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Journal Cover Social Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 54]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0961-205X - ISSN (Online) 1467-9507
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1597 journals]
  • Predictors of Children's Rights Attitudes and Psychological
           Well‐being Among Rural and Urban Mainland Chinese Adolescents
    • Authors: Sharon To; Charles C. Helwig, Shaogang Yang
      Abstract: This study examined rural and urban Chinese adolescents’ (13–19 years, N = 395) attitudes toward children's self‐determination and nurturance rights, and how these attitudes relate to various dimensions of socialization in their family and school environments, including perceptions of parental and teacher autonomy support and responsiveness and family and school democratic climate. Relations between these variables and psychological well‐being also were examined. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that maternal responsiveness and teacher autonomy support predicted higher levels of endorsement of nurturance rights. Maternal autonomy support and tolerance of dissent at home predicted greater endorsement of self‐determination rights. Democratic climate in the home predicted higher life‐satisfaction and fewer depressive symptoms, even when parent and teacher autonomy support and responsiveness were controlled. Our findings suggest that environments that are structured more democratically and that are more responsive to children's autonomy needs are associated with higher levels of endorsement of children's rights and contribute to adolescents’ psychological health and well‐being in a non‐Western culture.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:25:24.111782-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12195
  • Affective Social Competence in Adolescence: Current Findings and Future
    • Authors: Jordan A. Booker; Julie C. Dunsmore
      Abstract: Affective Social Competence (ASC) is a conceptual framework describing complementary processes of sending, receiving, and experiencing emotions in dynamic interactions. This framework may be applied across the lifespan. To date, however, empirical studies addressing ASC have focused predominantly on childhood samples. In this review, we examine empirical evidence relevant to ASC in adolescence in comparison with childhood. We then discuss future directions that may promote understanding of Affective Social Competence among adolescent samples: the use of person‐oriented analyses to integrate all three components of ASC; consideration of understudied social contexts that may influence and be influenced by ASC; and use of microgenetic designs to examine growth across transitions during early, middle, and late adolescence.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:15:23.812107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12193
  • Role of Temperament, Parenting Behaviors, and Stress on Turkish
           Preschoolers’ Internalizing Symptoms
    • Authors: H. Melis Yavuz; Bilge Selcuk, Feyza Corapci, Nazan Aksan
      Abstract: Child‐ and family‐related factors that predict internalizing symptoms are understudied in preschool years and have a negative influence on children's functioning. We examined observational assessments of preschoolers' temperamental fearfulness and exuberance, mother reports of negative control, warmth, and parenting stress in a sample of 109 Turkish preschoolers. High temperamental fearfulness and low joyful/exuberant positive affectivity in addition to low warmth and high parenting stress had significant effects on internalizing symptoms. Parenting stress had both direct and indirect relations to internalizing symptoms via lower maternal warmth. When comorbid elevations in externalizing symptoms were controlled, the results were consistent with the interpretation that poor parenting practices and stress associated with the parenting role predict maladaptation in general but that the specific form of maladaptation may be best predicted by individual differences in children's temperamental characteristics. This study contributes to our understanding of risk and protective factors that predict preschoolers' internalizing symptoms with a sample from a non‐Western population. These findings can guide early prevention and intervention programs to address internalizing problems in a culturally‐sensitive way.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:10:24.118195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12192
  • Do securely and insecurely attached children derive well‐being from
           different forms of gender identity?
    • Abstract: We examined whether attachment security moderates influences of two gender identity variables—felt gender typicality and felt pressure for gender differentiation—on preadolescents' well‐being. We tested two hypotheses. The first was that attachment security protects children from the distress that can stem from feeling gender atypical or from feeling pressure for gender conformity. The second was that secure children derive well‐being from believing they are similar to same‐gender peers whereas insecure children derive well‐being from believing it important to be different from other‐gender peers. We assessed children's attachment security, gender identity, and well‐being (self‐esteem, internalizing problems) in two successive years (N = 211, M initial age = 10.1 years). Results supported the second hypothesis. Attachment security may govern children's contingencies of well‐being.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T00:16:44.959545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12191
  • Children's values: Universality, conflict, and sources of influence
    • Authors: Melanie Killen
      Abstract: An important question for psychological science is what types of psychological values guide individuals throughout life, and what factors increase or decrease the importance of these values. This Quartet in Social Development focuses on research that explicitly investigates values as defined by the universal content and structure of values. A central goal of the articles in this special quartet was to investigate basic human values in children, and to chart age‐related changes as well as test developmental hypotheses. In this commentary, I reflect on what we have learned in light of other research on children's values, and specifically how future research on values could benefit by a more explicit focus on three central themes in social development: universality, conflict, and sources of influence.
      PubDate: 2016-04-26T00:45:28.439814-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12189
  • The Buffering Role of Social Support on the Psychosocial Wellbeing of
           Orphans in Rwanda
    • Abstract: Little is known about the buffering role of social support among orphans living in Africa. This study examined (1) how perceived social support (PSS) varied across orphan‐related characteristics (e.g., orphan status, such as single, maternal or paternal, and their living environments, such as in child‐headed households, on the street, in an orphanage or in a foster home) and (2) the relative importance of sources of PSS (relatives/community/adults and peers) and functional social support (emotional/informational/instrumental and social) and its association with emotional well‐being and mental distress. The participants included 430 orphaned Rwandan children and youth aged between 10 and 25 years (Mean age = 17.74), of whom (n = 179, 41.6%) were females and (n = 251, 58.4%) were males. Result showed that children living in an orphanage exhibited a higher level of PSS from all sources of social support than did children in other living environments. A higher level of PSS from relatives, communities and adults was associated with high level of emotional well‐being, and only adult support was associated with low level of mental distress. Furthermore, the functional PSS indicated that emotional support and companionship support were equally important in their association with higher levels of emotional well‐being and lower levels of mental distress. The findings highlight the importance of having different sources of social support and their functions in relation to psychosocial well‐being.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:20:28.878028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12188
  • The Effect of Having Aggressive Friends on Aggressive Behavior in
           Childhood: Using Propensity Scores to Strengthen Causal Inference
    • Authors: Angela K. Henneberger; Donna L. Coffman, Scott D. Gest
      Abstract: This study used propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1355 children (53 percent girls; 31 percent minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year. Presence/absence of aggressive friends was measured in the middle of the school year, and aggressive behavior was measured at the end of the school year. Results indicated a significant effect of having one or more aggressive friends on children's aggressive behavior above and beyond the effects of the 21 demographic, social, and behavioral variables. The propensity score model was compared with two other models of peer influence. The strengths and practical challenges of using propensity score analysis to study peer influence were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:05:27.898681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12186
  • Adolescents' Judgments of Doubly Deviant Peers: Implications of Intergroup
           and Intragroup Dynamics for Disloyal and Overweight Group Members
    • Authors: Dominic Abrams; Sally B. Palmer, Julie Van de Vyver, Daniel Hayes, Katrina Delaney, Sophie Guarella, Kiran Purewal
      Abstract: Group membership, loyalty, and weight are highly relevant for adolescent peer evaluations at school. This research tests how in‐group/out‐group membership affected judgments of peers who deviated from social norms for weight and loyalty. Two hundred and forty 11–13‐year‐olds (49 percent female; 94 percent Caucasian) judged two in‐group or out‐group peers: one was normative (loyal and average weight) and the other was non‐normative (i.e., ‘deviant’). The deviant target was overweight, disloyal to their own group (school), or both (‘doubly deviant’). Derogation of overweight relative to average weight peers was greater if they were in‐group rather than out‐group members, revealing a strong ‘black sheep effect’ for overweight peers. Disloyal out‐group deviants were judged favorably, but this effect was eliminated if they were doubly deviant, suggesting that loyalty was insufficient to overcome the overweight stigma. Consistent with developmental subjective group dynamics theory, effects of group membership and types of deviance on adolescents’ favorability toward peers were mediated by adolescents’ perceptions of how well the deviant members would ‘fit’ with the in‐group school. Implications for theory and strategies to reduce peer exclusion, particularly weight stigmatization, are considered.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T01:00:30.457329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12187
  • Social Victimization Trajectories From Middle Childhood Through Late
    • Authors: Lisa H. Rosen; Kurt J. Beron, Marion K. Underwood
      Abstract: Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non‐verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4–11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group‐based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated. High parent‐child relationship quality decreased the odds of being in the elevated group compared to the low group; however, parent‐child relationship quality was no longer a significant predictor when emotional dysfunction was added to the model. Higher emotional dysfunction and male gender increased the odds of being in the elevated group and medium increaser group relative to the low group even after controlling for parent‐child relationship quality. Implications for intervention and future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T21:44:42.508839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12185
  • Biases in Attention for Social Stimuli in Children are Associated with
           Patterns of Infant Attachment: A Brief Report
    • Authors: Paul Meinz; J. Bruce Morton, David R. Pederson, Greg Moran
      Abstract: The way an individual attends to social information has implications for his/her ability to regulate behavior in social settings. The results of the present investigation suggest that early experiences in parent–child relationships contribute to later differences in the deployment of attention to social information. The quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed at one‐year‐of‐age. At seven to eight years of age, a dot‐probe paradigm assessed immediate and delayed attention to pictures of faces vs. pictures of neutral objects. Children who were more avoidant with their mother in infancy attended to neutral objects over social stimuli at delayed but not immediate time frames. This finding suggests that individual differences in attention to social stimuli in childhood are associated with the quality of the prior attachment relationship with a primary caregiver.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T21:44:18.504062-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12184
  • A Person‐Oriented Analysis of Social Withdrawal in Chinese Children
    • Authors: Robert J. Coplan; Junsheng Liu, Laura L. Ooi, Xinyin Chen, Dan Li, Xuechen Ding
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to compare the socio‐emotional and academic adjustment of different subtypes of socially withdrawn (shy, unsociable, avoidant) school‐age children in mainland China. Participants were N = 1344 children ages 10–12 years from public elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Multi‐source assessment included: child self‐reports of social withdrawal subtypes and internalizing difficulties (e.g., depression, social anxiety); peer nominations of children's peer relations (e.g., peer victimization, peer preference); and teacher ratings of children's school adjustment (e.g., academic success, internalizing problems). Results from person‐oriented analyses indicated that socially avoidant (i.e., shy‐unsociable) children reported the most pervasive internalizing difficulties compared to other groups. However, in contrast to findings among Western samples, unsociable children were as likely to have peer and academic difficulties as their shy and socially avoidant peers. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of different subtypes of social withdrawal among children in collectivistic societies such as China.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T21:18:09.168531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12181
  • Introduction to the Special Section Value Development from Middle
           Childhood to Early Adulthood—New Insights from Longitudinal and
           Genetically Informed Research
    • Abstract: Research into values at an early age has only started recently, although it has expanded quickly and dynamically in the past years. The purpose of this article is twofold: First, it provides an introduction to a special section that aims to help fill the gap in value development research. The special section brings together four new longitudinal and genetically informed studies of value development from the beginning of middle childhood through early adulthood. Second, this article reviews recent research from this special section and beyond, aiming to provide new directions to the field. With new methods for assessing children's values and an increased awareness of the role of values in children's and adolescents' development, the field now seems ripe for an in‐depth investigation. Our review of empirical evidence shows that, as is the case with adults, children's values are organized based on compatibilities and conflicts in their underlying motivations. Values show some consistency across situations, as well as stability across time. This longitudinal stability tends to increase with age, although mean changes are also observed. These patterns of change seem to be compatible with Schwartz's (1992) theory of values (e.g., if the importance of openness to change values increases, the importance of conservation values decreases). The contributions of culture, family, peers, significant life events, and individual characteristics to values are discussed, as well as the development of values as guides for behavior.
      PubDate: 2016-02-29T22:21:28.071134-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12177
  • Prosocial Tendencies among Chinese American Children in Immigrant
           Families: Links to Cultural and Socio‐demographic Factors and
           Psychological Adjustment
    • Authors: Alexandra Main; Qing Zhou, Jeffrey Liew, Charlene Lee
      Abstract: The present study examined relations between prosocial tendencies (dispositional sympathy and prosocial behavior) and psychological adjustment using a multi‐method and multi‐informant approach in a socioeconomically diverse sample of first‐ and second‐generation Chinese American children from immigrant families (N = 238, M age = 9.2 years). We tested the concurrent associations between: (a) children's dispositional sympathy (rated by parents, teachers, and children, and observed prosocial behavior), (b) psychological adjustment (parent‐ and teacher‐reported externalizing problems and social competence); and (c) cultural and socio‐demographic factors (children's Chinese and American orientations, family Socioeconomic Status (SES), only child status, and children's age, sex, and social desirability). Results from correlations and structural equation modeling suggested that different measures of prosocial tendencies related differently to children's psychological adjustment. Parent‐ and teacher‐rated sympathy were associated with higher child social competence and lower externalizing problems within, but not across, reporter. By contrast, child‐rated sympathy was associated with higher teacher‐rated social competence, and observed prize donation was associated with lower teacher‐rated externalizing problems. Different measures of prosocial tendencies also showed different relations to cultural and socio‐demographic factors. These findings suggest that prosocial tendencies are not a unitary construct in Chinese American immigrant children: the manifestations of prosocial tendencies and their adjustment implications might depend on the context and/or targets of these tendencies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-24T08:17:19.557245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12182
  • Influence of Parenting Behavior on Psychosocial Adjustment in Early
           Adolescence: Mediated by Anger Regulation and Moderated by Gender
    • Authors: Jana Elisa Rueth; Nantje Otterpohl, Elke Wild
      Abstract: Emotion regulation (ER)—one of the most important developmental tasks in early adolescence—has been proposed to mediate the relation between parenting and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of parental psychological control and autonomy support on adolescents’ problem and prosocial behavior (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), as well as to examine the mediating role of adolescents’ anger regulation and the moderating effect of gender. We collected three‐year longitudinal questionnaire data from N = 923 parents and their (at first assessment) 9‐ to 13‐year‐old children. Path‐analysis results mainly support the mediating role of adolescents’ adaptive and maladaptive anger regulation and suggest parental autonomy support to be beneficial for regulatory abilities and psychosocial adjustment, whereas the opposite was found for psychological control. Gender differences were found for parent report data, but not for adolescent report data. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T10:06:24.06225-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12180
  • Maternal and Paternal Mental‐state Talk and Executive Function in
           Preschool Children
    • Abstract: The present study examined the relationship between parents’ mental‐state talk and preschoolers’ executive function. Seventy‐two children participated in the present study, as well as their mothers and fathers. When children were enrolled in the second preschool year, mothers’ and fathers’ use of mental‐state references were assessed during a shared picture‐book reading task with the child. Later, four months before admission to the first grade, preschoolers’ executive function was measured. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that maternal, but not paternal, mental‐state talk was a significant predictor of children's executive function composite, even after accounting for child gender, age, verbal ability, and parental education. When looking at each of the EF components, maternal mental‐state talk proved to be a predictor of set‐shifting whereas no significant relations emerged with inhibitory control or working memory. These findings add to prior research on parenting quality and executive function in preschoolers.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T10:06:17.318702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12183
  • Observed Emotions as Predictors of Quality of Kindergartners’ Social
    • Abstract: This study evaluated whether positive and anger emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted social relationships among kindergarteners (N = 301). Emotions were observed as naturally occurring at school in the fall term and multiple reporters (peers and teachers) provided information on quality of relationships with children in the spring term. In structural equation models, positive emotion frequency, but not positive emotion intensity, was positively related to peer acceptance and negatively related to peer rejection. In contrast, the frequency of anger provided unique positive prediction of teacher–student conflict and negative prediction of peer acceptance. Furthermore, anger intensity negatively predicted teacher–student closeness and positively predicted teacher–student conflict. Implications for promoting social relationships in school are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T09:45:28.794878-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12179
  • Effect of Type of Maternal Control on American and Chinese Children's
           Evaluations of Personal Domain Events
    • Authors: Judith G. Smetana; Courtney Ball, Jenny Yau, Mun Wong
      Abstract: We examined 261 5‐, 7‐, and 10‐year‐olds’ (147 in Hong Kong, 114 in the USA) evaluations of hypothetical scenarios where mothers sought to control personal domain events by prohibiting, persuading, or shaming the child. The scenarios also varied in their description of personal events as either essential or peripheral to the self. Compliance was endorsed least (and emotions attributed to actors were most positive) when mothers gently persuaded and endorsed most (with emotion attributions most negative) when mothers prohibited personal choices. Evaluations of compliance and associated emotions for shaming fell in‐between. When mothers were described as gently persuading, young children (and Chinese children) gave priority to personal choices more when acts were described as essential rather than peripheral to the self, based on personal reasons. When mothers were described as shaming, noncompliance increased with age, along with pragmatic justifications for choices, particularly when events were essentialized. Positive emotions in response to shaming also increased with age, but differentially for Chinese and American children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T10:12:39.562372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12178
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 233 - 234
      PubDate: 2016-04-13T05:47:17.02219-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12159
  • Preschool Children's Negative Emotionality and Peer Acceptance: The
           Moderating Role of Sleep
    • Abstract: Preschool children's sleep was examined as a moderator of the association between negative emotionality and both peer acceptance and peer rejection. Participants were 115 children (47 percent girls, M age = 4.29 years, SD = .63). Preschool teachers reported on children's negative emotionality (anger/frustration, sadness, and fear). Sleep was measured objectively using actigraphy in the child's home for seven consecutive nights. Peer acceptance and rejection were assessed using children's choices in sociometric interviews. Controlling for potential confounds, moderation analyses revealed that negative emotionality predicted peer acceptance and rejection only among children with poorer sleep quality (lower sleep efficiency, more frequent wake episodes, longer sleep latency), but not better sleep quality. Findings suggest that sleep is important not only for predicting child functioning but also for moderating the adverse effects of negative emotionality on a salient indicator of interpersonal functioning for preschool age children.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:56:35.833126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12175
  • Preschoolers' Mind‐related Comments During Collaborative
           Problem‐solving: Parental Contributions and Developmental Outcomes
    • Authors: Brenda L. Lundy; Gracee Fyfe
      Abstract: Preschool children's mind‐related comments were analyzed during collaborative problem‐solving interactions with mothers and fathers, and in relation to parental mind‐mindedness (MM) and children's concurrent theory of mind (ToM). Seventy‐two parents (36 fathers, 36 mothers) and their four‐year‐olds participated. Parents' comments to encourage independent thinking and children's own mind‐related comments were expected to mediate, in serial, the relationship between parental MM and children's ToM. The proposed model of mediation received empirical confirmation. In addition, mothers and fathers were found to perform similarly on two measures of MM and in their usage of autonomy promoting and control comments. Finally, no differences were found in the frequency of children's mind‐related comments during interactions with fathers and mothers.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:55:33.57798-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12176
  • Conceptualizing Social Attention in Developmental Research
    • Authors: Brenda Salley; John Colombo
      Abstract: The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents. We then provide two overarching questions to guide future research efforts directed toward establishing the utility of social attention as an independent and/or unified construct. We then consider implications and recommendations for future research efforts.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:42:25.638241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12174
  • Contingent Self‐worth in Chinese Adolescents and Young Adults:
           Relations with Global Self‐Esteem and Depressive Symptoms
    • Abstract: Contingent self‐worth (CSW) is the extent to which an individual's sense of self‐worth is dependent on performance in a particular domain. CSW has been linked to poorer psychological health (e.g., lower global self‐esteem, greater depression and anxiety). However, the majority of work on CSW has been conducted with US college students. Far less is known about the influence of CSW for younger individuals or for non‐Western populations. This study examined relations between CSW domains and two indicators of well‐being (depressive symptoms and global self‐esteem) with Chinese adolescents (ages 13–16) and young adults (ages 19‐22). Results indicated that CSW in the domains of academic performance and others’ approval were positively related to depressive symptoms, whereas CSW in the domain of family support was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Others’ approval CSW was negatively related to self‐esteem for both adolescents and young adults, whereas CSW in the domains of academic performance and family support were related to self‐esteem for adolescents but not young adults. This study indicates that CSW is a meaningful and predictive construct for Chinese youth, and that cultural, environmental, and developmental factors may impact the relations between CSW and psychological health.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08T10:33:40.765059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12173
  • Popularity and Social Preference in Chinese Adolescents: Associations with
           Social and Behavioral Adjustment
    • Authors: Li Niu; Shenghua Jin, Ling Li, Doran C. French
      Abstract: This study examined the characteristics associated with popularity and social preference in 769 14‐year‐old adolescents (54 percent boys) from mainland China. Consistent with findings from other countries, popularity and social preference were moderately correlated and overt aggression was positively correlated with popularity but negatively correlated with social preference. Prosocial behavior, athletic skill, dating, academic achievement, and mutual friends were positively associated with both popularity and social preference, with the effects for prosocial behavior, athletic skill, and dating greater for popularity than for social preference. The strong correlations between popularity and prosocial behavior are consistent with Confucian ideas of moral leadership and the obligations of high status individuals toward others. Cultural values are also reflected in the association of popularity with academic achievement. The inconsistent findings from China regarding the relation between aggression and popularity may stem from multiple factors including the absence of a suitable Chinese translation for popularity.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T11:09:16.825616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12172
  • Infants’ Style of Emotion Regulation with Their Mothers and Fathers:
           Concordance between Parents and the Contribution of Father–Infant
           Interaction Quality
    • Abstract: The concordance between infants’ emotion regulation styles with different partners has not been consistently analysed nor have the relational correlates of such potential across‐partners similarities. We explored these issues by assessing 10‐month‐olds’ (59.6 percent boys) emotion regulation styles separately with mother and father and by evaluating mother–infant and father–infant interaction quality. The sample consisted of 50 low‐risk families. Two home visits were conducted and similar procedures were adopted for each visit. Parent–infant interaction quality was assessed during daily routines and during free play; both parents independently completed a temperament questionnaire. Infant emotion regulation was assessed in a semi‐structured problem‐solving task: adaptive vs. maladaptive (under and over‐regulation) styles. As predicted, infants’ emotion regulation with their mothers and fathers were related. However, only father–infant interaction quality predicted infants’ emotion regulation concordance: lower interaction quality was associated with maladaptive concordance compared with non‐concordance and higher interaction quality was associated with adaptive concordance compared with non‐concordance. Our results support the claim that by the end of the first year of life, infants use similar emotion regulation styles with mother and father and point to father–infant interaction as an important correlate of emotion regulation across‐parents.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T10:28:21.577593-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12171
  • Making Amends: Children's Expectations about and Responses to Apologies
    • Authors: Marissa B. Drell; Vikram K. Jaswal
      Abstract: Two studies investigate children's expectations and actual responses to a transgressor's attempt to make amends. In Study 1, six‐ and seven‐year‐olds (N = 16) participated in a building activity and then imagined how they would respond if a transgressor knocked over their tower and then apologized spontaneously, apologized after prompting, offered restitution, or did nothing. Children forecasted that they would feel better and would share more when a transgressor offered restitution or apologized spontaneously than when the transgressor had to be prompted to apologize or did not apologize at all. In Study 2, six‐ and seven‐year‐olds (N = 64) participated in the same building activity, but then actually had their towers knocked over and received one of the four responses. The only response that actually made children feel better was when the transgressor offered restitution. However, children shared more with a transgressor who offered restitution, a spontaneous apology, or a prompted apology than with one who failed to offer any apology. Restitution can both mitigate hurt feelings and repair relationships in children; apologies serve mainly to repair relationships.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T06:27:29.177046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12168
  • Early Life Stress: Effects on the Regulation of Anxiety Expression in
           Children and Adolescents
    • Authors: Amanda R. Burkholder; Kalsea J. Koss, Camelia E. Hostinar, Anna E. Johnson, Megan R. Gunnar
      Abstract: This study examined children's (N = 79; 9–10 years) and adolescents’ (N = 82; 15–16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST‐C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non‐adopted, age‐matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non‐adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self‐reports of stress during the TSST‐C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.
      PubDate: 2015-11-06T06:41:36.598667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12170
  • Maternal Conflict Behavior Profiles and Child Social Skills
    • Authors: Brittany P. Boyer; Justin K. Scott, Jackie A. Nelson
      Abstract: The current study examined associations between mothers’ behavioral profiles during mother‐child conflict interactions and their children's social skills. This person‐centered approach classified 181 mothers according to their levels of emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, negativity, and engagement facilitation behaviors during an eight‐minute conflict discussion task with their child. Three distinct classes of mothers were identified using latent profile analysis: sensitive/engaged, moderately sensitive/engaged, and insensitive/disengaged. An analysis of covariance indicated that children of mothers in the sensitive/engaged group had significantly higher social skills than children of mothers in the moderately sensitive/engaged and insensitive/disengaged groups. Results suggest that mother‐child conflict interactions may benefit children's social development when mothers facilitate their children's participation in a highly sensitive manner.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28T08:15:25.265016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12169
  • The Effects of Relations Between Alphabetized Name Order on and Nomination
           Counts in Peer Nomination Measures
    • Authors: Peter E. L. Marks; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Ben Babcock
      Abstract: Peer nominations, a central method for measuring peer relationships in developmental research, typically involve asking children or adolescents to choose peers who fit various criteria from an alphabetized roster of classmates or grade‐mates. Although such measures have been used for decades, very little research has investigated the effects of alphabetical name order on the number of nominations received by peers. This study collected peer nominations for 20 items among 607 eighth grade participants in two schools. Regression analyses showed that earlier name order significantly predicted higher nomination counts for eight of the items, and explained over 5 percent of the variance in four affective variables (friendship, acceptance, acquaintanceship, and received liking). Across variables, name order effects were negatively correlated with internal reliability of nominations, implying that order effects may be related to the consensus of the peer group. Name order also had a minimal effect on inter‐correlations among a subset of variables. Implications and concrete recommendations for controlling and reducing name order effects in future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28T07:14:32.897461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12163
  • Attention and Executive Functions as Mediators of Attachment and Behavior
    • Authors: Justin A. Low; Linda Webster
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between early parent‐child interactions and subsequent behavior problems and how certain cognitive processes mediate this relation. Specifically, this study investigated whether attention, inhibition, and planning skills mediate the relation between attachment security and behavior problems. Data were collected as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Development‐Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development when children (N = 1004) were between 36 months and the third grade. Results from structural equation models indicated that sustained attention mediated the relation between disorganized attachment and social problems. Planning mediated the relation between disorganized attachment and subsequent thought problems, attention problems, and delinquent behavior. Avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized attachment directly predicted several behavior problems. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T06:22:27.782275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12166
  • Teachers’ Effortful Control and Student Functioning: Mediating and
           Moderating Processes
    • Abstract: Evidence is emerging that teachers’ dispositional characteristics are related to students’ classroom functioning, but processes are not well understood. We examined associations between second‐grade teachers’ effortful control (EC), student‐teacher closeness or conflict, students’ EC, and changes in students’ externalizing behaviors and reading and math achievement. Teachers’ EC was directly related to their students’ externalizing behaviors, but not achievement. Conflict, but not closeness, mediated associations between teachers’ EC and students’ externalizing behaviors. In moderated mediation tests, conflict was positively associated with externalizing behaviors most strongly for students low or moderate in EC. Closeness was positively associated with reading achievement, and negatively associated with math achievement, only for low‐EC students.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T06:14:26.703567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12165
  • A Three‐factor Structure of Emotion Understanding in
           Third‐grade Children
    • Abstract: Theoretical conceptualizations of emotion understanding generally imply a two‐factor structure comprised of recognition of emotional expressions and understanding emotion‐eliciting situations. We tested this structure in middle childhood and then explored the unique predictive value of various facets of emotion understanding in explaining children's socioemotional competence. Participants were 201 third‐grade children and their mothers. Children completed five different measures, which provided eight distinct indices of emotion understanding. Mothers completed two questionnaires assessing children's socioemotional skills and problems. Results indicated that: (a) emotion understanding in third‐grade children was differentiated into three unique factors: Prototypical Emotion Recognition, Prototypical Emotion Knowledge, and Advanced Emotion Understanding, (b) skills within factors were modestly related, (c) factors varied in complexity, supporting theoretical and empirical models detailing developmental sequencing of skills, and (d) skills in Prototypical Emotion Knowledge were uniquely related to mothers’ reports of third‐grade children's socioemotional competence. Implications regarding elementary‐school‐age children's social cognitive development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-16T07:00:00.949042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12162
  • Maternal Vocal Interactions with Infants: Reciprocal Visual Influences
    • Authors: Sandra E. Trehub; Judy Plantinga, Frank A. Russo
      Abstract: The present study examined the influence of infant visual cues on maternal vocal and facial expressiveness while speaking or singing and the influence of maternal visual cues on infant attention. Experiment 1 asked whether mothers exhibit more vocal emotion when speaking and singing to infants in or out of view. Adults judged which of each pair of audio excerpts (in view, out of view) sounded more emotional. Face‐to‐face vocalizations were judged more emotional than vocalizations to infants out of view. Moreover, mothers smiled considerably more while singing than while speaking to infants. Experiment 2 examined the influence of video feedback from infants on maternal speech and singing. Maternal vocalizations in the context of video feedback were judged to be less emotional than those in face‐to‐face contexts but more emotional than those in out‐of‐view contexts. Experiment 3 compared six‐month‐old infants’ attention to maternal speech and singing with audio‐only versions or with silent video‐only versions. Infants exhibited comparable attention to audio‐only versions of speech and singing but greater attention to video‐only versions of singing. The present investigation is unique in documenting the contribution of infant visual feedback to maternal vocal emotion in contexts that control for infants’ presence, visibility, and proximity.
      PubDate: 2015-10-14T08:15:17.280351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12164
  • Under Pressure: Individual Differences in Children's Suggestibility in
           Response to Intense Social Influence
    • Authors: Elizabeth R. Uhl; Catherine R. Camilletti, Matthew H. Scullin, James M. Wood
      Abstract: Prior research on the relation between children's suggestibility and verbal skills has yielded mixed results. This study examined children's suggestibility in a high social pressure context in conjunction with individual differences in verbal ability and social understanding. Sixty‐nine children were read a story by a classroom visitor. One week later children were asked suggestive questions about the visit and pressured to respond ‘yes’. One week after the first interview, children were re‐asked the same questions, this time with no pressure. Children's suggestibility in response to social pressure was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with receptive vocabulary knowledge, but not with social understanding, the ability to understand and interpret social interactions. In addition, suggestibility scores exhibited a distinctly bimodal distribution, with many children acquiescing to all pressured suggestions, many children acquiescing to no suggestions, and few children falling between these two extremes.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T05:24:14.783428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12156
  • Acts of Social Perspective Taking: A Functional Construct and the
           Validation of a Performance Measure for Early Adolescents
    • Authors: Silvia Diazgranados; Robert L. Selman, Michelle Dionne
      Abstract: To understand and assess how early adolescents use their social perspective taking (SPT) skills in their consideration of social problems, we conducted two studies. In study 1, we administered a hypothetical SPT scenario to 359 fourth to eighth graders. Modeled on the linguistic pragmatics of speech acts, we used grounded theory to develop a functional approach that identified three types of SPT acts: (1) the acknowledgment of different actors, (2) the articulation of their thoughts and feelings, and (3) the positioning of the roles, experiences, or circumstances that influence how they resolve problems. Study 2 tested the validity of an expanded instrument, the Social Perspective Taking Acts Measure, with 459 fourth to eighth graders. We confirmed the structure of the construct with a fully saturated confirmatory factor analysis, with factor loadings in the range of .62 and .71, and a factor determinacy of .90. We obtained evidence of criterion‐related validity by successfully predicting that girls and older participants would exhibit better performance than boys and younger students, and that SPT would exhibit a negative association with aggressive interpersonal strategies, a positive but moderate association with writing, and non‐significant associations with academic language, complex reasoning, and reading skills.
      PubDate: 2015-10-02T10:06:30.299609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12157
  • Emotional Climate in Families Experiencing Homelessness: Associations with
           Child Affect and Socioemotional Adjustment in School
    • Authors: Madelyn H. Labella; Angela J. Narayan, Ann S. Masten
      Abstract: This study examined associations among family‐level risks, emotional climate, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Emotional climate, an indirect aspect of emotion socialization, was indexed by parents’ expressed emotion while describing their children. Sociodemographic risk and parent internalizing distress were hypothesized to predict more negativity and less warmth in the emotional climate. Emotional climate was expected to predict observer‐rated child affect and teacher‐reported socioemotional adjustment, mediating effects of risk. Participants were 138 homeless parents (64 percent African‐American) and their four‐ to six‐year‐old children (43.5 percent male). During semi‐structured interviews, parents reported demographic risks and internalizing distress and completed a Five Minute Speech Sample about their child, later rated for warmth and negativity. Children's positive and negative affect were coded from videotapes of structured parent‐child interaction tasks. Socioemotional adjustment (externalizing behavior, peer acceptance, and prosocial behavior) was reported by teachers a few months later. Hypotheses were partially supported. Parent internalizing distress was associated with higher parent negativity, which was linked to more negative affect in children, and parent warmth was associated with children's positive affect. Neither emotional climate nor child affect predicted teacher‐reported externalizing behavior or peer acceptance, but parental negativity and male sex predicted lower prosocial behavior in the classroom. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T05:17:04.784885-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12154
  • Values in Middle Childhood: Social and Genetic Contributions
    • Abstract: Theories of value development often identify adolescence as the period for value formation, and cultural and familial factors as the sources for value priorities. However, recent research suggests that value priorities can be observed as early as in middle childhood, and several studies, including one on preadolescents, have suggested a genetic contribution to individual differences in values. In the current study, 174 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic seven‐year‐old Israeli twins completed the Picture‐based Value Survey for Children (PBVS–C). We replicated basic patterns of relations between value priorities and variables of socialization—gender, religiosity, and socioeconomic status—that have been found in studies with adults. Most important, values of Self‐transcendence, Self‐enhancement, and Conservation, were found to be significantly affected by genetic factors (29 percent, 47 percent, and 31 percent, respectively), as well as non‐shared environment (71 percent, 53 percent, and 69 percent, respectively). Openness to change values, in contrast, were found to be unaffected by genetic factors at this age and were influenced by shared (19 percent) and non‐shared (81 percent) environment. These findings support the recent view that values are formed at earlier ages than had been assumed previously, and they further our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors involved in value formation at young ages.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T05:09:00.351924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12155
  • Rules Trump Desires in Preschoolers’ Predictions of Group Behavior
    • Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate the way children weigh conventional rules against desires when considering how a group will behave. To do so, two experiments involving a prediction task in which desires were pitted against conventional rules were presented to three‐ to five‐year‐old children. In Experiment 1, four scenarios were established as classroom scenes in which either one protagonist or three protagonists had a desire that went against an explicit conventional rule. In the individual control condition, the choices linked to the rules were at chance whereas, in the group condition, the participants predicted that all the protagonists would end up following the rule. Given that both conditions in Experiment 1 implied four rule followers in the design, Experiment 2 staged not three but seven potential rule transgressors to see whether the desire of the majority might undermine the rule. Results showed no majority effect: participants expected protagonists to act counter to their desire and to follow the rule. Such results suggest that children as young as three‐year‐old favor rules over desires when they have to predict the behavior of a group, whether it be the majority or not. Possible implications of these intriguing findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T03:10:28.723207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12150
  • Mother Emotion, Child Temperament, and Young Children's Helpless Responses
           to Failure
    • Authors: Patricia A. Smiley; Sherylle J. Tan, Alison Goldstein, Jennifer Sweda
      Abstract: Young children differ in their responses to failure, displaying mastery or helpless behavior patterns. We examine the moderating role of child temperament on the association between parent warmth/negativity and children's helpless responses to failure. Regarding temperament, we focus on tendencies to experience interest and sadness because they entail task engagement and withdrawal, respectively. We measured mother (n=150) expressions of positive and negative emotion during a teaching task, assessed temperament using LabTAB‐Preschool episodes, and coded helplessness during an impossible puzzle task. Maternal negative emotion during teaching was positively associated with helplessness, but only for children low in interest. Maternal warmth was negatively associated with helplessness, but only for children high in sadness; sadness did not moderate the relation between maternal negativity and helplessness. Findings provide support for parenting by temperament goodness‐of‐fit models and for a discrete emotions approach to temperament.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T03:23:37.593563-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12153
  • Reciprocal Relations across Time between Basic Values and
           Value‐expressive Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study among Children
    • Abstract: The current study examines the reciprocal relations between children's values and value‐expressive behavior over a sixth‐month period. Three hundred and ten sixth‐grade students in Italy completed value and value‐expressive behavior questionnaires three times in three‐month intervals during the scholastic year. We assessed Schwartz's (1992) higher‐order values of conservation, openness to change, self‐enhancement, and self‐transcendence, as well as their respective expressive behaviors. Reciprocal relations over time between values and behaviors were examined using a cross‐lagged longitudinal design. Results showed that values and behaviors had reciprocal longitudinal effects on one another, after the stability of the variables was taken into account (i.e., values predicted change in behaviors, but also behaviors predicted change in values). Our findings also revealed that: (1) values were more stable over time than behaviors and (2) the longitudinal effect of values on behaviors tended to be stronger than the longitudinal effect of behaviors on values. Findings are discussed in light of the recent developmental literature on value change.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T03:02:37.143771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12152
  • The Influence of Goal Value on Persistence in Exuberant Chinese Children
    • Authors: Jie He; Dong Guo, Qing Zhang, Yuxia Liu, Liyue Lou, Mowei Shen
      Abstract: With regard to the study of temperament and motivation in young children, exuberance, an important temperamental characteristic of the approach motivational system, has been relatively understudied in comparison with behavioral inhibition. However, due to the relationship between exuberance and behavioral regulation (e.g., problem behavior, task persistence), it is an important topic of study. Accordingly, this study examined whether the incentive value of goals moderated the relationship between exuberance and persistence in 109 Chinese preschoolers. Children's temperamental exuberance was assessed by behavioral observation and parental report. Their persistence was measured in two goal‐blocked contexts (tower‐building [TB] and locked box [LB]). In each task, children were randomly assigned to either a high‐ or low‐incentive condition designed to vary the incentive value of a given goal. Results suggested that exuberance was positively associated with persistence in the high‐incentive condition of TB and in both conditions of LB. The results highlight the incentive value of goals as an important factor for behavioral regulation development in exuberant Chinese children.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T02:52:16.29942-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12149
  • Developmental Trajectories of Social Justice Values in Adolescence:
           Relations with Sympathy and Friendship Quality
    • Authors: Ella Daniel; Sebastian P. Dys, Marlis Buchmann, Tina Malti
      Abstract: This study examined developmental trajectories of social justice values (SJV) in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1258) at 15 (Time 1), 18 (Time 2), and 21 years of age (Time 3). SJV and friendship quality were measured via self‐reports. Sympathy was assessed via self‐ and mother‐reports. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories of SJV: high‐stable (80 percent), moderate‐decreasing (17 percent), and low‐increasing (3 percent). Adolescents with low levels of self‐ and mother‐reported sympathy were more likely to be members of the low‐increasing than the high‐stable or moderate decreasing trajectory groups. Adolescents who reported low levels of sympathy and friendship quality at 15 years of age were more likely to be members of the moderate‐decreasing trajectory group than the high‐stable trajectory group. Results are discussed with respect to the potential significance of sympathy and friendship quality for understanding the development of SJV during adolescence.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T03:19:22.802183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12146
  • The Stability and Change of Value Structure and Priorities in Childhood: A
           Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: This longitudinal study explores the stability and change of values in childhood. Children's values were measured in Poland three times (with one‐year intervals) using the Picture Based Values Survey (PBVS‐C; Döring, Blauensteiner, Aryus, Drögekamp, & Bilsky, 2010), developed to measure values differentiated according to the circular model of Schwartz (1992). 801 children (divided into 5 cohorts aged 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 years at the first measurement occasion) completed the PBVS‐C three times on a yearly basis. Separate analyses were performed for each cohort using the data of the three measurement occasions. Multidimensional scaling revealed that, in children, Schwartz's (1992) circular structure of values is stable and does not change over time. Although priorities of values displayed moderate stability over time, the means changed between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Specifically, latent growth curve modeling revealed changes in children's values hierarchy as indicated by the decrease in the mean level of conservation values and the increase in the mean level of openness to change values. Self‐transcendence and self‐enhancement also changed in different directions. As indicated by mean levels over time, self‐transcendence first increased in importance, slightly decreased, and finally increased again. In contrast, self‐enhancement first decreased in importance, then increased, and finally began to decrease again.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T00:02:33.069913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12147
  • Popularity of Indonesian Adolescents: Do the Findings from the USA
           Generalize to a Muslim Majority Developing Country?
    • Authors: Doran C. French; Li Niu, Urip Purwono
      Abstract: This study investigated whether the pattern of behavior associated with popularity in the USA is also found in Indonesia. Participants were 452 7th (13 years) and 10th grade (16 years) Muslim students from West Java, Indonesia. Data were obtained from adolescents, peers, and teachers. Social preference and popularity were positively associated with prosocial behavior and number of mutual friends. Whereas social preference was positively associated with academic achievement and negatively associated with aggression, popularity was positively associated with aggression and tobacco use. These patterns of association are similar to those found in the United States. Indonesian society is highly hierarchical and popularity structures may build upon these stratifications.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T02:29:19.792193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12148
  • Gender Moderates the Progression from Fearful Temperament to Social
           Withdrawal through Protective Parenting
    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Kiel; Julie E. Premo, Kristin A. Buss
      Abstract: Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi‐method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; Ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal. Thus, studying only main‐effect gender differences may obscure important differences in how boys and girls develop from fearful temperament to later social withdrawal.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T02:27:06.269368-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12145
  • Trajectories of Breadth of Participation in Organized Activity During
    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify the trajectories of breadth of participation in organized activities during childhood and to examine the predictors of membership in these trajectories (child's individual and family characteristics measured in Kindergarten). A sample of 1038 children, recruited in Kindergarten, was assessed yearly between Kindergarten and grade 4. Semiparametric group‐based modeling brought out four trajectories: the no participation group (13.5 percent), the increasing group (26.4 percent), the decreasing group (14.1 percent), and the high group (46.1 percent). Prosociality predicted membership in the no participation group, as compared with the increasing group. Social withdrawal predicted membership in the no participation group, as compared with the high group. High family income and higher maternal education predicted membership in the increasing, decreasing, and high trajectory groups, as compared with the no participation group. Higher paternal education predicted membership in the high group, as compared with the increasing group. Overall, family variables had a greater impact than individual variables on the probability that the child would participate in a broader range of organized activities.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T05:23:55.590637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12142
  • The Role of Peers and Siblings in Toddlers’ Developing Understanding
           of Incompatible Desires
    • Abstract: According to previous research, social experiences with other children might explain why three‐year‐olds are already quite proficient in understanding desires but not beliefs as subjective mental states. This study investigated toddlers’ (N = 50) developing subjective understanding of incompatible desires around the age of 3 years (M = 35.5 months) and the associated social factors (i.e., family demographics, peer, and sibling variables). Results indicated a developmental sequence from understanding desires to understanding desire‐dependent emotions with an unexpected positivity bias in toddlers’ prediction of own emotions. A hierarchical regression model revealed that specific social factors (i.e., reported quality of peer interactions and day care attendance) individually contributed to explaining the variance in children's desire‐reasoning skills. Findings are interpreted as supporting a belief–desire asymmetry, and specific social experiences, such as positive peer interactions and desire conflicts, may promote toddlers’ understanding of incompatible desires as subjective mental states.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T05:09:07.49818-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12144
  • Rejection Reactivity, Executive Function Skills, and Social Adjustment
           Problems of Inattentive and Hyperactive Kindergarteners
    • Abstract: This study examined emotional reactivity to rejection and executive function (EF) skills as potential mediators of the social behavior problems of inattentive and hyperactive kindergarteners. Participants included 171 children, including 107 with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, 23 with sub‐clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, and 41 typically developing children (63 percent male; 73 percent Caucasian, 11 percent African‐American, 4 percent Latino/Hispanic, 1 percent Asian, and 11 percent multiracial; Mage = 5.2 years). Inattention (but not hyperactivity) was uniquely associated with poor EF, social withdrawal, and aggression. In structural equation models, EF skills mediated the associations between inattention and both aggression and social withdrawal. Hyperactivity (but not inattention) was uniquely associated with rejection reactivity and each contributed uniquely to aggression. Findings suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may warrant more attention in early interventions planned for children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T10:05:37.564092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12143
  • Effortful Control Mediates Relations Between Children's Attachment
           Security and their Regard for Rules of Conduct
    • Authors: J. K. Nordling; Lea J. Boldt, Jessica O'Bleness, Grazyna Kochanska
      Abstract: Although attachment security has been associated with children's rule‐compatible conduct, the mechanism through which attachment influences early regard for rules is not well established. We hypothesized that effortful control would mediate the link between security and indicators of children's emerging regard for rules (discomfort following rule violations, internalization of parents’ and experimenter's rules, few externalizing behaviors). In a longitudinal study, the Attachment Q‐Set was completed by parents, effortful control was observed, and Regard for Rules was observed and rated by parents. The proposed model fit the data well: Children's security to mothers predicted their effortful control, which in turn had a direct link to a greater Regard for Rules. Children's security with fathers did not predict effortful control. The mother‐child relationship appears particularly important for positive developmental cascades of self‐regulation and socialization.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:26:34.27305-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12139
  • Sex Differences in Preadolescents’ Attachment Strategies: Products
           of Harsh Environments or of Gender Identity?
    • Authors: Rachel E. Pauletti; Patrick J. Cooper, Christopher D. Aults, Ernest V. E. Hodges, David G. Perry
      Abstract: We evaluated two hypotheses proposed to account for sex differences in preadolescents’ insecure attachment strategies (more avoidant for boys, more preoccupied for girls). The first hypothesis, rooted in life history theory, is that the sex differences develop among children who experience adverse environmental conditions (e.g., harsh parenting). The second hypothesis, grounded in gender self‐socialization theory, is that the sex differences develop among children who identify confidently with their gender collective. Data from an ethnically/racially diverse sample (443 girls, 420 boys; M age = 11.1 years) supported the second hypothesis: Sex differences were evident mainly among children who felt gender‐typical, were content with their gender, or felt pressure to avoid cross‐sex behavior. Further, sex differences were generally smaller rather than larger among children experiencing adverse environments.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:24:52.206235-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12140
  • Development and Psychometric Properties of the Classroom Peer Context
    • Abstract: Children's view on the peer context in their classroom may differ from that of other informants, but no measure systematically examines children's own view. Therefore, we developed the Classroom Peer Context Questionnaire (CPCQ) and evaluated its reliability, validity, and stability in two studies. In Study 1, 464 children (Mage = 10.8 years, 53.2% girls) from 18 Grade 5 classrooms participated in 2 waves of data collection. In Study 2, 1538 children (Mage = 10.6 years, 47.2% girls) from 59 Grade 5 classrooms participated in 3 waves of data collection. Exploratory factor analyses in Study 1 revealed 5 dimensions labeled comfort, cooperation, conflict, cohesion, and isolation. Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 supported these 5 dimensions. Study 2 also demonstrated good reliability, validity, and stability for each dimension. Researchers and professionals in schools may use the CPCQ to obtain reliable and quick information on how children perceive the peer context in their classroom.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:08:32.59142-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12137
  • Equal But Not Always Fair: Value‐laden Sharing in
           Preschool‐aged Children
    • Authors: Nadia Chernyak; David M. Sobel
      Abstract: Prior work has shown that preschoolers divide resources fairly and expect others to do the same. The majority of research, however, has focused on how children make distributions with respect to number. Here we explore whether preschoolers attend to the value of the objects being shared. We presented four‐year‐olds and five‐year‐olds with two puppets and four stickers of different values to split between them. Our central question was whether children would share more valuable stickers with their preferred puppets. In Experiments 1–2, value was induced by making one sticker rarer than the others. In Experiments 3–4, value was measured subjectively (by asking the child which sticker s/he personally preferred). Across all experiments, children made fair numerical splits, but showed favoritism according to value. This work supports the hypothesis that young children coordinate number and value to show both fairness and favoritism when making resource distributions.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T06:32:15.659946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12136
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