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Journal Cover Social Development
  [SJR: 1.428]   [H-I: 67]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0961-205X - ISSN (Online) 1467-9507
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1592 journals]
  • The relation between parents' mental state talk and children's social
           understanding: A meta-analysis
    • Authors: Virginia Tompkins; Joann P. Benigno, Bridget Kiger Lee, Bridget M. Wright
      Abstract: Though there is empirical support for the relation between parents' mental state talk to children and children's social understanding, including false belief understanding (FBU) and emotion understanding (EU), effect sizes range widely. The current meta-analysis focused on the relation between parents' mental state talk and children's social understanding and moderators of this relation: parents' mental state talk content (e.g., cognitive vs. emotion talk), quality (e.g., appropriate vs. inappropriate), and context (e.g., book vs. reminiscing). Data from 22 studies examining FBU and 18 examining EU were examined. Participants included 2,298 children (
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T01:10:27.971642-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12280
  • Three-year cross-lagged relationships among adolescents’ antisocial
           behavior, personal values, and judgment of wrongness
    • Authors: Serena Aquilar; Dario Bacchini, Gaetana Affuso
      Abstract: The current study examines reciprocal relations among adolescents’ values, antisocial behavior (ASB), and judgment of the wrongness of ASB over 3 years. Four hundred seven (Mage = 14.36 years; SD = .72; males = 56.8%) ninth grade students in Italy completed the Portrait Values Questionnaire, a self-reported ASB scale, and a questionnaire aimed to evaluate how wrong they judged it to be to violate a set of moral and social rules. Responses were obtained again after 1 and 2 years. We analyzed separate cross-lagged models for each of the higher-order value dimensions according to Schwartz's model (conservation, openness to change, self-enhancement, and self-transcendence), using structural equation models. Self-transcendence and conservation values fostered more negative judgments and less ASB over time whereas self-enhancement and openness to change values had no effects. The mediating effect of judgment on the relationship between values and ASB was significant. Moreover, ASB mediated the effects of conservation on subsequent judgments. The results highlight the role of self-transcendence and conservation values as protective factors against ASBs in adolescence.
      PubDate: 2018-01-08T01:10:24.73403-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12279
  • ‘She is looking at me! Shall I share'’ How Chinese and American
           preschoolers respond to eye gaze during sharing
    • Authors: Zhen Wu; Xi Chen, Julie Gros-Louis, Yanjie Su
      Abstract: Previous research shows that the recipient's verbal communication about desires increases young children's sharing behavior. The current study examined how an adult partner's non-verbal communication through eye gaze influenced sharing behavior in children from different cultures. We presented one hundred forty-six 3- to 5-year-old American and Chinese children with a Dictator Game, in which they were asked to distribute resources between themselves and an experimenter. Children were randomly assigned to three conditions, in which the experimenter alternated her gaze between the child and the items that she wanted, or looked randomly around the room, or left when the child made decisions about sharing but claimed to come back later. Results showed that Chinese children shared more than American children did in the alternating-gaze condition, but not in the other two conditions; furthermore, the experimenter's alternating gaze influenced Chinese children to be more generous, but had no significant effect on American children. This suggests that compared to American children, Chinese children may be more compliant with others’ requests communicated through a subtle cue of eye gaze. The study demonstrates important differences in sharing behaviors between American and Chinese preschoolers, and these differences are consistent with the cultural constructs of individualism and collectivism.
      PubDate: 2018-01-05T00:20:53.782497-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12278
  • Relations between close friendships and adolescent aggression: Structural
           and behavioral friendship features
    • Authors: Naomi C. Z. Andrews; Laura D. Hanish, Dawn DeLay, Carol Lynn Martin, Kimberly A. Updegraff
      Abstract: Friendships have the potential to perpetuate or mitigate youth's aggressive behavior. We investigated concurrent and longitudinal effects of friendships on aggression by examining both structural (size and interconnectedness of the local friendship network) and behavioral (friends' aggression) friendship features. Participants were 868 sixth to eighth grade middle-school students (M = 12.10 years; 49.9% girls; 44% Latina/o) who completed questionnaires at two time points. Participants nominated their friends; reciprocal friendship nominations were used to calculate structural friendship group features (size and interconnectedness). Peer nominations were also used to measure youth's and their friends' aggression. Having more reciprocal friends was associated with more aggression concurrently (particularly for youth whose friends were highly aggressive), and having an interconnected friendship group was associated with decreased aggression over time. Given that findings were different for group size and interconnectedness, we discuss the unique importance of each of these structural friendship features. Practical implications regarding the potential to decrease aggressive behavior based on specific friendship features are also discussed.
      PubDate: 2017-12-21T21:30:50.513907-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12277
  • Parental communication about emotional contexts: Differences across
           discrete categories of emotion
    • Authors: Jennifer M. Knothe; Eric A. Walle
      Abstract: Parent socialization of emotion is critical for children's emotional development. One mechanism through which parents socialize emotional understanding is in their conversations about emotions with their children. Previous research has investigated parent–child discourse about emotions differing by positive and negative valence. This study examined how parents communicated about and differentially emphasized elements of discrete emotion contexts (anger, sadness, disgust, fear, joy). Caregivers described images of emotional contexts to their 18-month-old or 24-month-old infant. Findings indicated that parents talked more about sadness images than joy images. Furthermore, parents mentioned the emoter more in anger and sadness contexts and talked about the referent more in disgust, fear, and joy contexts. Parents also posed more questions to female than male infants, particularly when discussing anger, sadness, and disgust images. No age differences were observed for any measure. These findings provide new insight into how parents talk about and highlight aspects of discrete emotional contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T19:50:42.572185-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12276
  • Grandparent support and mental and behavioural health in middle childhood
    • Authors: Ashley Van Heerden; Lauren G. Wild
      Abstract: This study explored the significance of grandparents in middle childhood and assessed the level of grandparental support provided to children in relation to other social network members. The association between grandparental support and grandchildren's mental and behavioural health was also examined. We conducted structured interviews with 120 grade 4 and 5 learners (mean age = 10.41 years) from four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Results indicated that subsequent to parents, children perceived grandparents as the most important and close relationship category. Furthermore, grandparents provided the highest levels of support to grandchildren after parents. Grandmothers provided more support than grandfathers. No associations between grandparental support and children's internalizing and externalizing behaviours were found. However, results revealed that grandparental support was positively associated with children's prosocial behaviour, independent of child gender, and the amount of support provided by other relationship categories (p = .04). Findings underscore a need for research to move beyond the nuclear family when considering potential influences on children's well-being.
      PubDate: 2017-12-12T19:45:22.656922-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12275
  • Associations between sleep consolidation in infancy and peer relationships
           in middle childhood
    • Authors: Élodie Larose-Grégoire; Annie Bernier, Melanie Dirks, Rachel Perrier
      Abstract: Sleep plays an important role in many aspects of children's development. Research on children's sleep and their peer relationships has begun to emerge in the last years. However, these studies are mostly cross-sectional. The current study aimed to investigate the associations between infant sleep and peer relationships in middle childhood. The sample comprised 72 children. Sleep was measured at 1 year using a sleep diary completed by mothers. In the second and third grades of elementary school (7 and 8 years of age), mothers and fathers reported on their children's functioning with peers. When they were in third grade, children were interviewed regarding their friendship quality with a best friend. Results revealed negative associations between children's sleep consolidation (i.e., ratio of nighttime sleep) and parent-reported peer problems, and positive associations between sleep consolidation and perceived friendship quality. These findings suggest that well-regulated sleep in infancy may help children develop the skills necessary for later appropriate social functioning in peer contexts.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T23:01:42.821971-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12273
  • Assessment of hostile and benign intent attributions in early childhood:
           Can we elicit meaningful information'
    • Authors: David Schultz; Elisabeth Groth, Holly Vanderwalde, Katherine Shannon, Mary Shuttlesworth, Lisa Shanty
      Abstract: Throughout middle childhood and adolescence, hostile intent attributions fairly consistently predict levels of aggression. Across 28 published studies in early childhood, however, researchers have found less consistent relationships. We believe this may be due to a majority of these studies using an inappropriate methodological approach for early childhood, forced-choice questioning. We tested the use of open-ended vs. forced-choice questions about intent in 118 Head Start preschool children. In response to a forced choice question, only about 30% of children attributed intent correctly to a video depicting clearly purposeful behavior. And across 18 video vignettes depicting ambiguous provocation, children's intent attribution scores based on a forced-choice approach demonstrated neither reliability nor validity. Conversely, children's intent attribution scores in response to open-ended questions demonstrated reliability, correspondence with other aspects of social information processing, and predictive validity in the form of relations to teacher reports of social competence and aggression. Researchers should refrain from utilizing forced-choice approaches to intent attributions in early childhood unless also conducting intent understanding checks.
      PubDate: 2017-11-21T23:01:40.471918-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12274
  • Cultural socialization of toddlers in emotionally charged situations
    • Authors: Feyza Corapci; Wolfgang Friedlmeier, Oana Benga, Catherine Strauss, Irina Pitica, Georgiana Susa
      Abstract: This study examined mothers’ responses to foster emotional competence from a cultural perspective. Fifty-one European American, 52 Turkish, and 40 Romanian mothers of 2-year-old children provided open-ended responses to vignettes of anger-, sadness-, fear-, and happiness-eliciting situations. Mothers’ responses were compared between the family models of independence (United States) and psychological interdependence (Turkey, Romania) to understand cultural variations. To anger, all mothers endorsed problem-focused responses that emphasized teaching coping skills at similar rates, suggestive of an autonomy-orientation. European American mothers also endorsed behaviorally oriented discipline to cope with anger independently more than Turks and Romanians, who endorsed reasoning and comforting responses more, reflecting a relatedness emphasis. To sadness, problem-focused and comforting responses did not reveal cultural differences. Expected differences in reasoning and dismissive responses were partly supported. To fear, comforting was the dominant response, with the highest rate reported by European Americans. Turkish and Romanian mothers’ relative emphasis on reasoning was characteristic of their family model. In happy situations, European American mothers validated toddlers’ happiness most often, whereas Turkish mothers reported the escalation of happiness most often. Despite sharing the psychological interdependence model, differences in some responses to sadness, fear, and happiness were noted between Turkish and Romanian mothers.
      PubDate: 2017-11-12T20:10:26.271493-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12272
  • Connections between preschoolers' temperament traits and social behaviors
           as observed in a preschool setting
    • Authors: Allison E. Gornik; Jennifer W. Neal, Sharon L. Lo, C. Emily Durbin
      Abstract: A growing literature has focused on the role children's temperament traits play in social behavior, but associations have traditionally been explored through informant report. We utilized a longitudinal, observational approach to (a) examine how children's traits related to their social behaviors when aggregated across the school year; (b) explore how traits and social behavior relate to children's age and sex; and (c) test how prior traits predicted subsequent change in solitary, reticent, and social play, above and beyond mean-level change in play behavior over the course of the year. Fifty-three children were observed in their preschool classroom, where coders rated children's traits and social behaviors over the course of one school year (N = 26,673 observations). Results found positive age-related associations for positive emotionality (PE) and social play. In addition, aggregated traits explained a significant amount of the variance for every social behavior. Prior levels of lower PE, higher negative emotionality (NE), and higher effortful control (EC) predicted more subsequent time spent in reticent play, while NE and EC approached significance as predictors of solitary play. These results emphasize the role of early disposition on mean levels and rates of change in social behavior in a classroom.
      PubDate: 2017-11-07T23:05:43.87588-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12271
  • Vagal modulation of 1-month-old infants to auditory stimuli is associated
           with self-regulatory behavior
    • Authors: Sara Cruz; Fernando Ferreira-Santos, Patrícia Oliveira-Silva, Eugénia Ribeiro, Óscar Gonçalves, Adriana Sampaio
      Abstract: During infancy, cardiac vagal modulation has been associated with attentional and social engagement behaviors. While studies have shown that infants display a behavioral repertoire that enables them to interact with others by being able to regulate themselves in order to attend to and to discriminate emotional and social cues, vagal modulation to sensory stimuli and its association with behavioral outcomes at early ages remains to be addressed. In this study, we analyzed the cardiac vagal response of 1-month-old infants to two auditory stimuli intensities and whether vagal response was associated with social interactive and self-regulatory abilities. Therefore, we recorded cardiac and respiratory physiological responses in 28 infants using a Biopac System. Neurobehavioral assessment was performed using the Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale. We observed increased respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) amplitude to both auditory stimuli intensities when compared to baseline. No intensity effect was found for the RSA response. Additionally, we observed that higher RSA amplitude to both auditory stimuli was positively correlated with adjusted self-regulatory behaviors, suggesting a convergence between multiple measures assessing infants' state regulation. Results are discussed in light of 1-month-old infants' auditory stimuli processing and its implications for regulatory behaviors and the emergent social-like behaviors.
      PubDate: 2017-11-01T23:48:04.807723-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12270
  • A daily diary investigation of the influence of early family adversity on
           social functioning during the transition to adulthood
    • Authors: Elizabeth B. Raposa; Constance Hammen
      Abstract: Early life stressors are associated with maladaptive social functioning in childhood and adolescence, but it is unclear whether and how the negative interpersonal effects of stress persist into adulthood. Daily diary surveys were used to examine young adults' social behavior and mood reactivity to social stressors as a function of experiences of early family adversity. Stressful early family environments predicted more daily reassurance seeking, but not aggression, withdrawal, or positive social behavior. Early family adversity also moderated the within-person effects of social stressors on next-day mood, such that individuals with high levels of adversity had elevated next-day negative affect in response to higher than average social stress. Findings highlight the enduring impact of early adversity on social development, with implications for developing targeted policies and interventions.
      PubDate: 2017-10-20T00:10:22.882166-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12269
  • Social centrality and aggressive behavior in the elementary school: Gender
           segregation, social structure, and psychological factors
    • Authors: Andres Molano; Stephanie M. Jones
      Abstract: In this paper, we build on key findings in the sociological literature regarding different patterns of association between social centrality and overt aggressive behavior in the context of same-and-cross gender social interactions. We explore these associations in a population of urban elementary school students (Agê = 8.62, SD = 0.69, N = 848), while addressing claims that the role of psychological factors is overstated in this literature. Our results indicate that, on average, social centrality is positively associated with aggressive behavior for boys, but negatively for girls. We also find a moderating effect indicating that the proportion of male peers with whom participants are reported to hang around, as well as their own gender play a role in the association between social centrality and aggression. These findings are discussed in the context of an ecological perspective on human development in which interactions among individuals, their social groups, and key environments are viewed as central to shaping developmental pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-09-30T02:10:22.174509-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12267
  • Links between friends’ behaviors and the emergence of leadership in
           childhood: A genetically informed study of twins
    • Authors: Alessandra S. Rivizzigno; Mara Brendgen, Frank Vitaro, Ginette Dionne, Michel Boivin
      Abstract: Using a genetically informed design, this study examined whether children's leadership behavior varied as a function of their reciprocal friends’ behavioral characteristics. Specifically, we tested (a) whether friends’ use of a dual strategy (specifically, indirect aggression with prosocial behavior) was associated with children's leadership behavior and (b) whether, in line with a gene-environment interaction (GxE), the predictive association between friends’ behaviors and children's leadership behavior varied depending on the child's genetic likelihood for leadership. The sample comprised 239 Monozygotic and same-sex Dizygotic twin pairs (50% boys) assessed in grade 4 (mean age = 10.4 years, SD = 0.26). Reciprocal friendship and children's and their friends’ prosocial, indirectly aggressive, and physically aggressive behaviors were measured via peer nominations. Children's and friends’ leadership was measured through teacher ratings. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that children's genetic likelihood for leadership was positively associated with their leadership behavior. Moreover, the higher their genetic likelihood for leadership, the more children displayed increased leadership behavior when friends showed a combination of indirect aggression and prosocial behavior (GxE). These results underline the role of friends’ behaviors in explaining children's leadership. Socializing with bistrategic friends seems to foster leadership skills especially in children with a genetic likelihood for leadership.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T11:26:03.281287-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12266
  • Attachment network structure as a predictor of romantic attachment
           formation and insecurity
    • Authors: Harry Freeman; Jeffrey Simons
      Abstract: We present a new framework to conceptualize normative variation in attachment network structure and use the framework to predict romantic attachment formation and attachment insecurity. Young adults (N = 2,055) completed the Attachment Network Questionnaire and were classified into one of four network types based on two comparisons: (a) between their primary and secondary figure, and (b) between their secondary and tertiary figure. Each comparison was coded as Similar (S) or Different (D), resulting in the following distribution across four network types: (a) 40% D:D—diversified; (b) 32% D:S—monotropic; (c) 19% S:D—joint principal; and (d) 9% S:S—distributed. Romantic duration predicted a developmental sequence of network structure consistent with infant attachment formation. Findings also indicated that the nonhierarchical network, distributed type, was associated with insecure attachment representations. Results suggest that attachment networks exhibit greater structural diversity than is commonly assumed and that the new framework is useful for understanding developmental and social outcomes.
      PubDate: 2017-09-29T11:25:07.00873-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12265
  • Thinking for themselves' The effect of informant independence on
           children's endorsement of testimony from a consensus
    • Authors: Shiri Einav
      Abstract: Testimony agreement across a number of people can be a reassuring sign of a claim's reliability. However, reliability may be undermined if informants do not respond independently. In this case, social consensus may be a result of indiscriminate copying or conformity and does not necessarily reflect shared knowledge or opinion. We examined children's emerging sensitivity to consensus independence by testing whether it affected their judgements in a social learning context. Children ages 5, 6, and 8–9 years (N = 92), and 20 adults for comparison received conflicting testimony about an unfamiliar country from two consensual groups of informants: An independent group who responded privately and a nonindependent group who had access to each other's answers. We found increasing levels of trust in independent consensus with age. Adults and 8–9-year olds preferred to accept the claims of the independent consensus, whereas 5-year olds favored the claims of the nonindependent consensus and 6-year olds were mixed. Although previous work has shown that children trust a consensus over a lone dissenter as young as 2 years, the developmental shift in this study indicates that children's reasoning about the nature of consensus and what makes it reliable continues to develop throughout middle childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-09-10T23:50:50.927017-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12264
  • Associations between parent emotional arousal and regulation and
           adolescents' affective brain response
    • Authors: Caitlin C. Turpyn; Jennifer A. Poon, Corynne E. Ross, James C. Thompson, Tara M. Chaplin
      Abstract: Parents' emotional functioning represents a central mechanism in the caregiving environment's influence on adolescent affective brain function. However, a paucity of research has examined links between parental emotional arousal and regulation and adolescents' affective brain function. Thus, the present study examined associations between parents' self-rated negative emotion, parent emotion regulation difficulties, and adolescent brain responsivity to negative and positive emotional stimuli. Participants included 64 12–14 year-old adolescents (31 females) and their female primary caregivers. Adolescents viewed negative, positive, and neutral emotional stimuli during an fMRI scanning session. Region of interest analyses showed that higher parent negative emotion was related to adolescents' greater ACC and vmPFC response to both negatively- and positively-valenced emotional stimuli; whereas, parent negative emotion was related to adolescents' greater amygdala response to negative emotional stimuli only. Furthermore, parent emotion regulation moderated the association between parent negative emotion and adolescents' brain response to negative emotional stimuli, such that parents with high negative emotion and high emotion regulation difficulties had adolescents with the greatest affective brain response. Findings highlight the importance of considering both parent emotional arousal and regulation in understanding the family affective environment and its relation to adolescent emotion-related brain development.
      PubDate: 2017-09-07T22:35:30.528547-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12263
  • Assessment and implications of social withdrawal in early childhood: A
           first look at social avoidance
    • Authors: Robert J. Coplan; Laura L. Ooi, Bowen Xiao, Linda Rose-Krasnor
      Abstract: The goals of the present research were to: (a) develop and provide preliminary validation of a parent-rated measure of social avoidance in early childhood; and (b) to evaluate a conceptual model of the direct and indirect links among young children's social withdrawal (shyness, unsociability, social avoidance), peer problems, and indices of internalizing problems (social anxiety, depression). Participants were N = 564 children (272 boys, 292 girls; Mage = 67.29 mos, SD = 11.70) attending kindergarten and Grade 1 classes in public schools in southeastern Ontario, Canada. A new subscale assessing social avoidance was added to an existing parent-rated measure of children's social withdrawal. Indices of children's socioemotional functioning were provided by parents and teachers. Among the results, the revised measure of multiple forms of social withdrawal demonstrated good psychometric properties, moderate stability 16 months later, and evidence of validity. Shyness, unsociability, and social avoidance also displayed differential patterns of associations with indices of children's socioemotional functioning. Results are discussed in terms of the assessment and implications of different forms of social withdrawal in early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-08-29T22:21:04.907156-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12258
  • Children's attentional breadth around their mother: Comparing
           stimulus-driven vs. cognitively controlled processes
    • Authors: Guy Bosmans; Emma Goldblum, Caroline Braet, Magali van de Walle, Joke Heylen, Patricia Bijttebier, Tara Santens, Ernst H. W. Koster, Rudi De Raedt
      Abstract: Attentional processes in children are tuned toward their mother. It is unclear whether this is a cognitively controlled or more automatic, stimulus-driven process. Therefore, 172 children (age 9–13) were assigned to either a cognitively controlled or a stimulus-driven task measuring the breadth of their attentional field around their mother. Results demonstrated a narrower field around the mother for children completing the more stimulus-driven task. Moreover, only for the stimulus-driven task, this effect was linked with the interaction between children's age and self-reported trust in maternal support. More trust was linked with a narrower attentional field around the mother in younger children, but with a less narrow field in older children. This resembles the expected age-related shift toward increased autonomy and points at stimulus-driven attentional processes.
      PubDate: 2017-08-28T19:16:52.84568-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12256
  • Differences between resource control types revisited: A short term
           longitudinal study
    • Authors: Albert Reijntjes; Marjolijn Vermande, Tjeert Olthof, Frits A. Goossens, Gerko Vink, Liesbeth Aleva, Matty van der Meulen
      Abstract: Hawley's influential resource control theory (RCT) posits that both coercive and prosocial strategies may yield social dominance, as indexed by resource control. Based on differences in youths’ relative use of these strategies, RCT a priori defines five distinct subtypes. Several studies by Hawley and colleagues have revealed substantial differences between subtypes in terms of obtained resource control and various social characteristics (e.g., agreeableness). The present longitudinal study (N = 394; Mage = 10.3; SD = 0.5) expands on previous work. Firstly, because several items used to assess strategies in RCT appear to confound strategy use with the resulting benefits (resource control), we disentangled between strategy use as such and obtained resource control. Secondly whereas previous work has been exclusively cross-sectional, the present study was longitudinal. ANOVAs comparing subgroups provided support for some core tenets of RCT, but not for others. For instance, bistrategic children scored high on both resource control and perceived popularity. However, bistrategics engaged in elevated bullying, and whereas Hawley asserts that they are proficient in balancing ‘getting ahead’ with ‘getting along’, their behavior appeared to evoke clear negative reactions in the peer group at large. Findings also showed that non-controllers did not experience more negative outcomes than their peers across all domains.
      PubDate: 2017-08-09T08:40:22.40629-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12257
  • Effects of consistency between self and in-group on children's views of
           self, groups, and abilities
    • Authors: Meagan M. Patterson; Rebecca S. Bigler
      Abstract: Children's developing views of self and in-groups inevitably conflict at points during childhood (e.g., a girl who thinks of herself as strong encounters the gender stereotype that girls are weak). How are self and group views reconciled in such cases' To test hypotheses based on Greenwald et al.'s model of self, group, and attribute relations, children (N = 107; ages 7–12; M = 9 years, 6 months) were assigned to novel social groups, denoted by red and blue t-shirts, in their classrooms. Across 3 weeks, children completed three novel tasks and received false feedback on personal and group task performance, producing a between-subjects experimental design in which children received either consistent or inconsistent self and group feedback. Immediately after receiving feedback, children answered questions about the particular task. Finally, upon completion of all three manipulations, children completed measures of views of the self and novel groups. As predicted, children's views of the tasks, self, and groups were influenced by feedback. Unexpectedly, children viewed themselves as more similar to the in-group than out-group irrespective of feedback consistency. Furthermore, children developed in-group biased attitudes, but these biases were largely unrelated to feedback.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:45:40.514439-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12255
  • Authenticity in friendships and well-being in adolescence
    • Authors: Kätlin Peets; Ernest V. E. Hodges
      Abstract: Only a handful of studies have focused on understanding how authenticity in close relationships may be related to individuals’ well-being. In this study we examined whether authenticity in a friendship was related to greater adjustment during adolescence. Participants were 318 sixth- and ninth-grade students (155 boys; Mage = 13.46, SDage = 1.51). Our results show that adolescents who feel more authentic have more positive self-views, are less lonely at school, and more satisfied with their relationship. Importantly, authenticity–adjustment associations remained significant after controlling for positive friendship quality and conflict. These findings suggest that authenticity should be more often incorporated into the study of different friendship processes.
      PubDate: 2017-07-26T03:35:36.523201-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12254
  • Development of preferences for differently aged faces of different races
    • Authors: Michelle Heron-Delaney; Paul C. Quinn, Fabrice Damon, Kang Lee, Olivier Pascalis
      Abstract: Children's experiences with differently aged faces changes in the course of development. During infancy, most faces encountered are adult, however as children mature, exposure to child faces becomes more extensive. Does this change in experience influence preference for differently aged faces' The preferences of children for adult vs. child, and adult vs. infant faces were investigated. Caucasian 3- to 6-year-olds and adults were presented with adult/child and adult/infant face pairs which were either Caucasian or Asian (race consistent within pairs). Younger children (3–4 years) preferred adults over children whereas older children (5–6 years) preferred children over adults. This preference was only detected for Caucasian faces. These data support a ‘here and now’ model of the development of face age processing from infancy to childhood. In particular, the findings suggest that growing experience with peers influences age preferences and that race impacts on these preferences. In contrast, adults preferred infants and children over adults when the faces were Caucasian or Asian, suggesting an increasing influence of a baby schema, and a decreasing influence of race. The different preferences of younger children, older children, and adults also suggest discontinuity and the possibility of different mechanisms at work during different developmental periods.
      PubDate: 2017-07-03T06:00:57.286015-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12253
  • Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of socially withdrawn
           behavior in institutionalized children
    • Authors: Bilge Selcuk; H. Melis Yavuz, Evren Etel, Mehmet Harma, Ted Ruffman
      Abstract: False-belief understanding and executive functions are two main sociocognitive abilities reliably linked to child social competence. Although institution-reared children are especially at risk for behavioral problems and cognitive delays, the role that executive function and false-belief understanding might play in the social withdrawal of institutionalized children has not been examined. The current study used two-wave data to investigate the concurrent and longitudinal relations of social withdrawal with executive function and false-belief understanding in institutionalized children; it also allowed investigation of the directionality between executive function and false-belief understanding. Data were collected from 66 Turkish children (T1 M = 57.83 months, SD = 9.20; T2 M = 69.58 months, SD = 8.45) residing in institutions, at two time points, approximately 1 year apart. We measured false-belief understanding and executive function via individual assessments, and social withdrawal via care provider reports at both time points. Results showed that both executive function and false-belief understanding increased between T1 and T2, while social withdrawal did not show a significant change. Path analysis revealed that when T1 age and language were controlled, T1 executive function predicted T2 executive function, and in turn, T2 executive function predicted lessened social withdrawal at T2. In addition, T1 executive function predicted T2 false-belief understanding. T1 false-belief understanding was not related to T2 false-belief understanding, executive function, or social withdrawal. Findings suggested that executive function is an important predictor of social withdrawal in high-risk populations.
      PubDate: 2017-06-30T05:41:30.454268-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12252
  • Changing tides: Mothers’ supportive emotion socialization relates
           negatively to third-grade children's social adjustment in school
    • Authors: Vanessa L. Castro; Amy G. Halberstadt, Patricia T. Garrett-Peters
      Abstract: Parents’ supportive reactions to children's negative emotions are thought to promote children's social adjustment. Research heretofore has implicitly assumed that such reactions are equally supportive of children's adjustment across ages. Recent findings challenge this assumption, suggesting that during middle childhood, socialization practices previously understood as supportive may in fact impede children's social adjustment. We explored this possibility in a sample of 203 third-grade children and their mothers. Using structural equation modeling, we tested associations between mothers’ supportive (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused) reactions to children's negative emotions and children's social skills and problems as reported by mothers and teachers. Mothers’ supportive reactions predicted greater social adjustment in children as reported by mothers. Inverse associations, however, were found with teachers’ reports of children's social adjustment: mothers’ supportive reactions predicted fewer socioemotional skills and more problem behaviors. These contrasting patterns suggest potential unperceived costs associated with mothers’ supportiveness of children's negative emotions for third-grade children's social adjustment in school and highlight the importance of considering associations between socialization practices and children's various social contexts. The findings also highlight a need for greater consideration of what supportiveness means across different developmental periods.
      PubDate: 2017-06-16T00:00:28.076709-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12251
  • Arousal transmission and attenuation in mother–daughter dyads during
    • Authors: Jessica P. Lougheed; Tom Hollenstein
      Abstract: Load sharing is the process through which the emotional burdens associated with challenging situations are distributed among members within close relationships. One indicator of load sharing is efficient emotion regulation, and load sharing is related to high physical and relationship closeness between partners. The purpose of the current study was to examine load sharing in mother–daughter dyads across different emotion contexts during adolescence. We examined load sharing via mothers' and daughters' electrodermal activity, which indicates sympathetic nervous system arousal. Sixty-six adolescent girls (Mage = 15.15 years) and their mothers participated in two 4-min discussions, about negative and positive emotional experiences. Mothers and daughters self-reported relationship closeness, and physical closeness was experimentally manipulated by randomly assigning mothers to either touch or not touch their daughter's hand during the discussions. Evidence of load sharing was observed for both mothers and daughters in terms of lower arousal levels and greater arousal transmission (i.e., picking up on partners' arousal) at greater physical and relationship closeness, although the specific pattern of results differed for mothers and daughters and across emotion contexts. Taken together, the results of this study demonstrate that load sharing is an important interpersonal dynamic in mother–daughter dyads during adolescence.
      PubDate: 2017-06-07T19:45:23.387092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12250
  • Considering economic stress and empathic traits in predicting prosocial
           behaviors among U.S. Latino adolescents
    • Authors: Alexandra N. Davis; Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Lisa J. Crockett
      Abstract: The goal of the current study was to examine two competing models focusing on the roles of empathy-related traits in the relation between economic stress and prosocial behaviors. First, we examined the mediating roles of perspective taking and empathic concern in the association between economic stress and adolescents’ prosocial behaviors. Second, we examined the moderating role of perspective taking in the association between economic stress and empathic concern, as well as the links between empathic concern and prosocial behaviors. Participants consisted of 307 (46.2% girls; M age = 15.05) U.S. Latino adolescents (77.5% U.S. Mexicans) and their primary caregivers (87.9% mothers). Primary caregivers reported on family-level economic stress, and adolescents reported on their own perspective taking, empathic concern, and their tendency to engage in six forms of prosocial behaviors. Results demonstrated support for the moderating role of perspective taking on the link between economic stress and empathic concern, which in turn, was associated with multiple forms of helping behaviors. Economic stress was also directly associated with selfless and selfish helping behaviors. The discussion focuses on the multiple roles of empathic traits in understanding the links between economic stress and prosocial outcomes in U.S. Latino youth.
      PubDate: 2017-05-28T23:14:02.333011-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12249
  • Verbalizing a commitment reduces cheating in young children
    • Authors: Angela D. Evans; Alison M. O'Connor, Kang Lee
      Abstract: Children are frequently given rules and permissions that contrast their self-interest, resulting in cheating behavior. The present study examined whether a verbalized commitment without the word ‘promise’ could reduce cheating rates in young children and whether this technique would be significantly more effective than a simple affirmation to a request not to cheat. Ninety-nine 3-to-5-year-olds were randomly assigned to one of three obligation conditions: control, simple ‘okay’, or a verbalized commitment condition. All children played a guessing game in which the experimenter left the room on the final trial and children were instructed not to peek at the toy in the experimenter's absence. Children were asked to agree to the request not to peek (simple ‘okay’ condition), to verbally state that they would not peek (verbalized commitment condition), or were just instructed not to peek (control condition). The verbalized commitment condition significantly reduced cheating rates compared to the other conditions, regardless of age. Furthermore, among those who cheated, children in the verbalized commitment condition took significantly longer to peek compared to the other conditions. Results suggest that a verbal commitment without the word ‘promise’ can be an effective method to reduce young children's cheating behavior.
      PubDate: 2017-05-21T22:55:24.62957-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12248
  • Longitudinal relations among parenting daily hassles, child rearing, and
           prosocial and aggressive behaviors in Turkish children
    • Authors: Zehra Gülseven; Gustavo Carlo, Cara Streit, Asiye Kumru, Bilge Selçuk, Melike Sayıl
      Abstract: The present study was designed to examine the longitudinal relations between parenting daily hassles and young children's later prosocial and aggressive behaviors, as well as the mediating role of parenting practices in a non-Western society. The final sample was 159 middle class Turkish school age children (45.3% girls, Mage= 84.69 months, 76.9% from public school, 23.1% from private school in Bolu, Ankara, and İstanbul) and their mothers. Overall, we found longitudinal evidence that parenting daily hassles, warmth, and physical punishment were significantly and differentially associated with children's prosocial and aggressive behaviors 3 years later. The present findings extend our understanding of the interplay of parenting and stress in predicting children's prosocial and aggressive development in a non-Western culture.
      PubDate: 2017-05-16T21:41:00.920528-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12247
  • Pet dogs: Does their presence influence preadolescents' emotional
           responses to a social stressor'
    • Authors: Kathryn A. Kerns; Kaela L. Stuart-Parrigon, Karin G. Coifman, Manfred H. M. van Dulmen, Amanda Koehn
      Abstract: Despite interest in human–animal interaction, few studies have tested whether the presence of a dog facilitates children's emotional responding. Preadolescents (N = 99) were randomly assigned to complete the Trier Social Stress Test either with or without their pet dog. Children rated their positive and negative affect, and high-frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV) was assessed throughout the session. Children reported higher positive affect when they completed the task with their pet dog, although there were no differences for negative affect or HF-HRV. Children who had more physical contact with their dog at baseline reported higher positive affect. The findings suggest contact with pets is associated with enhanced positive affect.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T21:10:26.192377-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12246
  • Maternal and paternal reactions to child sadness predict children's
           psychosocial outcomes: A family-centered approach
    • Authors: Rachel L. Miller-Slough; Julie C. Dunsmore, Janice L. Zeman, Wesley M. Sanders, Jennifer A. Poon
      Abstract: Parents' reactions to children's emotions shape their psychosocial outcomes. Extant research on emotion socialization primarily uses variable-centered approaches. This study explores family patterns of maternal and paternal responses to children's sadness in relation to psychosocial outcomes in middle childhood. Fifty-one families with 8- to 12-year-old children participated. Mothers and fathers reported their reactions to children's sadness and children's social competence and psychological adjustment. Cluster analyses revealed three family patterns: Supportive (high supportive and low non-supportive reactions from both parents), Not Supportive (low supportive reactions from both parents), and Father Dominant (high paternal supportive and non-supportive reactions, low maternal supportive and non-supportive reactions). Supportive families had children with higher social competence and more internalizing symptoms whereas Father Dominant families had children with lower social competence and fewer internalizing symptoms. Not Supportive families had children with average social competence and fewer internalizing symptoms. Findings are discussed in relation to the “divergence model” which proposes that a diverse range of parental responses to children's sadness, rather than a uniformly supportive approach, may facilitate children's psychosocial adjustment.
      PubDate: 2017-05-15T20:50:58.145848-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12244
  • School context influences the ethnic identity development of immigrant
           children in middle childhood
    • Authors: Christia Spears Brown
      Abstract: The present paper describes a study investigating the ethnic identity development of Latino immigrant children (n = 155) in middle childhood (ages 8–11) in a predominantly White community. The study examined how ethnic identity was related to children's school context. School context was operationalized at the structural level, as the ethnic composition of the teachers and peers, as well as the schools' implicit messages about their valuing of multiculturalism; and the proximal interpersonal level, as children's perceptions of peer discrimination and teacher fairness. Results indicated that both the structural and proximal context predicted children's ethnic label choices, the importance placed on their ethnic identity, the positivity of their ethnic identity, and their American identity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T20:40:29.973038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12240
  • Cultural family beliefs, maternal sacrifice, and adolescent psychological
           competence in Chinese poor single-mother families
    • Authors: Janet T. Y. Leung
      Abstract: Research on cultural family beliefs and family processes as protective factors of adolescent development is severely lacking in the Chinese culture. Based on 432 Chinese single-mother families living in poverty in Hong Kong, the relationships among Chinese cultural beliefs of familism, adolescent perceived maternal sacrifice, and psychological competence (indexed by a clear and healthy identity, cognitive competence, and a positive future outlook) were examined. Results showed that adolescents' perceived maternal sacrifice mediated the influence between maternal Chinese cultural beliefs of familism and the psychological competence of adolescents raised in poor single-mother families in Hong Kong. The present study underscores the importance of cultural family beliefs and parental sacrifice on nurturing adolescent psychological competence in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty, which contributes to the construction of a family resilience model applicable to Chinese communities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T23:00:43.9837-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12239
  • A prospective study of adolescent mothers’ social competence, children's
           effortful control and compliance and children's subsequent developmental
    • Authors: Danielle M. Seay; Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Laudan B. Jahromi, Kimberly A. Updegraff
      Abstract: Previous work has established that caregiver and child temperamental characteristics are associated with child compliance. Given the critical role that parents play in this process, and that children of teen mothers are at risk for poorer developmental outcomes, it is important to understand the development of compliance in the context of at-risk parenting such as adolescent motherhood. The current study examined child compliance (Wave 5; W5) as a mediator of the association between adolescent mothers’ social competence (Wave 4; W4) and children's behavioral and academic outcomes (Wave 6; W6), and whether this mediation varied depending on children's effortful control (W4) in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage at W4 = 19.94, SD = .99) and their children (Mage at W4 = 36.21 months, SD = .45). Adolescent mothers reported on their own social competence and their children's effortful control and externalizing problems; compliance was assessed using observational methods; and academic readiness was assessed using standardized developmental assessments. Findings based on structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent mothers’ social competence was positively related to children's compliance among children with high effortful control, but not among those with low effortful control. Moreover, child compliance mediated the longitudinal association between adolescent mothers’ social competence and child externalizing problems and academic readiness. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering the role of child temperament in understanding how adolescent mothers’ social competence is subsequently associated with children's social and academic adjustment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:15:38.277313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12238
  • Longitudinal associations among adolescents’ organized activity
           involvement and sociopolitical values
    • Authors: Benjamin Oosterhoff; Kaitlyn A. Ferris, Cara A. Palmer, Aaron Metzger
      Abstract: Organized activities represent a potentially important context for the development of adolescent sociopolitical values, but few studies have examined longitudinal associations between youths’ sociopolitical values and activity involvement. Adolescents (N = 299, Time 1 Mage = 15.49, SD = .93, 62% female) reported on their organized activity involvement (volunteering, church, sports, arts/music, school and community clubs) and sociopolitical values (materialism, social dominance, authoritarianism, patriotism, spirituality) at baseline and one year later. Greater involvement in arts/music predicted lower spirituality and patriotism one year later and greater involvement in church predicted higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of social dominance one year later. Higher levels of materialism predicted less involvement in arts/music one year later and higher social dominance values predicted less involvement in volunteering one year later. Findings support the importance of organized activities in sociopolitical development, and suggest that sociopolitical values may guide decisions concerning future organized activity involvement.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:47:06.599581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12230
  • Children's awareness concerning emotion regulation strategies: Effects of
           attachment status
    • Authors: Catrinel A. Ştefan; Julia Avram, Mircea Miclea
      Abstract: The current study evaluated the effects of preschoolers' attachment status on their awareness concerning emotion regulation strategies. A total of 212 children between 3 and 5 years participated in this study and completed two self-report tasks. The first was the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT), which assessed children's internal working models concerning parent–child attachment; the second evaluated children's ability to generate emotion regulation strategies in relation to three negative emotions (anger, sadness, and fear). Statistical analyses involved a mixed models multilinear regression approach controlling for age and gender. The results consistently revealed that the insecure avoidant group was significantly less likely than securely attached children to generate both comforting and self-regulatory strategies. Surprisingly, the insecure ambivalent group showed no deficits across measured outcomes. When the analyses were conducted separately for each negative emotion, findings for co-regulatory strategies for fear, and self-regulatory strategies for anger also suggested that avoidantly attached children exhibited the lowest levels of awareness compared with children from the secure attachment group. These findings stress the importance of children's attachment status, and implicitly, the quality of the parent–child interactions for children's awareness of emotion regulation strategies related to negative emotions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:50:29.645699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12234
  • Observed and parent-reported conscience in childhood: Relations with
           bullying involvement in early primary school
    • Authors: Pauline W. Jansen; Barbara Zwirs, Marina Verlinden, Cathelijne L. Mieloo, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Albert Hofman, Frank C. Verhulst, Wilma Jansen, Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn, Henning Tiemeier
      Abstract: This exploratory study aimed to examine which components of early childhood conscience predicted bullying involvement around school entry. In the population-based Generation R Study, teacher reports of bullying involvement and parent reports of conscience were available for 3,244 children (M age = 6.7 years). Higher levels of overall conscience predicted lower bullying perpetration scores, independently of intelligence quotient, temperamental traits and sociodemographic characteristics. Particularly, the subscales guilt, confession, and internalized conduct, and to a lesser extent empathy, predicted bullying perpetration. Conscience was not related to victimization. Similar results were found using observations during so-called ‘cheating games’ (subsample N = 450 children). Findings suggest that improving children's understanding of moral standards and norms may be a potential target for bullying intervention programs in early primary school.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:45:22.557195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12233
  • Academic competence perceptions moderate the effects of peer support
           following academic success disclosures
    • Authors: Ellen Rydell Altermatt
      Abstract: Academic successes are a common part of children's daily lives. Prior research indicates that children frequently attempt to capitalize on these events by sharing the good news with peers. This short-term longitudinal study of third- through seventh-grade students (N = 359) provides evidence that, for children with low academic competence perceptions, peer academic support in the form of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures can be a double-edged sword. Regardless of their self-views, perceptions of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures were associated with a greater willingness to disclose academic successes to friends and higher perceptions of peer academic support over time. For children with low academic competence perceptions, however, perceptions of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures also predicted heightened academic worry which, in turn, predicted greater endorsement of performance–avoidance goals over time. Future research will be critical in developing interventions that can assist children with low academic competence perceptions in more fully enjoying the benefits that can accrue from capitalization attempts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:35:25.282822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12235
  • Diathesis stress or differential susceptibility' testing longitudinal
           associations between parenting, temperament, and children's problem
    • Authors: Sabine Stoltz; Roseriet Beijers, Sanny Smeekens, Maja Deković
      Abstract: In this study we investigated longitudinal associations among parenting, children's temperamental negative affectivity, and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Second, we tested whether findings confirmed the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility theory when conducting stringent interaction tests. The sample included 129 children and their families. Parenting quality (age 5) was measured by parent–child interaction observations. Parents evaluated child negative affectivity (age 7) and teachers reported on problem behavior (age 12). Multiple regression analyses revealed an interaction effect of negative affectivity and parenting on externalizing behavior. Visual inspection suggested ‘for better and for worse’ effects of parenting for children with negative affectivity. However, more stringent tests failed to show convincing evidence for differential susceptibility theory. For internalizing behavior, negative affectivity may render children vulnerable regardless of parenting. Our results point at the importance of further testing interaction effects to distinguish between differential susceptibility theory and the diathesis-stress model.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:50:49.547906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12237
  • Aggressive behaviour in adolescence: Links with self-esteem and parental
           emotional availability
    • Authors: Alessandra Babore; Leonardo Carlucci, Fedele Cataldi, Vicky Phares, Carmen Trumello
      Abstract: Aggressive behaviours during adolescence may be predictive of later conduct disorders, hence it is important to early detect their signals and deepen the study of their possible risk factors. In order to address these issues, our study pursued two main objectives: to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the Aggression Questionnaire Short-Form (AQ-SF), a form never previously used among Italian adolescents; and to investigate the relation among aggressiveness, emotional relationship with both parents and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Our results highlighted that psychometric properties of the Italian AQ-SF are satisfactory and encourage a wider use of this tool; in addition, we found that self-esteem plays a mediation role between parental emotional availability and aggression. Prevention efforts should focus on improving the relationship with both parents and strengthening adolescent's self-esteem.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:40:45.425117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12236
  • Supporting the development of empathy: The role of theory of mind and
           fantasy orientation
    • Authors: Melissa McInnis Brown; Rachel B. Thibodeau, Jillian M. Pierucci, Ansley Tullos Gilpin
      Abstract: Theory of mind (ToM) and empathy are separate, but related components of social understanding. However, research has not clearly defined the distinctions between them. Similarly, related constructs, such as fantasy orientation (FO), are associated with better ToM understanding; however, little is known about how FO may provide a context in which both ToM and affective empathy develop. Children between the ages of 3 and 5 (N = 82) completed a battery of ToM, empathy, and FO measures. Results demonstrated a developmental progression from ToM to affective empathy: 3-year-olds were likely to have neither, 4-year-olds were likely to have ToM only, and 5-year-olds were likely to have both. Additionally, results indicated that FO predicted affective empathy above and beyond ToM ability, suggesting that children whose play is high in fantasy are more practiced than their peers in sharing emotions. These findings are discussed in terms of how children's propensity toward fantasy play may contribute to their social development.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T22:05:32.023882-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12232
  • Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of aggressive and
           prosocial behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood
    • Authors: Sarah E. O'Toole; Claire P. Monks, Stella Tsermentseli
      Abstract: Executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) are related to children's social interactions, such as aggression and prosocial behavior, as well as their peer acceptance. However, limited research has examined different forms of aggression and the moderating role of gender. This study investigated links between EF, ToM, physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior and peer acceptance and explored whether these relations are gender specific. Children (N = 106) between 46- and 80-months-old completed tasks assessing cool and hot EF and ToM. Teaching staff rated children's aggression, prosocial behavior, and peer acceptance. EF and ToM predicted physical, but not relational, aggression. Poor inhibition and delay of gratification were uniquely associated with greater physical aggression. EF and ToM did not predict prosocial behavior or peer acceptance. Added to this, gender did not moderate the relation between either EF or ToM and social outcomes. The correlates of aggression may therefore differ across forms of aggression but not between genders in early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T22:05:33.305093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12231
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 659 - 660
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:51:34.625973-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12211
  • The multifaceted nature of prosocial behavior in children: Links with
           attachment theory and research
    • Authors: Jacquelyn T. Gross; Jessica A. Stern, Bonnie E. Brett, Jude Cassidy
      Pages: 661 - 678
      Abstract: Prosocial behavior involves attempting to improve others’ welfare and plays a central role in cooperative social relationships. Among the manifold processes that contribute to prosocial development is the quality of children's attachment to their caregivers. Often, researchers have investigated the link between secure attachment and broad indices of prosociality. Recent theory and research, however, suggest that children's prosocial behavior is multifaceted, with distinct correlates and developmental trajectories characterizing specific prosocial behaviors. We offer a theoretical model of the role of parent–child attachment in the development of prosocial behavior, first broadly, and then with regard to comforting, sharing, and helping, specifically. Further, we review the empirical work on this topic from infancy through adolescence. Overall, evidence supports an association between secure attachment and prosociality, broadly defined, but results vary across comforting, sharing, and helping. We discuss potential explanations for the findings and outline directions for future research examining the role of attachment in shaping the diversity of prosocial behaviors across development.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T00:35:25.50255-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12242
  • The mediating role of coping self-efficacy beliefs on the relationship
           between parental conflict and child psychological adjustment
    • Authors: Heidi I. Brummert Lennings; Kay Bussey
      Pages: 753 - 766
      Abstract: The effect of parental conflict on children's psychological adjustment is variable. Coping self-efficacy refers to a person's perceived ability to self-motivate and access the required cognitive resources to take control of, or exert their coping efforts in a stressful situation. This study investigated the mediating role of children's coping self-efficacy beliefs between parental conflict and children's psychological adjustment (internalizing, externalizing, anxiety, and prosocial behavior). The participants were 663 school students in grade 5 (M = 10.17 years, SD = .53) and grade 7 (M = 12.11 years, SD = .52). The ethnic composition of the sample was approximately 72% White, 20% Asian, 4% Middle Eastern, and 4% from other ethnic groups. Coping self-efficacy for avoiding maladaptive cognitions mediated the effect of parental conflict on children's internalizing symptoms longitudinally. The higher the level of parental conflict, the lower the level of children's coping self-efficacy for avoiding maladaptive cognitions and in turn the higher their levels of internalizing. These findings support the mediational role of children's coping self-efficacy beliefs in the context of parental conflict. It is proposed that these beliefs should be considered in designing and implementing preventative interventions for children in the context of parental conflict.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T00:25:40.966919-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12241
  • Attributing emotions to false beliefs: Development across discrete
    • Authors: Adina M. Seidenfeld; Brian P. Ackerman, Carroll E. Izard
      Pages: 937 - 950
      Abstract: Emotion false belief (EFB) is the ability to correctly predict people's emotions given that they hold a false belief (FB). Accumulating evidence suggests that EFB understanding develops after FB understanding; however, the literature presents inconsistencies in this lag. The present study investigated the development of EFB in 85 four- and six-year-olds, and systematically compared this development to FB understanding across different emotions. Controlling for verbal ability and task demands, 6-year-olds scored significantly better on EFB tasks than 4-year-olds, and 6-year-olds' performance was better than chance. Performance did not vary by emotion. The data supported a developmental precedence of FB to EFB. Results suggest that children's acquisition of EFB is not due solely to verbal ability, FB understanding, or discrete emotion understanding; attributing emotions to beliefs represents a conceptual change in emotion understanding that occurs holistically. These conclusions are discussed in terms of socioemotional development.
      PubDate: 2017-05-09T19:50:23.606852-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12243
  • From compliance to self-regulation: Development during early childhood
    • Authors: Xin Feng; Emma G. Hooper, Rongfang Jia
      Pages: 981 - 995
      Abstract: This study examined the development of self-regulation during early childhood and the reciprocal relations between self-regulation and maternal sensitivity. Data (N = 1,364) were drawn from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (NICHD SECCYD). Children's situational and committed compliance were assessed in the laboratory at 24 and 36 months, delay of gratification at 54 months, self-control at 54 months and kindergarten age, and maternal sensitivity was observed at 24, 36, and 54 months. Self-regulation was characterized to progress from situational compliance to committed compliance and then to fully self-motivated regulation. Findings also suggest that the development of self-regulation reflects an ongoing transactional process in which child self-regulation and maternal sensitivity mutually influence each other.
      PubDate: 2017-05-04T00:40:26.993992-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12245
  • Accepted Articles Announcement
    • Pages: 996 - 996
      PubDate: 2017-10-08T20:51:32.533455-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12268
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