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LAW (689 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABA Journal Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica     Open Access  
Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Administrative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 38)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
African Journal of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal on Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Air and Space Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Akron Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al Ihkam : Jurnal Hukum & Pranata Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Ahkam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alaska Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Albany Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Alberta Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Alternative Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 52)
American Journal of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
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American Journal of Trial Advocacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
American University National Security Law Brief     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Amicus Curiae     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Amsterdam Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Annual Survey of South African Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appeal : Review of Current Law and Law Reform     Open Access  
Arbitration Law Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Hukum     Open Access  
Arizona Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Arizona State Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 2)
Arkansas Law Review     Free   (Followers: 5)
Ars Aequi Maandblad     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Asian American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asian Pacific American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Australasian Law Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Australian Feminist Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 19)
Ave Maria Law Review     Free   (Followers: 2)
Badamai Law Journal     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of Law & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Technology Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 11)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Bond Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Boston College Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Boston University Law Review     Free   (Followers: 10)
BRICS Law Journal     Open Access  
Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Brigham Young University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of American Legal Studies     Open Access  
Brooklyn Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
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Cadernos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito - PPGDir./UFRGS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
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Cahiers, Droit, Sciences et Technologies     Open Access  
California Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
California Lawyer     Free  
California Western Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cambridge Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 133)
Campbell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Case Western Reserve Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Časopis pro právní vědu a praxi     Open Access  
Časopis zdravotnického práva a bioetiky     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Catholic University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chicago-Kent Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Law & Government     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Cleveland State Law Review     Free   (Followers: 1)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Free   (Followers: 10)
Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Columbia Law Review (Sidebar)     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The Journal of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conflict Resolution Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Cornell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Analysis of Law : An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cuestiones Juridicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Danube : The Journal of European Association Comenius - EACO     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription  
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Defense Counsel Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Denning Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
DePaul Journal of Women, Gender and the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
DePaul Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Derecho PUCP     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Die Verwaltung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dikaion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dike     Open Access  
Direito e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Direito e Liberdade     Open Access  
Diritto penale contemporaneo     Free   (Followers: 2)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dixi     Open Access  
Droit et Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drug Science, Policy and Law     Full-text available via subscription  
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Duke Forum for Law & Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Duke Law & Technology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Duke Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 25)
DULR Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ECI Interdisciplinary Journal for Legal and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ecology Law Quarterly     Free   (Followers: 3)
Edinburgh Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Education and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Election Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Energy Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Espaço Jurídico : Journal of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ethnopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
EU agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Europaisches Journal fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
European Journal for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Journal of Law and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
European Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 123)
European Public Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 32)
European Review of Contract Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
European Review of Private Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Evaluation Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence & Policy : A Journal of Research, Debate and Practice     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Faulkner Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Communication Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Federal Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Federal Probation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Feminist Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
feminists@law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Fiat Justisia     Open Access  
First Amendment Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Florida Bar News     Free  
Florida Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Florida State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Fordham Environmental Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Fordham Intellectual Property, Media and Entertainment Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Fordham Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
FORO. Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas y Sociales, Nueva Época     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fundamina : A Journal of Legal History     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Geoforum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
George Washington Law Review     Free   (Followers: 7)
Georgia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Georgia State University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Global Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Global Labour Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Golden Gate University Environmental Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Golden Gate University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Grey Room     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Griffith Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
GSTF Journal of Law and Social Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 2)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
  [SJR: 0.539]   [H-I: 8]   [4 followers]  Follow
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1889-1861
   Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3030 journals]
  • Prosocial reasoning and emotions in young offenders and non-offenders

    • Authors: Anna Llorca-Mestre; Elisabeth Malonda-Vidal; Paula Samper-García
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2017
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Anna Llorca-Mestre, Elisabeth Malonda-Vidal, Paula Samper-García
      The aim of this study was to analyse the cognitive processes (prosocial moral reasoning, perspective taking) and emotional processes (empathic concern, emotional instability, state-trait anger) which interact in predicting aggressive behaviour and prosocial behaviour of adolescents who have committed a crime and those who have not, for the purpose of establishing the predictor variables in both groups. Participants were 440 adolescents, 220 of them young offenders residing in four youth detention centres in Valencia, in which they were serving court sentences (67.3% men and 32.7% women). The other 220 were enrolled in public and private schools within the metropolitan area of Valencia (65.9% men and 34.1% women). The two subsamples were equated in age (15-18 years) and sex, controlling the representation of social classes. Prosocial moral reasoning, empathy, emotional instability, state-trait anger, prosocial behaviour, and physical and verbal aggression were assessed. Hierarchical regression analyses show the differential weight of positive emotions (empathic concern) and negative emotions (emotional instability and anger) in relation to prosocial moral reasoning in predicting aggressive behaviour in adolescents, especially offenders. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for prevention and re-education oriented to social reinsertion of young offenders.

      PubDate: 2017-04-02T07:57:55Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2017.01.001
  • Child-to-parent violence: The role of exposure to violence and its
           relationship to social-cognitive processing

    • Authors: Lourdes Contreras; María del Carmen Cano
      Pages: 43 - 50
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 8, Issue 2
      Author(s): Lourdes Contreras, María del Carmen Cano
      Research suggests that child-to-parent violence (CPV) is related to a previous history of violence within the family setting. The current study was aimed to explore the exposure to violence in different settings (school, community, home, and TV) and its relationship to some variables of the social-cognitive processing (hostile social perception, impulsivity, ability to anticipate the consequences of social behaviors and to select the appropriate means to achieve the goals of social behaviors) in a group of juveniles who assaulted their parents. It is also examined how they differ from other young offenders and non-offender adolescents. The sample included 90 adolescents from Jaén (Spain). Thirty of them were juveniles who had been reported by their parents for being violent towards them and 30 were juveniles who had committed other types of offences. The third group was made up of 30 adolescents without any criminal charge. Adolescents answered measures of exposure to violence, perception of criticism/rejection from parents, hostile social perception, and social problem- solving skills. Results revealed that juveniles who abused their parents reported higher levels of exposure to violence at home when comparing to the other groups. In addition, exposure to violence at home was significantly correlated to the hostile social perception of adolescents in CPV cases. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T19:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.03.003
  • Predicting risk of violence through a self-appraisal questionnaire

    • Authors: José Manuel Andreu-Rodríguez; María Elena Peña-Fernández; Wagdy Loza
      Pages: 51 - 56
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 8, Issue 2
      Author(s): José Manuel Andreu-Rodríguez, María Elena Peña-Fernández, Wagdy Loza
      The Self-Appraisal Questionnaire (SAQ) is a self-report that predicts the risk of violence and recidivism and provides relevant information about treatment needs for incarcerated populations. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the concurrent and predictive validity of this self-report in Spanish offenders. The SAQ was administered to 276 offenders recruited from several prisons in Madrid (Spain). SAQ total scores presented high levels of internal consistency (alpha=.92). Correlations of the instrument with violence risk instruments were statistically significant and showed a moderate magnitude, indicating a reasonable degree of concurrent validity. The ROC analysis carried out on the SAQ total score revealed an AUC of .80, showing acceptable accuracy discriminating between violent and nonviolent recidivist groups. It is concluded that the SAQ total score is a reliable and valid measure to estimate violence and recidivism risk in Spanish offenders.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T19:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.03.001
  • Testosterone and attention deficits as possible mechanisms underlying
           impaired emotion recognition in intimate partner violence perpetrators

    • Authors: Ángel Romero-Martínez; Marisol Lila; Luis Moya-Albiol
      Pages: 57 - 62
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Ángel Romero-Martínez, Marisol Lila, Luis Moya-Albiol
      Several studies have reported impairments in decoding emotional facial expressions in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. However, the mechanisms that underlie these impaired skills are not well known. Given this gap in the literature, we aimed to establish whether IPV perpetrators (n =18) differ in their emotion decoding process, attentional skills, and testosterone (T), cortisol (C) levels and T/C ratio in comparison with controls (n =20), and also to examine the moderating role of the group and hormonal parameters in the relationship between attention skills and the emotion decoding process. Our results demonstrated that IPV perpetrators showed poorer emotion recognition and higher attention switching costs than controls. Nonetheless, they did not differ in attention to detail and hormonal parameters. Finally, the slope predicting emotion recognition from deficits in attention switching became steeper as T levels increased, especially in IPV perpetrators, although the basal C and T/C ratios were unrelated to emotion recognition and attention deficits for both groups. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying emotion recognition deficits. These factors therefore constitute the target for future interventions.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T18:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.01.001
  • Unpacking insanity defence standards: An experimental study of rationality
           and control tests in criminal law

    • Authors: Rebecca K. Helm; Stephen J. Ceci; Kayla A. Burd
      Pages: 63 - 68
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Rebecca K. Helm, Stephen J. Ceci, Kayla A. Burd
      The present study investigated the impact of different legal standards on mock juror decisions concerning whether a defendant was guilty or not guilty by reason of insanity. Undergraduate students (N =477) read a simulated case summary involving a murder case and were asked to make an insanity determination. The cases differed in terms of the condition of the defendant (rationality deficit or control deficit) and the legal standard given to the jurors to make the determination (Model Penal Code, McNaughten or McNaughten plus a separate control determination). The effects of these variables on the insanity determination were investigated. Jurors also completed questionnaires measuring individualism and hierarchy attitudes and perceptions of facts in the case. Results indicate that under current insanity standards jurors do not distinguish between defendants with rationality deficits and defendants with control deficits regardless of whether the legal standard requires them to do so. Even defendants who lacked control were found guilty at equal rates under a legal standard excusing rationality deficits only and a legal standard excluding control and rationality deficits. This was improved by adding a control test as a partial defence, to be determined after a rationality determination. Implications for the insanity defence in the Criminal Justice System are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T18:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.02.004
  • Validity and reliability of the Cyber-aggression Questionnaire for
           Adolescents (CYBA)

    • Authors: David Álvarez-García; Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo; José Carlos Núñez; Alejandra Dobarro
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): David Álvarez-García, Alejandra Barreiro-Collazo, José Carlos Núñez, Alejandra Dobarro
      Cybercrime is a growing and worrisome problem, particularly when it involves minors. Cyber-aggression among adolescents in particular can result in negative legal and psychological consequences for people involved. Therefore, it is important to have instruments to detect these incidents early and understand the problem to propose effective measures for prevention and treatment. This paper aims to design a new self-report, the Cyber-Aggression Questionnaire for Adolescents (CYBA), to evaluate the extent to which the respondent conducts aggressions through a mobile phone or the internet and analyse the factorial and criterion validity and reliability of their scores in a sample of adolescents from Asturias, Spain. The CYBA was administered to 3,148 youth aged between 12 and 18 years old along with three self-reports to measure aggression at school, impulsivity, and empathy. Regarding factorial validity, the model that best represents the structure of the CYBA consists of three factors (Impersonation, Visual-sexual Cyber-aggression, and Verbal Cyber-aggression and Exclusion) and four additional indicators of Visual Cyber-aggression–Teasing/Happy Slapping. Regarding criterion validity, the score on the CYBA correlates positively with aggression at school and impulsivity and negatively with empathy. That is the way cyber-aggression correlates with these three variables, according to previous empirical evidence. The reliability of the scores on each item and factor of the CYBA are adequate. Therefore, the CYBA offers a valid and reliable measure of cyber-aggression in adolescents.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T18:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.02.003
  • Using the Scharff-technique to elicit information: How to effectively
           establish the “illusion of knowing it all”?

    • Authors: Lennart May; Pär Anders Granhag
      Pages: 79 - 85
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 March 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Lennart May, Pär Anders Granhag
      The Scharff-technique is used for eliciting information from human sources. At the very core of the technique is the “illusion of knowing it all” tactic, which aims to inflate a source's perception of how much knowledge an interviewer holds about the event to be discussed. For the current study, we mapped the effects following two different ways of introducing this particular tactic; a traditional way of implementation where the interviewer explicitly states that s/he already knows most of the important information (the traditional condition), and a new way of implementation where the interviewer just starts to present the information that s/he holds (the just start condition). The two versions were compared in two separate experiments. In Experiment 1 (N =60), we measured the participants’ perceptions of the interviewer's knowledge, and in Experiment 2 (N =60), the participants’ perceptions of the interviewer's knowledge gaps. We found that participants in the just start condition (a) believed the interviewer had more knowledge (Experiment 1), and (b) searched less actively for gaps in the interviewer's knowledge (Experiment 2), compared to the traditional condition. We will discuss the current findings and how sources test and perceive the knowledge his or her interviewer possesses within a framework of social hypothesis testing.

      PubDate: 2016-03-27T18:26:42Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.02.001
  • Psychological treatment and therapeutic change in incarcerated rapists

    • Authors: Ana Martínez-Catena; Santiago Redondo
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 13 December 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Ana Martínez-Catena, Santiago Redondo
      Most Spanish prisons provide specialised treatment for incarcerated sex offenders, both rapists and child molesters. This treatment is a cognitive-behavioural intervention that has shown relative effectiveness in previous research. With regard to offenders’ rehabilitation, recidivism assessments are necessary as a final measure of treatment effectiveness. However, the evaluation of recidivism by itself does not provide sufficient information on the treatment process and the specific effects that treated subjects could undergo. This paper aims to analyse the therapeutic effectiveness of psychological treatment provided to rapists (in general, males sentenced for committing a sexual offence against women). To this aim, a group of treated rapists (N =153) serving a sentence in prison was analysed. Using a specially designed scale (PASSO), the global therapeutic change and ten specific variables (including assertiveness, readiness to change, cognitive distortions, impulsivity, etc.) were assessed. The within-subjects comparison showed that treated sex offenders improved, in therapeutic terms, globally as well as in most of the specific variables assessed (improvements not experimented by the control group). Also, different therapeutic subscales showed relevant associations between them. The findings regarding treatment effectiveness are discussed.

      PubDate: 2016-12-13T21:22:57Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.11.001
  • User violence towards nursing professionals in mental health services and
           emergency units

    • Authors: Bartolomé Llor-Esteban; María Sánchez-Muñoz; José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández; José Antonio Jiménez-Barbero
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 September 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Bartolomé Llor-Esteban, María Sánchez-Muñoz, José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández, José Antonio Jiménez-Barbero
      Workplace violence is present in many work sectors, but in the area of mental health, nurses have a higher risk due to the close relationship they have with users. This study analyzed hostile user statements against nursing professionals of Mental Health Services and Emergency Units in Health Service (MHS) hospitals in Murcia, Spain, and determined the frequency of exposure to the different violent user behaviors. The study was carried out with a sample of 518 nursing professionals from four hospital services: Mental Health, Emergency Units, Medical Hospitalization, and Maternal-and-Child. The nursing staff of Mental Health and Emergency Units was the most exposed to violence. Non-physical violence was more frequent in Emergency Units, whereas physical violence was more frequent in Mental Health. Among the consequences of exposure to non-physical violence are workers’ emotional exhaustion and the presence of psychological distress.

      PubDate: 2016-10-04T07:08:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.06.002
  • Predictors of sexual aggression in adolescents: Gender dominance vs. rape
           supportive attitudes

    • Authors: Nieves Moyano; Fredy S. Monge; Juan Carlos Sierra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 July 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Nieves Moyano, Fredy S. Monge, Juan Carlos Sierra
      This study explored the relationship between sexual double standard and rape supportive attitudes in regard to an individual's likelihood to perpetrate sexual aggression. We examined an adolescent sample of 448 boys from Peru, of whom 148 (33.3%) reported to have committed sexual aggression. Sexual contact with an unwilling partner was perpetrated by 24.8% of the total sample, sexual coercion by 14.3%, attempted rape by 12.5%, and finally, rape was perpetrated by 10.3%. In all these types of aggression, the most frequent victim was a dating partner. Compared to non-aggressors, male aggressors reported more sexual double standard and supportive attitudes towards rape. Logistic regression analyses revealed that the most relevant variable in the prediction of sexual aggression was the subject having been a victim of sexual abuse during adolescence and having rape supportive attitudes. Our findings suggest that violent attitudes are more important than the endorsement of non-egalitarian beliefs (sexual double standard) in the perpetration of sexual violence. These findings provide data from Peru, which contribute to the worldwide data on risk factors for sexual aggression in adolescent males.

      PubDate: 2016-08-17T01:35:05Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.06.001
  • Structured behavioral interview as a legal guarantee for ensuring equal
           employment opportunities for women: A meta-analysis

    • Authors: Pamela Alonso; Silvia Moscoso; Jesús F. Salgado
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Pamela Alonso, Silvia Moscoso, Jesús F. Salgado
      Equal employment opportunities for women are a legal requirement in many legal environments, including the United States (US) and European Union (EU) legislations. In this context, indirect discrimination in the access to jobs is an illegal practice. For this reason, personnel selection procedures must be fair for protected-by-law groups. Specifically, gender discrimination is the focus of research on employment interviews. This article presents a meta-analysis of gender differences in the scores in structured behavioral interviews (SBI). A database was created consisting of studies conducted with real candidates and employees. Psychometric meta-analysis methods were applied. The results showed that the SBI is fair for women and men and does not show evidence of adverse impact and indirect discrimination. Implications for the practice of personnel selection are discussed and future research is suggested.

      PubDate: 2016-06-18T19:03:06Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.03.002
  • Filing false vice reports: Distinguishing true from false allegations of

    • Authors: André W.E.A. De Zutter; Robert Horselenberg; Peter J. van Koppen
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 April 2016
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): André W.E.A. De Zutter, Robert Horselenberg, Peter J. van Koppen
      False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of 17 and 53 (M =28.0, SD =10.6). In the experimental condition women were invited to file a false allegation. Participants, all female, in the experimental conditions were between the ages of 18 and 52 (M =28.0, SD =10.6). We constructed a list of 187 variables based on our theory of fabricated rape. All items in the list were coded dichotomously. All variables that were coded as ‘present’ within cases were summed to obtain a total score; an independent t-test was used. The results of the control condition (N =30) were compared with the experimental condition (N =35) by use of chi-square tests. A Holm-Bonferoni method with Šidák correction was used to correct for the increased family-wise error rate. The independent t-test showed a significant difference between the mean number of present-coding of likely true allegations, (M =59.13, SD =11.00) and of false allegations (M =35.74, SD =9.33), t(63)=9.28, p <.0001, d =2.34. Thus, significantly more variables were coded ‘present’ in likely true allegations. Fabricated stories of rape lack pseudo-intimate behavior and a wide variety of sexual acts. Also, in almost all fabricated stories of rape the attack was completed in less than 15minutes while in likely true allegations the attack sometimes took over 60minutes before it was completed. In conclusion, true and false allegations diverge from each other in essentials of the story told by the complainant. The differences could be used to predict the true nature of a rape allegation.

      PubDate: 2016-04-01T19:34:54Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2016.02.002
  • Predictive efficacy of violence risk assessment instruments in

    • Authors: Jorge Oscar Folino
      Pages: 51 - 58
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Jorge Oscar Folino
      In Latin America, violence risk assessment used to be based in the non-structured clinical approach. An Argentinian cohort study that included violence risk assessment tools changed the tradition. The objective of this study is to inform of the observed predictive efficacy of these tools in the follow-up until March 2012. One hundred and fifty three consecutive pre-released convicted males were recruited from September 2001 through September 2004 in La Plata, Argentina. The pre-release assessment measures included the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, Assessing Risk for Violence V2, Structured Professional Judgment, and Violence Risk Appraisal Guide. The mean follow-up time was 1,290 days. Ninety-nine (64.7%) subjects had at least one general relapse, and 91 (59.5%) had at least one violent relapse. The incidence rate of violent recidivism was 16.8 per 100 person-years. While some indicators of predictive validity had no clinical significance, the time-dependent indicators did have clinical significance.

      PubDate: 2015-06-20T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.006
  • Peer-group mediation in the relationship between family and juvenile
           antisocial behavior

    • Authors: Olalla Cutrín; José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela; María Ángeles Luengo
      Pages: 59 - 65
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Olalla Cutrín , José Antonio Gómez-Fraguela , María Ángeles Luengo
      The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the variables related to family functioning (parental monitoring, family support, and family conflict) on juvenile antisocial behavior either directly or indirectly through the choice of deviant friends. Thus, the sample consisted of 764 adolescents from the Autonomous Community of Galicia (Spain), from juvenile offender centres (mean age=17.12, 87.4% males) and students from local schools (mean age=16.06, 45.5% males). The scales of Valoración del Riesgo en Adolescentes Infractores [Juvenile Offenders Risk Assessment] on parental monitoring, family conflict, family support, antisocial peer group, and antisocial behavior, were applied. The results of structural equation modelling showed a better fit of the mediation model. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for the prevention, risk assessment, and management of juvenile offenders.

      PubDate: 2015-06-20T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.005
  • The Spanish version of the Criminal Sentiment Scale Modified (CSS-M):
           Factor structure, reliability, and validity

    • Authors: Víctor Company Martínez; Antonio Andrés-Pueyo
      Pages: 67 - 72
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Víctor Company Martínez , Antonio Andrés-Pueyo
      The purpose of this study was to translate and validate the Criminal Sentiment Scale Modified (CSS-M), which measures the criminal attitudes into Spanish. Despite the large body of research proving their importance as one of the best predictors of criminal conduct, only a few measures have been psychometrically developed and validated, and none of them are available in the Spanish language. A sample of 153 male inmates from Penitentiary Brians I of the Catalan Prison Service (Spain) participated voluntarily in the study (73.9% of Spanish nationality, mean age=37.3) completed the final version of the Spanish adaptation. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted with all the scales simultaneously, showing that the underlying structure of the CSS-M was best explained by a two-factor solution: Sentiments toward the establishment and Criminality self-benefits. Moreover, a set of analyses of variance (ANOVA) was also performed, validating the scale well. According to the results of the study, it was concluded that the Spanish version of the CSS-M has satisfactory psychometric properties, enabling its potential usefulness within the legal field of Spanish-speaking countries as a key element in crime prevention.

      PubDate: 2015-06-20T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2015.03.001
  • How good are future lawyers in judging the accuracy of reminiscent
           details? The estimation-observation gap in real eyewitness accounts

    • Authors: Aileen Oeberst
      Pages: 73 - 79
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Aileen Oeberst
      Research has shown a discrepancy between estimated and actually observed accuracy of reminiscent details in eyewitness accounts. This estimation-observation gap is of particular relevance with regard to the evaluation of eyewitnesses’ accounts in the legal context. To date it has only been demonstrated in non-naturalistic settings, however. In addition, it is not known whether this gap extends to other tasks routinely employed in real-world trials, for instance person-identification tasks. In this study, law students witnessed a staged event and were asked to either recall the event and perform a person identification task or estimate the accuracy of the others’ performance. Additionally, external estimations were obtained from students who had not witnessed the event, but received a written summary instead. The estimation-observation gap was replicated for reminiscent details under naturalistic encoding conditions. This gap was more pronounced when compared to forgotten details, but not significantly so when compared to consistent details. In contrast, accuracy on the person-identification task was not consistently underestimated. The results are discussed in light of their implications for real-world trials and future research.

      PubDate: 2015-06-20T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2015.03.002
  • Assessing neighborhood disorder: Validation of a three-factor
           observational scale

    • Authors: Miriam Marco; Enrique Gracia; José M. Tomás; Antonio López-Quílez
      Pages: 81 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 June 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Miriam Marco , Enrique Gracia , José M. Tomás , Antonio López-Quílez
      This study presents data on the development and preliminary validation of an observational scale assessing neighborhood disorder. Independent observations by trained raters of neighborhood disorder were conducted in 552 census block groups in the city of Valencia (Spain). Intraclass correlation coefficients assessing inter-rater reliability indicated fair to substantial levels of agreement among raters. Confirmatory factor analyses supported a final three-factor model scale measuring physical disorder, social disorder, and physical decay. Results for the internal consistency showed large composite reliability indices indicating good reliability for all neighborhood disorder factors. Evidence of criterion-related validity was found by exploring associations between neighborhood disorder factors and three neighborhood characteristics: neighborhood socioeconomic status, immigrant concentration, and residential instability. Also for criterion-related validity, Moran's I test results for spatial correlation showed that the three types of neighborhood disorder tend to cluster in space and are not randomly distributed across the city. In general, this paper provides evidence of a reliable and valid observational measure to assess neighborhood disorder.

      PubDate: 2015-06-20T21:39:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2015.05.001
  • Undeutsch hypothesis and Criteria Based Content Analysis: A meta-analytic

    • Authors: Bárbara G. Amado; Ramón Arce; Francisca Fariña
      Pages: 3 - 12
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Bárbara G. Amado , Ramón Arce , Francisca Fariña
      The credibility of a testimony is a crucial component of judicial decision-making. Checklists of testimony credibility criteria are extensively used by forensic psychologists to assess the credibility of a testimony, and in many countries they are admitted as valid scientific evidence in a court of law. These checklists are based on the Undeutsch hypothesis asserting that statements derived from the memory of real-life experiences differ significantly in content and quality from fabricated or fictitious accounts. Notwithstanding, there is considerable controversy regarding the degree to which these checklists comply with the legal standards for scientific evidence to be admitted in a court of law (e.g., Daubert standards). In several countries, these checklists are not admitted as valid evidence in court, particularly in view of the inconsistent results reported in the scientific literature. Bearing in mind these issues, a meta-analysis was designed to test the Undeutsch hypothesis using the CBCA Checklist of criteria to discern between memories of self-experienced real-life events and fabricated or fictitious accounts. As the original hypothesis was formulated for populations of children, only quantitative studies with samples of children were considered for this study. In line with the Undeutsch hypothesis, the results showed a significant positive effect size that is generalizable to the total CBCA score, δ = 0.79. Moreover, a significant positive effect size was observed in each and all of the credibility criteria. In conclusion, the results corroborated the validity of the Undeutsch hypothesis and the CBCA criteria for discriminating between the memory of real self-experienced events and false or invented accounts. The results are discussed in terms of the implications for forensic practice.

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T22:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.002
  • Steel barrier: Legal implications from a gender equal opportunity

    • Authors: María Bastida; Silvia Moscoso
      Pages: 13 - 22
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): María Bastida , Silvia Moscoso
      In recent decades, legal Acts, norms, and regulations have proliferated in order to ensure equal opportunities for women and men in multiple contexts, including public and private organizations. Nevertheless, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that, to date, real and legal equality do not match. The current context of the global economy suggests that there may now be a new barrier, related to the fact that women have been partially excluded from positions abroad which would facilitate the acquisition of professional and personal skills which are essential in the present century. This new inequality in access to senior management seems to be in contradiction with the different pressures and initiatives put in place to achieve equality of opportunities between women and men, protected in our national and international laws. In this paper, the main causes excluding women from international assignments, and consequently from senior management, are reviewed, highlighting the motivational and legal aftereffects that this trend may have.

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T22:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.004
  • A contrastive analysis of the factorial structure of the PCL-R: Which
           model fits best the data?

    • Authors: Beatriz Pérez; Juan Herrero; Judith Velasco; Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Díaz
      Pages: 23 - 30
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Beatriz Pérez , Juan Herrero , Judith Velasco , Francisco Javier Rodriguez-Díaz
      The aim of this study was to determine which of the factorial solutions proposed for the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) of two, three, four factors, and unidimensional fitted best the data. Two trained and experienced independent raters scored 197 prisoners from the Villabona Penitentiary (Asturias, Spain), age range 21 to 73 years (M = 36.0, SD = 9.7), of whom 60.12% were reoffenders and 73% had committed violent crimes. The results revealed that the two-factor correlational, three-factor hierarchical without testlets, four-factor correlational and hierarchical, and unidimensional models were a poor fit for the data (CFI ≤ .86), and the three-factor model with testlets was a reasonable fit for the data (CFI = .93). The scale resulting from the three-factor hierarchical model with testlets (13 items) classified psychopathy significantly higher than the original 20-item scale. The results are discussed in terms of their implications for theoretical models of psychopathy, decision-making, prison classification and intervention, and prevention.

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T22:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.10.001
  • Group psychological abuse: Taxonomy and severity of its components

    • Authors: Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira; Omar Saldaña; Carmen Almendros; Javier Martín-Peña; Jordi Escartín; Clara Porrúa-García
      Pages: 31 - 39
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): Álvaro Rodríguez-Carballeira , Omar Saldaña , Carmen Almendros , Javier Martín-Peña , Jordi Escartín , Clara Porrúa-García
      The purpose of this study was to delimit group psychological abuse through a psychosocial approach. An operational definition of the phenomenon and a taxonomy of group psychological abuse strategies were proposed based on a review of the scientific literature. A panel of 31 experts in the area evaluated the content of the taxonomy and judged the severity of the strategies through a Delphi study. Group psychological abuse was defined by the application of abusive strategies, their continued duration, and their ultimate aim, i.e., subjugation of the individual. The taxonomy showed adequate content validity. Experts’ judgments allowed for hierarchically organizing the strategies based on their severity, being the most severe those directed to the emotional area. Operationalizing, classifying, and organizing the strategies hierarchically contributes to a better delimitation of the phenomenon, which is useful for both the academic and applied fields.

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T22:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.001
  • Risk factors for intimate partner violence in prison inmates

    • Authors: José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández; Jesús J. García-Jiménez; Bartolomé Llor-Esteban; Carmen Godoy-Fernández
      Pages: 41 - 49
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 7, Issue 1
      Author(s): José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández , Jesús J. García-Jiménez , Bartolomé Llor-Esteban , Carmen Godoy-Fernández
      Etiological models of intimate partner violence (IPV) identify general risk factors in delinquency (sociodemographic, delinquent, and psychopathological) and specific factors in this type of aggression (characteristics of the couple relationship and attitudes favoring IPV). The goal of the present work is to study these factors in individuals convicted for drug trafficking and/or theft, so-called common delinquents (n = 89), comparing them with a group of partner aggressors (n = 50). Assessment was carried out with a mixed method, reviewing case files, clinical interviews for personality disorders, and self-reports. The results show a similar profile in sociodemographic and criminal characteristics and in attitudes favoring IPV. The differences emerge in variables of the couple relationship and psychopathological variables, finding higher prevalence of the antisocial disorder in common delinquents and of the borderline disorder in aggressors. The final model identifies the level of relationship satisfaction, control over the partner, blaming female victims, and incidence of borderline personality disorder as relevant variables. The implications of these results for penitentiary treatment as a preventive measure of IPV, both in IPV aggressors and in the general prison population, are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-01-28T22:40:31Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.11.003
  • Empathy in the field: Towards a taxonomy of empathic communication in
           information gathering interviews with suspected sex offenders

    • Authors: Coral June; Dando Gavin Eric Oxburgh
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 21 November 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Coral June Dando, Gavin Eric Oxburgh
      Research suggests that those suspected of sexual offending might be more willing to reveal information about their crimes if interviewers display empathic behaviour. However, the literature concerning investigative empathy is in its infancy, and so as yet is not well understood. This study explores empathy in a sample of real-life interviews conducted by police officers in England with suspected sex offenders. Using qualitative methodology, the presence and type of empathic verbal behaviours displayed was examined. Resulting categories were quantitatively analysed to investigate their occurrence overall, and across interviewer gender. We identified four distinct types of empathy, some of which were used significantly more often than others. Female interviewers displayed more empathic behaviour per se by a considerable margin.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T07:12:18Z
  • Generalists versus specialists: Toward a typology of batterers in prison

    • Authors: Juan Herrero; Andrea Torres Francisco
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Juan Herrero, Andrea Torres, Asunción Fernández-Suárez, Francisco J. Rodríguez-Díaz
      In this we apply the versatile/specialist offender debate to the research of intimate partner violence. We propose the existence of two types of imprisoned male batterers: the generalist and the specialist batterer. The individual, family, and community characteristics of these types of batterers are further explored in 110 imprisoned males in the Penitentiary of Villabona (Spain). As for the individual characteristics, results indicate that the generalist batterer present higher levels of psychopathology (specially antisocial and borderline personality), sexist attitudes, and substance dependence. Specialist batterers presented higher levels of conflict in their family of origin. Finally, generalist batterers reported coming from more socially disordered communities and showed lower levels of participation and integration in these communities than the specialist batterer. These results suggest that the classical distinctions among batterers based on psychopathology and context of violence (whether general or family only) might be of little utility when applied to imprisoned male batterers.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T07:12:18Z
  • Lineup identification accuracy: The effects of alcohol, target presence,
           confidence ratings, and response time

    • Authors: Wendy Kneller; Alistair Harvey
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Wendy Kneller, Alistair J. Harvey
      Despite the intoxication of many eyewitnesses at crime scenes, only four published studies to date have investigated the effects of alcohol intoxication on eyewitness identification performance. While one found intoxication significantly increased false identification rates from target absent showups, three found no such effect using the more traditional lineup procedure. The present study sought to further explore the effects of alcohol intoxication on identification performance and examine whether accurate decisions from intoxicated witnesses could be postdicted by confidence and response times. One hundred and twenty participants engaged in a study examining the effects of intoxication (control, placebo, and mild intoxication) and target presence on identification performance. Participants viewed a simultaneous lineup one week after watching a mock crime video of a man attempting to steal cars. Ethanol intoxication (0.6 ml/kg) was found to make no significant difference to identification accuracy and such identifications from intoxicated individuals were made no less confidently or slowly than those from sober witnesses. These results are discussed with respect to the previous research examining intoxicated witness identification accuracy and the misconceptions the criminal justice system holds about the accuracy of such witnesses.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T07:12:18Z
  • Women's disengagement from legal proceedings for intimate partner
           violence: Sociodemographic and psychological variables

    • Authors: Cala Eva; Trigo Francisco Saavedra
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): María Jesús Cala, María Eva Trigo, Francisco J. Saavedra
      The aim of this study is to shed light on what makes women decide whether or not to continue with legal proceedings for intimate partner violence once they have commenced. Legal professionals, members of the police force, and women in Spain were interviewed to help draft a questionnaire that was applied to a sample of 345 women who had undertaken legal proceedings against their (ex)partners. Socio-demographic, emotional, and psychological variables were considered as possible predictor variables and included in a logistic regression analysis. Results show that the best equation for predicting disengagement from legal procedures includes the level of support received by the victim, contact with the aggressor, thoughts about going back with the aggressor, and a feeling of guilt. The essential role of the psychological support during the legal process is emphasized in conclusions

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T07:12:18Z
  • Myths and legends: The reality of rape offences reported to a UK police

    • Authors: Genevieve Waterhouse; Ali Reynolds Vincent Egan
      Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 November 2015
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context
      Author(s): Genevieve F. Waterhouse, Ali Reynolds, Vincent Egan
      Rape myths affect many aspects of the investigative and criminal justice systems. One such myth, the ‘real rape’ myth, states that most rapes involve a stranger using a weapon attacking a woman violently at night in an isolated, outdoor area, and that women sustain serious injuries from these attacks. The present study examined how often actual offences reported to a central UK police force over a two year period matched the ‘real rape’ myth. Out of 400 cases of rape reported, not a single incident was found with all the characteristics of the ‘real rape’ myth. The few stranger rapes that occurred had a strong link to night-time economy activities, such as the victim and offender both having visited pubs, bars, and clubs. By contrast, the majority of reported rape offences (280 cases, 70.7%) were committed by people known to the victim (e.g., domestic and acquaintance rapes), occurred inside a residence, with most victims sustaining no physical injuries from the attack. The benefits of these naturalistic findings from the field for educating people about the inaccuracy of rape myths are discussed.

      PubDate: 2015-11-23T07:12:18Z
  • Stop Harassment! Men's reactions to victims’ confrontation

    • Authors: M. Carmen Herrera; Antonio Herrera; Francisca Expósito
      Pages: 45 - 52
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): M. Carmen Herrera , Antonio Herrera , Francisca Expósito
      Sexual harassment is one of the most widespread forms of gender violence. Perceptions of sexual harassment depend on gender, context, the perceivers’ ideology, and a host of other factors. Research has underscored the importance of coping strategies in raising a victim's self-confidence by making her feel that she plays an active role in overcoming her own problems. The aim of this study was to assess the men's perceptions of sexual harassment in relation to different victim responses. The study involved 101 men who were administered a questionnaire focusing on two of the most frequent types of harassment (gender harassment vs. unwanted sexual attention) and victim response (confrontation vs. non confrontation), both of which were manipulated. Moreover, the influences of ideological variables, ambivalent sexism, and the acceptance of myths of sexual harassment on perception were also assessed. The results highlight the complexities involved in recognizing certain behaviors as harassment and the implications of different victim responses to incidents of harassment. As the coping strategies used by women to confront harassment entail drawbacks that pose problems or hinder them, the design and implementation of prevention and/or education programs should strive to raise awareness among men and women to further their understanding of this construct.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.006
  • Behavioral problems and depressive symptomatology as predictors of
           child-to-parent violence

    • Authors: Izaskun Ibabe; Ainara Arnoso; Edurne Elgorriaga
      Pages: 53 - 61
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Izaskun Ibabe , Ainara Arnoso , Edurne Elgorriaga
      The number of complaints filed by parents against their children nationwide has increased dramatically, particularly since 2005. The aim of this study was to examine whether young offenders who had been charged for violence against their parents presented different psychological problems from youngsters charged with other types of offence and non-offenders. Data from 231 adolescents of both sexes aged 14 to 18 years and living in the Basque Country (Spain) were analyzed. Of these, 106 were offenders and the rest were from a community sample. Some of the offenders had been charged with child-to-parent violence (n = 59), while the rest of them had not (n = 47). Offenders who had assaulted or abused their parents presented more behavior problems outside home and more characteristics associated with depressive symptomatology than offenders of other types or non-offenders. Certain psychological problems in adolescents could precipitate family conflict situations and leave parents unable to control their children. Findings highlight the need for offenders charged with child-to-parent violence to receive individual psychological therapy.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.004
  • Perpetrator characteristics and blame attributions in a stranger rape

    • Authors: Leif A. Strömwall; Sara Landström; Helen Alfredsson
      Pages: 63 - 67
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Leif A. Strömwall , Sara Landström , Helen Alfredsson
      Both real-life events and research show that rape victims are sometimes blamed for their victimization. The effect of perpetrator characteristics on victim blaming has rarely been studied. In an experiment using a community sample (N = 161), we investigated the effect of the perpetrator's previous conviction and age, as well as participants’ gender and belief in a just world (BJW) on blame attributions using a vignette methodology. It was predicted that less victim blame and more perpetrator blame would be attributed when the perpetrator had a previous conviction. Results showed that level of BJW was associated with victim blame (positively) and perpetrator blame (negatively). Men blamed the victim more and women blamed the victim less when the perpetrator had a previous conviction. Women blamed the perpetrator more and men less when the perpetrator had a previous conviction. Hence, gender is an important factor in explaining variation in blame attributions.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.002
  • Differential profile in partner aggressors: Prison vs. mandatory community
           intervention programs

    • Authors: Jesús J. García-Jiménez; Carmen Godoy-Fernández; Bartolomé Llor-Esteban; José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández
      Pages: 69 - 77
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jesús J. García-Jiménez , Carmen Godoy-Fernández , Bartolomé Llor-Esteban , José Antonio Ruiz-Hernández
      In Spain, there are two types of sentence for partner aggressors: prison sentence and the alternative measure, specifically psychosocial intervention programs. The goal of this study was to determine differences in the delinquent and psychopathological profile of these aggressors as a function of the prison sentence received, for which the models proposed by Dutton (1995) and Holtzworth-Munroe and Stuart (1994) were followed. The sample was made up of 50 incarcerated aggressors and 40 men sentenced to mandatory community orders. The variables were obtained through a mixed method, with supervision of penitentiary case files, clinical interview for personality disorder (SCID-II), and self-reports for the personality profile (NEO-PI-R). Binary logistic regression was used to identify the final model, which best reveals the differences between both groups. The results describe the incarcerated aggressors’ profile as having more altered risk factors at the socioeconomic, delinquent, and psychopathological levels. The three variables that increase the probability of belonging to the prison inmate group, according to the final model obtained were: use of weapons, drug consumption, and personality disorder. In contrast to other investigations, the high incidence in the outcomes of the target variables, mainly drug use and personality disorder, makes us wonder whether the diagnostic method used influenced the results in contrast to the exclusive use of self-reports, a goal to be confirmed in future studies.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.003
  • Opinions of legal professionals: Comparing child and adult witnesses’
           memory report capabilities

    • Authors: Jens Knutsson; Carl Martin Allwood
      Pages: 79 - 89
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Jens Knutsson , Carl Martin Allwood
      The opinions of legal professionals about child and adult witnesses might influence the likelihood that a case is allowed to proceed through the different stages of the legal process. With the aim of knowing the opinions of legal practitioners about child and adult witnesses, 84 legal professionals (Swedish police, prosecutors, and attorneys) were surveyed about their beliefs about child and adult eyewitness memory (and metamemory) abilities. The respondents answered 27 questions relating to nine forensically relevant belief areas in which they compared the memory ability of children (ages 7 to 11 years) and adults. The results showed no differences in assessment among members of different professions and a general trend suggesting that, across the professions, children were believed to be poorer witnesses than adults regarding their memory abilities. Moreover, the professionals’ within-group consensus was very low. These results are discussed in the context of eyewitness research findings and with respect to the implications for both legal and research practice.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.001
  • Pathological publishing: A new psychological disorder with legal

    • Authors: Gualberto Buela-Casal
      Pages: 91 - 97
      Abstract: Publication date: July 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 2
      Author(s): Gualberto Buela-Casal
      The present study deals with an important problem that currently affects scientists and society, namely, the falsification and manipulation of research and researchers’ CVs, which has considerably increased in recent years. This is shown by some studies, the authors of which have found high percentages of researchers who falsify their CV or manipulate data. We analyze the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which is almost exclusively based on the impact factor. We review the main critiques on the inappropriate use of the impact factor to assess researchers and argue that this has generated a new style of thinking in which the only goal is to obtain publications with an impact factor. Over the last few years, the pressure to publish has led to an obsession among researchers to disseminate the multiple indicators of their scientific publications over the Internet, to the extent that such initiatives look like marketing campaigns where researchers advertise themselves. For all these reasons, we propose that this may be a new psychological disorder, given that several criteria indicating maladaptation are clearly met: falsification and/or manipulation of data, falsification of publication indicators, distortion of reality, belief in manipulated data, and an obsession to conduct marketing campaigns of oneself. We address the important ethical and legal implications of such falsifications. Finally, we discuss the need to change the system used to evaluate science and researchers, which undoubtedly promotes these dishonest behaviors or this psychological dysfunction.

      PubDate: 2014-07-25T22:15:48Z
      DOI: 10.1016/j.ejpal.2014.06.005
  • Perceived risk and safety-related behaviors after leaving a violent

    • Authors: Rosaura Juana
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Rosaura González-Méndez , Juana D. Santana-Hernández
      Given that victim’ risk perception could improve risk assessment in cases of intimate partner violence research is paying attention to it. However, it is not clear whether perceived risk relates to safety-related behaviors. This study is aimed to analyze how perceived risk by women who have left a violent partner relates to their safety-related behaviors and post-separation violence. Participants were 249 women (from protection services and the community) who had concluded a violent relationship. A structural equation model describes the relationships between three groups of factors: (1) women's risk perception; (2) three types of conditions that increase the opportunity for victim/abuser contact: (a) women's actions that make them easier to track, (b) women's reasons for not protecting themselves, and (c) batterers’ strategies to gain access to their former intimate partners; and (3) post-separation violence. Results indicate that psychological violence is positively related to perceived risk and helplessness. Moreover, while women's risk perception predicts less contact and self-deception, male strategies predict greater contact and routines. In turn, contact predicts intimacy, whose absence fully accounts for 93.3% of the prediction of no re-abuse, six months later. The results’ implications for intervention are discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-01-18T22:39:25Z
  • Satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers with the introduction
           of the European Higher Education Area

    • Authors: Tania Ariza; Quevedo-Blasco Gualberto Buela-Casal
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Tania Ariza , Raúl Quevedo-Blasco , Gualberto Buela-Casal
      University teachers are one of the main figures in the European convergence process, but their attitude towards the reform of Spanish university studies is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study is to evaluate the satisfaction of Social and Legal Sciences teachers towards the introduction of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA). The sample was made up of 3,068 teachers from Spanish public universities, who teach in the said field. An online questionnaire was created for this purpose, with questions relating to the EHEA, teacher tasks and training, as well as aspects related to methodology and the teaching and learning process, amongst others. Cronbach´s alpha coefficient was .81. It is a population-based, descriptive study using a cross-sectional survey with a probability sample. In the results it can be observed that only 9.3% of teachers are satisfied with the adaptation of higher education to the EHEA. Finally, the limitations faced by teaching staff in consolidating this process will be discussed.

      PubDate: 2014-01-18T22:39:25Z
  • Effects of different types of forensic information on eyewitness’ memory
           and confidence accuracy

    • Authors: Farhan Sarwar; Carl Martin Allwood Innes-Ker
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Farhan Sarwar , Carl Martin Allwood , Åse Innes-Ker
      This study investigated eyewitnesses’ memory and confidence accuracy for action information (what happened at the crime scene), and detail information (descriptions of persons, objects, time and place). In Experiment 1, 89 participants watched a film and participated in one of four conditions: Laboratory discussion, Family discussion, Retell and Control, the first three with five meetings each. Three weeks later all participants open free recalled the events, and confidence judged their answers. The participants showed better free recall and confidence accuracy for action than for detail information. Participants in the two discussion conditions and in the Retell condition recalled more items and those in the Lab-discussion and Retell conditions more correct items for action information, than those in Control group. However, the four conditions did not differ for proportion correct of all action items recalled and confidence accuracy for action items. In brief, Experiment 1 showed that witness discussions and retellings of the experienced event with others improved recall for action information but had had no, or small, effects on confidence accuracy. Experiment 2 investigated recall and confidence accuracy performance for action and detail information using focused questions. Seventy-seven participants watched a film, answered and confidence judged 63 questions about action and detail information about the events. Again, participants showed better memory and confidence accuracy for action information. Overall, the results indicate that, for both free recall and focused questions, witnesses’ recall and confidence accuracy is better for action information than for detail information, thus extra precaution is needed in the forensic system when detail information from witnesses is considered.

      PubDate: 2014-01-18T22:39:25Z
  • The Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale (IPVRAS)

    • Authors: Marisol Lila; Amparo Oliver Alba Laura Galiana Enrique Gracia
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Marisol Lila , Amparo Oliver , Alba Catalá-Miñana , Laura Galiana , Enrique Gracia
      The aim of this study is to present a psychometrically sound instrument to assess intimate partner violence offenders’ responsibility attributions: the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale. The scale was administrated to 423 adult male intimate partner violence offenders court-mandated to a community-based intervention program. A three factor structure (responsibility attribution to the legal system, responsibility attribution to the victim, and responsibility attribution to the offender personal context) was supported using confirmatory factor analysis. Reliability of the scales in this study was estimated using Cronbach's alpha, ρ and greatest lower bound. The Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale correlated in theoretically expected ways with variables used to assess construct validity (system blaming, problems with partner, and responsibility assumption) and with variables used to assess criterion-related validity (satisfaction with legal system, victim-blaming attitudes, alcohol consumption, hostile sexism, stressful life events, social desirability, impulsivity and household income). Results support the validity and reliability of the Intimate Partner Violence Responsibility Attribution Scale.

      PubDate: 2014-01-18T22:39:25Z
  • ‘I know how they must feel’: Empathy and judging defendants

    • Authors: Jane Wood; Mark James Caoilte Ciardha
      Abstract: Publication date: January 2014
      Source:The European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context, Volume 6, Issue 1
      Author(s): Jane L Wood , Mark James , Caoilte Ó Ciardha
      The current study investigated the effects of state and trait empathy in legal judgments and tested the relationship between trait and state emotion in one hundred and fifty eight students aged 18–59. Assessments were taken of participants’ trait empathy and then state empathy was induced in half the sample. Following this all participants read a trial transcript and made judgments regarding: the verdict decision; the defendant's responsibility for the offense; what would be an appropriate punishment; the likelihood that the offender would offend in the future; and whether the defendant felt remorse for committing the offense. Findings showed that both trait and state empathy predicted attributions of offender remorse. State empathy also predicted judgments of offender responsibility and agreement with verdict decisions in a lenient direction. Findings also showed that state and trait empathy did not interact. The results indicate that trait and state empathy work independently to influence legal judgments and that inducing empathy in decision-makers can impact on trial outcomes above and beyond the facts of the case.

      PubDate: 2014-01-18T22:39:25Z
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