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  Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1232 journals)
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LAW (700 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABA Journal Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica     Open Access  
Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Administrative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal on Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Air and Space Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Akron Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alaska Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Albany Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Alberta Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Alternative Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Trial Advocacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American University National Security Law Brief     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Amicus Curiae     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Amsterdam Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annales Canonici     Open Access  
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appeal : Review of Current Law and Law Reform     Open Access  
Arbitration Law Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Hukum     Open Access  
Argumenta Journal Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arizona Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arizona State Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 2)
Arkansas Law Review     Free   (Followers: 5)
Ars Aequi Maandblad     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Pacific American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
Australasian Law Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Feminist Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ave Maria Law Review     Free   (Followers: 2)
Badamai Law Journal     Open Access  
Ballot     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of Law & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Technology Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bond Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Boston College Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston University Law Review     Free   (Followers: 10)
BRICS Law Journal     Open Access  
Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Brigham Young University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of American Legal Studies     Open Access  
Brooklyn Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cadernos de Dereito Actual     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito - PPGDir./UFRGS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Ibero-Americanos de Direito Sanitário     Open Access  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
California Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
California Lawyer     Free  
California Western Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Campbell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Case Western Reserve Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Časopis pro právní vědu a praxi     Open Access  
Časopis zdravotnického práva a bioetiky     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chicago-Kent Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Law & Government     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cleveland State Law Review     Free   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Free   (Followers: 10)
Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Columbia Law Review (Sidebar)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The Journal of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conflict Resolution Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cornell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Analysis of Law : An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuestiones Juridicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Danube : The Journal of European Association Comenius - EACO     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription  
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Defense Counsel Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Denning Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
DePaul Journal of Women, Gender and the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DePaul Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Derecho PUCP     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Die Verwaltung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dikaion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dike     Open Access  
Direito e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Direito e Liberdade     Open Access  
Diritto penale contemporaneo     Free   (Followers: 2)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dixi     Open Access  
Droit et Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drug Science, Policy and Law     Full-text available via subscription  
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Duke Forum for Law & Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Duke Law & Technology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Duke Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
DULR Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ECI Interdisciplinary Journal for Legal and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecology Law Quarterly     Free   (Followers: 3)
Edinburgh Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Education and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Election Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Energy Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Espaço Jurídico : Journal of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethnopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Europaisches Journal fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
European Journal for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Law and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
European Public Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
European Review of Contract Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Review of Private Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence & Policy : A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Faulkner Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Communication Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Federal Probation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Feminist Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
feminists@law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fiat Justisia     Open Access  
First Amendment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Florida Bar News     Free  
Florida Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Florida State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Fordham Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamina : A Journal of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
George Washington Law Review     Free   (Followers: 7)
Georgia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Georgia State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Labour Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover Geoforum
  [SJR: 1.512]   [H-I: 74]   [22 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0016-7185
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3042 journals]
  • Science and security expertise: Authority, knowledge, subjectivity
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 20 June 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Dagmar Rychnovská, Maya Pasgaard, Trine Villumsen Berling
      What role does science play in shaping the political' This themed issue brings together scholars from political science, human geography, natural science and related fields with the common aim of exploring links between science/expertise and politics with a specific focus on security implications. The increasing attention to threats and risks related to issues such as climate change, migration, energy security, or emerging technologies creates a demand for new types of experts and expertise relevant for security politics. By looking at the actors who operate at the boundary between science, bureaucracy and security politics, this themed issue seeks to destabilize the notion of an apolitical sphere of science and expertise, while at the same time demonstrating how the politics of expertise shapes the authority and subjectivity of scientists and reconfigures the meanings and roles of scientific knowledge. In this editorial, we connect relevant literatures and introduce the individual articles that compose the themed issue.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:18:16Z
       
  • Environmentality unbound: Multiple governmentalities in environmental
           politics
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Robert Fletcher
      This article reviews an emerging body of research applying a “multiple governmentalities” perspective derived from Michel Foucault to the study of environmental politics. Previous application of the popular governmentality concept to understand such politics had largely overlooked the multiple forms of governmentality, described in Foucault’s later work, that may intersect in a given context. This paper outlines the evolution of Foucault’s discussion of governmentality and its implications for the study of environmental politics. It then reviews recent research concerning environmental politics employing a multiple governmentalities perspective. It finishes by distilling overarching patterns from this literature and suggesting new directions for future research to explore.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:18:16Z
       
  • Stigmatization and the social construction of a normal identity in the
           Parisian banlieues
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 17 June 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Simone Antonia Lucia van de Wetering
      This paper explores stigma-responsive identity work amongst youths in Bondy, a town in the highly stigmatized suburbs of Paris. Within France, youths living in these banlieues are seen as an exceptional group, as deviant from ‘the norm’ that is based on the traditional French Republican values, and as a threat to the French unity and thereby to the Republic. Their ‘abnormality’ is institutionalized in their stigmatization. A common interpretation of identity construction of stigmatized people is the internalization of the attributed identity; a stigma in this case. However, both the variety of possible responses to stigma and the embeddedness of identities within a relational network of overlapping and contesting narratives suggest that identity construction within the banlieues and amongst its diverse youth population is more complex than straight internalization. In the Bondy case, reformulating the stigmatized identity by normalization proves to be the main form of stigma-responsive identity work. Rather than internalizing their stigma, the Bondy youths show an externalization of stigma: employing normalizing strategies that vary across age and gender they actively exclude the discourse of stigmatization and ‘abnormality’ from their self-identifications by redefining what the banlieue and banlieue identity means to them: normalcy. The Bondy youths do not reproduce dominant understandings of normalcy and deviance, but rework the existing norm by articulating a different understanding of ‘normalcy’ as a new reality of France inclusive of their diverse but shared banlieue identity. By researching identification processes within the banlieues, this paper illustrates that ‘deviant’ groups concentrated at the urban margins should not be oversimplified as homogeneous, and as passive victims that are subjected to a norm. To understand the lives of these urban youths, they should rather be approached as a diverse population “living together in diversity”, that can maneuver within the social structures of society.

      PubDate: 2017-06-21T11:18:16Z
       
  • Problematising justice definitions in public food security debates:
           Towards global and participative food justices
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Ana Moragues-Faus
      In the current environment of austerity, social justice concerns are increasingly permeating the food security agenda. However, there is a need to clarify what it means to create socially just food systems conceptually and practically. To address this gap, this paper proposes an analytical framework to embed a more complex conceptualisation of justice in food security debates that also serves as a bridging device across competing narratives. This framework is mobilised to analyse the framing process of the UK media, which plays a key role in developing narratives that provide audiences with schemas for interpreting events. Results show the emergence of eleven frames which highlight different solutions to deliver food security. The application of the justice analytical framework evidences the contingent relationship between food security and justice claims and discusses how these food security frames address differently what counts as a matter of justice (including economic, socio-cultural and political dimensions) and who counts as a subject of justice, tackling issues around delimitation of scales and sites of justice. The analysis reveals polarised positions between whether the sites subject to justice should be individuals or structures and uncovers how political and global elements of justice are largely by-passed in food security debates. These conceptualisations of justice and associated policy recommendations neglect the potential for people to participate fully in the conditions and decisions that give rise to particular distributions of goods and bads in the first place; limiting the construction of shared responsibilities to deliver global and participative food justices.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • The emergence of a hybrid mode of knowledge production in the Generation
           Challenge Programme Rice Research Network (GCP-RRN) in India: Exploring
           the concept of Commons-Based Peer Production (CBPP)
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Soutrik Basu, Joost Jongerden, Guido Ruivenkamp
      The Generation Challenge Programme (GCP) was an international agrarian knowledge-production programme created in 2003 by the CGIAR. GCP aims at developing drought tolerant varieties by reconciling upstream biotechnology based advanced research with the downstream development at the farmer's field. The objective of this paper is to apply the theory of Commons Based Peer Production (CBPP) to analyse the knowledge production process of GCP, especially the case of drought tolerant rice research network in Indian context (GCP-RRN). CBPP represents the theorisation of a mode of production that can be distinguished from market (private) and state (public) knowledge-production systems that was developed by observing the phenomena of Free and Open Source Software (FOSS). The organisational attributes of the CBPP mode applied in computer software production include the modulation of work, small-size granularity of components, and mechanisms that integrate these modules into an end product. Socio-economically, this form of production is based on cooperation, collaboration and collective action rather than property, contract and managerial hierarchies. This paper argues that GCP-RRN knowledge production is basically a hybridised one in which there are certain inclinations towards CBPP within certain larger context, and there are other attributes too that do not fall within CBPP theorisation. Further, this paper elaborates on the implications of this hybridised model for agrarian knowledge production discourse and institutions.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • Editorial board / Publication info
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83


      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • Host country governance and the African land rush: 7 reasons why
           large-scale farmland investments fail to contribute to sustainable
           development
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): George C. Schoneveld
      The large social and environmental footprint of rising investor demand for Africa’s farmland has in recent years become a much-examined area of enquiry. This has produced a rich body of literature that has generated valuable insights into the underlying drivers, trends, social and environmental impacts, discursive implications, and global governance options. Host country governance dynamics have in contrast remained an unexplored theme, despite its central role in facilitating and legitimizing unsustainable farmland investments. This article contributes to this research gap by synthesizing results and lessons from 38 case studies conducted in Ethiopia, Ghana, Nigeria, and Zambia. It shows how and why large-scale farmland investments are often synonymous with displacement, dispossession, and environmental degradation and, thereby, highlights seven outcome determinants that merit more explicit treatment in academic and policy discourse.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • The urban land debate in the global South: New avenues for research
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Griet Steel, Femke van Noorloos, Christien Klaufus
      The global ‘land grab’ debate is going urban and needs a specific conceptual framework to analyze the diverse modalities through which land commodification and speculation are transforming cities across the globe. This article identifies new avenues for research on urban land issues by drawing on an extensive body of academic literature and concrete cases of urban land transformations in Asia, Latin America and Africa. These transformations are analyzed by focusing on three types of urban investments – investments in property, investments in public space and public services, and investments in speculation, image building and ‘worlding’ – and the way these investments are intermingled with and enhanced by processes of gentrification and speculative urbanism. Addressing real estate and infrastructure investments, speculation and gentrification through a land-based lens allows us to deepen the discussion on urban land governance in the global South. We argue that urban land acquisition cannot be thoroughly understood in isolation from the workings of urban real estate markets, public policies, and displacement processes. The urban land grab debate needs to consider the dialectic interplay between land use change and general socio-spatial transformations both in central – or recentralized – and peripheral areas. This is why we plea for a kaleidoscopic perspective on urban land governance by uncovering the complex patchwork of urban land acquisitions and their diverse temporalities and spatialities, their hybrid character in terms of actors involved, and the multiple and often unpredicted ways in which urban dwellers try to gain control over and access to urban land.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • A ‘cartography of concern’: Place-making practices and gender in the
           artisanal mining sector in Africa
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Chris Huggins, Doris Buss, Blair Rutherford
      Sites of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in sub-Saharan Africa are often places of contestation and dispossession, particularly because mining laws and policies have generally been crafted to foster large-scale mining. This paper builds on research mapping the multiple ways in which ASM is associated with various wrongs – criminality, illegality, immorality, destructiveness - to consider how various, complex gendered relations and place-making practices within mine sites are occluded as a result. We consider these erasures in the context of ASM formalization efforts linked to particular state visions. We note that while negative perceptions of ASM persist, governments, donors and mining companies are increasingly engaging in different forms of negotiation with ASM representatives, particularly through establishing legal ‘ASM zones’ and encouraging or mandating artisanal miners to form associations or cooperatives: processes of formalization. With reference to African case studies, we outline potential issues and challenges in efforts to formalize ASM, while offering insights into how the politics of place-making inform these initiatives. Focusing in particular on the gendering of both the dominant place-making of ASM by policy-makers and regulators and the actual emplaced practices of ASM activities in specific mining sites we highlight the multiple, at times competing and other times overlapping, visions of space at work in this widespread economic activity.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • After the consent: Re-imagining participatory land governance in
           Massingir, Mozambique
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Kei Otsuki, Dakcha Achá, J.D. Wijnhoud
      Massingir district is located in southern Mozambique, bordering South Africa. From the mid-2000s onwards, foreign private and domestic investments in the district have been on the rise in the agribusiness, tourism, and conservation sectors. This has resulted in events that scholars and activists have come to describe as land, water, and green grabs. The on-going discussions have urged the government to fully implement the policy and legal frameworks that oblige investors to undertake community consultations based on the principle of Free and Prior Informed Consent (FPIC) and to safeguard the communities’ land right acquisition. However, little has been clarified about how the consulted communities actually have experienced the consequences of their consent after they agreed to resettle or to concede parts of their communally managed land to investors. This article elaborates on a case study of a community resettled from the Limpopo National Park in Massingir and the neighboring community, which, after struggling to secure land and to improve their livelihood, began to reflect on their initial consent, interact with various actors, and craft strategies for expressing dissent and re-negotiating the deal they had struck. The article argues that the current emphasis on consultation for the purposes of building consent overlooks the importance of paying systemic attention to these strategies that are emerging from the community’s everyday experiences with the consequences of their act of giving consent. Inclusive land governance entails an institutional mechanism that closely responds to people’s experiences with policy practices.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • Addressing the impacts of large-scale land investments: Re-engaging with
           livelihood research
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): E.B. (Annelies) Zoomers, Kei Otsuki
      What started as a media-driven hype about the global land rush has developed into a well-established academic debate on land governance and an important domain for policy intervention. Research over the past decade has deepened our understanding of how land, water and forests, which were once considered to be local assets and the sources of livelihoods, are transformed into global goods and the focus of capital investments. We are now clearly aware that such transformation generates significant impacts on the livelihood security of vulnerable groups. In response to this, a variety of policy interventions have been devised to minimize the negative impacts (‘do not harm’) and create new opportunities (‘do good’). Yet, it is still unclear how actual policy implementations play out on the ground, what the real impacts are at the local level and whether these interventions help people to improve their livelihoods. In this paper, we present an overview of the existing intervention approaches and their theoretical underpinnings, and discuss how to optimize the developmental outcomes. We argue that the once popular livelihood research framework should be revised and then incorporated more robustly in the existing intervention approaches, as it could help investors and governmental actors to engage in making their investments more relevant to local development.

      PubDate: 2017-06-17T11:12:32Z
       
  • Charting the emergence of a ‘knowing system’ for climate change
           adaptation in Australian regional natural resource management
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Philip J. Wallis, Karyn Bosomworth, Andrew Harwood, Peat Leith
      Climate change increases the complexity and uncertainty of regional natural resource management (NRM), calling into question the appropriateness of linear knowledge-transfer approaches. In this paper we reflect on knowledge practices among a partnership of researchers and NRM planners, under a federal program of NRM investment intended to ‘deliver information’ to regional NRM planners to support planning for climate change. We unpack ‘container’ and ‘conduit’ metaphors of linear, one-way communication invoked by the starting conditions, and explore whether more relational ways of communicating were achieved. A key theme emerged early in the research that NRM planners felt overwhelmed by the sheer volume of information available and discouraged by the irrelevance of much of it to their climate change planning. Our research-practice collaboration unfolded in this context and through ongoing face-to-face and virtual engagement over a period of two years. The collaborative approach featured joint identification of priority activities, co-design of planning approaches, and the iterative co-development of an online ‘information portal’, which acted as a boundary object. We report the emergence of a ‘knowing system’, resulting from these efforts to foster relationships and co-produce boundary objects in a particular geographic context. Our findings highlight the potential benefits of investing in the capacity of researchers and NRM practitioners to engage in collaborative research partnerships premised on the emergence of knowing systems.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:08:39Z
       
  • Changing household water consumption practices after drought in three
           Australian cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Jo Lindsay, Sian Supski
      One of the major challenges of moving toward more sustainable and water sensitive futures is to change people's everyday water consumption habits. The experience of the Millennium drought in Australia (1996–2010) and water restrictions introduced during that time intervened to change everyday water practices in specific ways creating durable change in some practices and mutable change in others. Drawing on focus groups with 62 people, in three diverse Australian cities, a rich picture of diverse water practices emerges. Using a specific social practice framework we explore the key practices of garden watering and showering and tease out the elements in each – we discuss how and why there has been more innovation and change in garden practices than shower practices. We argue that sustained water restrictions drive material change in households and these material changes appear to be more effective in changing water use than transforming water saving competencies or meanings alone. Further, we show that the commitment and resistance to water saving has a spatial context – data from three different cities allowed us to see how location, climate and policy responses interweave with everyday practices. The implication of our research is that policy interventions should be 'fit for purpose' according to social practices in spatial context.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:08:39Z
       
  • Geographies of crisis in Greece: A social well-being approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Panagiotis Artelaris
      The most prominent ‘victim’ of the global financial crisis in 2007/2008 has been Greece, which is, even now, in the middle of an economic and social storm that is threatening its economic and social cohesion and its membership of the Eurozone. Using the social well-being conceptual framework as a benchmark and exploiting the literature of composite indicators, the paper aims to assess and measure the regional impact of the crisis in a systematic and comprehensive way. Differing from most of previous studies, both at national and international levels, this study is based on the assumption that the effects of the crisis go far beyond economics and create a social crisis strongly associated with significant human and social costs that might transform Greece’s regional status and threaten its regional well-being, probably in a very unequal way. The main finding of the analysis is that although all regions were severely affected by the dynamics and intensity of the crisis, some regions were more affected than others, leading to ‘winners’ and ‘losers’. From a policy point of view, the results of this study have serious implications for crisis management, recovery policy actions and a country’s social cohesion, especially in Greece where austerity policy measures not only imposed considerable cutbacks in regional development policies but also ignored the spatial dimension of the crisis.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:08:39Z
       
  • Temporary skilled international migration of young professional
           cricketers: ‘Going Down-Under’ to move-up the career path
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Catherine A. Waite, Darren P. Smith
      Recent theories of temporary skilled international migration tend to be predicated on intra-company overseas transfers and secondments. In this paper we present original findings from a study of cricket migrants to highlight another important form of temporary international movements that enable upskilling from strategic, channelled placements into a foreign club, to propel the careers of young professionals on return migration to their respective home club. Drawing upon interviews with 35 early-career English cricketers, we reveal that moving to Australia for 3–6months during the English domestic off-season is an increasingly common practice to extend the number of months playing the sport in both distinctive work and climatic conditions. Encountering different overseas sporting cultures and environments is becoming a normative part of formative training and development of young professional cricketers to make the ‘‘unfamiliar’ more ‘familiar’’ and enhance skills and competencies. We argue that these flows of international migrants have been facilitated by the post-2001 professionalization of cricket, and the institutionalisation of global networks between cricket organisations and key actors in the sport. We suggest that there are parallels between cricket placements and other sports and occupational sectors, such as temporary overseas moves linked to loans (e.g. football), visiting fellowships, internships and secondments, in ever-competitive global professional labour markets.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:08:39Z
       
  • Cutting nature to fit: Urbanization, neoliberalism and biodiversity
           offsetting in England
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 10 June 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Evangelia Apostolopoulou, William M. Adams
      In this paper, by drawing on primary empirical data obtained through 62 interviews in seven case studies we seek to offer a Marxist historical-geographical analysis of biodiversity offsetting policy in England, and its emergence in the context of the global economic crisis, and government aspirations for large-scale urban development projects. By paying attention to the interplay between offsetting, urbanization and the neoliberal reconstruction of conservation, we aim to extend the focus of the neoliberal conservation literature from the role of offsets as ecological ‘commodities’ to the way offsetting is used to support the production of space(s), place(s) and nature(s) in line with contemporary patterns of capitalist urban growth. In particular, we show how offsetting operationalized new ideas about nature as a stock of biodiversity, how it streamlined planning to support extended urbanization, how it foreclosed public debate about controversial urban development projects, and how it reterritorialized nature-society relationships. We also give a central role to social contestation against the implementation of offsetting in England, drawing attention to its class character and highlighting the potential for a new emancipatory politics that would encompass a ‘right to nature’ as a key element of struggles for the ‘right to the city’.

      PubDate: 2017-06-12T11:08:39Z
       
  • Power and politics in climate change adaptation efforts: Struggles over
           authority and recognition in the context of political instability
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Andrea J. Nightingale
      Throughout the world, climate change adaptation policies supported by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) have provided significant sources of funding and technical support to developing countries. Yet often the adaptation responses proposed belie complex political realities, particularly in politically unstable contexts, where power and politics shape adaptation outcomes. In this paper, the concepts of authority and recognition are used to capture power and politics as they play out in struggles over governing changing resources. The case study in Nepal shows how adaptation policy formation and implementation becomes a platform in which actors seek to claim authority and assert more generic rights as political and cultural citizens. Focusing on authority and recognition helps illuminate how resource governance struggles often have very little to do with the resources themselves. Foundational to the argument is how projects which seek to empower actors to manage their resources, produce realignments of power and knowledge that then shape who is invested in what manner in adaptation. The analysis adds to calls for reframing ‘adaptation’ to encompass the socionatural processes that shape vulnerability by contributing theoretical depth to questions of power and politics.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:03:48Z
       
  • The rise of strategic partner firms and reconfiguration of personal
           computer production networks in China: Insights from the emerging laptop
           cluster in Chongqing
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Chun Yang
      In recent theorization of the Global Production Network (GPN) framework, viz. “GPN 2.0 theory” (Coe and Yeung, 2015), firm-specific strategies namely intra-firm coordination, inter-firm control, inter-firm partnership and extra-firm bargaining are conceptualized to understand the changing dynamics and reconfiguration of global production networks. Drawing upon the extra-firm strategies in the GPN 2.0 theory, this paper examines the spatial and organizational reconfiguration of personal computer production networks in China since late 2000s. Based on the information and data collected from years of observation and in-depth interviews with various firms and extra-firm actors, particularly government officials during June 2014 and December 2016, this study explores the emerging laptop cluster in Chongqing, a centrally-governed municipality in West China, which produced 40% of the world laptop computers in 2015. This paper argues that the rapid development in Chongqing in a short span has been attributed to the rising power of strategic partner firms of lead firms, primarily Taiwan-based contract manufacturers (e.g. Foxconn). It sheds light on the emerging strategic coupling between strategic partner firms and local government in Chongqing, which has brought about the reconfiguration of laptop production networks from the prevailed lead-firm centric to the emerging strategic partnership pattern. This study enriches the developing literature on the rise of strategic partner firms by extending the firm-centric analysis to extra-firm strategies, which echoes the extra-regional dynamics advocated recently by the Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) perspective.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:03:48Z
       
  • Paying homage to the ‘Heavenly Mother’: Cultural-geopolitics of the
           Mazu pilgrimage and its implications on rapprochement between China and
           Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): J.J. Zhang
      Much has been researched on tourism across (former) borders of conflict and on pilgrimage as a socio-cultural activity, but the relationship between the two remains poorly understood. Pilgrimage-tours carried out by Taiwanese devotees to the birthplace of Mazu (or Tianshang Shengmu – the Heavenly Mother) in Putian, China offer a significant platform to further our understanding of how religion can play a part in the rapprochement between China and Taiwan. Based on ethnographic fieldwork, this paper goes beyond the conventional state-level analysis to discuss interactions and encounters forged at the levels of the temple organisations and the individual. It utilises Victor Turner’s concept of ‘communitas’ to understand how spiritual spaces are being performed through the pilgrimage rather than already existing before the pilgrimage. Importantly, the Mazu pilgrimage-tour is conceptualised not as a tourism product, but as both a social activity and a socialising one, producing opportunities for different forms of interactions between the Chinese and Taiwanese devotees. These ‘interactions along the side’ as opposed to state-level diplomatic exchanges offer insights into the ‘more-than-state’ and ‘more-than-human’ relationships that bind/divide devotees on both sides of the Taiwan Strait.

      PubDate: 2017-06-07T11:03:48Z
       
  • Creating ecotourism territories: Environmentalities in Tanzania’s
           community-based conservation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Jevgeniy Bluwstein
      This paper explores territorial struggles around ecotourism in community-based conservation in wildlife rich Northern Tanzania. At the centre of analysis are two emblematic and distinctly different ecotourism business models that rely on a particular territorialization of property relations and resource control: one model is based on land sharing with local communities and villages, while the other relies on the appropriation of large parts of village land for exclusive access and control. Conceptually engaging critical geography debates on internal territorialization with a poststructuralist political ecology inspired by the framework of multiple environmentalities, the paper shows how ecotourism companies employ different techniques of government to secure business-friendly environments and territories in neoliberal conservation. Different business models underpin different processes of territorialization that in turn produce different modes of engagements and regimes of rule and authority. While the case of ecotourism through land sharing reinforces village land rights through a neoliberal environmentality, ecotourism through land appropriation illustrates how neoliberal, sovereign and truth environmentalities are put to work to facilitate the re-territorialization of property relations and resource control to undermine land rights of an entire village or an ethnic minority.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T11:00:40Z
       
  • Entrepreneurial public real estate policy: The case of Eiranranta,
           Helsinki
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 June 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Mika Hyötyläinen, Anne Haila
      Finnish cities own a significant amount of land, and used to allocate it free of charge for schools, day care centres and libraries. Today they tend either to sell the land they own or when leasing to charge market rent. Selling public land is justified by arguing that it brings money to the city, and charging market rent is claimed to make the use of real estate more “efficient”. This article investigates this new policy we call entrepreneurial public real estate policy. We focus on its justification and effects on the production of the built environment. Our case is a residential area called Eiranranta, located on the prestigious southern shore of Helsinki, where the City of Helsinki sold land to private developers who built a residential area for wealthy homeowners. Our analysis shows unintended and harmful consequences of this entrepreneurial public real estate policy. First, by selling the land to private developers who developed the area for homeowners, the City ceded its planning power with no demands that the area should include social housing. Second, by selling public land to private developers who managed to sell the apartments they built at record high prices, the City reinforced the trend of excluding from the city those who cannot enter the housing market. Lastly, a private fenced residential area exclusively for high net-worth individuals that was developed on the privatized land introduces a new type of development to Helsinki that has so far been absent in a Northern welfare city.

      PubDate: 2017-06-03T11:00:40Z
       
  • Urban locations and Black Metropolis resilience in the Great Depression
    • Abstract: Publication date: August 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 84
      Author(s): Robert L. Boyd
      Motivated by theoretical arguments about ethnicity and economics and by historical research on urban black communities in the United States, this paper investigates the resilience of the early twentieth-century Black Metropolis. The study tests hypotheses about changes during the Great Depression (1930–1940) in the advantages of various cities as locations of black communities’ ethnic economies, analyzing Census data on blacks’ representation in occupations reflecting the Black Metropolis’s professional, entrepreneurial, and cultural media pursuits. There is mixed support for the hypothesis that the nationally dominant urban centers of New York, Chicago, and Philadelphia had the most resilient Black Metropolises, a finding that casts doubt on claims that black communities in such key places enjoyed exceptionally favorable locational advantages. Yet, the results support the hypothesis that northern cities were, overall, more resilient locations than southern cities, particularly for black professionals and entrepreneurs, affirming the argument that the urban North’s Black Metropolises were vital economic opportunity centers for these black communities’ upper- and middle-classes.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T10:48:52Z
       
  • Objectives, ownership and engagement in Lao PDR’s REDD+ policy
           landscape
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Robert Cole, Grace Wong, Maria Brockhaus, Moira Moeliono, Maarit Kallio
      Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation (REDD+) is envisioned as a performance-based incentive to influence forest use behavior and governance towards the preservation and management of forests. In relatively forest-rich Lao PDR, the policy space that REDD+ planners are attempting to navigate is populated by enduring political and economic interests that affect the country’s forest estate. A further layer to the problem of REDD+ planning is the tension between often expert-driven, externally proposed solutions; national ownership over interventions; and the extent of political will to take action to reform currently unsustainable patterns of forest and forest land exploitation. This paper draws from a series of semi-structured interviews conducted in 2013–2014, to develop a political and institutional analysis of the limitations to the effectiveness of REDD+ in steering towards a lower forest-derived emissions trajectory in Lao PDR. While internationally-driven projects follow long-standing national objectives to varying degrees, it remains unclear how REDD+ can target main drivers of deforestation in the absence of a more politically engaged and nationally-owned planning process, that also challenges the prevailing logic of avoiding these drivers. Despite the importance of improving domestic ownership over REDD+, this would arguably be of limited impact unless oriented towards transformational change that would seek to overcome political and economic barriers to avoided deforestation. Stronger ownership could be developed via more mutually driven REDD+ planning, while tackling main drivers of deforestation necessitates as a starting point the engagement of powerful actors that have so far been absent from REDD+ debate.

      PubDate: 2017-05-29T10:48:52Z
       
  • Examining the influence of intellectuals on commodity speculation
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Sean Field
      Global food price volatility began shortly after Gorton and Rouwenhorst (2004, 2006) recognized that commodity index speculation was financially underexploited by institutional investors. Pro-commodity speculation and pro-index speculation arguments were not new, but gained new significance when the US Mortgage and Global Financial crises began to unfold and investors were looking for new places to funnel money. The literature has linked financial speculation by index funds and hedge funds to global food price volatility and the food riots in 2008 and 2011. The literature, however, leaves readers with the perception that index funds and hedge funds alone created the recent wave of commodity futures speculation. This paper argues that a small but important group of intellectuals were vital to the promotion and regulation of commodity speculation by index funds and hedge funds, which has affected the world as a whole.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T13:19:10Z
       
  • Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) in sub-Saharan Africa:
           Re-conceptualizing formalization and ‘illegal’ activity
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Gavin Hilson, Abigail Hilson, Roy Maconachie, James McQuilken, Halima Goumandakoye
      This article contributes to the debate on the formalization of artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) – low-tech, labour-intensive mineral extraction and processing – in developing countries. A unique sector populated by an eclectic group of individuals, ASM has expanded rapidly in all corners of the world in recent years. Most of its activities, however, are informal, scattered across lands which are not officially titled. But growing recognition of the sector's economic importance, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, has forced donors, and to some extent, policymakers, to ‘rethink’ development strategies for ASM. As part of broader moves to improve the regulation of, and occasionally intensify the delivery of assistance to, the sector, many are now searching frantically for fresh ideas on how to bring operations into the legal domain, where, it is believed, they can be regulated, monitored and supported more effectively. A challenging exercise, this entails first determining, with some degree of precision, why people choose to operate informally in this sector. Drawing on analysis from the literature and findings from research conducted in Ghana and Niger, it is argued that the legalist school (on informality) in part explains how governments across sub-Saharan Africa are ‘creating’ bureaucracies which are stifling the formalization of ASM activities in the region. A more nuanced development strategy grounded in local realities is needed if formalization is to have a transformative effect on the livelihoods of those engaged in ASM in the region and elsewhere in the developing world.

      PubDate: 2017-05-24T13:19:10Z
       
  • Job-related mobility and plant performance in Sweden
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Rikard Eriksson, Andrés Rodríguez-Pose
      This paper uses a Swedish micro-dataset containing 2,696,909 hires during the period 2002–2006 to assess the impact of job-related mobility on plant-level performance. The analysis classifies new recruits according to their work experience and level of formal qualification, as well as by the region of origin and of destination. New hires are divided into graduates and experienced workers and between high- and low-educated. The results point towards the importance of acknowledging both the experience and the skills of new recruits. The greatest benefits are related to hiring new workers from outside the region where the plant is located. The analysis also stresses the importance of geography, with plants in metropolitan regions gaining the most from labour mobility, while the benefits of mobility for plants in smaller, more peripheral regions are more diverse and dependent on both the type and origin of new workers.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T13:07:43Z
       
  • Defining geographical mobility: Perspectives from higher education
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Aimee Haley
      Context is generally overlooked when selecting measures to define geographical mobility in mobility and migration research. This paper contributes to a discussion on the importance of context when defining geographical mobility and draws on examples from higher education in Sweden. Using binary logistic regression, statistical outcomes are compared when different measures of mobility to and mobility from higher education are employed. The measures produce different statistical outcomes, and these differences are illuminated when comparing results of common measures of mobility (e.g. crossing administrative boundaries or moving a certain distance) against two measures constructed specifically for Swedish higher education-related mobility. The results indicate that using municipality boundaries for measuring mobility in the Swedish higher education context is particularly inappropriate because the measure does not differentiate commuters from movers. This challenge surfaces because mobility must be determined in relation to the locations of students’ higher education institutions since administratively registered moves are unreliable in the educational context. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the geographical locations and characteristics of higher education institutions in addition to feasible commuting possibilities in research on higher education-related mobility. The two measures developed for the Swedish higher education context are identified as most appropriate because they center on the geographical distribution of higher education, and this distribution is perceived as having an important role in influencing mobility in this context. Consequently, this study accentuates the need for considering the geographical arrangement of resources (e.g. schools, hospitals) relevant to the context under investigation when determining measures to define mobility.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T13:07:43Z
       
  • Narrativizing (and laughing) spatial identities together in
           Meänkieli-speaking minorities
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Juha Ridanpää
      This paper scrutinizes how the Meänkieli-speaking minority in The Torne Valley, northern Sweden, use humor in the process of narrativizing their shifting spatial identities, as well as in maintaining and contesting prevailing power relations. A great deal of the research focusing on the social and political nature of humor, and its geographical dimensions, has concerned the humor directed at ethnic and national minorities, with minority groups typically being approached as targets of laughter. However, less interest has been paid to how minorities use and experience humor in their everyday lives and environments. Humor is approached here as an integral part of how people make sense of culture and society in a creative manner and cope with and challenge subordinating power-relations and social inequality. In terms of methodology, laughing together operates as a (research) approach through which spatial identities of linguistic minorities can be renegotiated. The study is based on group discussions held with local culture workers and activists between September 2015 and February 2016 in Swedish Torne Valley. The paper produces new theoretical and empirical knowledge concerning how humor is used in a creative manner to make sense of, produce and contest socio-spatial relations.

      PubDate: 2017-05-19T13:07:43Z
       
  • Public stealth and boundary objects: Coping with integrated water resource
           management and the post-political condition in Montana’s portion of the
           Yellowstone River watershed
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Lucas Ward, Matthew B. Anderson, Susan J. Gilbertz, Jamie McEvoy, Damon M. Hall
      This paper uses the case of recent efforts in the Yellowstone River watershed to illuminate how the implementation of Integrated Water Resources (IWRM)-styled activities by a Montana state agency is best understood as an exercise in practical expediency that indirectly, but consequentially, supports hegemonic neo-liberalism. We present an innovative use of Q method, focus groups, and participant observations, as means to examine how scale-based interventions by the state moved IWRM-style reforms forward. The activities under consideration allow us to advance an empirically-based critique of so-called integrated approaches to environmental reform with a specific focus on the rescaling process inherent to adoption of the IWRM model. We argue that efforts to transition to IWRM-style governance are likely to be accompanied by stealthy, scale-based interventions. We use the concepts of “standardized packages” and “boundary objects” to raise questions about the degree to which use of such tactics should be interpreted as evidence of a broader hegemonic project to further imbricate neoliberal governmentality, as the literature on post-politics would suggest, or whether eco-scaling and careful circumscription of participation are simply the most convenient strategies for those charged with difficult and complex tasks.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T11:53:38Z
       
  • Religious tourism in southern Mexico: Regional scopes of the festival of
           the Immaculate Conception
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Ilia Alvarado-Sizzo, Enrique Propin Frejomil, Álvaro Sánchez Crispín
      In Mexico, pilgrimages to Catholic sanctuaries are a common cultural practice. Considering the relevance of Izamal sanctuary for the regional context of the Yucatan peninsula, this paper explores the territorial scopes of its celebration of the Virgin of the Immaculate Conception. The aims were: to analyze the origin and historical evolution of the cult to Our Lady of Izamal; to understand the regional scopes and dynamics of the celebration; and to identify the profile and motivations of visitors to the sanctuary. Quantitative techniques (structured interviews of 91 visitors in December 2015; Principal Components Analysis [PCA]), as well as qualitative ones (participant observation, a photographic record, unstructured conversations with pilgrims) investigated the regional influence of the celebration and of the devotional aspects. The results reveal that the celebration, therefore the influence of the sanctuary, has a local scope restricted to the peninsula area due to a historical process associated with Maya culture. Believers who travel to Izamal on this date are moved by the conviction that Our Lady of Izamal is the protector of the peninsular Maya territory. Both regional scopes and motivations of visitors are revealed in the PCA. The fact that individuals choose to displace to a certain location, even if only for a few hours, motivated by their faith, is an example of tourism as a manifestation of human motilities.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T11:53:38Z
       
  • Is REDD+ effective, efficient, and equitable? Learning from a REDD+
           project in Northern Cambodia
    • Abstract: Publication date: July 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 83
      Author(s): Iben Nathan, Maya Pasgaard
      REDD+ is a global scale climate change mitigation program aiming at creating financial values for carbon stored in forests. According to the proponents, REDD+ is an effective, efficient, and equitable mechanism for reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation. Some scholars question this assumption, and some call for further analysis to understand how REDD+ can contribute to economic, environmental, and social goals, and what are the synergies and trade-offs between them. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the debate about whether REDD+ projects can be brought to accommodate economic (efficiency), environmental (effectiveness), and social (equity) concerns at the same time by drawing on own field results from a REDD+ project in Cambodia. The paper follows three tracks. The first is to develop and explain the conceptual and analytical framework for our empirical investigations. The second is to explain the field results. The third track is to discuss what general lessons can be learnt. Our case illustrates some of the mechanisms that are likely to work against the willingness and ability of REDD+ projects to ensure local people’s net-gains, and the risk that effectiveness and equity will suffer if REDD+ projects rely solely on the private market. Our case thus indicates a tension between the objectives of creating financial value from carbon stored in trees through the private market, and environmental and social equity concerns. However, we call for more comparative studies of REDD+ projects, and hope our conceptual framework can assist such studies.

      PubDate: 2017-05-14T11:53:38Z
       
  • From land grabs to inclusive development?
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 May 2017
      Source:Geoforum
      Author(s): Kei Otsuki, George Schoneveld, Annelies Zoomers


      PubDate: 2017-05-14T11:53:38Z
       
  • ‘They took our beads, it was a fair trade, get over it’: Settler
           colonial logics, racial hierarchies and material dominance in Canadian
           agriculture
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Sarah Rotz
      Canada is in a liminal space, with renewed struggles for and commitments to indigenous land and food sovereignty on one hand, and growing capital interest in land governance and agriculture on the other. While neoliberal capital increasingly accumulates land-based control, settler-farming communities still manage much of Canada’s arable land. This research draws on studies of settler colonialism, racial hierarchy and othering to connect the ideological with the material forces of settler colonialism and show how material dominance is maintained through colonial logics and racially ordered narratives. Through in-depth interviews, I investigate how white settler farmers perceive and construct two distinctly ‘othered’ groups: Indigenous peoples and migrant farmers and farm workers. Further, I show the disparate role of land and labour in constructing each group, and specifically, the cultural and material benefits of these constructions for land-based settler populations. At the same time, settler colonial structures and logics remain reciprocally coupled to political conditions. For instance, contemporary neoliberalism in Canadian agriculture modifies settler colonial structures to be sure. I argue, however, that political economic analyses of land and food production in Canada (such as corporate concentration, land grabbing and farm consolidation) ought to better integrate the systemic forces of settler colonialism that have conditioned land access in the first place. Of course, determining who is able to access land—and thus, who is able to grow food—continues to be a territorial struggle. Thus, in order to shift these conditions we ought to examine how those with access and control have acquired and maintained it.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T11:27:02Z
       
  • The future is now! Extrapolated riskscapes, anticipatory action and the
           management of potential emergencies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Florian Neisser, Simon Runkel
      Anticipating the future is a key practice for the management of potential emergencies. Anticipatory action needs the future to become ready-to-hand. Focusing on the logics and practices of anticipatory action the paper discusses the relations between time and space in the context of risk and uncertainty. Spatializations of simulation technologies, preemptive emergency management and anticipatory action aim to disclose and extrapolate the future. In general, infrastructures are technologies which aim to materialize expectations concerning the future. In the case of emergency management infrastructural measures enable and/or constrain practices by inheriting specific logics. The concept of riskscapes (Müller-Mahn and Everts, 2013) poses to be a promising framework to grasp these issues. In our perspective, extrapolated riskscapes treat the future as an already interpreted and symbolically structured world. This involves not only looking at the temporality of riskscapes, but also dealing with geographies of inscribed futurity. Two case studies focusing on emergency management practices of firefighters will be deployed for illustration: the first observes the logics of preemptive emergency management and anticipatory action inscribed into materialities of infrastructures in the context of rail-bound hazmat transports; the second shows how computer simulations for crowded geographies facilitate decision-making and action for policing and crowd management. Instead of treating future in riskscapes as neutral, we highlight the politically situated practices that co-evolve with these technologies and their spatializations. The article discusses the dimension of time within riskscapes to gain a better understanding of the temporalization of space as in simulations and the spatialization of time as in infrastructures of emergency management.

      PubDate: 2017-04-28T11:27:02Z
       
  • Contextualizing public art production in China: The urban sculpture
           planning system in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Jane Zheng
      This research examines urban sculpture production to understand how a public art (called “urban sculpture” in China) scene is produced in the country, using Shanghai as a case study. Theories of Chinese urban planning are innovatively applied. The findings generate theoretical implications for “contextualizing” public art production in geographical studies. All the chief officials in charge of urban sculpture planning in Shanghai were interviewed, and documentary analyses were conducted. The article argues that urban sculptures are conceived of as both symbolic capitals and didactic tools in the cultural policies of Shanghai. Urban sculpture planning plays an important role in coordinating and manipulating development of symbolic resources to advance urban entrepreneurialism within the ideological framework of the Communist Party’s leadership. The main features of the urban sculpture planning system of China are twofold: (1) The two-tier planning structure combines a master plan at the municipal level and detailed plans for site analysis and design guidance at the district level, all collaboratively working to create an attractive city image for urban entrepreneurialism. (2) An authoritarian style of planning system controls the contents and expression of urban sculpture within the ideological framework of urban sculpture planning.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Demanding distances in later life leisure travel
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Emmet Fox, Russell Hitchings, Rosie Day, Susan Venn
      This article draws on a serial interview study of later life leisure travel in the UK to question how a wider trend towards holidaying further afield has come to feature in the lives of three cohorts of older Britons. Drawing on theories of social practice that see notions of desirable activity as produced through the interplay of opportunities to engage in relevant activities, collective apprehensions of what doing these activities should involve, and the physical capacities necessarily required to undertake them, we examine their leisure travel in two regards. Firstly, we consider how evolving social and infrastructural arrangements are effectively demanding greater distance travel in the sense that they shape what socially desirable leisure travel is taken to entail at certain points in time. Secondly, we examine how distance travel may be physically demanding in the sense that older bodies may be particularly likely to face certain challenges when they travel. This strategy allows us to examine how broader social expectations regarding distance travel have become part of the lives of older Britons and the manner in which they are currently reconciling them with both the anticipation and the experience of bodily ageing. We end with the implications of our findings for the future of later life leisure travel as a potential hotspot of growing societal energy demand and the further application of social practice theory in view of the evidently variable capacities of human bodies.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Curating the “Third Place”' Coworking and the mediation of
           creativity
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Julie Brown
      Coworking spaces (CWS) and the associated practice of coworking, have emerged in numerous forms and various urban contexts to critically challenge traditional concepts of the workplace and location of creative work, while simultaneously confronting the way in which creative workers interact with and relate to each other as well as with space and to place. Heralded as a solution to increasingly atomised work patterns, CWS are imagined and presented as spaces of serendipitous encounter, spontaneous exchange and collaboration. Nonetheless, little is known about how coworking positively supports workers and how coworking relates to wider urban transformation processes has been largely un-researched. This paper contributes to a critical discussion through empirical analysis of a project aimed at establishing new creative CWS in city-centre locations across SE England. The study adopts a novel approach using Q-methodology. Motivations for coworking and benefits (or dis-benefits) of co-location are assessed, as is the extent to which coworking facilitates interactional effects and wider neighbourhood interactions. In particular, the role of the CWS manager as “mediator” is explored. Coworker benefits relate primarily to peer-interaction and support rather than formal collaboration. While CWS managers play a key connecting role, also ensuring coworker complementarity and compatibility, the coworker profile (motivations, needs, experiences) ultimately influences outcomes. The study cautions against the use of CWS as “quick fix” urban renewal tools, with little indication that the benefits of coworking reach beyond immediate members or that linkages are easily established between coworkers and local (resident or business) communities.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Masculinities and femininities of drinking in Finland, Italy and Sweden:
           Doing, modifying and unlinking gender in relation to different drinking
           places
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Jukka Törrönen, Sara Rolando, Franca Beccaria
      In this article we analyze how Finnish, Italian and Swedish men and women are doing, modifying and unlinking gender in relation to different drinking places and situations. In the study, Finland and Sweden represent the Nordic intoxication-oriented drinking cultures, whereas Italy, in turn, represents the Mediterranean meal drinking cultures. The data were collected in a similar way in Finland, Italy and Sweden from 2007 to 2010, covering four different age groups. From each country at least eight male and eight female groups were selected, i.e. two male and two female groups from each age group, one representing higher and the other lower social status professions. All focus groups were asked to interpret a set of pictures representing different kinds of drinking places and situations, such as a couple’s moderate wine drinking at a sidewalk table, heavy drinking among men in a bus, and playful drinking among women while dancing. In the analysis we emphasize the flexibility of doing gender and the possibility of challenging conventional gender performances. We assume that doing gender is a multi-dimensional process mediated by structures, hierarchies, identities, situations and agency. Our analysis presents a mosaic repertoire of masculinities and femininities that change shape depending on how the place is seen in terms of a drinking space or situation. The masculinities and femininities are not reducible to any single hierarchy of dominant and subordinate masculinities and femininities. Rather, the doing, modifying and unlinking of masculinities and femininities vary by geographical area, age and/or education, as well as by drinking situation.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Decoding urban development dynamics through actor-network methodological
           approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Marija Cvetinovic, Zorica Nedovic-Budic, Jean-Claude Bolay
      Due to growing social and physical transformations, contemporary cities reveal the profound necessity of proper scientific approaches that are adjusted to conditions of global complexity and dynamic patterns of development. Predominance of an overall market economy, sporadic deregulations of administrative powers and a lack of local investment or resources, dominate urban reality. Incongruous urban decision-making procedures result in contextually inappropriate and incoherent urban management. We will explore these operational elements in Savamala neighbourhood in Belgrade. The actor-network theory (ANT) is applied to analyse the hyper dynamic circumstances of transition in Serbia. An unclear regulatory framework, powerful financial means for investment and limited institutional influence of citizen participation, deploy unstable urban development modalities at the neighbourhood level. ANT offers an insight into how urban norms, projections and structures unfold and how associations and translations of urban elements develop. Plausible yet complex collisions in Savamala constitute a challenge for ANT in mapping urban development processes and visualizing actors and networks through diagrams. Based on the presented results, the illustrative perspective of ANT minimalizes both the importance and the influence of the permanence of urban structures across time and space. Instead, ANT deals with a city as a contingent, fragmentary and heterogeneous, yet persistent product of actors, their roles, associations, agencies and networks. Possible adaptations of ANT should respond to the needs of non-scientific actors and practitioners for an interpretive tool that addresses undercover processes and mechanisms or provides explanations, recommendations or operational diagnoses on how to absorb urban development dynamics.
      Graphical abstract image

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Environmental diplomacy in South Asia: Considering the environmental
           security, conflict and development nexus
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Mabroor Hassan, Manzoor Khan Afridi, Muhammad Irfan Khan
      Environmental security concerns have broadened the national security agenda and discourse of international relations. Yet environmental insecurity issues have endured impacts on livelihood, human security, social equity, human rights, internal security, political stability, economic growth and development of the state. Environmental challenges, such as climate change, water scarcity and energy security are shaping development and consumption patterns, which are possible causes of inter-state conflict in South Asia. This paper is an attempt to evaluate the nexus of climate change, energy and water security with conflict and development. Furthermore, we argue for the need for environmental diplomacy in Pakistan within the South Asian context. The argument is that integration of development with environmental factors and peacemaking has potential to achieve sustainable development in South Asia.

      PubDate: 2017-04-15T01:23:16Z
       
  • Framing community entitlements to water in Accra, Ghana: A complex reality
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Elizabeth K. Dapaah, Leila M. Harris
      Entitlements are generally defined as the commodities/resources (material and non-material), through which one can establish ownership or command access to resources. Applying this analytic to a case study of everyday water access in Accra, Ghana, we evaluate community water entitlements in two low-income communities with different locational and socio-cultural characteristics. We also evaluate how different entitlements to water map against variable dimensions of vulnerability. The study uses a mixed methods approach including a 200 household survey, focus groups with community members, and semi-structured interviews with local opinion leaders. Our results indicate that in both study communities, an entitlements approach provides a significantly richer portrait of water access beyond availability of piped water infrastructure. Among other factors that are important to everyday negotiations and entitlements related to water access, it is important to consider familial and kin networks, water storing options available to households and vendors, the distance and waiting time to fetch water, and local leaders' perceptions of water issues, particularly how these compare with broader citizen understandings. In this way, an entitlements approach broadens the perspective beyond infrastructural endowments (e.g. piped water), to include a range of other socioeconomic, socio-cultural and local institutional characteristics. Drawing on the empirical examples, as well as related conceptual debates, the study questions how water access is defined, and how water governance processes might benefit from a broader understanding of entitlements, as well as links to differentiated vulnerabilities, notably in times of water-related stress or scarcity.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • A material lens on socio-technical transitions: The case of steel in
           Australian buildings
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Dan Santos, Ruth Lane
      Steel is a critical material for modern-day societies, and more than half of the world’s steel is used in buildings. As the extraction of iron ore and the production and transport of manufactured steel have significant environmental costs, the fate of steel is important for socio-technical transitions towards more sustainable materials use. Using steel in buildings as a case study socio-technical transition, this paper develops a novel application of the multi-level perspective (MLP) that adopts an explicitly material lens. We focus on the circulation of steel between three key life stages for buildings which are treated as socio-technical regimes as described in the MLP. Drawing on concepts from assemblage theory, we consider the role played by the material and expressive qualities of steel within each of these regimes. Our material focus also requires attention to the spatial dimensions of these three regimes and their implications for socio-technical transitions. We describe the nexus of material affordances and inter-scalar relations that influences the use of steel in buildings and consider the potential for change. The main contribution of this paper is to extend the MLP to incorporate a focus on materiality and, in a related way, spatiality. Based on the analysis presented we consider how steel use in Australian buildings may be rendered more sustainable.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • Farming the urban fringes of Barcelona: Competing visions of nature and
           the contestation of a partial sustainability fix
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Chiara Pirro, Isabelle Anguelovski
      While the concept of urban agriculture investigates the way in which disused land within the consolidated city is returned to its citizens through a variety of farming practices, many pockets of rural land in peri-urban areas continue to be contested by institutions and communities – including informal farmers, formal farmers, municipal planners, metropolitan agencies, and investors – with contrasting interests. To date however, little scholarly attention has been paid to informal practices within the degraded areas of urban fringes and, more specifically, to the link between the expansion of peri-urban agriculture and the civic appropriation and negotiation of space in neglected peripheral areas. In this paper, we ask how a metropolitan sustainability fix is produced and contested both materially and discursively. We also explore how local residents involved in peri-urban agriculture claim the use of land for agricultural practices and in turn attempt to influence the urban agenda of the neoliberal city. Inquiring how competing visions of nature act as obstacles in this negotiation process, our analysis of the peri-urban Baix Llobregat Agricultural Park in Barcelona reveals that the imposition of official visions about how needs for food and agriculture should be fulfilled, which landscapes are esthetically acceptable, what nature is, and how land should be controlled and developed indicate why apparently “marginal” and informal urban agriculture in the periphery has come to be subordinated to the planning of the neoliberal city and of a metropolitan sustainability fix – a partial sustainability fix that is however progressively being questioned and renegotiated.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • The politics of imaginaries and bioenergy sub-niches in the emerging
           Northeast U.S. bioenergy economy
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Morey Burnham, Weston Eaton, Theresa Selfa, Clare Hinrichs, Andrea Feldpausch-Parker
      As part of a transition to lower carbon energy systems, bioenergy development is often assumed to follow a uniform pathway. Yet the design, organization, and politics of bioenergy production in specific regional contexts may be contested. This study examines contestation within an emerging perennial crop bioenergy sector in the U.S. Northeast. Synthesizing conceptual contributions from the multi-level perspective on the significance of niches and sub-niches in sustainability transitions and from science and technology studies on the material and moral implications of sociotechnical imaginaries and object conflicts, this paper analyzes the politics of bioenergy sub-niche imaginaries. It identifies two main bioenergy sub-niches centered on (1) regional production and (2) community energy. Examining proposed and current production of perennial energy crops on marginal land, the study draws on 42 semi-structured interviews with bioenergy actors (e.g., scientists, industry representatives, policymakers, farmers/landowners) and secondary documents. The two bioenergy sub-niche imaginaries revealed political contestations around scale of operations, control and beneficiaries, and about definitions and uses of marginal land relative to livelihoods and community. This study highlights the potency of rival imaginaries within a developing sociotechnical niche and implications for sustainability transitions. Tracing the contours and emphases of, as well as conflicts between, bioenergy sub-niche imaginaries can clarify which pathways for transition to a lower carbon energy future could garner political and public support. The paper concludes by considering how disagreements between sub-niche actors could lead to productive mutual learning and the possibility of forging solutions contributing to more robust and equitable sustainability transitions.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • New housing/new crime' Changes in safety, governance and everyday
           incivilities for residents relocated from informal to formal housing at
           Hammond’s Farm, eThekwini
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Paula Meth, Sibongile Buthelezi
      New state-subsidised ‘RDP’ housing in South Africa aims to provide former informally-housed residents with a better quality of life, stronger community and decreased levels of crime. Despite the state’s ambitions, this process is highly contradictory, increases in safety occurring alongside rising incivilities and tensions. This paper contributes to an emerging set of debates on the socio-political outcomes of state-led housing interventions in the global South, through an illustration of the limitations of efforts to produce ‘safe neighbourhoods’ in contexts of high unemployment alongside high levels of violence. The conceptual framing of ‘Southern Criminology’ (Carrington et al., 2015), centres the significance of histories of colonial and post-colonial violence, inequality, hybrid governance and justice practices, as well as informal living, and is employed to analyse recently housed residents’ experiences of crime and safety in South Africa, in a north eThekwini settlement, Hammond’s Farm. Recognising these ‘Southern’ factors, the paper argues that movement into new formal housing, is typified by significant material changes at the home and neighbourhood scale which foster privacy and safety, formalised governance practices and (partial) improvements in policing services. These occur in conjunction with access to new leisure activities including alcohol consumption and ‘township life’ which alongside ongoing poverty foster urban incivilities. A ‘Southern Criminology’ perspective frames concluding questions about the nature of crime in contexts of urban change, which are persistently shaped by inequality and wider historical and structural factors, challenging the state’s aspirations to achieve crime reduction through housing.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • Critical visceral methods and methodologies
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Allison Hayes-Conroy
      Researchers interested in visceral or bodily methods and methodologies should be prepared to fully engage with the politics of research as well as the social and political context of their studies. Longer-term, intentional, applied, and collaborative projects may be particularly relevant. Finally, visceral methods could be particularly apt for advancing biosocial science and inquiries into body-environment relations.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • In search of common ground: Political ecology and conservation in the
           development age
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Krithika Srinivasan, Rajesh Kasturirangan
      In this essay, we respond to Menon and Karthik’s recent comments on our earlier critical review, which appeared in this journal. We clarify some of our original arguments and also draw out practical implications of the conceptual interventions made earlier. Specifically, we draw attention to the common ground shared by political ecology and the social formation of conservation by pointing to why conservation becomes necessary in the first place. We thus urge for a refocusing of political ecological attention from limited and limiting critiques of conservation to the root cause of socio-ecological marginalization in today’s world: the pursuit of development at multiple scales.

      PubDate: 2017-04-07T14:11:18Z
       
  • Infrastructures of insecurity: Housing and language testing in
           Asia-Australia migration
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Shanthi Robertson
      This paper explores how migration infrastructure conditions migrant mobilities within receiving states. The paper examines two infrastructural case studies, language testing and housing markets, in relation to Asian ‘middling’ migrants, that is, the relatively educated and skilled but not elite, who arrive in Australia on temporary visas. The analysis highlights the interplays and dependencies of different ‘logics of operation’ (Xiang and Lindquist, 2014) of infrastructure in relation to these migrants’ status mobilities and housing mobilities within the receiving society. The paper draws on data from in-depth narrative interviews with migrants to also understand how infrastructure produces perceptions and meaning-making around the migration process. This analysis reveals that, in this empirical context, migration infrastructure produces varied kinds of spatio-temporal insecurity as much as it mediates mobility.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T13:51:13Z
       
  • Placing of photos on the internet: Critical analysis of biases on the
           depictions of France and Afghanistan on FLICKR
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Christoph Lambio, Tobia Lakes
      The Internet and the representation of space therein are almost omnipresent in society and everyday life. Peer-produced geographic data is gaining a particular importance through increasingly available digital tools and techniques that shape the perception of space in the internet, such as flickr, OpenStreetMap or Wikipedia. However, few studies focused on how space is represented, and by whom it is described. We hypothesize that the alleged opening up of geographic information and the assumed benefits for every individual and society through the occurrence of ‘easy-to-use-mapping-tools’ was premature. To explore these assumptions, a comparative study of the flickr worldmap was undertaken and roughly 6.8million metadatasets of geocoded photos in France, and roughly 50,000 metadatasets in Afghanistan were downloaded and the metadata was analyzed. Our results indicate that photos geocoded in France show a large diversity of motives, while photos geocoded in Afghanistan are mostly limited to content containing warfare when they are up loaded in English. The content of the photo and therefore the representation of space strongly depend on who uploaded the photo, particularly in Afghanistan. We can show that the representation of space on the internet, for the case of flickr, is strongly dominated by perceptions of Western societies and individuals. We therefore confirm our hypothesis that the supposed opening up of geographic information systems through ‘easy-to-use-mapping-tools’ and their democratization thereof was premature. Moreover, we highlight the importance of understanding who contributes online content to be able to evaluate peer-produced data, its value, and its possible applications to avoid reproducing biases.

      PubDate: 2017-04-01T13:51:13Z
       
  • A conceptual model to integrate the regional context in landscape policy,
           management and contribution to rural development: Literature review and
           European case study evidence
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2017
      Source:Geoforum, Volume 82
      Author(s): Ingo Zasada, Kati Häfner, Lena Schaller, Boris T. van Zanten, Marianne Lefebvre, Agata Malak-Rawlikowska, Dimitre Nikolov, Macario Rodríguez-Entrena, Rosa Manrique, Fabrizio Ungaro, Matteo Zavalloni, Laurence Delattre, Annette Piorr, Jochen Kantelhardt, Peter H. Verburg, Davide Viaggi
      Agri-environmental policies and planning influence agricultural landscape management, and thus the capacity to deliver landscape services and to contribute to rural viability. Numerous models and frameworks have been developed to improve comprehension of the mechanisms and interrelationships between policies, landscape and socio-economic values and benefits. As social-ecological systems, landscapes are closely depending from the socio-institutional and territorial context of the specific rural locality. The paper proposes an enhanced framework for assessing these mechanisms by acknowledging the critical role of the regional macro-environment. A literature review and the revisiting of evidence from eight European case studies are applied to establish a comprehensive understanding and exemplification of the links between the policies, landscape, ecosystem services and value flows. Results highlight the need for integrative, inter- and transdisciplinary research approaches. Efficient landscape policies require enhanced regional embeddedness and targeting, acknowledgement of user demands and the capability of regional community and governance structures for policy implementation and natural capital valorisation.

      PubDate: 2017-03-26T13:44:17Z
       
 
 
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