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Journal Cover Social Development
  [SJR: 1.428]   [H-I: 67]   [5 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0961-205X - ISSN (Online) 1467-9507
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1611 journals]
  • Self-control, peer preference, and loneliness in Chinese children: A
           three-year longitudinal study
    • Authors: Junsheng Liu; Bowen Xiao, Will E. Hipson, Robert J. Coplan, Dan Li, Xinyin Chen
      Abstract: The purpose of this study was to explore the longitudinal links among Chinese children's self-control, social experiences, and loneliness, largely from a developmental cascades perspective (which postulates mechanisms about how effects within a particular domain of functioning can impact across additional domains over time). Participants were N = 1,066 primary school students in Shanghai, P. R. China, who were followed over three years from Grade 3 to Grade 5. Measures of children's behavioral self-control, peer preference, and loneliness were obtained each year from peer nominations and child self-reports. Results indicated that as compared with the unidirectional and bidirectional models, the developmental cascade model represented the best fit for the data. Within this model, a number of significant direct and indirect pathways were identified among variables and over time. For example, self-control was found to indirectly contribute to later decreases in loneliness via a pathway through peer preference. As well, peer preference both directly and indirectly contributed to later increases in self-control. Finally, loneliness directly led to decreases in self-control from Grade 3 to Grade 4, but not from Grade 4 to Grade 5. Results are discussed in terms of the implications of self-control for Chinese children's social and emotional functioning over time.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T01:10:30.954161-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12224
  • Parents' beliefs about children's emotions, children's emotion
           understanding, and classroom adjustment in middle childhood
    • Authors: Patricia T. Garrett-Peters; Vanessa L. Castro, Amy G. Halberstadt
      Abstract: To explore how parental socialization of emotion may influence children's emotion understanding, which then guides children's interpretations of emotion-related situations across contexts, we examined the pathways between socialization of emotion and children's adjustment in the classroom, with children's emotion understanding as an intervening variable. Specifically, children's emotion understanding was examined as a mediator of associations between mothers' beliefs about the value and danger of children's emotions and children's adjustment in the classroom within an SEM framework. Classroom adjustment was estimated as a latent variable and included social, emotional, and behavioral indices. Covariates included maternal education, and child gender and ethnicity. Participants were a diverse group of 201 third-graders (116 African American, 81 European American, 4 Biracial; 48.8% female), their mothers, and teachers. Results revealed that emotion-related beliefs (value and danger) had no direct influence on classroom adjustment. However, children whose mothers endorsed the belief that emotions are dangerous demonstrated less emotion understanding and were less well-adjusted in the classroom. Mothers' belief that emotions are valuable was not independently associated with emotion understanding. Findings point to the important role of emotion understanding in children's development across contexts (family, classroom) and developmental domains (social, emotional, behavioral) during the middle childhood years.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T01:05:26.072673-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12222
  • The role of interactions with teachers and conflict with friends in
           shaping school adjustment
    • Authors: Dan Wang; Anne C. Fletcher
      Abstract: Fifth grade children (N = 346) identified school friends and reported on levels of conflict in relationships with these friends as well as perceived stress in relationships with teachers. Teachers and children provided ratings of problem behaviors at school, and children reported on their own perceptions of stress at school. Both less conflictual school friendships and less stressful relationships with teachers were linked with fewer feelings of stress and lower levels of problem problems at school. For the problem behaviors outcome, having more positive relationships with one set of others (teachers or friends) buffered children from experiencing negative consequences of poor relationships with the other set of individuals. The interaction effect involving friendship conflicts and stressful teacher interactions in relation to school stress was more complicated, differing for boys versus girls.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T21:15:21.04197-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12218
  • Parent–child negative emotion reciprocity and children's school success:
           An emotion-attention process model
    • Authors: Anat Moed; Elizabeth T. Gershoff, Nancy Eisenberg, Claire Hofer, Sandra Losoya, Tracy L. Spinrad, Jeffrey Liew
      Abstract: Research has demonstrated that emotions expressed in parent–child relationships are associated with children's school success. Yet the types of emotional expressions, and the mechanisms by which emotional expressions are linked with children's success in school, are unclear. In the present article, we focused on negative emotion reciprocity in parent–child interactions. Using structural equation modeling of data from 138 parent to child dyads [children's mean age at Time 1 (T1) was 13.44 years, SD = 1.16], we tested children's negative emotionality (CNE) at T1 and low attention focusing (LAF) at Time 2 (T2) as sequential mediators in the relation between parent and child negative emotion reciprocity at T1 and children's grade point average (GPA) and inhibitory control at T2. Our findings supported an emotion-attention process model: parent–child negative emotion reciprocity at T1 predicted CNE at T1, which predicted children's LAF at T2, which was, in turn, related to low inhibitory control at T2. Findings regarding children's GPA were less conclusive but did suggest an overall association of negative reciprocity and the two mediators with children's GPA. Our findings are discussed in terms of emotion regulation processes in children from negatively reciprocating dyads, and the effects of these processes on children's ability to obtain and use skills needed for success in school.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T21:10:20.726575-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12217
  • Does the desire to conform to peers moderate links between popularity and
           indirect victimization in early adolescence?
    • Authors: Leanna M. Closson; Nicole C. Hart, Leslie D. Hogg
      Abstract: This study of 426 Canadian early adolescents (Mage = 12.52; 53% girls) investigated whether associations between popularity and indirect victimization (i.e., reputational victimization, exclusion) varied as a function of gender and the desire to conform to characteristics and competencies that are valued within the peer group (i.e., peer conformity goals). Regression analyses revealed popularity was uniquely and positively associated with reputational victimization, but was not significantly related to exclusion after accounting for the effects of meanness and likeability. The associations between popularity and indirect victimization were moderated by peer conformity goals and gender. The results indicated that popular girls with high peer conformity goals experienced more reputational victimization and exclusion than popular girls with low peer conformity goals. However, popular boys with high peer conformity goals experienced less exclusion than popular boys with low peer conformity goals. The findings suggest that peer conformity goals carry with them some risks for popular girls, but may serve a protective function for popular boys.
      PubDate: 2016-10-17T20:30:24.08023-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12223
  • Issue Information
    • PubDate: 2016-10-11T03:22:21.254846-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12161
  • Differential parenting and children's social understanding
    • Authors: Sharon Pauker; Michal Perlman, Heather Prime, Jennifer M. Jenkins
      Abstract: In the current study, a curvilinear association was examined between differential parenting and children's social understanding as measured using standardized assessments and behavioral observations. Social understanding was comprised of theory-of-mind and behavior indicating understanding of others’ minds (i.e., cognitive sensitivity and internal state talk and reasoning during sibling interactions). Data came from a community sample of 372 children (51.6% males; M age = 5.57, SD = 0.77), their younger siblings (M age = 3.14, SD = 0.27), and their mothers who were observed in their homes. We hypothesized that in families with higher levels of differential parenting, both favored and disfavored older siblings would display poorer social understanding, but that disfavored children would be more negatively impacted. Results from a hierarchical regression analysis indicated an inverse linear effect, rather than a curvilinear relationship, between being favored by mother and siblings’ social understanding. Specifically, disfavored older children showed higher levels of social understanding when interacting with their favored younger sibling. This relationship remained significant after controlling for variables such as age, SES, and language. Findings suggest that differential parenting plays a role in children's ability to understand others.
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T22:21:24.070012-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12214
  • Friends in high places: A dyadic perspective on peer status as predictor
           of friendship quality and the mediating role of empathy and prosocial
    • Authors: Rosa Meuwese; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Berna Güroğlu
      Abstract: Friendships and peer status play important roles in the social landscape of adolescents and are related to developmental outcomes. Yet, how peer status is related to friendship quality and what role social skills play in this association remains unclear. In this study, we use Actor–Partner Interdependence (Mediation) Modeling (Ledermann, Macho, & Kenny, 2011) to investigate how two forms of peer status, preference and popularity, are related to positive and negative friendship quality in mid-adolescence. Results show that adolescents who are friends with more preferred (i.e., likeable) and popular adolescents report higher friendship quality. These partner effects were partially mediated by adolescents’ own prosocial behavior and their friends’ empathy levels. Higher levels of empathy of one's friend and one's own lesser preference for equity explained why adolescents were more satisfied in a friendship with highly preferred (i.e., likeable) adolescents. Interestingly, empathy was not a mediator for the link between friendship quality and popularity. These findings promote a better understanding of the interplay between different levels of social complexity (i.e., individual, dyadic and peer group level) in adolescence.
      PubDate: 2016-10-09T22:16:38.698136-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12213
  • Exuberance, attention bias, and externalizing behaviors in Chinese
           preschoolers: A longitudinal study
    • Authors: Jie He; Pengchao Li, Weiyang Wu, Shuyi Zhai
      Abstract: Exuberance, a temperament type influenced by approach motivation, has been found to be associated with maladaptive behaviors such as more externalizing behaviors in early childhood. A possible mechanism underlying it is children's selective attention to environmental cues. However, few studies have investigated the effect of attention bias on the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors. This longitudinal study examined the association of temperamental exuberance (as assessed by behavioral observation and parental report) at 3 years old with attention bias to reward and punishment (as assessed by a spatial cueing task) and teachers' reports of externalizing behaviors at 5 years old in 153 Chinese preschool‐age children. As predicted, externalizing behaviors were positively predicted by exuberance and attention bias to reward. However, novel findings were that attention bias to punishment moderated the relation between exuberance and externalizing behaviors, such that exuberant children showed an increased risk of externalizing behaviors when they did not have high punishment bias. The results highlight attention bias to punishment as an important factor for the development of behavioral problems in exuberant children.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:51:17.873897-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12215
  • Self‐regulation in early childhood: The role of siblings, center
           care and socioeconomic status
    • Authors: Agathe Backer‐Grøndahl; Ane Nærde
      Abstract: Differences in children's self‐regulation are assumed to be explained by genetic factors, socialization experiences, and sociodemographic risk. As for socialization, little research has addressed the influence of having siblings or attending early center based child care on emerging self‐regulation. As regarding sociodemographic risk, few studies have been conducted in countries characterized by high equality and little poverty. In a longitudinal study following 1157 children, we investigated presence of siblings, center care exposure in the first 3 years of life (attendance, hours, and child group size), and family socioeconomic status (SES) as predictors of hot and cool effortful control (EC), at the child's age 48 months. The results showed that having a sibling was consistently related to better hot EC, whereas higher SES predicted better cool EC. A small effect implied that hours in center care at 36 months negatively predicted hot EC, whereas center care group size at 36 months modestly predicted better cool EC. Otherwise, center care variables were unrelated to self‐regulation.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:36:22.086583-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12216
  • Different ways of knowing a child and their relations to
           mother‐reported autonomy support
    • Authors: Geneviève A. Mageau; Amanda Sherman, Joan E. Grusec, Richard Koestner, Julien S. Bureau
      Abstract: We considered how different forms of child knowledge (i.e., mothers’ reports of taking their child's perspective, their accurate knowledge in the form of precise predictions of their child's ratings regarding distress/comforting and compliance/discipline situations, and their perceived knowledge) are differentially associated with mother‐reported autonomy support (i.e., providing meaningful rationales, providing choice, and acknowledging feelings; Koestner, Ryan, Bernieri, & Holt, ). Mothers and their children (141 dyads, M = 11 years old at Time 1) participated in a two‐wave longitudinal study with assessments made two years apart. The only form of knowledge that predicted changes in autonomy support was perspective‐taking. Autonomy support, in turn, indirectly predicted changes in distress/comforting accuracy through child‐reported self‐disclosure and directly predicted changes in perceived knowledge. These findings underline the importance of differentiating among forms of child knowledge in the study of socialization processes.
      PubDate: 2016-09-20T22:30:39.259916-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12212
  • Popularity: Does it magnify associations between popularity prioritization
           and the bullying and defending behavior of early adolescent boys and
    • Authors: Amanda L. Duffy; Sarah Penn, Drew Nesdale, Melanie J. Zimmer‐Gembeck
      Abstract: We investigated the contribution of popularity, popularity prioritization, and gender to the explanation of bullying and defending behavior. Participants were 191 early adolescents (124 girls and 67 boys), aged from 10.9 to 13.6 years. Results revealed that adolescents high on popularity were more likely to bully others. Greater popularity prioritization was also associated with more bullying among boys with high levels, and girls with low levels, of popularity. In addition, popularity was positively related to defending among girls, but not boys. Lower popularity prioritization also contributed to greater defending overall. The implications of these findings for understanding bullying and defending are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-10T20:15:29.177856-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12206
  • Role of Expertise, Consensus, and Informational Valence in Children's
           Performance Judgments
    • Authors: Janet J. Boseovski; Kimberly E. Marble, Chelsea Hughes
      Abstract: Two experiments examined the role of expertise, consensus, and informational valence on children's acceptance of informant testimony about the quality of work produced by a target child. In Experiment 1, 96 4‐ to 5.9‐year‐olds and 6‐ to 8‐year‐olds were told about an expert who gave a positive or negative assessment of art or music that was contradicted by one layperson or a consensus of three laypersons. Generally, participants endorsed positive assessments as correct irrespective of expertise and consensus, but older children were more likely than younger children to want to learn from the expert in the future. To examine whether reluctance to accept expertise was due to the negative quality of the information, the expert in Experiment 2 simply stated that additional work was needed. Both age groups selected the expert as correct and reported wanting to learn from the expert in the future. Contributions to social learning models are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-08-02T00:36:28.997581-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12205
  • Affective ties and social information processing
    • Authors: Elizabeth A. Lemerise; Amanda Thorn, Jennifer Maulden Costello
      Abstract: We examined whether second‐ and fifth‐graders could display differentiated social information processing (SIP) about known peers varying in affective ties. Children's response evaluation and decision (RED) and goal importance ratings were obtained for nine ambiguous provocations involving their best friends, neutral peers, and enemies (three stories for each relationship). For each story, RED was assessed for hostile, competent and passive responses to provocation, and the importance of four social goals was rated. Both second‐ and fifth‐graders displayed RED that depended on both the type of relationship they had with the provocateur and on the type of response (hostile, competent or passive). Children's social goals were affected by their relationship with the provocateur. Younger children's failure to display sensitivity to situational cues in previous studies is likely due to the cognitive demands of reasoning about hypothetical characters rather than an insensitivity to situational cues, per se.
      PubDate: 2016-07-31T23:01:56.856806-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12207
  • Effect of Pet Dogs on Children's Perceived Stress and Cortisol Stress
    • Authors: Darlene A. Kertes; Jingwen Liu, Nathan J. Hall, Natalie A. Hadad, Clive D. L. Wynne, Samarth S. Bhatt
      Abstract: The present study tested whether pet dogs have stress‐buffering effects for children during a validated laboratory‐based protocol, the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST‐C). Participants were 101 children aged 7–12 years with their primary caregivers and pet dogs. Children were randomly assigned in the TSST‐C to a pet present condition or one of two comparison conditions: parent present or no support figure present. Baseline, response, and recovery indices of perceived stress and cortisol levels were computed based on children's self‐reported feelings of stress and salivary cortisol. Results indicated that in the alone (no social support) condition, children showed the expected rise for both perceived stress and cortisol response to stress. Pet dog presence significantly buffered the perceived stress response in comparison to children in the alone and parent present conditions. No main condition effect was observed for cortisol; however, for children experiencing the stressor with their pet present, lower cortisol response to stress was associated with more child‐initiated petting and less dog proximity‐seeking behavior. The results support the notion that pet dogs can provide socio‐emotional benefits for children via stress buffering.
      PubDate: 2016-07-28T22:50:27.091867-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12203
  • Bidirectional Associations Between Parental Responsiveness and Executive
           Function During Early Childhood
    • Authors: Emily C. Merz; Susan H. Landry, Janelle J. Montroy, Jeffrey M. Williams
      Abstract: In this study, we examined bidirectional associations between parental responsiveness and executive function (EF) processes in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Participants were 534 3‐ to 5‐year‐old children (71 percent Hispanic/Latino; 28 percent African American; 1 percent European American) attending Head Start programs. At Time 1 (T1) and 6.5 months later at Time 2 (T2), parents and children participated in a videotaped free play session and children completed delay inhibition (gift delay‐wrap, gift delay‐bow) and conflict EF (bear/dragon, dimensional change card sort) tasks. Parental warm acceptance, contingent responsiveness, and verbal scaffolding were coded from the free play videos and aggregated to create a parental responsiveness latent variable. A cross‐lagged panel structural equation model indicated that higher T1 parental responsiveness significantly predicted more positive gain in delay inhibition and conflict EF from T1 to T2. Higher T1 delay inhibition, but not T1 conflict EF, significantly predicted more positive change in parental responsiveness from T1 to T2. These associations were not explained by several possible confounding variables, including children's age, gender, race/ethnicity, and verbal ability. Findings suggest that parental responsiveness may support EF development in disadvantaged children, with reciprocal effects of delay inhibition on parental responsiveness.
      PubDate: 2016-07-22T09:10:30.115937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12204
  • The Influence of Competition on Resource Allocation in Preschool Children
    • Authors: Anna‐Theresa Pappert; Amanda Williams, Chris Moore
      Abstract: To examine how competition influences resource allocation in 4‐ to 6‐year‐olds, children were assigned to one of two conditions. In the experimental condition children colored a picture for a coloring contest whereas in the control condition they colored a picture to decorate a wall. Subsequently, all children participated in a resource allocation task with another child who was introduced as another participant in the coloring contest or who would also be coloring a picture for the wall. Finally, children were asked how many crayons (out of eight) they wanted to provide to the other child. In the resource allocation task, children made decisions about how to allocate stickers to self and other across four trial types: cost and no cost variations of both advantageous and disadvantageous inequality trials. Children were less prosocial in the experimental condition than in the control condition but only in disadvantageous inequality trials involving a cost. Children in the experimental condition withheld more crayons compared to children in the control condition. These results suggest that competition not only decreases prosocial behavior directly linked to the competition but also decreases generosity when provided with an unrelated resource allocation opportunity.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T23:01:02.760927-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12202
  • Mutual Positive Emotion with Peers, Emotion Knowledge, and Preschoolers'
           Peer Acceptance
    • Authors: Eric W. Lindsey
      Abstract: Preschool children's emotion knowledge was examined as a possible mediator of the link between their mutual positive emotional expressiveness with peers and peer acceptance. Data were collected from 122 preschool children (57 boys, 65 girls; 86 European American, 9 African American, 17 Hispanic, and 10 other ethnicity; M age = 57.61 months) over a period of 2 years. In year 1 observations were made of children's emotional expressiveness with peers, and children completed sociometric interviews. In year 2, children completed emotion knowledge interviews and sociometric interviews. Analyses revealed that children who expressed more mutual positive emotion with peers in year 1 were better liked by peers in year 2, after controlling for year 1 peer acceptance. Mutual positive emotion in year 1 was associated with children's emotion knowledge in year 2. Both year 1 mutual positive emotion and year 2 emotion knowledge made independent contributions to peer acceptance in year 2.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:50:22.38183-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12201
  • Language Matching Among Mother‐child Dyads: Associations with Child
           Attachment and Emotion Reactivity
    • Authors: Jessica L. Borelli; Kizzann A. Ramsook, Patricia Smiley, David Kyle Bond, Jessica L. West, Katherine H. Buttitta
      Abstract: Links between mother‐infant affective matching and attachment security are well‐documented, but research on other types of behavioral matching and attachment security are lacking, as are studies that examine these constructs later in children's development. We examine language style matching (LSM) between mothers and their school‐aged children (N = 68), using interviews with each dyad member. As predicted, regressions revealed that higher mother‐child relational LSM was associated with greater child attachment security (operationalized as high security, low dismissal), and that higher LSM predicted smaller increases in children's electrodermal response to a relational probe 1.5 years later. Further, mother‐child relational LSM was a mediator in the indirect path between children's attachment security and children's reactivity. We discuss the potential utility of LSM as a measure of relationship quality and future studies that could refine our understanding of parent‐child language matching.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:45:22.999885-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12200
  • School Bullying and Moral Reasoning Competence
    • Authors: Michael Grundherr; Anja Geisler, Manuel Stoiber, Mechthild Schäfer
      Abstract: To examine whether high moral reasoning competence of adolescents is associated with low levels of bullying, and to understand whether moral disengagement mediates or moderates this relationship, 925 German children ranging from 11 to 17 years of age (M = 14.18, SD = 1.21) completed questionnaires on moral reasoning competence and moral disengagement in surveys at three different schools. The children were classified according to their bullying role, based on a peer‐nomination procedure. Multinomial logistic regression analyses showed that moral reasoning competence negatively predicted whether a student took an aggressive role. Moral disengagement partially mediated this relationship. Corresponding effects for defenders and outsiders were not found. These results extend previous findings about the effect of moral reasoning on bullying in primary school. The implications for the prevention of bullying are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-26T22:40:24.203482-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12199
  • Measuring Children's Church‐Based Social Support: Development and
           Initial Validation of the Kids’ Church Survey
    • Authors: Robert G. Crosby; Erin I. Smith
      Abstract: Given the importance of considering context in development, the goal of the present study was to develop and provide initial validity evidence for the Kids’ Church Survey (KCS), a new measure of children's church‐based social support. Data were collected from 1253 children ages 6–14 attending mainline Protestant, evangelical Protestant, and Catholic churches. Parallel and exploratory factor analyses supported a three‐factor solution: received (emotional) church support, perceived church support from peers, and perceived church support from adults. Confirmatory models conducted with independent samples provided an excellent fit for the data. All three scales evidenced acceptable internal (.78–.92) and test–retest (.88–.95) reliability. Measurement invariance was demonstrated across genders and age groups, with the exception of the perceived peer support scale, which was not invariant across ages. The KCS was sensitive to between‐church differences in children's programs and incrementally predicted self‐esteem, prosocial behavior, and spirituality. Applications for researchers, mental health practitioners, and clergy are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-06-09T23:31:47.101771-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12198
  • Bullying Involvement and Empathy: Child and Target Characteristics
    • Authors: Tirza H. J. van Noorden; Antonius H. N. Cillessen, Gerbert J. T. Haselager, Tessa A. M. Lansu, William M. Bukowski
      Abstract: This study investigated how the bullying involvement of a child and a target peer are related to empathy. The role of gender was also considered. We hypothesized that empathy primarily varies depending on the bullying role of the target peer. Participants were 264 7–12‐year‐old children (Mage = 10.02, SD = 1.00; 50% girls) from 33 classrooms who had been selected based on their bullying involvement (bully, victim, bully/victim, noninvolved) in the classroom. Participants completed a cognitive and affective empathy measure for each selected target classmate. We found no differences in cognitive and affective empathy for all targets combined based on children's own bullying involvement. However, when incorporating the targets’ bullying involvement, bullies, victims, and bully/victims showed less empathy for each other than for noninvolved peers. Noninvolved children did not differentiate between bullies, victims and bully/victims. Girls reported more cognitive and affective empathy for girls than boys, whereas boys did not differentiate between girls and boys. The results indicated that children's empathy for peers depends primarily on the characteristics of the peer, such as the peer's bullying role and gender.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T21:55:24.853963-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12197
  • Children's Physiological Regulation and Sibling Conflict as Correlates of
           Children's Conscience Development
    • Authors: Meghan B. Scrimgeour; Emily C. Mariotti, Alysia Y. Blandon
      Abstract: Children's conscience, including the ability to experience guilt and engage in rule‐compatible behavior, develops across early childhood. The current study investigated whether within‐family variation in children's baseline respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) and sibling conflict behavior were associated with individual differences in children's guilt and internalized conduct. Between‐family differences across sibling dyad gender compositions were also examined. A within‐family design that included 70 families with two siblings between the ages of 2 and 5 was utilized. Children's baseline RSA was measured while sitting quietly with their family. Mothers and fathers completed questionnaires that assessed siblings’ conflict behavior, guilt, and internalized conduct. Older siblings had higher levels of guilt and internalized conduct than younger siblings. Results from actor‐partner interdependence models indicated that there were no direct effects of children's baseline RSA. The interaction effects approached significance (p's ≤ .08) suggesting that older siblings’ conflict moderated the association between older siblings’ baseline RSA and both older and younger siblings’ guilt. In contrast, older siblings’ conflict was positively associated with older and younger siblings’ internalized conduct. Guilt and internalized conduct also differed for older and younger siblings in different dyad gender compositions. The results underscore the need for greater clarity regarding the function that siblings serve in promoting children's moral development during early childhood.
      PubDate: 2016-05-26T21:45:32.143969-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12194
  • Child‐caregiver Attachment Representations in a Non‐Western Context:
           The Feasibility and Cultural Equivalence of Story Stems in Urban Ghana
    • Authors: Ming Wai Wan; Adam Nyarkoh Danquah, Sheriffa Mahama
      Abstract: Story stem measures are an increasingly popular method for assessing the attachment representations of young children, but little is known of their cross‐cultural applicability. This study aimed to characterise the attachment representations in 73 five‐ to eight‐year‐old children in urban Ghana, West Africa, using the Manchester Child Attachment Story Task (MCAST) to test its feasibility, psychometric characteristics and concurrent associations with caregiver‐ and teacher‐rated child behaviour, and to conduct a qualitative thematic analysis of methodological observations. Among the classifiable cases (92 percent), all attachment classifications were observed, yielding a higher rate of secure attachment than in European samples. Inter‐rater reliability, internal consistency, and internal structure were reasonable and largely similar to European studies, although one structural difference was the separation of ‘child assuagement of distress’ from other secure‐related items. MCAST narratives were associated with teacher‐ and caregiver‐rated hyperactivity, but internal consistency was low in most Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire scales. Possible culturally‐sensitive explanations for our psychometric and qualitative findings are discussed. Overall, story stems are a promising tool for accessing attachment representations in non‐Western samples, although modifications are likely to improve cross‐cultural equivalence when applied to non‐Western cultures. Further investigation is needed to link MCAST outcomes to parenting and socio‐emotional development.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:30:59.322632-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12196
  • The Buffering Role of Social Support on the Psychosocial Wellbeing of
           Orphans in Rwanda
    • Authors: Tehetna Alemu Caserta; Raija‐Leena Punamäki, Anna‐Maija Pirttilä‐Backman
      Abstract: Little is known about the buffering role of social support among orphans living in Africa. This study examined (1) how perceived social support (PSS) varied across orphan‐related characteristics (e.g., orphan status, such as single, maternal or paternal, and their living environments, such as in child‐headed households, on the street, in an orphanage or in a foster home) and (2) the relative importance of sources of PSS (relatives/community/adults and peers) and functional social support (emotional/informational/instrumental and social) and its association with emotional well‐being and mental distress. The participants included 430 orphaned Rwandan children and youth aged between 10 and 25 years (Mean age= 17.74), of whom (n =179, 41.6 percent) were females and (n = 251, 58.4 percent) were males. Result showed that children living in an orphanage exhibited a higher level of PSS from all sources of social support than did children in other living environments. A higher level of PSS from relatives, communities and adults was associated with high level of emotional well‐being, and only adult support was associated with low level of mental distress. Furthermore, the functional PSS indicated that emotional support and companionship support were equally important in their association with higher levels of emotional well‐being and lower levels of mental distress. The findings highlight the importance of having different sources of social support and their functions in relation to psychosocial well‐being.
      PubDate: 2016-05-19T23:21:11.427884-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12190
  • Predictors of Children's Rights Attitudes and Psychological Well‐being
           Among Rural and Urban Mainland Chinese Adolescents
    • Authors: Sharon To; Charles C. Helwig, Shaogang Yang
      Abstract: This study examined rural and urban Chinese adolescents’ (13–19 years, N = 395) attitudes toward children's self‐determination and nurturance rights, and how these attitudes relate to various dimensions of socialization in their family and school environments, including perceptions of parental and teacher autonomy support and responsiveness and family and school democratic climate. Relations between these variables and psychological well‐being also were examined. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that maternal responsiveness and teacher autonomy support predicted higher levels of endorsement of nurturance rights. Maternal autonomy support and tolerance of dissent at home predicted greater endorsement of self‐determination rights. Democratic climate in the home predicted higher life‐satisfaction and fewer depressive symptoms, even when parent and teacher autonomy support and responsiveness were controlled. Our findings suggest that environments that are structured more democratically and that are more responsive to children's autonomy needs are associated with higher levels of endorsement of children's rights and contribute to adolescents’ psychological health and well‐being in a non‐Western culture.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:25:24.111782-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12195
  • Affective Social Competence in Adolescence: Current Findings and Future
    • Authors: Jordan A. Booker; Julie C. Dunsmore
      Abstract: Affective Social Competence (ASC) is a conceptual framework describing complementary processes of sending, receiving, and experiencing emotions in dynamic interactions. This framework may be applied across the lifespan. To date, however, empirical studies addressing ASC have focused predominantly on childhood samples. In this review, we examine empirical evidence relevant to ASC in adolescence in comparison with childhood. We then discuss future directions that may promote understanding of Affective Social Competence among adolescent samples: the use of person‐oriented analyses to integrate all three components of ASC; consideration of understudied social contexts that may influence and be influenced by ASC; and use of microgenetic designs to examine growth across transitions during early, middle, and late adolescence.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:15:23.812107-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12193
  • Role of Temperament, Parenting Behaviors, and Stress on Turkish
           Preschoolers’ Internalizing Symptoms
    • Authors: H. Melis Yavuz; Bilge Selcuk, Feyza Corapci, Nazan Aksan
      Abstract: Child‐ and family‐related factors that predict internalizing symptoms are understudied in preschool years and have a negative influence on children's functioning. We examined observational assessments of preschoolers' temperamental fearfulness and exuberance, mother reports of negative control, warmth, and parenting stress in a sample of 109 Turkish preschoolers. High temperamental fearfulness and low joyful/exuberant positive affectivity in addition to low warmth and high parenting stress had significant effects on internalizing symptoms. Parenting stress had both direct and indirect relations to internalizing symptoms via lower maternal warmth. When comorbid elevations in externalizing symptoms were controlled, the results were consistent with the interpretation that poor parenting practices and stress associated with the parenting role predict maladaptation in general but that the specific form of maladaptation may be best predicted by individual differences in children's temperamental characteristics. This study contributes to our understanding of risk and protective factors that predict preschoolers' internalizing symptoms with a sample from a non‐Western population. These findings can guide early prevention and intervention programs to address internalizing problems in a culturally‐sensitive way.
      PubDate: 2016-05-10T01:10:24.118195-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12192
  • Do securely and insecurely attached children derive well‐being from
           different forms of gender identity?
    • Authors: Meenakshi Menon; Madhavi Menon, Patrick J. Cooper, Rachel E. Pauletti, Desiree D. Tobin, Brooke C. Spatta, Christopher A. Hafen, Kätlin Peets, Ernest V. E. Hodges, David G. Perry
      Abstract: We examined whether attachment security moderates influences of two gender identity variables—felt gender typicality and felt pressure for gender differentiation—on preadolescents' well‐being. We tested two hypotheses. The first was that attachment security protects children from the distress that can stem from feeling gender atypical or from feeling pressure for gender conformity. The second was that secure children derive well‐being from believing they are similar to same‐gender peers whereas insecure children derive well‐being from believing it important to be different from other‐gender peers. We assessed children's attachment security, gender identity, and well‐being (self‐esteem, internalizing problems) in two successive years (N = 211, M initial age = 10.1 years). Results supported the second hypothesis. Attachment security may govern children's contingencies of well‐being.
      PubDate: 2016-04-27T00:16:44.959545-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12191
  • The Buffering Role of Social Support on the Psychosocial Wellbeing of
           Orphans in Rwanda
    • Authors: Tehetna Alemu Caserta; Raija‐Leena Punamäki, Anna‐Maija Pirttilä‐Backman
      Abstract: Little is known about the buffering role of social support among orphans living in Africa. This study examined (1) how perceived social support (PSS) varied across orphan‐related characteristics (e.g., orphan status, such as single, maternal or paternal, and their living environments, such as in child‐headed households, on the street, in an orphanage or in a foster home) and (2) the relative importance of sources of PSS (relatives/community/adults and peers) and functional social support (emotional/informational/instrumental and social) and its association with emotional well‐being and mental distress. The participants included 430 orphaned Rwandan children and youth aged between 10 and 25 years (Mean age = 17.74), of whom (n = 179, 41.6%) were females and (n = 251, 58.4%) were males. Result showed that children living in an orphanage exhibited a higher level of PSS from all sources of social support than did children in other living environments. A higher level of PSS from relatives, communities and adults was associated with high level of emotional well‐being, and only adult support was associated with low level of mental distress. Furthermore, the functional PSS indicated that emotional support and companionship support were equally important in their association with higher levels of emotional well‐being and lower levels of mental distress. The findings highlight the importance of having different sources of social support and their functions in relation to psychosocial well‐being.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:20:28.878028-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12188
  • The Effect of Having Aggressive Friends on Aggressive Behavior in
           Childhood: Using Propensity Scores to Strengthen Causal Inference
    • Authors: Angela K. Henneberger; Donna L. Coffman, Scott D. Gest
      Abstract: This study used propensity scores to statistically approximate the causal effect of having aggressive friends on aggressive behavior in childhood. Participants were 1355 children (53 percent girls; 31 percent minority) in 97 third and fifth grade classrooms enrolled in the Classroom Peer Ecologies Project. Propensity scores were calculated to control for the impact of 21 relevant confounder variables related to having aggressive friendships and aggressive behavior. The 21 variables included demographic, social, and behavioral characteristics measured at the beginning of the school year. Presence/absence of aggressive friends was measured in the middle of the school year, and aggressive behavior was measured at the end of the school year. Results indicated a significant effect of having one or more aggressive friends on children's aggressive behavior above and beyond the effects of the 21 demographic, social, and behavioral variables. The propensity score model was compared with two other models of peer influence. The strengths and practical challenges of using propensity score analysis to study peer influence were discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-28T21:05:27.898681-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12186
  • Adolescents' Judgments of Doubly Deviant Peers: Implications of Intergroup
           and Intragroup Dynamics for Disloyal and Overweight Group Members
    • Authors: Dominic Abrams; Sally B. Palmer, Julie Van de Vyver, Daniel Hayes, Katrina Delaney, Sophie Guarella, Kiran Purewal
      Abstract: Group membership, loyalty, and weight are highly relevant for adolescent peer evaluations at school. This research tests how in‐group/out‐group membership affected judgments of peers who deviated from social norms for weight and loyalty. Two hundred and forty 11–13‐year‐olds (49 percent female; 94 percent Caucasian) judged two in‐group or out‐group peers: one was normative (loyal and average weight) and the other was non‐normative (i.e., ‘deviant’). The deviant target was overweight, disloyal to their own group (school), or both (‘doubly deviant’). Derogation of overweight relative to average weight peers was greater if they were in‐group rather than out‐group members, revealing a strong ‘black sheep effect’ for overweight peers. Disloyal out‐group deviants were judged favorably, but this effect was eliminated if they were doubly deviant, suggesting that loyalty was insufficient to overcome the overweight stigma. Consistent with developmental subjective group dynamics theory, effects of group membership and types of deviance on adolescents’ favorability toward peers were mediated by adolescents’ perceptions of how well the deviant members would ‘fit’ with the in‐group school. Implications for theory and strategies to reduce peer exclusion, particularly weight stigmatization, are considered.
      PubDate: 2016-03-23T01:00:30.457329-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12187
  • Social Victimization Trajectories From Middle Childhood Through Late
    • Authors: Lisa H. Rosen; Kurt J. Beron, Marion K. Underwood
      Abstract: Social victimization refers to being targeted by behaviors intended to harm one's social status or relationships (Underwood, 2003), including malicious gossip, friendship manipulation, and social exclusion (both verbal and non‐verbal). The current study examined social victimization experiences longitudinally from middle childhood through late adolescence. Participants (N = 273, 139 females) reported on their social victimization experiences in grades 4–11 (ages 9 to 16 years). Using mixture (group‐based) modeling, four social victimization trajectories were identified: low, medium decreasing, medium increasing, and elevated. High parent‐child relationship quality decreased the odds of being in the elevated group compared to the low group; however, parent‐child relationship quality was no longer a significant predictor when emotional dysfunction was added to the model. Higher emotional dysfunction and male gender increased the odds of being in the elevated group and medium increaser group relative to the low group even after controlling for parent‐child relationship quality. Implications for intervention and future research directions are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T21:44:42.508839-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12185
  • Biases in Attention for Social Stimuli in Children are Associated with
           Patterns of Infant Attachment: A Brief Report
    • Authors: Paul Meinz; J. Bruce Morton, David R. Pederson, Greg Moran
      Abstract: The way an individual attends to social information has implications for his/her ability to regulate behavior in social settings. The results of the present investigation suggest that early experiences in parent–child relationships contribute to later differences in the deployment of attention to social information. The quality of the mother–child relationship was assessed at one‐year‐of‐age. At seven to eight years of age, a dot‐probe paradigm assessed immediate and delayed attention to pictures of faces vs. pictures of neutral objects. Children who were more avoidant with their mother in infancy attended to neutral objects over social stimuli at delayed but not immediate time frames. This finding suggests that individual differences in attention to social stimuli in childhood are associated with the quality of the prior attachment relationship with a primary caregiver.
      PubDate: 2016-03-06T21:44:18.504062-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12184
  • A Person‐Oriented Analysis of Social Withdrawal in Chinese Children
    • Authors: Robert J. Coplan; Junsheng Liu, Laura L. Ooi, Xinyin Chen, Dan Li, Xuechen Ding
      Abstract: The goal of this study was to compare the socio‐emotional and academic adjustment of different subtypes of socially withdrawn (shy, unsociable, avoidant) school‐age children in mainland China. Participants were N = 1344 children ages 10–12 years from public elementary schools in Shanghai, People's Republic of China. Multi‐source assessment included: child self‐reports of social withdrawal subtypes and internalizing difficulties (e.g., depression, social anxiety); peer nominations of children's peer relations (e.g., peer victimization, peer preference); and teacher ratings of children's school adjustment (e.g., academic success, internalizing problems). Results from person‐oriented analyses indicated that socially avoidant (i.e., shy‐unsociable) children reported the most pervasive internalizing difficulties compared to other groups. However, in contrast to findings among Western samples, unsociable children were as likely to have peer and academic difficulties as their shy and socially avoidant peers. Findings are discussed in terms of the implications of different subtypes of social withdrawal among children in collectivistic societies such as China.
      PubDate: 2016-03-02T21:18:09.168531-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12181
  • Prosocial Tendencies among Chinese American Children in Immigrant
           Families: Links to Cultural and Socio‐demographic Factors and
           Psychological Adjustment
    • Authors: Alexandra Main; Qing Zhou, Jeffrey Liew, Charlene Lee
      Abstract: The present study examined relations between prosocial tendencies (dispositional sympathy and prosocial behavior) and psychological adjustment using a multi‐method and multi‐informant approach in a socioeconomically diverse sample of first‐ and second‐generation Chinese American children from immigrant families (N = 238, M age = 9.2 years). We tested the concurrent associations between: (a) children's dispositional sympathy (rated by parents, teachers, and children, and observed prosocial behavior), (b) psychological adjustment (parent‐ and teacher‐reported externalizing problems and social competence); and (c) cultural and socio‐demographic factors (children's Chinese and American orientations, family Socioeconomic Status (SES), only child status, and children's age, sex, and social desirability). Results from correlations and structural equation modeling suggested that different measures of prosocial tendencies related differently to children's psychological adjustment. Parent‐ and teacher‐rated sympathy were associated with higher child social competence and lower externalizing problems within, but not across, reporter. By contrast, child‐rated sympathy was associated with higher teacher‐rated social competence, and observed prize donation was associated with lower teacher‐rated externalizing problems. Different measures of prosocial tendencies also showed different relations to cultural and socio‐demographic factors. These findings suggest that prosocial tendencies are not a unitary construct in Chinese American immigrant children: the manifestations of prosocial tendencies and their adjustment implications might depend on the context and/or targets of these tendencies.
      PubDate: 2016-02-24T08:17:19.557245-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12182
  • Influence of Parenting Behavior on Psychosocial Adjustment in Early
           Adolescence: Mediated by Anger Regulation and Moderated by Gender
    • Authors: Jana Elisa Rueth; Nantje Otterpohl, Elke Wild
      Abstract: Emotion regulation (ER)—one of the most important developmental tasks in early adolescence—has been proposed to mediate the relation between parenting and adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of parental psychological control and autonomy support on adolescents’ problem and prosocial behavior (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire), as well as to examine the mediating role of adolescents’ anger regulation and the moderating effect of gender. We collected three‐year longitudinal questionnaire data from N = 923 parents and their (at first assessment) 9‐ to 13‐year‐old children. Path‐analysis results mainly support the mediating role of adolescents’ adaptive and maladaptive anger regulation and suggest parental autonomy support to be beneficial for regulatory abilities and psychosocial adjustment, whereas the opposite was found for psychological control. Gender differences were found for parent report data, but not for adolescent report data. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T10:06:24.06225-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12180
  • Maternal and Paternal Mental‐state Talk and Executive Function in
           Preschool Children
    • Authors: Joana Baptista; Ana Osório, Eva Costa Martins, Paula Castiajo, Ana Luísa Barreto, Vera Mateus, Isabel Soares, Carla Martins
      Abstract: The present study examined the relationship between parents’ mental‐state talk and preschoolers’ executive function. Seventy‐two children participated in the present study, as well as their mothers and fathers. When children were enrolled in the second preschool year, mothers’ and fathers’ use of mental‐state references were assessed during a shared picture‐book reading task with the child. Later, four months before admission to the first grade, preschoolers’ executive function was measured. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that maternal, but not paternal, mental‐state talk was a significant predictor of children's executive function composite, even after accounting for child gender, age, verbal ability, and parental education. When looking at each of the EF components, maternal mental‐state talk proved to be a predictor of set‐shifting whereas no significant relations emerged with inhibitory control or working memory. These findings add to prior research on parenting quality and executive function in preschoolers.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T10:06:17.318702-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12183
  • Observed Emotions as Predictors of Quality of Kindergartners’ Social
    • Authors: Maciel M. Hernández; Nancy Eisenberg, Carlos Valiente, Tracy L. Spinrad, Sarah K. VanSchyndel, Anjolii Diaz, Kassondra M. Silva, Rebecca H. Berger, Jody Southworth
      Abstract: This study evaluated whether positive and anger emotional frequency (the proportion of instances an emotion was observed) and intensity (the strength of an emotion when it was observed) uniquely predicted social relationships among kindergarteners (N = 301). Emotions were observed as naturally occurring at school in the fall term and multiple reporters (peers and teachers) provided information on quality of relationships with children in the spring term. In structural equation models, positive emotion frequency, but not positive emotion intensity, was positively related to peer acceptance and negatively related to peer rejection. In contrast, the frequency of anger provided unique positive prediction of teacher–student conflict and negative prediction of peer acceptance. Furthermore, anger intensity negatively predicted teacher–student closeness and positively predicted teacher–student conflict. Implications for promoting social relationships in school are discussed.
      PubDate: 2016-02-16T09:45:28.794878-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12179
  • Effect of Type of Maternal Control on American and Chinese Children's
           Evaluations of Personal Domain Events
    • Authors: Judith G. Smetana; Courtney Ball, Jenny Yau, Mun Wong
      Abstract: We examined 261 5‐, 7‐, and 10‐year‐olds’ (147 in Hong Kong, 114 in the USA) evaluations of hypothetical scenarios where mothers sought to control personal domain events by prohibiting, persuading, or shaming the child. The scenarios also varied in their description of personal events as either essential or peripheral to the self. Compliance was endorsed least (and emotions attributed to actors were most positive) when mothers gently persuaded and endorsed most (with emotion attributions most negative) when mothers prohibited personal choices. Evaluations of compliance and associated emotions for shaming fell in‐between. When mothers were described as gently persuading, young children (and Chinese children) gave priority to personal choices more when acts were described as essential rather than peripheral to the self, based on personal reasons. When mothers were described as shaming, noncompliance increased with age, along with pragmatic justifications for choices, particularly when events were essentialized. Positive emotions in response to shaming also increased with age, but differentially for Chinese and American children.
      PubDate: 2016-01-22T10:12:39.562372-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/sode.12178
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