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LAW (700 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABA Journal Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica     Open Access  
Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Administrative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal on Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Air and Space Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Akron Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Alaska Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Albany Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Alberta Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Alternative Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 53)
American Journal of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
American Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Trial Advocacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American University National Security Law Brief     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Amicus Curiae     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Amsterdam Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annales Canonici     Open Access  
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appeal : Review of Current Law and Law Reform     Open Access  
Arbitration Law Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Hukum     Open Access  
Argumenta Journal Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arizona Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arizona State Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 2)
Arkansas Law Review     Free   (Followers: 5)
Ars Aequi Maandblad     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Asian American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Pacific American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
Australasian Law Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Feminist Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ave Maria Law Review     Free   (Followers: 2)
Badamai Law Journal     Open Access  
Ballot     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of Law & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Technology Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bond Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Boston College Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston University Law Review     Free   (Followers: 10)
BRICS Law Journal     Open Access  
Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Brigham Young University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of American Legal Studies     Open Access  
Brooklyn Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cadernos de Dereito Actual     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito - PPGDir./UFRGS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Ibero-Americanos de Direito Sanitário     Open Access  
Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
California Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
California Lawyer     Free  
California Western Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 139)
Campbell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Case Western Reserve Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Časopis pro právní vědu a praxi     Open Access  
Časopis zdravotnického práva a bioetiky     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chicago-Kent Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Law & Government     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cleveland State Law Review     Free   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Free   (Followers: 10)
Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Columbia Law Review (Sidebar)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The Journal of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conflict Resolution Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cornell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Analysis of Law : An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuestiones Juridicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Danube : The Journal of European Association Comenius - EACO     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription  
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Defense Counsel Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Denning Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
DePaul Journal of Women, Gender and the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DePaul Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Derecho PUCP     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Die Verwaltung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dikaion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dike     Open Access  
Direito e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Direito e Liberdade     Open Access  
Diritto penale contemporaneo     Free   (Followers: 2)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dixi     Open Access  
Droit et Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drug Science, Policy and Law     Full-text available via subscription  
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Duke Forum for Law & Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Duke Law & Technology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Duke Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
DULR Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ECI Interdisciplinary Journal for Legal and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecology Law Quarterly     Free   (Followers: 3)
Edinburgh Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Education and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Election Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Energy Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Espaço Jurídico : Journal of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethnopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Europaisches Journal fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
European Journal for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Law and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 125)
European Public Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
European Review of Contract Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
European Review of Private Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence & Policy : A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Faulkner Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Communication Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Federal Probation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Feminist Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
feminists@law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fiat Justisia     Open Access  
First Amendment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Florida Bar News     Free  
Florida Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Florida State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Fordham Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamina : A Journal of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
George Washington Law Review     Free   (Followers: 7)
Georgia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Georgia State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Labour Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance
  [3 followers]  Follow
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 2213-4506 - ISSN (Online) 2213-4514
   Published by Brill Academic Publishers Homepage  [220 journals]
  • The Mediterranean Hybridity Project (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Seán Patrick Donlan
      Abstract: The extraordinary legal and normative hybridity (“hybridity”) of the Mediterranean region was produced in a complex history of conquest, colonisation, and social and legal diffusion across shifting and porous boundaries. Its various legal traditions, past and present, include the Anglo-British, canonical, continental, Islamic, Ottoman, Roman, socialist, and Talmudic traditions as well as various other customary and trans-territorial traditions. This plurality of official or state laws is complemented and further complicated by an equally diverse and dynamic normative pluralism. Studies of hybridity have, however, been isolated, sporadic, and too often framed within narrow jurisdictional and disciplinary constraints. This paper briefly outlines an emerging research project, the Mediterranean Hybridity Project, on the legalities, both state laws and other meaningful normative orders, in the Mediterranean. Rooted in established comparative methods and employing the conceptual vocabulary of the social sciences, a questionnaire will guide the production of reports that attempt to capture the hybridity of the jurisdictions/locales studied. It is our hope that the published reports and their analysis will generate more accurate, useful, and accessible accounts of Mediterranean hybridity than existing taxonomies, models, and methods. Developed by the Juris Diversitas group, the Project will build on a ‘new rapproachement’ between comparatists and social scientists. In particular, it will draw on the analysis of (i) the legal hybridity of, “mixed legal systems,” where diverse state laws emerge from different legal traditions and (ii) the normative hybridity of so-called, “legal,” or, “normative pluralism.” The former acknowledges a legal world of great variety and complexity; the latter posits an essential dialectic between state law and other meaningful, non-state normative orders. Recent events in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya and beyond suggest how useful greater knowledge of Mediterranean hybridity might be.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Considering Precedent in Louisiana: Balancing the Value of Predictable and
           Certain Interpretation with the Tradition of Flexibility and Adaptability
           (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Mary Garvey Algero
      Abstract: Despite the fundamental differences between the doctrines employed in common law and civil law (or mixed) jurisdictions when it comes to the respect paid to prior court decisions and their weight or value, United States courts that follow the common law doctrine of stare decisis have embraced some of the flexibility inherent in the civil law doctrine, and civil law and mixed jurisdictions throughout the world, including Louisiana, that use the doctrine of jurisprudence constante seem to have come to value the predictability and certainty that come with the common law doctrine. This Article suggests that Louisiana courts are striking the right balance between valuing the predictability and certainty of interpretation that comes with a healthy respect for precedent and maintaining the flexibility and adaptability of the law by not strictly considering precedent a source of law. This Article discusses the results of an ongoing examination of the sources of law and the value of precedent in Louisiana. The examination involves a study of Louisiana legislation, Louisiana courts’ writings about the sources of law and precedent, and a survey of Louisiana judges. Part of the examination included reviewing Louisiana judicial opinions on various issues to determine if there were differences in valuing precedent based on area of law or topic. It also included reviewing judicial opinions from the United States Supreme Court and New York state courts to compare these courts’ approaches to the use of precedent with those of the Louisiana courts. The article is based on a paper presented to the Third Congress of Mixed Jurisdiction Jurists, which was held in Jerusalem, Israel in June 2011, and the author’s prior writings on the subject.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • The Mélange of Innovation and Tradition in Maltese Law: The Essence of
           the Maltese Mix' (Advance Article)
    • Authors: B. Andò
      Abstract: The aim of this paper is to provide valuable insights into the Maltese legal system with a special focus on private law. The assumption is that this legal system is the by-product of the “mixing” of innovation and tradition, resulting from the interaction of English law and continental law. A major role in the development of the system is played by courts. Some examples (moral damages and pre-contractual liability) are considered which highlight the importance of the function displayed by Maltese judges.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Pure or Mixed' The Evolution of Three Grounds of Judicial Review of
           the Administration in British and Israeli Administrative Law (Advance
    • Authors: Margit Cohn
      Abstract: This article challenges common understandings about the distinct features of the so-called “mixed jurisdictions”. One of the main features found in this group of legal systems, it is argued, is that they are civil-law in nature in the sphere of private law, while their public law sphere is typically Anglo-American. I argue that this may be correct as far as the structural elements of these two branches of law, for example with regard to the court structure; it may also be relevant in the context of the general, overarching values underlying both branches of law. However, as far as the detailed arrangements are concerned, a variety of set-ups reflect different types of mixes and combinations in all legal systems, including “mixed jurisdictions”: innovation, transplantation and adoption of which can be traced inter alia to global crosscutting between these two families of legal systems.This argument is developed through an analysis of the evolution of three grounds of review of the administration-unreasonableness, proportionality and legitimate expectations/ administrative promise-in the United Kingdom, the “ancestor” of the common law family of legal systems, and in Israel, currently considered a mixed jurisdiction. I show that both innovation and reliance on civil law constructs can be found in both systems just as much as common law constructs. The influence of EU law, especially ECtHR jurisprudence, renders the public law of the United Kingdom, to a certain extent, to be more civil-law-like than its so-called daughter system. Whether this mix of patterns is an unavoidable result of the irresolvable tension between exclusionism and openness, both willful and subjected, or matter that is particular to the distinct nature of administrative law and its case-by-case development in common law systems is a matter for further consideration. Clearly, though, legal reality, at least in the field studied in this article, challenges the viability of the distinction between “pure” and “mixed” legal systems.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Precedent in Argentine Law (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Santiago Legarre
      Abstract: ‘This article first explains where Argentina fits in the common law-civil law divide of legal families. A proper understanding of the Argentine legal system regarding precedent makes it necessary to next elaborate on the distinction between the horizontal and the vertical dimensions of stare decisis. In a final section I examine the relevance of political interferences for compliance by other courts both in the horizontal and in the vertical dimensions just alluded.’
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • An African Doctrine of Equity in South African Public Law (Advance
    • Authors: Thomas W. Bennett
      Abstract: For the first time in the history of South African law, a typically African concept – Ubuntu – has been adopted into the common law of the land (which is a mixture of English and Roman-Dutch law). Ever since colonial conquest, the indigenous normative orders of Africa have been treated as inferior. While South Africa’s new constitutional dispensation had the effect of elevating customary law to the same status as that of the common law, the traffic of ideas between the two systems continued to favour the latter as the superior system. The reception of ubuntu into the common law reversed this process. This paper examines the function of ubuntu in its new environment. Most of the discussion about the concept has concentrated on its meaning, a question that has been concentrated on finding a suitable English translation. The most obvious have been the calques, ‘humanity’, ‘personhood’ or ‘humaneness’, but none have been especially helpful, for they cannot hope to convey the full range of functions now performed by ubuntu. It is argued in this paper that searches for a priori meanings are unhelpful: words are continually being exploited by users to serve their own particular ends. In this regard, it must be appreciated that ubuntu is a loanword, and thus especially susceptible to manipulation. The paper shows that the courts have used ubuntu to supply a peculiarly African form of equity that has been used to solve hard cases and conflicts between rules, notably in the area of public law.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • A Pluralist Approach to Mixed Jurisdictions (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Mauro Bussani
      Abstract: The paper claims that ‘mixity’ is an inherent quality of almost any legal systems, and not only of those that, for historical reasons, inherited legal features from the civil and common law traditions. From this ‘pluralistic’ point of view, all the experiences where Western legal models interact among themselves, or with religious, indigenous or customary laws, deserve to be included into the ‘mixed’ category. Such an approach reveals itself as a powerful cognitive tool to advance comparative knowledge about legal systems. In particular, it enables one to better understand: (a) the dynamism of any given legal system – be it national, sub-, or supra-national –; (b) the driving forces behind the penetration of ‘foreign’ elements in a given legal experience; and (c) the reasons for which there are variable degrees of resistance and/or resilience amidst the different layers a legal system is made of.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Liability of the State and Public Authorities in Israel and South Africa
           (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Max Loubser; Tamar Gidron
      Abstract: Both the Israeli and the South African legal systems are classified as mixed legal systems, or mixed jurisdictions. In Israel, tort law was originally pure English common law, adopted by legislation and later developed judicially. In South Africa, the law of delict (tort) was originally Roman-Dutch but was later strongly influenced by the English common law. Under both systems, tort law is characterized by open-ended norms allowing extensive judicial development. This paper traces and compares the structural basis, methodology, policy, and trends of the judicial development of state and public-authority liability in the Israeli and South African jurisdictions. Specific factors that have impacted the development of state- and public-authority liability are: (1) constitutional values, (2) the courts’ recognition of the need for expanded protection of fundamental human rights and activism towards achieving such protection, (3) the multicultural nature of the societies, (4) problems of crime and security, and (5) worldwide trends, linked to consumerism, toward the widening of liability of the state and public authorities.Within essentially similar conceptual structures the South African courts have been much more conservative in their approach to state liability for pure economic loss than their Israeli counterparts. This can perhaps be attributed to a sense of priorities. In a developing country with huge disparities in wealth, the courts would naturally be inclined to prioritize safety and security of persons above pure economic loss. The South African courts have been similarly more conservative in cases involving administrative negligence and evidential loss.The development of the law on state and public-authority liability in Israel and South Africa is also the product of factors such as the levels of education, the effectiveness of the public service, and the history and pervasiveness of constitutional ordering. Despite important differences, the law in the two jurisdictions has developed from a broadly similar mixed background; the courts have adopted broadly similar methods and reasoning; and the outcomes show broadly similar trends.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Innovation in a Hybrid System: The Example of Nepal (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Lukas Heckendorn Urscheler
      Abstract: The Nepali legal tradition is a legal hybrid in many regards. Nepal was not colonised by a Western state, and the Hindu legal tradition therefore dominated all areas of law until the middle of the 20th century. Since the 1950s there has been a strong influence of Indian common law. It is probably for this reason that comparative classifications that include Nepal see the legal system as a mixture of common law and customary law. However, other mixtures mark the Nepali legal tradition. French law inspired the ruler in the 19th century, and that influence can still be found in the formal law. In addition, the plurality of Nepalese society made it necessary to provide space for different customary regimes to coexist with the formal Hindu law. When it comes to innovations within the legal system, including international law, the different ingredients interact.In family-related matters, the case-law of the Nepali Supreme Court illustrates the confrontation between international legal standards and the traditional rules. The Supreme Court has referred to the culturally conditioned discrimination against women and called for a thorough (political) analysis in order to eliminate discrimination without a radical change of culture. In the area of discrimination against homo- and transsexuals the Supreme Court took a more innovative approach. It remains to be seen, however, if such a change is effective beyond the courtroom.In the area of private financial compensation for wrongs, the formal (written) Nepali law does not have a general concept of tort. Compensation is generally integrated within the ambit of criminal law. Field research indicates that it would be possible to resort to existing customary principles of compensation rather than to the relatively complex common law of torts favoured by some Nepali scholars. However, this approach might not be without difficulty, as it might imply admitting the “superiority” of the customary practices of ethnic groups of lower standing in society.The example of Nepal shows that innovation in a hybrid system is often marked by the difficulty of – at least apparently – contradictory elements and layers of the legal system. There might be a tendency towards choosing the dominant or the most easily accessible solution. This paper suggests that the hybrid nature of the legal system offers opportunities that could be taken in order to achieve effective change and appropriate solutions.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Civil Recodification in an Anglophone Mixed Jurisdiction: A Bricoleur’s
           Playbook (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Shael Herman
      Abstract: The obligations titles of the Louisiana Civil Code have long figured among its most mysterious provisions. The titles have interested law students bent upon their mastery, an essential for successful civil practice. Having learned them, lawyers were reluctant to revise them, even though many of the rules had become outdated. The Civil Code’s revision program proceeded in fits and starts until the mid 1970s. At that time a new property revision encouraged a comprehensive reform of the obligations titles. From 1977-1984, the author served as a deputy reporter for the obligations revision. That post offered an enviable perch from which to witness the debates and drafting efforts that informed the obligations revision of 1984. As a close associate of the late Saul Litvinoff, the principal reporter for the revision, the author came to see in modern foreign and United States materials potential gap fillers and sources of solutions not solved by the obligations titles themselves. The author concludes that the resulting revision, while preserving the traditional mix of French and Spanish doctrine, now discloses an eclectic blend of American, continental and Argentine influences. This paper considers the new gap filling materials in light of particular needs confronted by the bench and bar in the legislation and one hundred fifty years of case law. To dispel some of the mystery surrounding the revision of the obligations titles, the paper also reflects upon political dynamics among academics, practitioners, judges and legislators, and issues likely to arise in evaluating the success or failure of the revision.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Shapeless Trusts and Settlor Title Retention: An Asian Morality Play
           (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Adam S. Hofri-Winogradow
      Abstract: The recent Chinese Trust Act has created a stir in trusts scholarship by taking no position on the location of title in the trust assets, not requiring that title to vest in the trustee. The Act thus permits settlors to retain title in the trust assets despite having appointed another as trustee. Leading trust scholars have criticised the Chinese Act’s noncommittal approach, pointing to the difficulties created by settlors continuing to own the trust assets. The present article attempts to evaluate the efficacy of such “shapeless trusts” and “settlor title retention trusts” by examining the career of the Chinese Act’s principal predecessor – the Israeli Trust Act of 1979, which established the world’s first shapeless trust regime. I identify two advantages of such regimes. One is their making trustees’ duties and beneficiaries’ effective remedies applicable in fiduciary situations conventionally analysed as agency, nomineeship or, under civil law systems, mandate. A further advantage is that “settlor title retention trusts” may help introduce the trust mechanism to potential settlors unaccustomed to it, who may be deterred by the prospect of giving away title in their property.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • The Italian Legal Recipe: Basic Ingredients and the Bustle of Time
           (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Marta Infantino
      Abstract: Many legal systems beyond the classical common/civil law mixed world may show themselves as the result of a historical combination of different paradigms, and of ever changing legal blends. Allegedly ‘pure’ (i.e. unmixed) civilian systems are no exception, as the Italian legal experience demonstrates. The Italian legal system stands as an emblematic illustration of how, in a civilian context, original and foreign (both civil law and common law) inspired legal rules, institutions, and attitudes may interact, develop through time, and synthesize themselves in a complex, yet unified legal culture.As is well-known, from a comparative perspective Italy is commonly conceived as a member of the civilian legal family, and, more in particular, as a mix of XIX-XXth century French and German influences. This is, however, only one side of the picture. Whatever their current respective zones of influences are, the point is that French and German legal models are no more (as they have never been) the only ingredient of the Italian recipe. As a matter of fact, the origin of many components stretches wider both in time and space. In some cases, it stretches back to the fragmented plurality of normative levels which characterized the peninsula’ legal edifice for centuries before political unification. In other cases, the origin of legal rules stretches up to the more recent borrowings from the United States experience: from the plea bargain to the ‘quasi’ adversary criminal trial, from securitization techniques to financial contracts models, from class action devices to the overarching patterns of judicial review.Hence, far from being a purely civilian amalgam, the Italian legal framework presents itself as the fruit of an endless interaction of local patterns with foreign-inspired paradigms. This is why the third legal family lenses can prove extremely useful in looking at the Italian allegedly ‘pure’ legal experience, and in highlighting the multiple ingredients of its somewhat mixed recipes. More generally, third legal family’s perspective may help put countries belonging to civilian legal family in context, and lead to a better understanding not only of the dynamic relationships between this family and other legal families, but also of the cross-fertilization phenomena which endlessly take place within and beyond family borders.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Inside the Judicial Mind: Exploring Judicial Methodology in the Mixed
           Legal System of Quebec (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Rosalie Jukier
      Abstract: This article explores judicial methodology in the mixed legal system of Quebec and examines, in particular, how the nature of its legal system as a mixed legal system influences the judicial methodology of its judges, especially with respect to the de facto use of precedent. Features of the mixity, including the institutional setting of Quebec courts as courts of inherent jurisdiction, the nature of Quebec’s civil justice system and procedural law, as well as the judicial role and the effect of a supreme precedential authority (in the Supreme Court of Canada) are examined in turn as influential factors.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Creating Mixed Jurisdictions: Legal Integration in the Southern African
           Development Community Region (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Salvatore Mancuso
      Abstract: “The SADC is an organization aiming at economic integration. It started to envisage some forms of legal integration to support a proper economic cooperation. The article aims at identifying a possible methodological approach of such envisaged legal integration using comparative methodology and OHADA as a reference. Such choice comes from the consideration that OHADA is the main experience of legal integration in Africa and that one of the SADC countries is also member of OHADA”.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Law Applicable to Unilateral Juridical Acts and Uniform Conflict-of-law
           Rules (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Monika Pauknerová
      Abstract: Private international law smoothes the edges of civilian law and common law thanks to its specific legislative and technical structure. Conflict-of-law rules are considered to be neutral, and therefore more appropriate for unification, than substantive rules because countries are prepared to surrender their own individual solutions for the sake of uniform international or supranational regulation. This is evident in the successful unification of conflict-of-law rules at the global and European Union levels, as compared with the less common partial unifications of substantive rules. The paper illustrates several examples of unilateral legal acts in the European space, how diverse may be their substantive qualification in different legal systems, and what impacts these substantive differences may have upon the determination of the applicable law for obligations under European conflict-of-law rules. From the perspective of the conflict of laws, an issue remains open regarding what approach should be taken where a uniform legislative instrument – namely a European Regulation – fails to include a particular institution or act either expressly or impliedly.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • The Methodology Used to Interpret Customary Land Tenure (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Gerrit Pienaar
      Abstract: Customary land tenure is normally not based on codified or statutory sources, but stems from customary traditions and norms. When westernised courts have to interpret and adjudicate these customary traditions and norms, the normal rules of statutory interpretation cannot be followed. The court has to rely on evidence of the traditional values of land use to determine the rules connected to land tenure.Previously courts in many mixed jurisdictions relied on common or civil law legal principles to determine the nature of customary land tenure and lay down the principles to adjudicate customary land disputes among traditional communities, or between traditional and westernised communities in the same jurisdiction. Many examples of such westernised approach can be found in case law of Canada and South Africa. The interpretation of the nature of customary land tenure according to common law or civil law principles has been increasingly rejected by higher courts in South Africa and Canada, e.g. in Alexkor Ltd v The Richtersveld Community 2004 5 SA 469 (CC) and Delgamuukw v British Columbia 1997 3 SCR 1010.This paper explores the methodology the courts should follow to determine what the distinctive nature of customary land tenure is. As customary land tenure is not codified or based on legislation, the court has to rely, in addition to the evidence of indigenous peoples, on the expert evidence of anthropologists and sociologists in determining the nature of aboriginal title (in Canada) and indigenous land tenure (in South Africa). The court must approach the rules of evidence and interpret the evidence with a consciousness of the special nature of aboriginal claims and the evidentiary difficulties in proving a right which originates in times where there were no written records of the practices, customs and traditions engaged in. The court must not undervalue the evidence presented simply because that evidence does not conform precisely with the evidentiary standards that would be applied in, for example, a private law tort case.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • The Enigmatic But Unique Nature of the Israeli Legal System (Advance
    • Authors: Antonios E. Platsas
      Abstract: The Israeli legal system is unique in that it straddles the two otherwise opposing worlds of tradition and innovation. This creates an enigma for the comparatist, making the exploration of this system an onerous and challenging task. The author wishes to maintain that the system in question is highly innovative and ascribes this quality to the proactive character of the Israeli Supreme Court, whose activism has had a major impact on the character of the domestic system as a whole. While the author explores the reasons why this has been the case, one of his main concerns in this paper will be to examine the innovative character of the Israeli Supreme Court per se, in comparison with equivalent courts in other parts of the world. In addition the author will seek to establish inter alia the character of the Israeli legal system by focusing on the three different elements that co-exist in the Israeli socio-legal structure (the Jewish element vis-à-vis the Arab element; the Liberal element vis-à-vis the Orthodox element within the Jewish community; and the Civilian element vis-à-vis the Common law element). The author wishes to posit that the amalgamation of different legal and cultural traditions in Israel created a sui generis state of affairs for the legal system as a whole. This results in an overall systemic-methodological amalgamation which does not occur elsewhere in the world. The article concludes that the enigmatic and innovative characteristics of the Israeli legal system derive from the novel way in which the legal mix has occurred in this system (as opposed to the ingredients of the elements in the mix). In this respect, Israel may have contributed much to the reinvigoration of the modern comparative law agenda, and it may continue to do so in the future, as the system is not one of legal stasis (a mixed system) but one of legal kinesis (a mixing system).
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • What Happens When the Judiciary Switches Roles with the Legislator' An
           Innovative Israeli Version of a Mixed Jurisdiction (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Haim Sandberg
      Abstract: Civil Law codices are analytic, abstract and removed from the specific influence of particular cases. When rules are codified In Common Law systems they reflect a collection of rulings and not a collection of analytic principles. These differences stem from the nature and the motivations of the legislative enterprise. Civil-continental legislation originates in a legislative initiative “from above”. It is driven by the aspiration for legal harmony and completeness, and was originally formulated by academics. Legislation in the common-law countries results from a “bottom up” effect in which reality dictates the nature of the developing rules, step by step.Civil law systems like Common Law systems accept the supremacy of the statutory law over judge-made law. Yet when the judiciary has the authority or the power to influence the legislative agenda there is a veritable role switch. In a manner resembling continental-style legislation, the court reviewing existing legislation determines an abstract principle, usually in reliance on a particular constitutional text, and it is the legislature that is required to distill the principles into specific legislative norms, a function normally fulfilled by the common law court. The question forming the basis of this paper is the nature of the legislative process and the legislation produced by this kind of relationship.The paper addresses this question through the narrow prism of a detailed examination of a particular Israeli test case in which the Israeli Supreme Court handed down a ruling on a fundamental principle but on its own initiative delegated to the legislature the task of implementing it and providing a specific legislative enactment of this principle, on the basis of which the Court would then rule on the concrete case. The result in this particular case was that the traditional roles of the respective branches were reversed. The practical result of the move to delegate the implementation of a far-reaching and fundamental ruling to the legislature was a subversion of the fundamental ruling and delayed justice for the parties who sought a resolution of the matter.The paper claims that this mechanism leads to the creation of a new variety of a “mixed-system”. The judiciary abandoned its primary obligation, namely to serve as an instance for resolving disputes, while the legislature became an executor of judicially enunciated principles. The law thus enacted resembles, in its detailed and complex language, a common law text while the principle formulated in the judgment of the court resembles a section of an analytical “civil law” statute. When the motivation for legislation stems from the court’s directives, rather than the governmental or legislative interests, the legislature or the executive branch has an interest in thwarting the court’s intention through the use of various tactics readily at its disposal. This process also affects the vague and detailed formulation of the legislation, which has a character rather different from the abstract nature of civil law legislation. The lesson that this episode teach us, which the court itself internalized, is that a court cannot really dictate a legislative agenda and that it should instead focus on its designated role – the resolving of concrete disputes.
      PubDate: 2014-02-28T12:00:00Z
  • Unification of Private Law in Europe and ‘Mixed Jurisdictions’: A
           Model for Civil Codes in Central Europe (Advance Article)
    • Authors: Mónika Józon
      Abstract: The paper discusses new research questions that hybridization of continental private law yields for comparative private law. In this context the mixed legal systems and especially the Quebec law will be debated in their possible tool-function to assist Europe in coping with recent developments in private law. Two central driving forces on the European regulatory policy landscape are in the focus of the research: i) the regulatory competition among mixed jurisdictions (Scott Law v. Quebec Law) as sources of inspiration for the new Civil Codes of the Member States and the academic projects on unification of private law (DCFR), a process which demands for reconsideration of the relation between the top down unification v. bottom up hybridization and, ii) the regulatory competition between the European regulatory policy and globalization of private law in the Member States under international uniform transaction law.
      PubDate: 2014-01-10T12:00:00Z
  • Love, Loyalty and the Louisiana Civil Code: Rules, Standards and Hybrid
           Discretion in a Mixed Jurisdiction (Advance Article)
    • Authors: John A. Lovett
      PubDate: 2014-01-10T12:00:00Z
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