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BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS (1118 journals)            First | 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 | Last

Journal of Medical Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Monetary Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Money Laundering Control     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 376)
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Journal of Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Multinational Financial Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Neuroscience, Psychology, and Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Nonprofit Education and Leadership     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Open Innovation : Technology, Market, and Complexity     Open Access  
Journal of Organizational Behavior     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Organizational Behavior Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Organizational Computing and Electronic Commerce     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Payments Strategy & Systems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Peasant Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Pension Economics and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Policy Analysis and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Policy Modeling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Population Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of Positive Psychology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Post Keynesian Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Poverty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of Productivity Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Property Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy     Open Access  
Journal of Regulatory Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Research in Business, Economics and Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Retailing     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management     Partially Free   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Risk and Uncertainty     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Journal of Scheduling     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Securities Operations & Custody     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Social and Economic Development     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Social Entrepreneurship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of South Asian Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Sports Media     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Sustainable Society     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Systems and Information Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Taxation and Regulation of Financial Institutions     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Technology Management & Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the European Economic Association     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of the Knowledge Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of the Operations Research Society of China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the University of Ruhuna     Open Access  
Journal of Transport Economics and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Journal of Trust Management     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Trust Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Urban Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Workplace Learning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of World Business     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal on Innovation and Sustainability     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Jurnal Ekonomi Kuantitatif Terapan     Open Access  
Jurnal Manajemen & Agribisnis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Knowledge Management Research & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Kredit und Kapital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Kyklos     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, Direction et Gestion     Full-text available via subscription  
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Labour     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Labour Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Labour: Journal of Canadian Labour Studies / Le Travail : revue d'Études Ouvrières Canadiennes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Land Degradation and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Language Learning and Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Language Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Latin American Business Review     Hybrid Journal  
Latin American Journal of Business Management     Open Access  
Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Logistics Research     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Long Range Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Luxury : History, Culture, Consumption     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Luxury Research Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Main Economic Indicators - Principaux indicateurs economiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Management and Business Administration : Central Europe     Open Access  
Management Dynamics in the Knowledge Economy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Management Science and Economic Review     Open Access  
Margin The Journal of Applied Economic Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Maritime Economics & Logistics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Maritime Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Marketing Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Mathematical Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Mathematical Methods of Operations Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Mathematics and Financial Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Mathematics of Operations Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Measuring Business Excellence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Memorias     Open Access  
Mergent s Dividend Achievers     Hybrid Journal  
Metroeconomica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Middle East Development Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Middle East Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Millennial Asia     Hybrid Journal  
Mineral Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Minerals & Energy - Raw Materials Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Modern Language Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Monographs of the Society for Research In Child Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Multinational Business Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Mundo Amazónico     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Na?e gospodarstvo / Our economy     Open Access  
Nang Yan Business Journal     Open Access  
Nankai Business Review International     Hybrid Journal  

  First | 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 | Last

Journal Cover Social Development
  [SJR: 1.448]   [H-I: 54]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0961-205X - ISSN (Online) 1467-9507
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1598 journals]
  • Effect of Type of Maternal Control on American and Chinese Children's
           Evaluations of Personal Domain Events
    • Authors: Judith G. Smetana; Courtney Ball, Jenny Yau, Mun Wong
      Abstract: We examined 261 5‐, 7‐, and 10‐year‐olds’ (147 in Hong Kong, 114 in the USA) evaluations of hypothetical scenarios where mothers sought to control personal domain events by prohibiting, persuading, or shaming the child. The scenarios also varied in their description of personal events as either essential or peripheral to the self. Compliance was endorsed least (and emotions attributed to actors were most positive) when mothers gently persuaded and endorsed most (with emotion attributions most negative) when mothers prohibited personal choices. Evaluations of compliance and associated emotions for shaming fell in‐between. When mothers were described as gently persuading, young children (and Chinese children) gave priority to personal choices more when acts were described as essential rather than peripheral to the self, based on personal reasons. When mothers were described as shaming, noncompliance increased with age, along with pragmatic justifications for choices, particularly when events were essentialized. Positive emotions in response to shaming also increased with age, but differentially for Chinese and American children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T10:12:39.562372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12178
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 1 - 2
      PubDate: 2016-01-14T06:05:48.89267-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12158
  • Preschool Children's Negative Emotionality and Peer Acceptance: The
           Moderating Role of Sleep
    • Abstract: Preschool children's sleep was examined as a moderator of the association between negative emotionality and both peer acceptance and peer rejection. Participants were 115 children (47 percent girls, M age = 4.29 years, SD = .63). Preschool teachers reported on children's negative emotionality (anger/frustration, sadness, and fear). Sleep was measured objectively using actigraphy in the child's home for seven consecutive nights. Peer acceptance and rejection were assessed using children's choices in sociometric interviews. Controlling for potential confounds, moderation analyses revealed that negative emotionality predicted peer acceptance and rejection only among children with poorer sleep quality (lower sleep efficiency, more frequent wake episodes, longer sleep latency), but not better sleep quality. Findings suggest that sleep is important not only for predicting child functioning but also for moderating the adverse effects of negative emotionality on a salient indicator of interpersonal functioning for preschool age children.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:56:35.833126-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12175
  • Preschoolers' Mind‐related Comments During Collaborative
           Problem‐solving: Parental Contributions and Developmental Outcomes
    • Authors: Brenda L. Lundy; Gracee Fyfe
      Abstract: Preschool children's mind‐related comments were analyzed during collaborative problem‐solving interactions with mothers and fathers, and in relation to parental mind‐mindedness (MM) and children's concurrent theory of mind (ToM). Seventy‐two parents (36 fathers, 36 mothers) and their four‐year‐olds participated. Parents' comments to encourage independent thinking and children's own mind‐related comments were expected to mediate, in serial, the relationship between parental MM and children's ToM. The proposed model of mediation received empirical confirmation. In addition, mothers and fathers were found to perform similarly on two measures of MM and in their usage of autonomy promoting and control comments. Finally, no differences were found in the frequency of children's mind‐related comments during interactions with fathers and mothers.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:55:33.57798-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12176
  • Conceptualizing Social Attention in Developmental Research
    • Authors: Brenda Salley; John Colombo
      Abstract: The term social attention has become widely used during the last decade, appearing within behavioral neuroscience and developmental neurocognitive literatures to characterize a variety of activities and cognitive processes that emerge in the presence of conspecifics. We provide here an overview of the current status of social attention as a construct, as reflected in its appearance in research studies, and we offer a framework for characterizing the extant literature based on the functions of social attention processes: as behavior for social communication, as motivation to engage in social communication, and as a form of basic visual attention in the context of other social agents. We then provide two overarching questions to guide future research efforts directed toward establishing the utility of social attention as an independent and/or unified construct. We then consider implications and recommendations for future research efforts.
      PubDate: 2015-12-29T07:42:25.638241-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12174
  • Contingent Self‐worth in Chinese Adolescents and Young Adults:
           Relations with Global Self‐Esteem and Depressive Symptoms
    • Abstract: Contingent self‐worth (CSW) is the extent to which an individual's sense of self‐worth is dependent on performance in a particular domain. CSW has been linked to poorer psychological health (e.g., lower global self‐esteem, greater depression and anxiety). However, the majority of work on CSW has been conducted with US college students. Far less is known about the influence of CSW for younger individuals or for non‐Western populations. This study examined relations between CSW domains and two indicators of well‐being (depressive symptoms and global self‐esteem) with Chinese adolescents (ages 13–16) and young adults (ages 19‐22). Results indicated that CSW in the domains of academic performance and others’ approval were positively related to depressive symptoms, whereas CSW in the domain of family support was negatively related to depressive symptoms. Others’ approval CSW was negatively related to self‐esteem for both adolescents and young adults, whereas CSW in the domains of academic performance and family support were related to self‐esteem for adolescents but not young adults. This study indicates that CSW is a meaningful and predictive construct for Chinese youth, and that cultural, environmental, and developmental factors may impact the relations between CSW and psychological health.
      PubDate: 2015-12-08T10:33:40.765059-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12173
  • Popularity and Social Preference in Chinese Adolescents: Associations with
           Social and Behavioral Adjustment
    • Authors: Li Niu; Shenghua Jin, Ling Li, Doran C. French
      Abstract: This study examined the characteristics associated with popularity and social preference in 769 14‐year‐old adolescents (54 percent boys) from mainland China. Consistent with findings from other countries, popularity and social preference were moderately correlated and overt aggression was positively correlated with popularity but negatively correlated with social preference. Prosocial behavior, athletic skill, dating, academic achievement, and mutual friends were positively associated with both popularity and social preference, with the effects for prosocial behavior, athletic skill, and dating greater for popularity than for social preference. The strong correlations between popularity and prosocial behavior are consistent with Confucian ideas of moral leadership and the obligations of high status individuals toward others. Cultural values are also reflected in the association of popularity with academic achievement. The inconsistent findings from China regarding the relation between aggression and popularity may stem from multiple factors including the absence of a suitable Chinese translation for popularity.
      PubDate: 2015-12-01T11:09:16.825616-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12172
  • Infants’ Style of Emotion Regulation with Their Mothers and Fathers:
           Concordance between Parents and the Contribution of Father–Infant
           Interaction Quality
    • Abstract: The concordance between infants’ emotion regulation styles with different partners has not been consistently analysed nor have the relational correlates of such potential across‐partners similarities. We explored these issues by assessing 10‐month‐olds’ (59.6 percent boys) emotion regulation styles separately with mother and father and by evaluating mother–infant and father–infant interaction quality. The sample consisted of 50 low‐risk families. Two home visits were conducted and similar procedures were adopted for each visit. Parent–infant interaction quality was assessed during daily routines and during free play; both parents independently completed a temperament questionnaire. Infant emotion regulation was assessed in a semi‐structured problem‐solving task: adaptive vs. maladaptive (under and over‐regulation) styles. As predicted, infants’ emotion regulation with their mothers and fathers were related. However, only father–infant interaction quality predicted infants’ emotion regulation concordance: lower interaction quality was associated with maladaptive concordance compared with non‐concordance and higher interaction quality was associated with adaptive concordance compared with non‐concordance. Our results support the claim that by the end of the first year of life, infants use similar emotion regulation styles with mother and father and point to father–infant interaction as an important correlate of emotion regulation across‐parents.
      PubDate: 2015-11-26T10:28:21.577593-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12171
  • Social Development Quartet: Emotion Socialization in the Context of
           Psychopathology and Risk
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Lemerise
      Abstract: An introduction is provided to this Social Development Quartet in which the articles focus on parent emotion socialization in the context of psychopathology and risk. In two articles, the samples of children and/or adolescents have a psychiatric diagnosis [oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) or depressive disorder]. The other two articles feature samples in which children and families have experienced serious risks [exposure to inter‐parental violence (IPV) or maternal incarceration]. The articles in this Social Development Quartet extend our knowledge of the impact of parental emotion socialization practices to contexts in which children and parents experience higher than normative risks. The work reported in these articles builds upon research on emotion socialization in normative contexts, illustrating the buffering effects of supportive parenting as well as its limits.
      PubDate: 2015-11-24T08:44:31.392303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12167
  • Making Amends: Children's Expectations about and Responses to Apologies
    • Authors: Marissa B. Drell; Vikram K. Jaswal
      Abstract: Two studies investigate children's expectations and actual responses to a transgressor's attempt to make amends. In Study 1, six‐ and seven‐year‐olds (N = 16) participated in a building activity and then imagined how they would respond if a transgressor knocked over their tower and then apologized spontaneously, apologized after prompting, offered restitution, or did nothing. Children forecasted that they would feel better and would share more when a transgressor offered restitution or apologized spontaneously than when the transgressor had to be prompted to apologize or did not apologize at all. In Study 2, six‐ and seven‐year‐olds (N = 64) participated in the same building activity, but then actually had their towers knocked over and received one of the four responses. The only response that actually made children feel better was when the transgressor offered restitution. However, children shared more with a transgressor who offered restitution, a spontaneous apology, or a prompted apology than with one who failed to offer any apology. Restitution can both mitigate hurt feelings and repair relationships in children; apologies serve mainly to repair relationships.
      PubDate: 2015-11-10T06:27:29.177046-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12168
  • Early Life Stress: Effects on the Regulation of Anxiety Expression in
           Children and Adolescents
    • Authors: Amanda R. Burkholder; Kalsea J. Koss, Camelia E. Hostinar, Anna E. Johnson, Megan R. Gunnar
      Abstract: This study examined children's (N = 79; 9–10 years) and adolescents’ (N = 82; 15–16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST‐C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non‐adopted, age‐matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non‐adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self‐reports of stress during the TSST‐C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.
      PubDate: 2015-11-06T06:41:36.598667-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12170
  • Maternal Conflict Behavior Profiles and Child Social Skills
    • Authors: Brittany P. Boyer; Justin K. Scott, Jackie A. Nelson
      Abstract: The current study examined associations between mothers’ behavioral profiles during mother‐child conflict interactions and their children's social skills. This person‐centered approach classified 181 mothers according to their levels of emotional responsiveness, intrusiveness, negativity, and engagement facilitation behaviors during an eight‐minute conflict discussion task with their child. Three distinct classes of mothers were identified using latent profile analysis: sensitive/engaged, moderately sensitive/engaged, and insensitive/disengaged. An analysis of covariance indicated that children of mothers in the sensitive/engaged group had significantly higher social skills than children of mothers in the moderately sensitive/engaged and insensitive/disengaged groups. Results suggest that mother‐child conflict interactions may benefit children's social development when mothers facilitate their children's participation in a highly sensitive manner.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28T08:15:25.265016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12169
  • The Effects of Relations Between Alphabetized Name Order on and Nomination
           Counts in Peer Nomination Measures
    • Authors: Peter E. L. Marks; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Ben Babcock
      Abstract: Peer nominations, a central method for measuring peer relationships in developmental research, typically involve asking children or adolescents to choose peers who fit various criteria from an alphabetized roster of classmates or grade‐mates. Although such measures have been used for decades, very little research has investigated the effects of alphabetical name order on the number of nominations received by peers. This study collected peer nominations for 20 items among 607 eighth grade participants in two schools. Regression analyses showed that earlier name order significantly predicted higher nomination counts for eight of the items, and explained over 5 percent of the variance in four affective variables (friendship, acceptance, acquaintanceship, and received liking). Across variables, name order effects were negatively correlated with internal reliability of nominations, implying that order effects may be related to the consensus of the peer group. Name order also had a minimal effect on inter‐correlations among a subset of variables. Implications and concrete recommendations for controlling and reducing name order effects in future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-28T07:14:32.897461-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12163
  • Attention and Executive Functions as Mediators of Attachment and Behavior
    • Authors: Justin A. Low; Linda Webster
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the relation between early parent‐child interactions and subsequent behavior problems and how certain cognitive processes mediate this relation. Specifically, this study investigated whether attention, inhibition, and planning skills mediate the relation between attachment security and behavior problems. Data were collected as part of the National Institute of Child Health and Development‐Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development when children (N = 1004) were between 36 months and the third grade. Results from structural equation models indicated that sustained attention mediated the relation between disorganized attachment and social problems. Planning mediated the relation between disorganized attachment and subsequent thought problems, attention problems, and delinquent behavior. Avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized attachment directly predicted several behavior problems. Implications for theory and future research are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T06:22:27.782275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12166
  • Teachers’ Effortful Control and Student Functioning: Mediating and
           Moderating Processes
    • Abstract: Evidence is emerging that teachers’ dispositional characteristics are related to students’ classroom functioning, but processes are not well understood. We examined associations between second‐grade teachers’ effortful control (EC), student‐teacher closeness or conflict, students’ EC, and changes in students’ externalizing behaviors and reading and math achievement. Teachers’ EC was directly related to their students’ externalizing behaviors, but not achievement. Conflict, but not closeness, mediated associations between teachers’ EC and students’ externalizing behaviors. In moderated mediation tests, conflict was positively associated with externalizing behaviors most strongly for students low or moderate in EC. Closeness was positively associated with reading achievement, and negatively associated with math achievement, only for low‐EC students.
      PubDate: 2015-10-22T06:14:26.703567-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12165
  • A Three‐factor Structure of Emotion Understanding in
           Third‐grade Children
    • Abstract: Theoretical conceptualizations of emotion understanding generally imply a two‐factor structure comprised of recognition of emotional expressions and understanding emotion‐eliciting situations. We tested this structure in middle childhood and then explored the unique predictive value of various facets of emotion understanding in explaining children's socioemotional competence. Participants were 201 third‐grade children and their mothers. Children completed five different measures, which provided eight distinct indices of emotion understanding. Mothers completed two questionnaires assessing children's socioemotional skills and problems. Results indicated that: (a) emotion understanding in third‐grade children was differentiated into three unique factors: Prototypical Emotion Recognition, Prototypical Emotion Knowledge, and Advanced Emotion Understanding, (b) skills within factors were modestly related, (c) factors varied in complexity, supporting theoretical and empirical models detailing developmental sequencing of skills, and (d) skills in Prototypical Emotion Knowledge were uniquely related to mothers’ reports of third‐grade children's socioemotional competence. Implications regarding elementary‐school‐age children's social cognitive development are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-10-16T07:00:00.949042-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12162
  • Maternal Vocal Interactions with Infants: Reciprocal Visual Influences
    • Authors: Sandra E. Trehub; Judy Plantinga, Frank A. Russo
      Abstract: The present study examined the influence of infant visual cues on maternal vocal and facial expressiveness while speaking or singing and the influence of maternal visual cues on infant attention. Experiment 1 asked whether mothers exhibit more vocal emotion when speaking and singing to infants in or out of view. Adults judged which of each pair of audio excerpts (in view, out of view) sounded more emotional. Face‐to‐face vocalizations were judged more emotional than vocalizations to infants out of view. Moreover, mothers smiled considerably more while singing than while speaking to infants. Experiment 2 examined the influence of video feedback from infants on maternal speech and singing. Maternal vocalizations in the context of video feedback were judged to be less emotional than those in face‐to‐face contexts but more emotional than those in out‐of‐view contexts. Experiment 3 compared six‐month‐old infants’ attention to maternal speech and singing with audio‐only versions or with silent video‐only versions. Infants exhibited comparable attention to audio‐only versions of speech and singing but greater attention to video‐only versions of singing. The present investigation is unique in documenting the contribution of infant visual feedback to maternal vocal emotion in contexts that control for infants’ presence, visibility, and proximity.
      PubDate: 2015-10-14T08:15:17.280351-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12164
  • Under Pressure: Individual Differences in Children's Suggestibility in
           Response to Intense Social Influence
    • Authors: Elizabeth R. Uhl; Catherine R. Camilletti, Matthew H. Scullin, James M. Wood
      Abstract: Prior research on the relation between children's suggestibility and verbal skills has yielded mixed results. This study examined children's suggestibility in a high social pressure context in conjunction with individual differences in verbal ability and social understanding. Sixty‐nine children were read a story by a classroom visitor. One week later children were asked suggestive questions about the visit and pressured to respond ‘yes’. One week after the first interview, children were re‐asked the same questions, this time with no pressure. Children's suggestibility in response to social pressure was found to be significantly and negatively correlated with receptive vocabulary knowledge, but not with social understanding, the ability to understand and interpret social interactions. In addition, suggestibility scores exhibited a distinctly bimodal distribution, with many children acquiescing to all pressured suggestions, many children acquiescing to no suggestions, and few children falling between these two extremes.
      PubDate: 2015-10-08T05:24:14.783428-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12156
  • Acts of Social Perspective Taking: A Functional Construct and the
           Validation of a Performance Measure for Early Adolescents
    • Authors: Silvia Diazgranados; Robert L. Selman, Michelle Dionne
      Abstract: To understand and assess how early adolescents use their social perspective taking (SPT) skills in their consideration of social problems, we conducted two studies. In study 1, we administered a hypothetical SPT scenario to 359 fourth to eighth graders. Modeled on the linguistic pragmatics of speech acts, we used grounded theory to develop a functional approach that identified three types of SPT acts: (1) the acknowledgment of different actors, (2) the articulation of their thoughts and feelings, and (3) the positioning of the roles, experiences, or circumstances that influence how they resolve problems. Study 2 tested the validity of an expanded instrument, the Social Perspective Taking Acts Measure, with 459 fourth to eighth graders. We confirmed the structure of the construct with a fully saturated confirmatory factor analysis, with factor loadings in the range of .62 and .71, and a factor determinacy of .90. We obtained evidence of criterion‐related validity by successfully predicting that girls and older participants would exhibit better performance than boys and younger students, and that SPT would exhibit a negative association with aggressive interpersonal strategies, a positive but moderate association with writing, and non‐significant associations with academic language, complex reasoning, and reading skills.
      PubDate: 2015-10-02T10:06:30.299609-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12157
  • Emotional Climate in Families Experiencing Homelessness: Associations with
           Child Affect and Socioemotional Adjustment in School
    • Authors: Madelyn H. Labella; Angela J. Narayan, Ann S. Masten
      Abstract: This study examined associations among family‐level risks, emotional climate, and child adjustment in families experiencing homelessness. Emotional climate, an indirect aspect of emotion socialization, was indexed by parents’ expressed emotion while describing their children. Sociodemographic risk and parent internalizing distress were hypothesized to predict more negativity and less warmth in the emotional climate. Emotional climate was expected to predict observer‐rated child affect and teacher‐reported socioemotional adjustment, mediating effects of risk. Participants were 138 homeless parents (64 percent African‐American) and their four‐ to six‐year‐old children (43.5 percent male). During semi‐structured interviews, parents reported demographic risks and internalizing distress and completed a Five Minute Speech Sample about their child, later rated for warmth and negativity. Children's positive and negative affect were coded from videotapes of structured parent‐child interaction tasks. Socioemotional adjustment (externalizing behavior, peer acceptance, and prosocial behavior) was reported by teachers a few months later. Hypotheses were partially supported. Parent internalizing distress was associated with higher parent negativity, which was linked to more negative affect in children, and parent warmth was associated with children's positive affect. Neither emotional climate nor child affect predicted teacher‐reported externalizing behavior or peer acceptance, but parental negativity and male sex predicted lower prosocial behavior in the classroom. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T05:17:04.784885-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12154
  • Values in Middle Childhood: Social and Genetic Contributions
    • Abstract: Theories of value development often identify adolescence as the period for value formation, and cultural and familial factors as the sources for value priorities. However, recent research suggests that value priorities can be observed as early as in middle childhood, and several studies, including one on preadolescents, have suggested a genetic contribution to individual differences in values. In the current study, 174 pairs of monozygotic and dizygotic seven‐year‐old Israeli twins completed the Picture‐based Value Survey for Children (PBVS–C). We replicated basic patterns of relations between value priorities and variables of socialization—gender, religiosity, and socioeconomic status—that have been found in studies with adults. Most important, values of Self‐transcendence, Self‐enhancement, and Conservation, were found to be significantly affected by genetic factors (29 percent, 47 percent, and 31 percent, respectively), as well as non‐shared environment (71 percent, 53 percent, and 69 percent, respectively). Openness to change values, in contrast, were found to be unaffected by genetic factors at this age and were influenced by shared (19 percent) and non‐shared (81 percent) environment. These findings support the recent view that values are formed at earlier ages than had been assumed previously, and they further our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors involved in value formation at young ages.
      PubDate: 2015-09-08T05:09:00.351924-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12155
  • Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children Exposed to Intimate Partner
           Violence: The Role of Parent Emotion Socialization and Children's Emotion
           Regulation Abilities
    • Authors: Lynn Fainsilber Katz; Nicole Stettler, Kyrill Gurtovenko
      Abstract: Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) is a traumatic life event. Almost 50 percent of IPV‐exposed children show subsequent post‐traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS), and they are at increased risk for depression. We examined maternal emotion socialization and children's emotion regulation as a pathway that may protect IPV‐exposed children from developing PTSS and depression. Fifty‐eight female survivors of IPV and their 6‐ to 12‐year‐old children participated. Results showed no direct relations between maternal emotion socialization and child adjustment. However, several indirect effects were observed. Higher mother awareness and acceptance of sadness and awareness of fear predicted better child sadness and fear regulation, respectively, which in turn was related to fewer child PTSS. Similar indirect pathways were found with child depression. In addition, mothers’ acceptance and coaching of anger was associated with better child anger regulation, which related to fewer depression symptoms. Implications for prevention and intervention with high‐risk families are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-09-01T04:49:16.183098-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12151
  • Rules Trump Desires in Preschoolers’ Predictions of Group Behavior
    • Abstract: The objective of this article is to investigate the way children weigh conventional rules against desires when considering how a group will behave. To do so, two experiments involving a prediction task in which desires were pitted against conventional rules were presented to three‐ to five‐year‐old children. In Experiment 1, four scenarios were established as classroom scenes in which either one protagonist or three protagonists had a desire that went against an explicit conventional rule. In the individual control condition, the choices linked to the rules were at chance whereas, in the group condition, the participants predicted that all the protagonists would end up following the rule. Given that both conditions in Experiment 1 implied four rule followers in the design, Experiment 2 staged not three but seven potential rule transgressors to see whether the desire of the majority might undermine the rule. Results showed no majority effect: participants expected protagonists to act counter to their desire and to follow the rule. Such results suggest that children as young as three‐year‐old favor rules over desires when they have to predict the behavior of a group, whether it be the majority or not. Possible implications of these intriguing findings are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-08-25T03:10:28.723207-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12150
  • Mother Emotion, Child Temperament, and Young Children's Helpless Responses
           to Failure
    • Authors: Patricia A. Smiley; Sherylle J. Tan, Alison Goldstein, Jennifer Sweda
      Abstract: Young children differ in their responses to failure, displaying mastery or helpless behavior patterns. We examine the moderating role of child temperament on the association between parent warmth/negativity and children's helpless responses to failure. Regarding temperament, we focus on tendencies to experience interest and sadness because they entail task engagement and withdrawal, respectively. We measured mother (n=150) expressions of positive and negative emotion during a teaching task, assessed temperament using LabTAB‐Preschool episodes, and coded helplessness during an impossible puzzle task. Maternal negative emotion during teaching was positively associated with helplessness, but only for children low in interest. Maternal warmth was negatively associated with helplessness, but only for children high in sadness; sadness did not moderate the relation between maternal negativity and helplessness. Findings provide support for parenting by temperament goodness‐of‐fit models and for a discrete emotions approach to temperament.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T03:23:37.593563-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12153
  • Reciprocal Relations across Time between Basic Values and
           Value‐expressive Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study among Children
    • Abstract: The current study examines the reciprocal relations between children's values and value‐expressive behavior over a sixth‐month period. Three hundred and ten sixth‐grade students in Italy completed value and value‐expressive behavior questionnaires three times in three‐month intervals during the scholastic year. We assessed Schwartz's (1992) higher‐order values of conservation, openness to change, self‐enhancement, and self‐transcendence, as well as their respective expressive behaviors. Reciprocal relations over time between values and behaviors were examined using a cross‐lagged longitudinal design. Results showed that values and behaviors had reciprocal longitudinal effects on one another, after the stability of the variables was taken into account (i.e., values predicted change in behaviors, but also behaviors predicted change in values). Our findings also revealed that: (1) values were more stable over time than behaviors and (2) the longitudinal effect of values on behaviors tended to be stronger than the longitudinal effect of behaviors on values. Findings are discussed in light of the recent developmental literature on value change.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T03:02:37.143771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12152
  • The Influence of Goal Value on Persistence in Exuberant Chinese Children
    • Authors: Jie He; Dong Guo, Qing Zhang, Yuxia Liu, Liyue Lou, Mowei Shen
      Abstract: With regard to the study of temperament and motivation in young children, exuberance, an important temperamental characteristic of the approach motivational system, has been relatively understudied in comparison with behavioral inhibition. However, due to the relationship between exuberance and behavioral regulation (e.g., problem behavior, task persistence), it is an important topic of study. Accordingly, this study examined whether the incentive value of goals moderated the relationship between exuberance and persistence in 109 Chinese preschoolers. Children's temperamental exuberance was assessed by behavioral observation and parental report. Their persistence was measured in two goal‐blocked contexts (tower‐building [TB] and locked box [LB]). In each task, children were randomly assigned to either a high‐ or low‐incentive condition designed to vary the incentive value of a given goal. Results suggested that exuberance was positively associated with persistence in the high‐incentive condition of TB and in both conditions of LB. The results highlight the incentive value of goals as an important factor for behavioral regulation development in exuberant Chinese children.
      PubDate: 2015-08-18T02:52:16.29942-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12149
  • Developmental Trajectories of Social Justice Values in Adolescence:
           Relations with Sympathy and Friendship Quality
    • Authors: Ella Daniel; Sebastian P. Dys, Marlis Buchmann, Tina Malti
      Abstract: This study examined developmental trajectories of social justice values (SJV) in a representative sample of Swiss adolescents (N = 1258) at 15 (Time 1), 18 (Time 2), and 21 years of age (Time 3). SJV and friendship quality were measured via self‐reports. Sympathy was assessed via self‐ and mother‐reports. Latent class growth analysis revealed three developmental trajectories of SJV: high‐stable (80 percent), moderate‐decreasing (17 percent), and low‐increasing (3 percent). Adolescents with low levels of self‐ and mother‐reported sympathy were more likely to be members of the low‐increasing than the high‐stable or moderate decreasing trajectory groups. Adolescents who reported low levels of sympathy and friendship quality at 15 years of age were more likely to be members of the moderate‐decreasing trajectory group than the high‐stable trajectory group. Results are discussed with respect to the potential significance of sympathy and friendship quality for understanding the development of SJV during adolescence.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T03:19:22.802183-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12146
  • The Stability and Change of Value Structure and Priorities in Childhood: A
           Longitudinal Study
    • Abstract: This longitudinal study explores the stability and change of values in childhood. Children's values were measured in Poland three times (with one‐year intervals) using the Picture Based Values Survey (PBVS‐C; Döring, Blauensteiner, Aryus, Drögekamp, & Bilsky, 2010), developed to measure values differentiated according to the circular model of Schwartz (1992). 801 children (divided into 5 cohorts aged 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11 years at the first measurement occasion) completed the PBVS‐C three times on a yearly basis. Separate analyses were performed for each cohort using the data of the three measurement occasions. Multidimensional scaling revealed that, in children, Schwartz's (1992) circular structure of values is stable and does not change over time. Although priorities of values displayed moderate stability over time, the means changed between the ages of 7 and 11 years. Specifically, latent growth curve modeling revealed changes in children's values hierarchy as indicated by the decrease in the mean level of conservation values and the increase in the mean level of openness to change values. Self‐transcendence and self‐enhancement also changed in different directions. As indicated by mean levels over time, self‐transcendence first increased in importance, slightly decreased, and finally increased again. In contrast, self‐enhancement first decreased in importance, then increased, and finally began to decrease again.
      PubDate: 2015-07-30T00:02:33.069913-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12147
  • Popularity of Indonesian Adolescents: Do the Findings from the USA
           Generalize to a Muslim Majority Developing Country?
    • Authors: Doran C. French; Li Niu, Urip Purwono
      Abstract: This study investigated whether the pattern of behavior associated with popularity in the USA is also found in Indonesia. Participants were 452 7th (13 years) and 10th grade (16 years) Muslim students from West Java, Indonesia. Data were obtained from adolescents, peers, and teachers. Social preference and popularity were positively associated with prosocial behavior and number of mutual friends. Whereas social preference was positively associated with academic achievement and negatively associated with aggression, popularity was positively associated with aggression and tobacco use. These patterns of association are similar to those found in the United States. Indonesian society is highly hierarchical and popularity structures may build upon these stratifications.
      PubDate: 2015-07-29T02:29:19.792193-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12148
  • Gender Moderates the Progression from Fearful Temperament to Social
           Withdrawal through Protective Parenting
    • Authors: Elizabeth J. Kiel; Julie E. Premo, Kristin A. Buss
      Abstract: Child gender may exert its influence on development, not as a main effect, but as a moderator among predictors and outcomes. We examined this notion in relations among toddler fearful temperament, maternal protective parenting, maternal accuracy in predicting toddler distress to novelty, and child social withdrawal. In two multi‐method, longitudinal studies of toddlers (24 months at Time 1; Ns = 93 and 117, respectively) and their mothers, few main effect gender differences occurred. Moderation existed in both studies: only for highly accurate mothers of boys, fearful temperament related to protective parenting, which then predicted later social withdrawal. Thus, studying only main‐effect gender differences may obscure important differences in how boys and girls develop from fearful temperament to later social withdrawal.
      PubDate: 2015-07-24T02:27:06.269368-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12145
  • Trajectories of Breadth of Participation in Organized Activity During
    • Abstract: This study aimed to identify the trajectories of breadth of participation in organized activities during childhood and to examine the predictors of membership in these trajectories (child's individual and family characteristics measured in Kindergarten). A sample of 1038 children, recruited in Kindergarten, was assessed yearly between Kindergarten and grade 4. Semiparametric group‐based modeling brought out four trajectories: the no participation group (13.5 percent), the increasing group (26.4 percent), the decreasing group (14.1 percent), and the high group (46.1 percent). Prosociality predicted membership in the no participation group, as compared with the increasing group. Social withdrawal predicted membership in the no participation group, as compared with the high group. High family income and higher maternal education predicted membership in the increasing, decreasing, and high trajectory groups, as compared with the no participation group. Higher paternal education predicted membership in the high group, as compared with the increasing group. Overall, family variables had a greater impact than individual variables on the probability that the child would participate in a broader range of organized activities.
      PubDate: 2015-07-22T05:23:55.590637-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12142
  • The Role of Peers and Siblings in Toddlers’ Developing Understanding
           of Incompatible Desires
    • Abstract: According to previous research, social experiences with other children might explain why three‐year‐olds are already quite proficient in understanding desires but not beliefs as subjective mental states. This study investigated toddlers’ (N = 50) developing subjective understanding of incompatible desires around the age of 3 years (M = 35.5 months) and the associated social factors (i.e., family demographics, peer, and sibling variables). Results indicated a developmental sequence from understanding desires to understanding desire‐dependent emotions with an unexpected positivity bias in toddlers’ prediction of own emotions. A hierarchical regression model revealed that specific social factors (i.e., reported quality of peer interactions and day care attendance) individually contributed to explaining the variance in children's desire‐reasoning skills. Findings are interpreted as supporting a belief–desire asymmetry, and specific social experiences, such as positive peer interactions and desire conflicts, may promote toddlers’ understanding of incompatible desires as subjective mental states.
      PubDate: 2015-07-15T05:09:07.49818-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12144
  • Rejection Reactivity, Executive Function Skills, and Social Adjustment
           Problems of Inattentive and Hyperactive Kindergarteners
    • Abstract: This study examined emotional reactivity to rejection and executive function (EF) skills as potential mediators of the social behavior problems of inattentive and hyperactive kindergarteners. Participants included 171 children, including 107 with clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, 23 with sub‐clinical levels of ADHD symptoms, and 41 typically developing children (63 percent male; 73 percent Caucasian, 11 percent African‐American, 4 percent Latino/Hispanic, 1 percent Asian, and 11 percent multiracial; Mage = 5.2 years). Inattention (but not hyperactivity) was uniquely associated with poor EF, social withdrawal, and aggression. In structural equation models, EF skills mediated the associations between inattention and both aggression and social withdrawal. Hyperactivity (but not inattention) was uniquely associated with rejection reactivity and each contributed uniquely to aggression. Findings suggest that difficulties with emotion regulation may warrant more attention in early interventions planned for children with high levels of ADHD symptoms.
      PubDate: 2015-07-14T10:05:37.564092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12143
  • Do Young Children's Representations of Discipline and Empathy Moderate the
           Effects of Punishment on Emotion Regulation?
    • Abstract: This study examined whether children's representations of parenting (perceptions of authoritative discipline and empathy) moderated the association between harsh punishment—including corporal punishment (CP) and verbal punishment (VP)—and children's emotion regulation at the age of five years. Participants were 559 low‐income mother‐child dyads. Maternal self‐reports and home observations were used to measure punishment. Children's representations were assessed using the MacArthur Story Stem Battery. Children's emotion regulation was assessed by observer rating via the Leiter International Performance Scale–Revised. Hierarchical multiple regressions revealed that children's authoritative disciplinary representations moderated the effects of both VP and CP on children's emotion regulation. Empathic representations moderated the effects of VP only on children's emotion regulation. The current findings highlight the role of children's internal representations as potential protective factors in the context of harsher forms of punishment.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T06:12:10.447016-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12141
  • Effortful Control Mediates Relations Between Children's Attachment
           Security and their Regard for Rules of Conduct
    • Authors: J. K. Nordling; Lea J. Boldt, Jessica O'Bleness, Grazyna Kochanska
      Abstract: Although attachment security has been associated with children's rule‐compatible conduct, the mechanism through which attachment influences early regard for rules is not well established. We hypothesized that effortful control would mediate the link between security and indicators of children's emerging regard for rules (discomfort following rule violations, internalization of parents’ and experimenter's rules, few externalizing behaviors). In a longitudinal study, the Attachment Q‐Set was completed by parents, effortful control was observed, and Regard for Rules was observed and rated by parents. The proposed model fit the data well: Children's security to mothers predicted their effortful control, which in turn had a direct link to a greater Regard for Rules. Children's security with fathers did not predict effortful control. The mother‐child relationship appears particularly important for positive developmental cascades of self‐regulation and socialization.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:26:34.27305-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12139
  • Sex Differences in Preadolescents’ Attachment Strategies: Products
           of Harsh Environments or of Gender Identity?
    • Authors: Rachel E. Pauletti; Patrick J. Cooper, Christopher D. Aults, Ernest V. E. Hodges, David G. Perry
      Abstract: We evaluated two hypotheses proposed to account for sex differences in preadolescents’ insecure attachment strategies (more avoidant for boys, more preoccupied for girls). The first hypothesis, rooted in life history theory, is that the sex differences develop among children who experience adverse environmental conditions (e.g., harsh parenting). The second hypothesis, grounded in gender self‐socialization theory, is that the sex differences develop among children who identify confidently with their gender collective. Data from an ethnically/racially diverse sample (443 girls, 420 boys; M age = 11.1 years) supported the second hypothesis: Sex differences were evident mainly among children who felt gender‐typical, were content with their gender, or felt pressure to avoid cross‐sex behavior. Further, sex differences were generally smaller rather than larger among children experiencing adverse environments.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:24:52.206235-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12140
  • Emotion Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Mother
           and Father Socialization of Anger and Sadness in Adolescents with
           Depressive Disorder
    • Authors: Joann Wu Shortt; Lynn Fainsilber Katz, Nicholas B. Allen, Craig Leve, Betsy Davis, Lisa B. Sheeber
      Abstract: This study examined parental emotion socialization processes associated with adolescent unipolar depressive disorder. Adolescent participants (N = 107; 42 boys) were selected either to meet criteria for current unipolar depressive disorder or to be psychologically healthy as defined by no lifetime history of psychopathology or mental health treatment and low levels of current depressive symptomatology. A multi‐source/method measurement strategy was used to assess mothers’ and fathers’ responses to adolescent sad and angry emotion. Each parent and adolescent completed questionnaire measures of parental emotion socialization behavior, and participated in meta‐emotion interviews and parent‐adolescent interactions. As hypothesized, parents of adolescents with depressive disorder engaged in fewer supportive responses and more unsupportive responses overall relative to parents of non‐depressed adolescents. Between group differences were more pronounced for families of boys, and for fathers relative to mothers. The findings indicate that parent emotion socialization is associated with adolescent depression and highlight the importance of including fathers in studies of emotion socialization, especially as it relates to depression.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:09:28.764491-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12138
  • Development and Psychometric Properties of the Classroom Peer Context
    • Abstract: Children's view on the peer context in their classroom may differ from that of other informants, but no measure systematically examines children's own view. Therefore, we developed the Classroom Peer Context Questionnaire (CPCQ) and evaluated its reliability, validity, and stability in two studies. In Study 1, 464 children (Mage = 10.8 years, 53.2% girls) from 18 Grade 5 classrooms participated in 2 waves of data collection. In Study 2, 1538 children (Mage = 10.6 years, 47.2% girls) from 59 Grade 5 classrooms participated in 3 waves of data collection. Exploratory factor analyses in Study 1 revealed 5 dimensions labeled comfort, cooperation, conflict, cohesion, and isolation. Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 supported these 5 dimensions. Study 2 also demonstrated good reliability, validity, and stability for each dimension. Researchers and professionals in schools may use the CPCQ to obtain reliable and quick information on how children perceive the peer context in their classroom.
      PubDate: 2015-07-07T05:08:32.59142-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12137
  • Equal But Not Always Fair: Value‐laden Sharing in
           Preschool‐aged Children
    • Authors: Nadia Chernyak; David M. Sobel
      Abstract: Prior work has shown that preschoolers divide resources fairly and expect others to do the same. The majority of research, however, has focused on how children make distributions with respect to number. Here we explore whether preschoolers attend to the value of the objects being shared. We presented four‐year‐olds and five‐year‐olds with two puppets and four stickers of different values to split between them. Our central question was whether children would share more valuable stickers with their preferred puppets. In Experiments 1–2, value was induced by making one sticker rarer than the others. In Experiments 3–4, value was measured subjectively (by asking the child which sticker s/he personally preferred). Across all experiments, children made fair numerical splits, but showed favoritism according to value. This work supports the hypothesis that young children coordinate number and value to show both fairness and favoritism when making resource distributions.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T06:32:15.659946-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12136
  • Dynamics of Young Children's Socially Adaptive Resolutions of Peer
    • Authors: Asha L. Spivak
      Abstract: How do young children negotiate conflicts with peers that result in mutually beneficial resolution and peaceful interaction after conflict? A few studies suggest that when children use conciliatory strategies in conflict, socially adaptive outcomes are more likely to be achieved. The present study explores the relative associations of types of children's conciliatory conflict resolution strategies (i.e., prosocial, compliance‐oriented, solution‐oriented, and verbal clarification/apology) with conflict outcomes to contribute to knowledge of the discrete behaviors that might have salience for conflict resolution training. Socially adaptive conflict outcomes were expected to strongly relate to children's resolution strategies of a prosocial nature as well as to teacher or peer interventions encouraging prosocial behavior or empathy. Sampled conflicts (N = 521) were collected through field observations of 107 ethnically/racially and socioeconomically diverse four‐ to seven‐year‐old children. Logistic regression analyses with bootstrap‐based inference suggested that children's prosocial behaviors in conflict were most strongly tied to mutually beneficial resolution and peaceful postconflict interaction, when controlling for relevant covariates. Other conciliatory strategies varied in their association with socially adaptive outcomes. The hypothesis regarding third‐party interventions encouraging prosociability or empathy could not be examined due to infrequent occurrence. Insights for future research on children's socially adaptive conflict negotiations are discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-06-24T05:24:41.563437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12135
  • From Normative Influence to Social Pressure: How Relevant Others Affect
           Whether Bystanders Join in Cyberbullying
    • Authors: Sara Bastiaensens; Sara Pabian, Heidi Vandebosch, Karolien Poels, Katrien Van Cleemput, Ann DeSmet, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
      Abstract: As cyberbullying is a phenomenon that is inherently social, the normative social influence of significant others can play an important role in the behaviour of adolescents involved in cyberbullying incidents. Using data from 525 adolescent bystanders of cyberbullying, we created a path model in order to investigate whether injunctive and descriptive norms of certain reference groups can cause bystanders to experience social pressure and join in cyberbullying. The results showed that social pressure fully mediated the relationship between the injunctive norm of friends approving of cyberbullying and joining in cyberbullying as a bystander. Furthermore, both the injunctive norm of parents approving of cyberbullying and bystanders’ involvement in cyberbullying perpetration were related to joining in cyberbullying as a bystander.
      PubDate: 2015-06-01T01:55:49.003545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12134
  • Mother–Child Interaction as a Cradle of Theory of Mind: The Role of
           Maternal Emotional Availability
    • Authors: Maria Licata; Susanne Kristen, Beate Sodian
      Abstract: The present longitudinal study investigated the relative importance of emotional availability (EA) in 56 mother–child dyads when the child was 7 months and four‐year old as predictors of child's Theory of Mind at 4 years while controlling for early maternal mind‐mindedness (MM). Dyadic EA at 7 months predicted the child's Theory of Mind, even when controlling for child temperamental and cognitive characteristics as well as dyadic EA at 4 years and early maternal MM. Results indicate the specific importance of high emotional connectedness between mothers and infants for preschoolers' Theory of Mind development.
      PubDate: 2015-05-27T04:18:32.366249-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12131
  • Disentangling the Frequency and Severity of Bullying and Victimization in
           the Association with Empathy
    • Authors: Tirza H. J. van Noorden; William M. Bukowski, Gerbert J. T. Haselager, Tessa A. M. Lansu, Antonius H. N. Cillessen
      Abstract: This study disentangled the frequency and perceived severity of experienced bullying and victimization by investigating their associations with cognitive and affective empathy. Participants were 800 children (7–12 years old) from third‐ to fifth‐grade classrooms who completed self‐report measures of the frequency and perceived severity of their bullying and victimization and of cognitive and affective empathy. Results showed that the frequency and perceived severity of bullying were moderately correlated in the entire sample but unrelated within the subsample of bullies. Frequency and perceived severity of victimization were significantly and positively correlated in the entire sample (moderate effect) and the subsample of victims (small effect). Frequent, but not severe, bullies reported less cognitive empathy than non‐bullies whereas both frequent and severe victims reported more affective empathy than non‐victims. Within subsamples of bullies and victims, frequency of bullying was negatively associated with cognitive and affective empathy, and perceived severity of bullying was positively associated with affective empathy. Frequency of victimization was not associated with cognitive and affective empathy, but perceived severity of victimization was positively associated with both forms of empathy.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T03:31:57.572462-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12133
  • Maternal Discipline and Children's Adjustment: The Role of the Cultural
           and Situational Context
    • Abstract: This study examined how the cultural and situational contexts can jointly shape the consequences of discipline strategies. Israeli mothers who grew up in Israel or in the Former Soviet Union (FSU) (overall N = 110) reported regarding their use of psychologically controlling and punitive discipline with their seven‐years‐old to 10‐years‐old children, and teachers reported regarding children's behavior problems. We assessed both mothers' overall general use of the discipline strategies, and their use of the same strategies following transgressions in the academic domain, an area which the two groups emphasize to differing degrees. Consistent with hypothesis, controlling discipline in academic situations had more positive consequences in the FSU group compared with the Israeli‐origin group. In contrast, and as predicted, cultural group was not a moderator of mothers' overall, general use of the same discipline strategies. The findings illustrate how taking the situation into account can inform examination of the moderating role of cultural group.
      PubDate: 2015-05-25T03:27:56.484092-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12132
  • Wait Until Your Mother Gets Home! Mothers' and Fathers' Discipline
    • Abstract: From a traditional viewpoint, fathers are seen as the main disciplinarian in the family. However, recent studies suggest that these traditional family role patterns may have changed. In this study, we observed discipline strategies of mothers and fathers toward their sons and daughters. Participants included 242 families with two children (1 and 3 years of age). Findings revealed that parental discipline varied by the age of the children, but that mothers disciplined their children more often than fathers. Fathers, conversely, showed more laxness in response to child non‐compliance. Gender of the children was only related to physical interference, with mothers using more physical interference with boys than fathers, irrespective of birth order. Taken together, these findings highlight the importance of parent gender for parent–child interactions in early childhood, but also suggest that child age should be taken into account as important explanatory factors.
      PubDate: 2015-05-14T03:16:29.117007-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12130
  • The Intertwined Relationship between Self‐esteem and Peer Stress
           Among Korean Adolescents: A Prospective Longitudinal Study
    • Authors: Jeong Jin Yu
      Abstract: Although the association between self‐esteem and peer stress among adolescents is not unidirectional, and the two constructs probably coevolve and coexist over time, these two constructs and their possible mutual influence have rarely been tested in one single study. The present study examined whether there are bidirectional interactions between self‐esteem and perceptions of peer stress across five or six annual waves using a nationally representative sample of two cohorts of South Korean youth. The sample comprised 2844 fourth graders (M = 9.86 years) and 3449 eighth graders (M = 13.79 years) at wave 1. Findings suggested that self‐esteem was positively associated with peer stress in early and middle adolescence, whereas peer stress was negatively associated with self‐esteem in early adolescence, but had positive links in middle and late adolescence. The implications of the results were discussed.
      PubDate: 2015-04-14T02:46:01.789564-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12125
  • Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal Emotion
           Socialization in Children of Incarcerated Mothers
    • Authors: Janice Zeman; Danielle Dallaire, Sarah Borowski
      Abstract: Children of incarcerated mothers are at increased risk for psychological, social, and emotional maladaptation. This research investigates whether perceived maternal socialization of sadness and anger may moderate these outcomes in a sample of 154 children (53.9 percent boys, 61.7 percent Black, M age = 9.38, range: 6–12), their 118 mothers (64.1 percent Black), and 118 caregivers (74.8 percent female, 61.9 percent grandparents, 63.2 percent Black). Using mother, caregiver, and child report, seven maternal socialization strategies were assessed in their interaction with incarceration‐specific risk experiences predicting children's adjustment. For sadness socialization, the results indicated that among children reporting maternal emotion‐focused responses, incarceration‐specific risk predicted increases in psychological problems, depressive symptoms, increased emotional lability, and poorer emotion regulation. For children who perceived a problem‐focused response, incarceration‐specific risk did not predict outcomes. There were no significant interactions with incarceration‐specific risk and perceived maternal anger socialization strategies. These results indicate a critical need to examine how socialization processes may operate differently for children raised in atypical socializing contexts.
      PubDate: 2015-04-02T05:08:03.782619-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12117
  • Emotion Socialization in the Context of Risk and Psychopathology: Maternal
           Emotion Coaching Predicts Better Treatment Outcomes for Emotionally Labile
           Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder
    • Authors: Julie C. Dunsmore; Jordan A. Booker, Thomas H. Ollendick, Ross W. Greene
      Abstract: We examined whether maternal emotion coaching at pretreatment predicted children's treatment response following a 12‐week program addressing children's oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms. A total of 89 mother–child dyads participated. At pretreatment, mothers and children engaged in an emotion talk task. Mothers also reported their beliefs about emotions at pretreatment and their child's disruptive behavior symptoms, emotion regulation, and emotion lability/negativity at pre‐, mid‐, and post‐treatment. Clinicians reported children's symptom severity at pre‐ and post‐treatment. Children's emotion lability/negativity moderated effects of maternal emotion coaching on children's post‐treatment ODD symptoms, with stronger benefits of emotion coaching for children high in emotion lability/negativity. Results suggest that emotion coaching may promote treatment response for children with ODD who are especially at risk due to their emotionality.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:14:52.614348-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12109
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
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