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Journal Cover Social Development
  [SJR: 1.428]   [H-I: 67]   [7 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0961-205X - ISSN (Online) 1467-9507
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • School context influences the ethnic identity development of immigrant
           children in middle childhood
    • Authors: Christia Spears Brown
      Abstract: The present paper describes a study investigating the ethnic identity development of Latino immigrant children (n = 155) in middle childhood (ages 8–11) in a predominantly White community. The study examined how ethnic identity was related to children's school context. School context was operationalized at the structural level, as the ethnic composition of the teachers and peers, as well as the schools' implicit messages about their valuing of multiculturalism; and the proximal interpersonal level, as children's perceptions of peer discrimination and teacher fairness. Results indicated that both the structural and proximal context predicted children's ethnic label choices, the importance placed on their ethnic identity, the positivity of their ethnic identity, and their American identity.
      PubDate: 2017-04-23T20:40:29.973038-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12240
  • Cultural family beliefs, maternal sacrifice, and adolescent psychological
           competence in Chinese poor single-mother families
    • Authors: Janet T. Y. Leung
      Abstract: Research on cultural family beliefs and family processes as protective factors of adolescent development is severely lacking in the Chinese culture. Based on 432 Chinese single-mother families living in poverty in Hong Kong, the relationships among Chinese cultural beliefs of familism, adolescent perceived maternal sacrifice, and psychological competence (indexed by a clear and healthy identity, cognitive competence, and a positive future outlook) were examined. Results showed that adolescents' perceived maternal sacrifice mediated the influence between maternal Chinese cultural beliefs of familism and the psychological competence of adolescents raised in poor single-mother families in Hong Kong. The present study underscores the importance of cultural family beliefs and parental sacrifice on nurturing adolescent psychological competence in Chinese single-mother families living in poverty, which contributes to the construction of a family resilience model applicable to Chinese communities.
      PubDate: 2017-03-19T23:00:43.9837-05:00
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12239
  • A prospective study of adolescent mothers’ social competence, children's
           effortful control and compliance and children's subsequent developmental
    • Authors: Danielle M. Seay; Adriana J. Umaña-Taylor, Laudan B. Jahromi, Kimberly A. Updegraff
      Abstract: Previous work has established that caregiver and child temperamental characteristics are associated with child compliance. Given the critical role that parents play in this process, and that children of teen mothers are at risk for poorer developmental outcomes, it is important to understand the development of compliance in the context of at-risk parenting such as adolescent motherhood. The current study examined child compliance (Wave 5; W5) as a mediator of the association between adolescent mothers’ social competence (Wave 4; W4) and children's behavioral and academic outcomes (Wave 6; W6), and whether this mediation varied depending on children's effortful control (W4) in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (Mage at W4 = 19.94, SD = .99) and their children (Mage at W4 = 36.21 months, SD = .45). Adolescent mothers reported on their own social competence and their children's effortful control and externalizing problems; compliance was assessed using observational methods; and academic readiness was assessed using standardized developmental assessments. Findings based on structural equation modeling revealed that adolescent mothers’ social competence was positively related to children's compliance among children with high effortful control, but not among those with low effortful control. Moreover, child compliance mediated the longitudinal association between adolescent mothers’ social competence and child externalizing problems and academic readiness. Discussion focuses on the importance of considering the role of child temperament in understanding how adolescent mothers’ social competence is subsequently associated with children's social and academic adjustment.
      PubDate: 2017-02-21T00:15:38.277313-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12238
  • Longitudinal associations among adolescents’ organized activity
           involvement and sociopolitical values
    • Authors: Benjamin Oosterhoff; Kaitlyn A. Ferris, Cara A. Palmer, Aaron Metzger
      Abstract: Organized activities represent a potentially important context for the development of adolescent sociopolitical values, but few studies have examined longitudinal associations between youths’ sociopolitical values and activity involvement. Adolescents (N = 299, Time 1 Mage = 15.49, SD = .93, 62% female) reported on their organized activity involvement (volunteering, church, sports, arts/music, school and community clubs) and sociopolitical values (materialism, social dominance, authoritarianism, patriotism, spirituality) at baseline and one year later. Greater involvement in arts/music predicted lower spirituality and patriotism one year later and greater involvement in church predicted higher levels of spirituality and lower levels of social dominance one year later. Higher levels of materialism predicted less involvement in arts/music one year later and higher social dominance values predicted less involvement in volunteering one year later. Findings support the importance of organized activities in sociopolitical development, and suggest that sociopolitical values may guide decisions concerning future organized activity involvement.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T22:47:06.599581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12230
  • Children's awareness concerning emotion regulation strategies: Effects of
           attachment status
    • Authors: Catrinel A. Ştefan; Julia Avram, Mircea Miclea
      Abstract: The current study evaluated the effects of preschoolers' attachment status on their awareness concerning emotion regulation strategies. A total of 212 children between 3 and 5 years participated in this study and completed two self-report tasks. The first was the Attachment Story Completion Task (ASCT), which assessed children's internal working models concerning parent–child attachment; the second evaluated children's ability to generate emotion regulation strategies in relation to three negative emotions (anger, sadness, and fear). Statistical analyses involved a mixed models multilinear regression approach controlling for age and gender. The results consistently revealed that the insecure avoidant group was significantly less likely than securely attached children to generate both comforting and self-regulatory strategies. Surprisingly, the insecure ambivalent group showed no deficits across measured outcomes. When the analyses were conducted separately for each negative emotion, findings for co-regulatory strategies for fear, and self-regulatory strategies for anger also suggested that avoidantly attached children exhibited the lowest levels of awareness compared with children from the secure attachment group. These findings stress the importance of children's attachment status, and implicitly, the quality of the parent–child interactions for children's awareness of emotion regulation strategies related to negative emotions.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:50:29.645699-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12234
  • Observed and parent-reported conscience in childhood: Relations with
           bullying involvement in early primary school
    • Authors: Pauline W. Jansen; Barbara Zwirs, Marina Verlinden, Cathelijne L. Mieloo, Vincent W. V. Jaddoe, Albert Hofman, Frank C. Verhulst, Wilma Jansen, Marinus H. van Ijzendoorn, Henning Tiemeier
      Abstract: This exploratory study aimed to examine which components of early childhood conscience predicted bullying involvement around school entry. In the population-based Generation R Study, teacher reports of bullying involvement and parent reports of conscience were available for 3,244 children (M age = 6.7 years). Higher levels of overall conscience predicted lower bullying perpetration scores, independently of intelligence quotient, temperamental traits and sociodemographic characteristics. Particularly, the subscales guilt, confession, and internalized conduct, and to a lesser extent empathy, predicted bullying perpetration. Conscience was not related to victimization. Similar results were found using observations during so-called ‘cheating games’ (subsample N = 450 children). Findings suggest that improving children's understanding of moral standards and norms may be a potential target for bullying intervention programs in early primary school.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:45:22.557195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12233
  • Academic competence perceptions moderate the effects of peer support
           following academic success disclosures
    • Authors: Ellen Rydell Altermatt
      Abstract: Academic successes are a common part of children's daily lives. Prior research indicates that children frequently attempt to capitalize on these events by sharing the good news with peers. This short-term longitudinal study of third- through seventh-grade students (N = 359) provides evidence that, for children with low academic competence perceptions, peer academic support in the form of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures can be a double-edged sword. Regardless of their self-views, perceptions of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures were associated with a greater willingness to disclose academic successes to friends and higher perceptions of peer academic support over time. For children with low academic competence perceptions, however, perceptions of enthusiastic responses to academic success disclosures also predicted heightened academic worry which, in turn, predicted greater endorsement of performance–avoidance goals over time. Future research will be critical in developing interventions that can assist children with low academic competence perceptions in more fully enjoying the benefits that can accrue from capitalization attempts.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T21:35:25.282822-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12235
  • Diathesis stress or differential susceptibility' testing longitudinal
           associations between parenting, temperament, and children's problem
    • Authors: Sabine Stoltz; Roseriet Beijers, Sanny Smeekens, Maja Deković
      Abstract: In this study we investigated longitudinal associations among parenting, children's temperamental negative affectivity, and internalizing and externalizing behavior. Second, we tested whether findings confirmed the diathesis-stress model or differential susceptibility theory when conducting stringent interaction tests. The sample included 129 children and their families. Parenting quality (age 5) was measured by parent–child interaction observations. Parents evaluated child negative affectivity (age 7) and teachers reported on problem behavior (age 12). Multiple regression analyses revealed an interaction effect of negative affectivity and parenting on externalizing behavior. Visual inspection suggested ‘for better and for worse’ effects of parenting for children with negative affectivity. However, more stringent tests failed to show convincing evidence for differential susceptibility theory. For internalizing behavior, negative affectivity may render children vulnerable regardless of parenting. Our results point at the importance of further testing interaction effects to distinguish between differential susceptibility theory and the diathesis-stress model.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:50:49.547906-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12237
  • Aggressive behaviour in adolescence: Links with self-esteem and parental
           emotional availability
    • Authors: Alessandra Babore; Leonardo Carlucci, Fedele Cataldi, Vicky Phares, Carmen Trumello
      Abstract: Aggressive behaviours during adolescence may be predictive of later conduct disorders, hence it is important to early detect their signals and deepen the study of their possible risk factors. In order to address these issues, our study pursued two main objectives: to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Italian adaptation of the Aggression Questionnaire Short-Form (AQ-SF), a form never previously used among Italian adolescents; and to investigate the relation among aggressiveness, emotional relationship with both parents and self-esteem in a sample of adolescents. Our results highlighted that psychometric properties of the Italian AQ-SF are satisfactory and encourage a wider use of this tool; in addition, we found that self-esteem plays a mediation role between parental emotional availability and aggression. Prevention efforts should focus on improving the relationship with both parents and strengthening adolescent's self-esteem.
      PubDate: 2017-02-03T02:40:45.425117-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12236
  • Supporting the development of empathy: The role of theory of mind and
           fantasy orientation
    • Authors: Melissa McInnis Brown; Rachel B. Thibodeau, Jillian M. Pierucci, Ansley Tullos Gilpin
      Abstract: Theory of mind (ToM) and empathy are separate, but related components of social understanding. However, research has not clearly defined the distinctions between them. Similarly, related constructs, such as fantasy orientation (FO), are associated with better ToM understanding; however, little is known about how FO may provide a context in which both ToM and affective empathy develop. Children between the ages of 3 and 5 (N = 82) completed a battery of ToM, empathy, and FO measures. Results demonstrated a developmental progression from ToM to affective empathy: 3-year-olds were likely to have neither, 4-year-olds were likely to have ToM only, and 5-year-olds were likely to have both. Additionally, results indicated that FO predicted affective empathy above and beyond ToM ability, suggesting that children whose play is high in fantasy are more practiced than their peers in sharing emotions. These findings are discussed in terms of how children's propensity toward fantasy play may contribute to their social development.
      PubDate: 2017-02-01T22:05:32.023882-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12232
  • Executive function and theory of mind as predictors of aggressive and
           prosocial behavior and peer acceptance in early childhood
    • Authors: Sarah E. O'Toole; Claire P. Monks, Stella Tsermentseli
      Abstract: Executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) are related to children's social interactions, such as aggression and prosocial behavior, as well as their peer acceptance. However, limited research has examined different forms of aggression and the moderating role of gender. This study investigated links between EF, ToM, physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior and peer acceptance and explored whether these relations are gender specific. Children (N = 106) between 46- and 80-months-old completed tasks assessing cool and hot EF and ToM. Teaching staff rated children's aggression, prosocial behavior, and peer acceptance. EF and ToM predicted physical, but not relational, aggression. Poor inhibition and delay of gratification were uniquely associated with greater physical aggression. EF and ToM did not predict prosocial behavior or peer acceptance. Added to this, gender did not moderate the relation between either EF or ToM and social outcomes. The correlates of aggression may therefore differ across forms of aggression but not between genders in early childhood.
      PubDate: 2017-01-25T22:05:33.305093-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12231
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 225 - 226
      PubDate: 2017-04-07T00:02:01.038216-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12209
  • Deconstructing maternal sensitivity: Predictive relations to mother-child
           attachment in home and laboratory settings
    • Authors: Heidi N. Bailey; Annie Bernier, Andrée-Anne Bouvette-Turcot, George M. Tarabulsy, David R. Pederson, Fabienne Becker-Stoll
      Abstract: Despite the well-documented importance of parental sensitivity for child development, there is a lack of consensus regarding how best to assess it. We investigated the factor structure of maternal caregiving behavior as assessed at 12 months by the Maternal Behavior Q-Sort (Pederson & Moran) with 274 mother-infant dyads. Subsequently, we examined associations between these empirically-derived dimensions and child attachment, assessed in the home and laboratory (final N = 157). Three dimensions of maternal behavior were identified, corresponding fairly closely to Ainsworth's original scales. They were labeled Cooperation/Attunement, Positivity, and Accessibility/Availability. Only Cooperation/Attunement consistently predicted home-based attachment at 15 months and 2 years, and at comparable strength to the overall sensitivity score, suggesting that this construct may be central to sensitivity. At 18 months, compared to their primarily secure counterparts, different types of laboratory-assessed insecure attachment were associated with different patterns of maternal behavior. Mothers in avoidant relationships (n = 18) were low on Cooperation/Attunement and Accessibility/Availability, but fairly high on Positivity. Mothers of disorganized infants (n = 11) were Cooperative/Attuned but somewhat less Positive toward, and less Accessible/Available to, their infants. A multidimensional approach to parental behavior may facilitate the identification of parenting precursors of insecure parent-child relationships.
      PubDate: 2016-11-22T20:45:24.209851-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12220
  • Daily links between school problems and youth perceptions of interactions
           with parents: A diary study of school-to-home spillover
    • Authors: Sunhye Bai; Bridget M. Reynolds, Theodore F. Robles, Rena L. Repetti
      Abstract: This study examined how academic and peer problems at school are linked to family interactions at home on the same day, using eight consecutive weeks of daily diary data collected from early adolescents (60% female; M age = 11.28, SD = 1.50), mothers and fathers in 47 families. On days when children reported more academic problems at school, they, but not their parents, reported less warmth and more conflict with mothers, and more conflict and less time spent around fathers. These effects were partially explained by same-day child reports of higher negative mood. Peer problems were less consistently associated with parent-child interactions over and above the effects of academic problems that day. A one-time measure of parent-child relationship quality moderated several daily associations, such that the same-day link between school problems and child-report of family interactions was stronger among children who were closer to their parents.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10T22:25:22.720357-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12229
  • Narrative skills predict peer adjustment across elementary school years
    • Authors: Alice J. Davidson; Marsha D. Walton, Bhavna Kansal, Robert Cohen
      Abstract: The importance of peer adjustment in middle childhood coincides with developing social cognitive and discursive skills that include the ability to make personal narrative accounts. Authoring personal stories promotes attention to the sequence of events, the causal connections between events, the moral significance of what has happened, and the motives that drive human action: these skills may be critical for the establishment and maintenance of satisfying peer relationships during elementary school. This study extended previous research by considering whether narrative skills in written stories about peer interactions predicted peer adjustment. As part of an ongoing longitudinal study, 92 children wrote narratives about peer experiences and completed surveys on measures of peer adjustment for two school years. Cross-lagged panel models indicated that chronological and thematic coherence and reports of moral concerns in narratives in the first year of the study contributed to lower peer disliking in the subsequent academic year. Reports of motives in Year 1 narratives contributed to lower levels of loneliness and peer victimization in Year 2. Writing personal narratives that are coherent and attentive to moral concerns and motives may be especially beneficial for children who have difficulty connecting with peers. We discuss implications for classroom practices.
      PubDate: 2016-11-10T21:55:23.264653-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12219
  • Parent emotion socialization and children's socioemotional adjustment:
           when is supportiveness no longer supportive'
    • Authors: Scott P. Mirabile; Dejah Oertwig, Amy G. Halberstadt
      Abstract: Parents' supportive emotion socialization behaviors promote children's socioemotional competence in early childhood, but the nature of parents' supportiveness may change over time, as children continue to develop their emotion-related abilities and enter contexts that require more complex and nuanced social skills and greater autonomy. To test whether associations between parents' supportiveness of children's negative emotions and children's socioemotional adjustment vary with child age, 81 parents of 3- to 6-year-old children completed questionnaires assessing their responses to children's negative emotions and their children's emotion regulation, lability, social competence, and behavioral adjustment. As predicted, child age moderated the associations between parents' supportiveness and children's socioemotional adjustment. For younger children, parents' supportiveness predicted better emotion regulation and less anxiety/internalizing and anger/externalizing problems. However, for older children, these associations were reversed, suggesting that socialization strategies which were supportive for younger children may fail to foster socioemotional competence among 5- to 6-year-old children. These results suggest the importance of considering emotion socialization as a dynamic, developmental process, and that parents' socialization of children's emotions might need to change in response to children's developing emotional competencies and social demands.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:55:29.105985-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12226
  • Substance use and decision-making in adolescent best friendship dyads: The
           role of popularity
    • Authors: Erik de Water; William J. Burk, Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Anouk Scheres
      Abstract: In adolescent best friendship dyads, we examined: (a) similarity in substance use and decision-making; (b) associations between participants' decision-making and their own and best friend's substance use, (c) the influence of relative popularity within the dyad on these associations. Participants (n = 172; 12–18 years) named their best friend, completed popularity ratings, and a substance use questionnaire. Computer tasks were administered to assess risk-taking and immediate reward preferences. Reciprocated same-sex best friendship dyads (n = 49) were distinguished on their popularity, and we controlled for age differences between dyads in the analyses. Best friends were similar in substance use and risk-taking preferences. More popular friends' risk-taking preferences were positively associated with alcohol use of less popular friends. These findings underscore best friendship similarity in risky behaviors, and the influence of popular friends.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:51:07.128299-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12227
  • Young adults in the United States and Benin reason about gendered cultural
    • Authors: Clare Conry-Murray; Leigh A. Shaw
      Abstract: This study explored emerging and young adults’ reasoning about cultural practices in West Africa. American (Study 1, n = 78, M = 20.76 years) and Beninese (Study 2, n = 93, M = 23.61 years) undergraduates were surveyed about their evaluations of corporal punishment, scarification, and schooling restrictions in conditions where the practices had gender-neutral or gender-specified targets. In Study 1, the majority (69%) of American participants negatively evaluated the practices, especially when targets were female. However, the majority (73%) assumed the cultural practices were consensual. In Study 2, the majority (76%) of Beninese participants negatively evaluated the practices, and their evaluations did not vary by gender of the target. Few (10%) Beninese participants assumed the cultural practices were consensual. In both studies, emerging and young adults who initially judged practices positively changed their evaluations with a change in consent.
      PubDate: 2016-11-06T22:40:30.198868-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12228
  • Gene-environment correlations in the cross-generational transmission of
           parenting: Grandparenting moderates the effect of child 5-HTTLPR genotype
           on mothers' parenting
    • Authors: Daniel C. Kopala-Sibley; Elizabeth P. Hayden, Shiva M. Singh, Haroon I. Sheikh, Katie R. Kryski, Daniel N. Klein
      Abstract: Evidence suggests that parenting is associated cross-generationally and that children's genes may elicit specific parenting styles (evocative gene-environment correlation). This study examined whether the effect of children's genotype, specifically 5-HTTLPR, on mothers' parenting behaviors was moderated by her own parenting experiences from her mother. Two independent samples of three-year-olds (N = 476 and 405) were genotyped for the serotonin transporter gene, and observational measures of parenting were collected. Mothers completed measures of the parenting they received as children. The child having a short allele on 5-HTTLPR was associated with more maternal hostility (Samples 1 and 2) and with less maternal support (Sample 1), but only if the mother reported lower quality grandmothers' parenting (abuse and indifference in Sample 1 and lower levels of grandmother care in Sample 2). Results support the possibility of a moderated evocative gene-environment correlation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-28T00:55:36.976289-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12221
  • Do young children preferentially trust gossip or firsthand observation in
           choosing a collaborative partner'
    • Authors: Lou Haux; Jan M. Engelmann, Esther Herrmann, Michael Tomasello
      Abstract: From early on in ontogeny, young children hear things being said about particular individuals. Here we investigate the ways in which testimony with social content, that is, gossip, influences children's decision-making. We explored whether five-year-old (N = 72) and seven-year-old (N = 72) children trust gossip or firsthand observation in a partner choice setting. Seven-year-old children preferentially trusted what they had seen firsthand over gossip; five-year-old children, in contrast, did not differentiate between these two sources of information. However, five-year-old children (but not seven-year-olds) generally gave negative information more weight, that is, they showed a “negativity bias.” These results suggest that at around school age, young children become more “epistemically vigilant” about gossip.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T22:20:23.615756-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12225
  • Self-control, peer preference, and loneliness in Chinese children: A
           three-year longitudinal study
    • Authors: Junsheng Liu; Bowen Xiao, Will E. Hipson, Robert J. Coplan, Dan Li, Xinyin Chen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal links among Chinese children's self-control, social experiences, and loneliness, largely from a developmental cascades perspective (which postulates mechanisms about how effects within a particular domain of functioning can impact across additional domains over time). Participants were N = 1,066 primary school students in Shanghai, P. R. China, who were followed over three years from Grade 3 to Grade 5. Measures of children's behavioral self-control, peer preference, and loneliness were obtained each year from peer nominations and child self-reports. Results indicated that as compared with the unidirectional and bidirectional models, the developmental cascade model represented the best fit for the data. Within this model, a number of significant direct and indirect pathways were identified among variables and over time. For example, self-control was found to indirectly contribute to later decreases in loneliness via a pathway through peer preference. As well, peer preference both directly and indirectly contributed to later increases in self-control. Finally, loneliness directly led to decreases in self-control from Grade 3 to Grade 4, but not from Grade 4 to Grade 5. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of self-control for Chinese children's social and emotional functioning over time.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T01:10:30.954161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12224
  • Parents' beliefs about children's emotions, children's emotion
           understanding, and classroom adjustment in middle childhood
    • Authors: Patricia T. Garrett-Peters; Vanessa L. Castro, Amy G. Halberstadt
      Abstract: To explore how parental socialization of emotion may influence children's emotion understanding, which then guides children's interpretations of emotion-related situations across contexts, we examined the pathways between socialization of emotion and children's adjustment in the classroom, with children's emotion understanding as an intervening variable. Specifically, children's emotion understanding was examined as a mediator of associations between mothers' beliefs about the value and danger of children's emotions and children's adjustment in the classroom within an SEM framework. Classroom adjustment was estimated as a latent variable and included social, emotional, and behavioral indices. Covariates included maternal education, and child gender and ethnicity. Participants were a diverse group of 201 third-graders (116 African American, 81 European American, 4 Biracial; 48.8% female), their mothers, and teachers. Results revealed that emotion-related beliefs (value and danger) had no direct influence on classroom adjustment. However, children whose mothers endorsed the belief that emotions are dangerous demonstrated less emotion understanding and were less well-adjusted in the classroom. Mothers' belief that emotions are valuable was not independently associated with emotion understanding. Findings point to the important role of emotion understanding in children's development across contexts (family, classroom) and developmental domains (social, emotional, behavioral) during the middle childhood years.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T01:05:26.072673-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12222
  • The role of interactions with teachers and conflict with friends in
           shaping school adjustment
    • Authors: Dan Wang; Anne C. Fletcher
      Abstract: Fifth grade children (N = 346) identified school friends and reported on levels of conflict in relationships with these friends as well as perceived stress in relationships with teachers. Teachers and children provided ratings of problem behaviors at school, and children reported on their own perceptions of stress at school. Both less conflictual school friendships and less stressful relationships with teachers were linked with fewer feelings of stress and lower levels of problem problems at school. For the problem behaviors outcome, having more positive relationships with one set of others (teachers or friends) buffered children from experiencing negative consequences of poor relationships with the other set of individuals. The interaction effect involving friendship conflicts and stressful teacher interactions in relation to school stress was more complicated, differing for boys versus girls.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T21:15:21.04197-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12218
  • Parent–child negative emotion reciprocity and children's school success:
           An emotion-attention process model
    • Authors: Anat Moed; Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Nancy Eisenberg, Claire Hofer, Sandra Losoya, Tracy L. Spinrad, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Research has demonstrated that emotions expressed in parent–child relationships are associated with children's school success. Yet the types of emotional expressions, and the mechanisms by which emotional expressions are linked with children's success in school, are unclear. In the present article, we focused on negative emotion reciprocity in parent–child interactions. Using structural equation modeling of data from 138 parent to child dyads [children's mean age at Time 1 (T1) was 13.44 years, SD = 1.16], we tested children's negative emotionality (CNE) at T1 and low attention focusing (LAF) at Time 2 (T2) as sequential mediators in the relation between parent and child negative emotion reciprocity at T1 and children's grade point average (GPA) and inhibitory control at T2. Our findings supported an emotion-attention process model: parent–child negative emotion reciprocity at T1 predicted CNE at T1, which predicted children's LAF at T2, which was, in turn, related to low inhibitory control at T2. Findings regarding children's GPA were less conclusive but did suggest an overall association of negative reciprocity and the two mediators with children's GPA. Our findings are discussed in terms of emotion regulation processes in children from negatively reciprocating dyads, and the effects of these processes on children's ability to obtain and use skills needed for success in school.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T21:10:20.726575-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12217
  • Does the desire to conform to peers moderate links between popularity and
           indirect victimization in early adolescence'
    • Authors: Leanna M. Closson; Nicole C. Hart, Leslie D. Hogg
      Abstract: This study of 426 Canadian early adolescents (Mage = 12.52; 53% girls) investigated whether associations between popularity and indirect victimization (i.e., reputational victimization, exclusion) varied as a function of gender and the desire to conform to characteristics and competencies that are valued within the peer group (i.e., peer conformity goals). Regression analyses revealed popularity was uniquely and positively associated with reputational victimization, but was not significantly related to exclusion after accounting for the effects of meanness and likeability. The associations between popularity and indirect victimization were moderated by peer conformity goals and gender. The results indicated that popular girls with high peer conformity goals experienced more reputational victimization and exclusion than popular girls with low peer conformity goals. However, popular boys with high peer conformity goals experienced less exclusion than popular boys with low peer conformity goals. The findings suggest that peer conformity goals carry with them some risks for popular girls, but may serve a protective function for popular boys.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T20:30:24.08023-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12223
  • Differential parenting and children's social understanding
    • Authors: Sharon Pauker; Michal Perlman, Heather Prime, Jennifer M. Jenkins
      Abstract: In the current study, a curvilinear association was examined between differential parenting and children's social understanding as measured using standardized assessments and behavioral observations. Social understanding was comprised of theory-of-mind and behavior indicating understanding of others’ minds (i.e., cognitive sensitivity and internal state talk and reasoning during sibling interactions). Data came from a community sample of 372 children (51.6% males; M age = 5.57, SD = 0.77), their younger siblings (M age = 3.14, SD = 0.27), and their mothers who were observed in their homes. We hypothesized that in families with higher levels of differential parenting, both favored and disfavored older siblings would display poorer social understanding, but that disfavored children would be more negatively impacted. Results from a hierarchical regression analysis indicated an inverse linear effect, rather than a curvilinear relationship, between being favored by mother and siblings’ social understanding. Specifically, disfavored older children showed higher levels of social understanding when interacting with their favored younger sibling. This relationship remained significant after controlling for variables such as age, SES, and language. Findings suggest that differential parenting plays a role in children's ability to understand others.
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T22:21:24.070012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12214
  • Friends in high places: A dyadic perspective on peer status as predictor
           of friendship quality and the mediating role of empathy and prosocial
    • Authors: Rosa Meuwese; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Berna Güroğlu
      Abstract: Friendships and peer status play important roles in the social landscape of adolescents and are related to developmental outcomes. Yet, how peer status is related to friendship quality and what role social skills play in this association remains unclear. In this study, we use Actor–Partner Interdependence (Mediation) Modeling (Ledermann, Macho, & Kenny, 2011) to investigate how two forms of peer status, preference and popularity, are related to positive and negative friendship quality in mid-adolescence. Results show that adolescents who are friends with more preferred (i.e., likeable) and popular adolescents report higher friendship quality. These partner effects were partially mediated by adolescents’ own prosocial behavior and their friends’ empathy levels. Higher levels of empathy of one's friend and one's own lesser preference for equity explained why adolescents were more satisfied in a friendship with highly preferred (i.e., likeable) adolescents. Interestingly, empathy was not a mediator for the link between friendship quality and popularity. These findings promote a better understanding of the interplay between different levels of social complexity (i.e., individual, dyadic and peer group level) in adolescence.
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T22:16:38.698136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12213
  • Exuberance, attention bias, and externalizing behaviors in Chinese
           preschoolers: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Jie He; Pengchao Li, Weiyang Wu, Shuyi Zhai
      Abstract: Exuberance, a temperament type influenced by approach motivation, has been found to be associated with maladaptive behaviors such as more externalizing behaviors in early childhood. A possible mechanism underlying it is children's selective attention to environmental cues. However, few studies have investigated the effect of attention bias on the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors. This longitudinal study examined the association of temperamental exuberance (as assessed by behavioral observation and parental report) at 3 years old with attention bias to reward and punishment (as assessed by a spatial cueing task) and teachers' reports of externalizing behaviors at 5 years old in 153 Chinese preschool-age children. As predicted, externalizing behaviors were positively predicted by exuberance and attention bias to reward. However, novel findings were that attention bias to punishment moderated the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors, such that exuberant children showed an increased risk of externalizing behaviors when they did not have high punishment bias. The results highlight attention bias to punishment as an important factor for the development of behavioral problems in exuberant children.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:51:17.873897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12215
  • Self-regulation in early childhood: The role of siblings, center care and
           socioeconomic status
    • Authors: Agathe Backer-Grøndahl; Ane Nærde
      Abstract: Differences in children's self-regulation are assumed to be explained by genetic factors, socialization experiences, and sociodemographic risk. As for socialization, little research has addressed the influence of having siblings or attending early center based child care on emerging self-regulation. As regarding sociodemographic risk, few studies have been conducted in countries characterized by high equality and little poverty. In a longitudinal study following 1157 children, we investigated presence of siblings, center care exposure in the first 3 years of life (attendance, hours, and child group size), and family socioeconomic status (SES) as predictors of hot and cool effortful control (EC), at the child's age 48 months. The results showed that having a sibling was consistently related to better hot EC, whereas higher SES predicted better cool EC. A small effect implied that hours in center care at 36 months negatively predicted hot EC, whereas center care group size at 36 months modestly predicted better cool EC. Otherwise, center care variables were unrelated to self-regulation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:36:22.086583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12216
  • Different ways of knowing a child and their relations to mother-reported
           autonomy support
    • Authors: Geneviève A. Mageau; Amanda Sherman, Joan E. Grusec, Richard Koestner, Julien S. Bureau
      Abstract: We considered how different forms of child knowledge (i.e., mothers’ reports of taking their child's perspective, their accurate knowledge in the form of precise predictions of their child's ratings regarding distress/comforting and compliance/discipline situations, and their perceived knowledge) are differentially associated with mother-reported autonomy support (i.e., providing meaningful rationales, providing choice, and acknowledging feelings; Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, ). Mothers and their children (141 dyads, M = 11 years old at Time 1) participated in a two-wave longitudinal study with assessments made two years apart. The only form of knowledge that predicted changes in autonomy support was perspective-taking. Autonomy support, in turn, indirectly predicted changes in distress/comforting accuracy through child-reported self-disclosure and directly predicted changes in perceived knowledge. These findings underline the importance of differentiating among forms of child knowledge in the study of socialization processes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:30:39.259916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12212
  • Popularity: Does it magnify associations between popularity prioritization
           and the bullying and defending behavior of early adolescent boys and
    • Authors: Amanda L. Duffy; Sarah Penn, Drew Nesdale, Melanie J. Zimmer-Gembeck
      Abstract: We investigated the contribution of popularity, popularity prioritization, and gender to the explanation of bullying and defending behavior. Participants were 191 early adolescents (124 girls and 67 boys), aged from 10.9 to 13.6 years. Results revealed that adolescents high on popularity were more likely to bully others. Greater popularity prioritization was also associated with more bullying among boys with high levels, and girls with low levels, of popularity. In addition, popularity was positively related to defending among girls, but not boys. Lower popularity prioritization also contributed to greater defending overall. The implications of these findings for understanding bullying and defending are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T20:15:29.177856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12206
  • Role of Expertise, Consensus, and Informational Valence in Children's
           Performance Judgments
    • Authors: Janet J. Boseovski; Kimberly E. Marble, Chelsea Hughes
      Abstract: Two experiments examined the role of expertise, consensus, and informational valence on children's acceptance of informant testimony about the quality of work produced by a target child. In Experiment 1, 96 4- to 5.9-year-olds and 6- to 8-year-olds were told about an expert who gave a positive or negative assessment of art or music that was contradicted by one layperson or a consensus of three laypersons. Generally, participants endorsed positive assessments as correct irrespective of expertise and consensus, but older children were more likely than younger children to want to learn from the expert in the future. To examine whether reluctance to accept expertise was due to the negative quality of the information, the expert in Experiment 2 simply stated that additional work was needed. Both age groups selected the expert as correct and reported wanting to learn from the expert in the future. Contributions to social learning models are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02T00:36:28.997581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12205
  • Affective ties and social information processing
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Lemerise; Amanda Thorn, Jennifer Maulden Costello
      Abstract: We examined whether second- and fifth-graders could display differentiated social information processing (SIP) about known peers varying in affective ties. Children's response evaluation and decision (RED) and goal importance ratings were obtained for nine ambiguous provocations involving their best friends, neutral peers, and enemies (three stories for each relationship). For each story, RED was assessed for hostile, competent and passive responses to provocation, and the importance of four social goals was rated. Both second- and fifth-graders displayed RED that depended on both the type of relationship they had with the provocateur and on the type of response (hostile, competent or passive). Children's social goals were affected by their relationship with the provocateur. Younger children's failure to display sensitivity to situational cues in previous studies is likely due to the cognitive demands of reasoning about hypothetical characters rather than an insensitivity to situational cues, per se.
      PubDate: 2016-07-31T23:01:56.856806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12207
  • Effect of Pet Dogs on Children's Perceived Stress and Cortisol Stress
    • Authors: Darlene A. Kertes; Jingwen Liu, Nathan J. Hall, Natalie A. Hadad, Clive D. L. Wynne, Samarth S. Bhatt
      Abstract: The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress-buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory-based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Participants were 101 children aged 7–12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST-C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self-reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol. Results indicated that in the alone (no social support) condition, children showed the expected rise for both perceived stress and cortisol response to stress. Pet dog presence significantly buffered the perceived stress response in comparison to children in the alone and parent present conditions. No main condition effect was observed for cortisol; however, for children experiencing the stressor with their pet present, lower cortisol response to stress was associated with more child-initiated petting and less dog proximity-seeking behavior. The results support the notion that pet dogs can provide socio-emotional benefits for children via stress buffering.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T22:50:27.091867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12203
  • Bidirectional Associations Between Parental Responsiveness and Executive
           Function During Early Childhood
    • Authors: Emily C. Merz; Susan H. Landry, Janelle J. Montroy, Jeffrey M. Williams
      Abstract: In this study, we examined bidirectional associations between parental responsiveness and executive function (EF) processes in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Participants were 534 3- to 5-year-old children (71 percent Hispanic/Latino; 28 percent African American; 1 percent European American) attending Head Start programs. At Time 1 (T1) and 6.5 months later at Time 2 (T2), parents and children participated in a videotaped free play session and children completed delay inhibition (gift delay-wrap, gift delay-bow) and conflict EF (bear/dragon, dimensional change card sort) tasks. Parental warm acceptance, contingent responsiveness, and verbal scaffolding were coded from the free play videos and aggregated to create a parental responsiveness latent variable. A cross-lagged panel structural equation model indicated that higher T1 parental responsiveness significantly predicted more positive gain in delay inhibition and conflict EF from T1 to T2. Higher T1 delay inhibition, but not T1 conflict EF, significantly predicted more positive change in parental responsiveness from T1 to T2. These associations were not explained by several possible confounding variables, including children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, and verbal ability. Findings suggest that parental responsiveness may support EF development in disadvantaged children, with reciprocal effects of delay inhibition on parental responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T09:10:30.115937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12204
  • The Influence of Competition on Resource Allocation in Preschool Children
    • Authors: Anna-Theresa Pappert; Amanda Williams, Chris Moore
      Abstract: To examine how competition influences resource allocation in 4- to 6-year-olds, children were assigned to one of two conditions. In the experimental condition children colored a picture for a coloring contest whereas in the control condition they colored a picture to decorate a wall. Subsequently, all children participated in a resource allocation task with another child who was introduced as another participant in the coloring contest or who would also be coloring a picture for the wall. Finally, children were asked how many crayons (out of eight) they wanted to provide to the other child. In the resource allocation task, children made decisions about how to allocate stickers to self and other across four trial types: cost and no cost variations of both advantageous and disadvantageous inequality trials. Children were less prosocial in the experimental condition than in the control condition but only in disadvantageous inequality trials involving a cost. Children in the experimental condition withheld more crayons compared to children in the control condition. These results suggest that competition not only decreases prosocial behavior directly linked to the competition but also decreases generosity when provided with an unrelated resource allocation opportunity.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T23:01:02.760927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12202
  • Mutual Positive Emotion with Peers, Emotion Knowledge, and Preschoolers'
           Peer Acceptance
    • Authors: Eric W. Lindsey
      Abstract: Preschool children's emotion knowledge was examined as a possible mediator of the link between their mutual positive emotional expressiveness with peers and peer acceptance. Data were collected from 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity; M age = 57.61 months) over a period of 2 years. In year 1 observations were made of children's emotional expressiveness with peers, and children completed sociometric interviews. In year 2, children completed emotion knowledge interviews and sociometric interviews. Analyses revealed that children who expressed more mutual positive emotion with peers in year 1 were better liked by peers in year 2, after controlling for year 1 peer acceptance. Mutual positive emotion in year 1 was associated with children's emotion knowledge in year 2. Both year 1 mutual positive emotion and year 2 emotion knowledge made independent contributions to peer acceptance in year 2.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:50:22.38183-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12201
  • Language Matching Among Mother-child Dyads: Associations with Child
           Attachment and Emotion Reactivity
    • Authors: Jessica L. Borelli; Kizzann A. Ramsook, Patricia Smiley, David Kyle Bond, Jessica L. West, Katherine H. Buttitta
      Abstract: Links between mother-infant affective matching and attachment security are well-documented, but research on other types of behavioral matching and attachment security are lacking, as are studies that examine these constructs later in children's development. We examine language style matching (LSM) between mothers and their school-aged children (N = 68), using interviews with each dyad member. As predicted, regressions revealed that higher mother-child relational LSM was associated with greater child attachment security (operationalized as high security, low dismissal), and that higher LSM predicted smaller increases in children's electrodermal response to a relational probe 1.5 years later. Further, mother-child relational LSM was a mediator in the indirect path between children's attachment security and children's reactivity. We discuss the potential utility of LSM as a measure of relationship quality and future studies that could refine our understanding of parent-child language matching.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:45:22.999885-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12200
  • School Bullying and Moral Reasoning Competence
    • Authors: Michael Grundherr; Anja Geisler, Manuel Stoiber, Mechthild Schäfer
      Abstract: To examine whether high moral reasoning competence of adolescents is associated with low levels of bullying, and to understand whether moral disengagement mediates or moderates this relationship, 925 German children ranging from 11 to 17 years of age (M = 14.18, SD = 1.21) completed questionnaires on moral reasoning competence and moral disengagement in surveys at three different schools. The children were classified according to their bullying role, based on a peer-nomination procedure. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that moral reasoning competence negatively predicted whether a student took an aggressive role. Moral disengagement partially mediated this relationship. Corresponding effects for defenders and outsiders were not found. These results extend previous findings about the effect of moral reasoning on bullying in primary school. The implications for the prevention of bullying are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:40:24.203482-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12199
  • Measuring Children's Church-Based Social Support: Development and Initial
           Validation of the Kids’ Church Survey
    • Authors: Robert G. Crosby; Erin I. Smith
      Abstract: Given the importance of considering context in development, the goal of the present study was to develop and provide initial validity evidence for the Kids’ Church Survey (KCS), a new measure of children's church-based social support. Data were collected from 1253 children ages 6–14 attending mainline Protestant, evangelical Protestant, and Catholic churches. Parallel and exploratory factor analyses supported a three-factor solution: received (emotional) church support, perceived church support from peers, and perceived church support from adults. Confirmatory models conducted with independent samples provided an excellent fit for the data. All three scales evidenced acceptable internal (.78–.92) and test–retest (.88–.95) reliability. Measurement invariance was demonstrated across genders and age groups, with the exception of the perceived peer support scale, which was not invariant across ages. The KCS was sensitive to between-church differences in children's programs and incrementally predicted self-esteem, prosocial behavior, and spirituality. Applications for researchers, mental health practitioners, and clergy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T23:31:47.101771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12198
  • Bullying Involvement and Empathy: Child and Target Characteristics
    • Authors: Tirza H. J. van Noorden; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Gerbert J. T. Haselager, Tessa A. M. Lansu, William M. Bukowski
      Abstract: This study investigated how the bullying involvement of a child and a target peer are related to empathy. The role of gender was also considered. We hypothesized that empathy primarily varies depending on the bullying role of the target peer. Participants were 264 7–12-year-old children (Mage = 10.02, SD = 1.00; 50% girls) from 33 classrooms who had been selected based on their bullying involvement (bully, victim, bully/victim, noninvolved) in the classroom. Participants completed a cognitive and affective empathy measure for each selected target classmate. We found no differences in cognitive and affective empathy for all targets combined based on children's own bullying involvement. However, when incorporating the targets’ bullying involvement, bullies, victims, and bully/victims showed less empathy for each other than for noninvolved peers. Noninvolved children did not differentiate between bullies, victims and bully/victims. Girls reported more cognitive and affective empathy for girls than boys, whereas boys did not differentiate between girls and boys. The results indicated that children's empathy for peers depends primarily on the characteristics of the peer, such as the peer's bullying role and gender.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T21:55:24.853963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12197
  • Children's Physiological Regulation and Sibling Conflict as Correlates of
           Children's Conscience Development
    • Authors: Meghan B. Scrimgeour; Emily C. Mariotti, Alysia Y. Blandon
      Abstract: Children's conscience, including the ability to experience guilt and engage in rule-compatible behavior, develops across early childhood. The current study investigated whether within-family variation in children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sibling conflict behavior were associated with individual differences in children's guilt and internalized conduct. Between-family differences across sibling dyad gender compositions were also examined. A within-family design that included 70 families with two siblings between the ages of 2 and 5 was utilized. Children's baseline RSA was measured while sitting quietly with their family. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires that assessed siblings’ conflict behavior, guilt, and internalized conduct. Older siblings had higher levels of guilt and internalized conduct than younger siblings. Results from actor-partner interdependence models indicated that there were no direct effects of children's baseline RSA. The interaction effects approached significance (p's ≤ .08) suggesting that older siblings’ conflict moderated the association between older siblings’ baseline RSA and both older and younger siblings’ guilt. In contrast, older siblings’ conflict was positively associated with older and younger siblings’ internalized conduct. Guilt and internalized conduct also differed for older and younger siblings in different dyad gender compositions. The results underscore the need for greater clarity regarding the function that siblings serve in promoting children's moral development during early childhood.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T21:45:32.143969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12194
  • The Buffering Role of Social Support on the Psychosocial Wellbeing of
           Orphans in Rwanda
    • Authors: Tehetna Alemu Caserta; Raija-Leena Punamäki, Anna-Maija Pirttilä-Backman
      Abstract: Little is known about the buffering role of social support among orphans living in Africa. This study examined (1) how perceived social support (PSS) varied across orphan-related characteristics (e.g., orphan status, such as single, maternal or paternal, and their living environments, such as in child-headed households, on the street, in an orphanage or in a foster home) and (2) the relative importance of sources of PSS (relatives/community/adults and peers) and functional social support (emotional/informational/instrumental and social) and its association with emotional well-being and mental distress. The participants included 430 orphaned Rwandan children and youth aged between 10 and 25 years (Mean age = 17.74), of whom (n = 179, 41.6%) were females and (n = 251, 58.4%) were males. Result showed that children living in an orphanage exhibited a higher level of PSS from all sources of social support than did children in other living environments. A higher level of PSS from relatives, communities and adults was associated with high level of emotional well-being, and only adult support was associated with low level of mental distress. Furthermore, the functional PSS indicated that emotional support and companionship support were equally important in their association with higher levels of emotional well-being and lower levels of mental distress. The findings highlight the importance of having different sources of social support and their functions in relation to psychosocial well-being.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:20:28.878028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12188
  • The Effect of Having Aggressive Friends on Aggressive Behavior in
           Childhood: Using Propensity Scores to Strengthen Causal Inference
    • Authors: Angela K. Henneberger; Donna L. Coffman, Scott D. Gest
      Abstract: This study used propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1355 children (53 percent girls; 31 percent minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year. Presence/absence of aggressive friends was measured in the middle of the school year, and aggressive behavior was measured at the end of the school year. Results indicated a significant effect of having one or more aggressive friends on children's aggressive behavior above and beyond the effects of the 21 demographic, social, and behavioral variables. The propensity score model was compared with two other models of peer influence. The strengths and practical challenges of using propensity score analysis to study peer influence were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:05:27.898681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12186
  • Adolescents' Judgments of Doubly Deviant Peers: Implications of Intergroup
           and Intragroup Dynamics for Disloyal and Overweight Group Members
    • Authors: Dominic Abrams; Sally B. Palmer, Julie Van de Vyver, Daniel Hayes, Katrina Delaney, Sophie Guarella, Kiran Purewal
      Abstract: Group membership, loyalty, and weight are highly relevant for adolescent peer evaluations at school. This research tested how in-group/out-group membership affected judgments of peers who deviated from social norms for weight and loyalty. Two hundred and forty 11–13-year-olds (49 percent female; 94 percent Caucasian) judged two in-group or out-group peers: one was normative (loyal and average weight) and the other was non-normative (i.e., ‘deviant’). The deviant target was overweight, disloyal to their own group (school), or both (‘doubly deviant’). Derogation of overweight relative to average weight peers was greater if they were in-group rather than out-group members, revealing a strong ‘black sheep effect’ for overweight peers. Disloyal out-group deviants were judged favorably, but this effect was eliminated if they were doubly deviant, suggesting that their disloyalty was insufficient to overcome the overweight stigma. Consistent with developmental subjective group dynamics theory, effects of group membership and types of deviance on adolescents’ favorability toward peers were mediated by adolescents’ perceptions of how well the deviant members would ‘fit’ with the in-group school. Implications for theory and strategies to reduce peer exclusion, particularly weight stigmatization, are considered.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T01:00:30.457329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12187
  • Social Victimization Trajectories From Middle Childhood Through Late
    • Authors: Lisa H. Rosen; Kurt J. Beron, Marion K. Underwood
      Abstract: Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non-verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4–11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group-based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated. High parent-child relationship quality decreased the odds of being in the elevated group compared to the low group; however, parent-child relationship quality was no longer a significant predictor when emotional dysfunction was added to the model. Higher emotional dysfunction and male gender increased the odds of being in the elevated group and medium increaser group relative to the low group even after controlling for parent-child relationship quality. Implications for intervention and future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T21:44:42.508839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12185
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