamento de limpeza do substrato. Quinze casais foram selecionados. Observamos que os ovos de três casais não iniciaram o desenvolvimento embrionário e se tornaram inviáveis ​​entre o segundo e o terceiro dia após a desova. Verificou-se que eram casais constituídos por duas fêmeas. O sexo dos indivíduos desses três casais foi confirmado posteriormente por meio de acasalamento e produção de desovas viáveis com machos conhecidos. As desovas dos casais de mesmo sexo foram produzidas por uma ou as duas fêmeas. Desovas duplas tinham duas colorações distintas e foram bem maiores que as de casais de machos e fêmeas. As motivações que levam indivíduos de acará disco do mesmo sexo a formar casais ainda são desconhecidas.
  • Hundred legs good, two fangs better: adult centipede (Scolopendridae)
           devoured by a juvenile Amazon lancehead, Bothrops atrox (Viperidae)

    • Abstract: ABSTRACT Centipedes are part of the diet of several snake species of the genus Bothrops. However, reports on predation of centipedes by snakes are normally incomplete, and important data for natural history studies as the species identification and size of the prey are rarely published. The aim of this work was to report the presence of the centipede Scolopendra viridicornis in the digestive tract of the Amazon pit viper B. atrox. The snake specimen is an immature female from Aripuanã, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, having a 623 mm snout-vent length. The centipede is an adult Scolopendra viridicornis, estimated to be 190 mm long, and found in the snake's stomach. The success in preying on this large and potentially dangerous centipede could be explained by the snake's dimensions, large enough for overpowering the prey, but still retaining characteristics of youth, such as venom with specific action against specific prey items.RESUMO Lacraias fazem parte da dieta de diversas espécies de serpentes do gênero Bothrops. Entretanto, informações importantes para estudos de história natural, como identificação da espécie e tamanho de presas, são raramente publicados. O objetivo desse trabalho é registrar a presença de uma lacraia Scolopendra viridicornis, no trato digestivo de uma jararaca da Amazônia, Bothrops atrox. A serpente estudada é uma fêmea imatura, com 623 mm de comprimento rostro-cloacal, proveniente de Aripuanã, estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil. A lacraia é um adulto de Scolopendra viridicornis parcialmente digerida, com aproximadamente 190 mm de comprimento. O sucesso na predação dessa grande e perigosa presa pode ser explicado pelas dimensões da serpente, que é grande o suficiente para dominar a presa, mas ainda retém características juvenis, como veneno com ação específica em determinados ítens alimentares.
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
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