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LAW (815 journals)                  1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
ABA Journal Magazine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 25)
Acta Juridica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Acta Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Acta Universitatis Danubius. Juridica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Actualidad Jurídica Ambiental     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Adam Mickiewicz University Law Review     Open Access  
Adelaide Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Administrative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 44)
Aegean Review of the Law of the Sea and Maritime Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
African Journal on Conflict Resolution     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Ahkam : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access  
Air and Space Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
Akron Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al 'Adalah : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Al-Ahkam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alaska Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Albany Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Alberta Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Alternative Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Amazon's Research and Environmental Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 57)
American Journal of Jurisprudence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
American Journal of Law & Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
American Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Trial Advocacy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
American University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
American University National Security Law Brief     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Amicus Curiae     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Amsterdam Law Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Anales de la Cátedra Francisco Suárez     Open Access  
Annales Canonici     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales de droit     Open Access  
Annals of the Faculty of Law in Belgrade - Belgrade Law Review     Open Access  
Anuario da Facultade de Dereito da Universidade da Coruña     Open Access  
Anuario de Psicología Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ANZSLA Commentator, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Appeal : Review of Current Law and Law Reform     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arbitration Law Monthly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Arbitration Law Reports and Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Hukum     Open Access  
Argumenta Journal Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arizona Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Arizona State Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 3)
Arkansas Law Review     Free   (Followers: 6)
Ars Aequi Maandblad     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Art + Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Article 40     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Artificial Intelligence and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Asian American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Asian Journal of Legal Education     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Pacific American Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AStA Wirtschafts- und Sozialstatistisches Archiv     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access  
Australasian Law Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Australian and New Zealand Sports Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Australian Feminist Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australian Indigenous Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 22)
Australian Journal of Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Ave Maria Law Review     Free   (Followers: 3)
Badamai Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ballot     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of Law & Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Bar News: The Journal of the NSW Bar Association     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Behavioral Sciences & the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Beijing Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Berkeley Journal of Entertainment and Sports Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Berkeley Technology Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 13)
Bioethics Research Notes     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Boletín de la Asociación Internacional de Derecho Cooperativo     Open Access  
Bond Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Boston College Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Boston University Law Review     Free   (Followers: 11)
BRICS Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brigham Young University Journal of Public Law     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Brigham Young University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
British Journal of American Legal Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Brooklyn Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bulletin of Legal Medicine     Open Access  
Bulletin of Medieval Canon Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Business and Human Rights Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
C@hiers du CRHIDI     Open Access  
Cadernos de Dereito Actual     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Informação Jurídica     Open Access  
Cadernos do Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito - PPGDir./UFRGS     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos Ibero-Americanos de Direito Sanitário     Open Access  
Cahiers Droit, Sciences & Technologies     Open Access  
California Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 20)
California Lawyer     Free  
California Western Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cambridge Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 175)
Campbell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Campus Legal Advisor     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Canadian Journal of Law & Jurisprudence     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Canadian Journal of Law and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Case Western Reserve Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Časopis pro právní vědu a praxi     Open Access  
Catalyst : A Social Justice Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Catholic University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chicago-Kent Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Chicana/o-Latina/o Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Chinese Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Law & Government     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Cleveland State Law Review     Free   (Followers: 2)
College Athletics and The Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Colombia Forense     Open Access  
Columbia Journal of Environmental Law     Free   (Followers: 11)
Columbia Journal of Law and Social Problems     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Columbia Law Review (Sidebar)     Open Access   (Followers: 19)
Commercial Law Quarterly: The Journal of the Commercial Law Association of Australia     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 39)
Comparative Legal History     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Comparative Legilinguistics     Open Access  
Con-texto     Open Access  
Conflict Resolution Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Cornell Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Analysis of Law : An International & Interdisciplinary Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Cuadernos de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Cuestiones Juridicas     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Current Legal Problems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Danube     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
De Jure     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
De Rebus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Deakin Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Debater a Europa     Open Access  
Defense Counsel Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Denning Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
DePaul Journal of Women, Gender and the Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
DePaul Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Derecho Animal. Forum of Animal Law Studies     Open Access  
Derecho PUCP     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Derecho y Ciencias Sociales     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Derechos en Acción     Open Access  
Deusto Journal of Human Rights     Open Access  
Dicle Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Die Verwaltung     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Dikaion     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dike     Open Access  
Diké : Revista Jurídica     Open Access  
Direito e Desenvolvimento     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Direito e Liberdade     Open Access  
Diritto penale contemporaneo     Free   (Followers: 2)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dixi     Open Access  
Doxa : Cuadernos de Filosofía del Derecho     Open Access  
Droit et Cultures     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Droit et Médecine Bucco-Dentaire     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Droit, Déontologie & Soin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Drug Science, Policy and Law     Full-text available via subscription  
Duke Environmental Law & Policy Forum     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Duke Forum for Law & Social Change     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Duke Journal of Gender Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Duke Law & Technology Review     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Duke Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 26)
DULR Online     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
East Asia Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
ECI Interdisciplinary Journal for Legal and Social Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Economics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edinburgh Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Education and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Election Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Energy Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Environmental Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Environmental Policy and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
ERA-Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Erasmus Law Review     Open Access  
Erciyes Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Espaço Jurídico : Journal of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
ESR Review : Economic and Social Rights in South Africa     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ethnopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Ethos: Official Publication of the Law Society of the Australian Capital Territory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
EU Agrarian Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Europaisches Journal fur Minderheitenfragen     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Energy and Environmental Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
European Journal for Education Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Comparative Law and Governance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Law and Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 165)
European Public Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 37)
European Review of Contract Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
European Review of Private Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 33)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)

        1 2 3 4 5 | Last

Journal Cover
Boston College Law Review
Number of Followers: 16  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 0161-6587
Published by Boston College Homepage  [8 journals]
  • I Wanna Design for Somebody (Who Needs Me): The Intersection of

    • Authors: Sean Patrick McGinley
      Abstract: A significant technology gap exists between developed and developing countries. Though developing countries have started to self-innovate, they do not possess adequate means to fulfill their right to develop, which the UN recognizes as an essential human right. For developing countries to exercise this right, developed countries must transfer technology. Humanitarian engineers have confronted this challenge without any international guidance or regulation, as no uniform system for international technology transfer agreements exists. To remedy this inadequacy, scholars have proposed the characteristic approach, which suggests that the contents of the contract, rather than the parties’ locations, should control the choice of law. This proposal, however, fails to consider unintended, harmful consequences on developing countries. This Note analyzes the characteristic approach through a case study of humanitarian engineers in Kenya, a country held back by a lack of infrastructure while standing on the cusp of innovation. The characteristic approach does not present a viable solution for Kenya because it favors the law of developed countries too often. Instead, technology transfer agreements should stipulate that the developing country’s law should govern the agreement. Further, when this results in an insurmountable burden on the transferor, a developed country’s law should only control if the contract adheres to the policies of Africa’s regional economic communities. In the case of humanitarian engineers, academic institutions and international organizations focused on humanitarian engineering have an ethical burden to enforce this standard.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:59 PST
  • The Circuit Split on Mens Rea for Aiding and Abetting Liability Under the
           Alien Tort Statute

    • Authors: Srish Khakurel
      Abstract: For decades since the Second Circuit Court of Appeals’ landmark decision in Filartiga v. Pena-Irala, the Alien Tort Statute has provided tools for human rights litigation in American federal courts. Nevertheless, after some controversial decisions by the U.S. Supreme Court and the Second Circuit in recent years, the scope of liability under the statute has diminished and the future of ATS human rights litigation is uncertain. In this context, one of the key issues is the level of culpability required for a defendant to be liable for assisting the human rights breaches of a third party. Specifically, the issue is whether the requisite mens rea is knowledge or purpose. After surveying the sources that courts have looked at to answer this question, this Note concludes that the appropriate mens rea standard should be knowledge.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:53 PST
  • Expansive Disclosure: Regulating Third-Party Funding for Future Analysis
           and Reform

    • Authors: Rachel Denae Thrasher
      Abstract: Third-party funding (TPF) is a relatively new phenomenon in the field of international investment arbitration. TPF takes place when a non-party to a dispute provides funding to one of the parties (usually the claimant) in return for a percentage of the amount recovered. International investment arbitration is a unique context, however, because investor-states dispute settlement puts States always in the role of respondent and private investors in the role of claimants. Despite this apparent imbalance, TPF proponents argue, among other things, that it provides much needed access to justice for poorer clients and adds value to the system by providing a more disinterested evaluation of legal arguments. Those claims do not stand up to the facts as we have them, however. There have been several efforts to regulate TPF, including mandatory disclosure rules (applied only to the identity of the funder) and more expansive discretionary disclosure. These efforts do not go far enough. Instead, we need mandatory expansive disclosure of the identity of the funder and key terms of the funding agreement. This will provide scaffolding to the international investment arbitration system by avoiding conflicts of interest, aligning with institutional interests in transparency, and providing data for ongoing empirical research.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:46 PST
  • Third-Party Funding as Exploitation of the Investment Treaty System

    • Authors: Frank J. Garcia
      Abstract: Third-party funding of international investment arbitration is on the rise. Through TPF funders will cover the legal fees of investors filing claims under investment treaties in exchange for a portion of the arbitral award. Proponents of third-party funding claim that it provides access to justice for parties that normally would not have the funds to arbitrate against state actors. Given that the international investment law that governs these claims is unbalanced, and that funding only flows towards investor-claimants, and at the expense of states and their taxpayers, allowing third-party funding in investment arbitration risks creating unjustifiable wealth transfers from the citizens of target states for the benefit of speculators. Reform is needed to prevent the deleterious effects of third-party funding on developing and newly-industrialized states and on the investment law regime itself.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:40 PST
  • Reforming International Investment Law: Opportunities, Challenges,

    • Authors: Frank J. Garcia et al.
      Abstract: Transcription of a panel discussion.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:33 PST
  • Avoiding the Planned Obsolescence of Modern International Investment
           Agreements: Can General Exception Mechanisms Be Improved, and How'

    • Authors: Camille Martini
      Abstract: In light of the increase in investor-state disputes brought by foreign investors under the arbitration clauses contained in international investment agreements (“IIAs”), treaty negotiators have started to develop safeguards in recent IIAs in an attempt to mitigate the impact of these agreements on their regulatory powers. General exception clauses modeled on Article XX of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade are part of these new treaty provisions. General exceptions clauses are, in their current form, a source of uncertainty rather than coherence. Recent arbitration cases have shed light on the unworkable enforceability requirements contained in general exceptions clauses, preventing, in most cases, these clauses from being successfully implemented. While narrowing the scope of the standards of protection contained in IIAs may be a more effective path to improve the balance between protection of foreign investors’ rights and outcomes that promote good governance and sustainable development, general exception clauses may nonetheless justify in very specific circumstances conduct that would otherwise represent a violation of the applicable IIA, in spite of the many interpretive issues contained therein.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:25 PST
  • Making Investment Arbitration Work for All: Addressing the Deficits in
           Access to Remedy for Wronged Host State Citizens Through Investment

    • Authors: Emmanuel T. Laryea
      Abstract: The current dominant system for resolving international investment disputes is the Investor-State Dispute Settlement system or, more precisely, the Investor-State Arbitration system (ISA). The ISA system has proved to be an effective avenue for remedy for foreign investors whose investments are wrongfully impaired by host states. However, the system is not accessible to Host State Citizens (HSCs) whose interests may be harmed by investors. Wronged HSCs can seek redress in domestic fora only. The domestic fora in many jurisdictions leave many wronged HSCs without remedy, a problem that has long been acknowledged. This Essay proposes a solution. It proposes that access to remedy for wronged HSCs can be operationalized within the existing arbitration system (or integrated into a future international investment court system that may eventuate). This can be achieved by expanding the current ISA system to be a more inclusive system that allows all affected persons—investors and non-investors—whose interests are adversely affected to seek remedy. The proposed system, termed Investment Related Dispute Settlement, would allow for: (1) traditional ISA proceedings, in which investors may initiate proceedings against host states; (2) HSG-Investor Arbitration, in which host state governments may initiate proceedings against investors; and (3) HSCs-Investor Arbitration, in which HSCs may initiate arbitral proceedings against investors.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:18 PST
  • Should Investment Treaties Contain Public Policy Exceptions'

    • Authors: Caroline Henckels
      Abstract: The increasing inclusion of exceptions in newly concluded investment treaties, together with the divergent manner in which tribunals and annulment committees have approached these provisions, suggests that a greater understanding of their role and purpose is needed. In particular, the question whether exceptions operate as permissions or as defenses is a crucial but unaddressed issue that has significant implications for both litigation and practice and, in turn, implications for the stability of the regime. This Essay argues that as a starting point, exceptions should be understood as permissions that limit the scope of the substantive treaty obligations, and not as defenses invoked to justify prima facie unlawful conduct. Understanding exceptions as permissions has several advantages, including the avoidance of double-counting a government’s motivation for its conduct or, more problematically, failing to take regulatory purpose into account when determining whether a government has complied with the treaty’s substantive obligations. Understanding exceptions as permissions also sends signals to adjudicators in relation to issues such as the appropriate standard of review. The Essay also explores the desirability of including exceptions in treaties in light of recent innovations that clarify the substantive content of investment obligations. Although the uncertain analytic character of existing exceptions risks constraining rather than preserving regulatory space, they may be an important failsafe in light of current institutional arrangements for investor-state dispute settlement, which effectively preclude review for error of law. The Essay concludes that the relationship between standards of investment protection and exceptions needs further consideration, and suggests that governments negotiating investment treaties ought to more holistically consider the aims of the regime and the role of exceptions therein.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:10 PST
  • Justice for All' Protecting the Public Interest in Investment Treaties

    • Authors: Alessandra Arcuri et al.
      Abstract: Investment arbitration has come increasingly under fire because of its design flaws. There is an emerging consensus that investment treaty arbitration not only falls short of ensuring a sufficient degree of transparency of arbitral proceedings and impartiality of arbitrators, but also that its institutional architecture is unjustifiably asymmetric, entrusting foreign investors with significant rights while no protection is afforded to the host states’ constituencies. In response to these criticisms, several states have attempted in recent years to reform the rules governing investor-state arbitration. A perusal of recently concluded international investment agreements, however, reveals that the reform efforts so far have focused on the first two shortcomings. Very little, instead, has been done with regard to the asymmetric character of the system. This Essay seeks to specifically address this flaw, by placing the rights of investment-affected people on par with those of investors. To do this, we seek to display the viable alternatives to the currently predominant—and flawed—model of investment dispute settlement. We start by outlining the features of the investor-state dispute settlement system that lie at the root of the system’s legitimacy crisis. In particular, relying on a burgeoning body of scholarship, we expose the inadequacy of private order dispute settlement mechanisms in dealing with mainly public law disputes. Bearing this in mind, we contend that future reform efforts should reckon with the rights and interests of the individuals and groups of individuals who are likely to be affected by the investment operations. In other words, States can only remove the asymmetric character of the system by endowing this category of individuals with substantive and procedural rights. We also argue that international investment agreements should go beyond their traditional protective function by aiming to keep investors’ conduct in check. We opine that such agreements should also clearly establish investors’ obligations to safeguard the wide range of noninvestment interests implicated in investment operations. This Essay envisages three innovative models for the solution of investment disputes and presents a comparative analysis of alternative scenarios. The first suggests the abandonment of investment arbitration in favor of soft-law grievance mechanisms. The second envisages arbitration for both investors and investment-affected parties. The third proposal is a networked system where arbitration is coupled with grievance mechanisms for investment-affected individuals. In short, we submit that future treaties should either completely ditch the ISDS system or undertake a major overhaul of the system. Each proposal has its limits and promises. We conclude that, in spite of their limits, any of these proposals would offer a superior alternative to the dramatic deficiencies of the current system and future research should be directed to further articulate the contours of our proposals.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:04:02 PST
  • Legitimacy Concerns of the Proposed Multilateral Investment Court: Is
           Democracy Possible'

    • Authors: José Manuel Alvarez Zárate
      Abstract: Growing concerns in Europe about international investment regimes and investor-state dispute settlement systems pushed the European Union into pursuing the creation of an investment court system and a multilateral investment court. The European Union started this reform through the Comprehensive Economic Trade Agreement, the Vietnam-EU Free Trade Agreement, and by direct persuasion of other countries to start negotiations at the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law. Visible reasons for the change include concerns over the perception of a lack of transparency, coherence, and arbitrators’ partiality, all of which diminish the legitimacy of the multilateral investment court. Other reasons might be laid on the budgetary risks of more than 213 claims against EU countries. To address these legitimacy concerns, the EU wants to replace traditional party-appointed arbitrators with a two-tiered investment tribunal system comprised by a roster of members selected by the state parties on the treaty. This Essay argues that the creation of the multilateral investment court needs to follow democratic principles in order to be legitimate. History has shown us that the EU has abused its power in the past when implementing resolution systems. Foregoing negotiation, comment by member nations, and implementing a tribunal at its own behest has shown this. The EU multilateral investment court proposal has legitimacy deficiencies because the EU has relied on its power to impose its views so far, i.e. its proposal was not previously negotiated multilaterally amongst other member nations. It is thus possible that the appointment of the future judges to this court will likely be subject to the political constraints and veto that the International Court of Justice or World Trade Organization appointments suffer today. This could leave small economies at a disadvantage because they might be subject to permanent, politically biased judges. A superior solution would be to adopt better arbitrator disqualification rules, clear interpretation directives to avoid law creation, and stricter arbitrator qualifications.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:54 PST
  • Balancing Sustainability, the Right to Regulate, and the Need for Investor
           Protection: Lessons from the Trade Regime

    • Authors: Elizabeth Trujillo
      Abstract: Recent initiatives for investment reform demonstrated by the 2016 United Nations Conference on Trade and Development and 2018 World Investment Reports have raised key issues for sustainable development in the context of investment in natural resources and energy. Where there has been increasing convergence between trade and environmental norms as trade regimes confront domestic regulatory measures for environmental protection and climate change mitigation, similarly investment regimes also have had to address such domestic measures but with little progress towards normative convergence. At the same time, there’s an increasing skepticism for the traditional models of globalization of the 1990s and more recognition of the need for economic models that foster sustainability and local stability. This Article will analyze four primary areas in which investment law intersects with environmental and climate change policies. Drawing from lessons learned in the trade context, it will examine the following areas in which investment law will need to better address domestic policies: (1) regulation, especially those in the form of direct and indirect taxes; (2) subsidies; (3) labeling schemes; and (4) local content requirements. These will be discussed against the backdrop of today’s changing landscape regarding popular attitudes towards globalization and the right to regulate. The Article will conclude with a discussion of the challenges ahead for investment in natural resources and energy, especially in Latin America where some governments are changing the constitutional framework in which nature should be managed.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:47 PST
  • Greening Investor-State Dispute Settlement

    • Authors: Daniel B. Magraw et al.
      Abstract: Climate change poses serious threats to human society. Climate change is already affecting our environment and thus, many aspects of human and economic activity. Among the challenges ahead, governments will need to more actively adopt regulatory policies given the international obligations in this area, such as the Paris Agreement, as well as promote green private investment as a means toward unlocking sustainable growth. How can international investment law be adapted and modernized to respond to these challenges' In this Essay, we summarize a comprehensive set of innovations that could be included in International Investment Agreements to address international obligations regarding climate change. Our discussion, based on a Green Treaty Model, first stresses the role of balanced obligations for investors and host countries, and then focuses on dispute settlement. We conclude by explaining how the current process of reform under the auspices of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law can be used for a more ambitious transformation of international investment; a transformation in which investment treaties can act as catalysts for green foreign direct investment necessary to reverse the momentum for climate change already built into the atmosphere.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:39 PST
  • Investment Disputes Oltre lo Stato: On Global Administrative Law, and Fair
           and Equitable Treatment

    • Authors: Sebastián López Escarcena
      Abstract: Global Administrative Law is an academic project that attempts to describe the emergence of a regulatory space beyond the state and to prescribe solutions to the problems it diagnoses through certain normative principles like participation, transparency, reasoned decision-making, judicial review, accountability, proportionality, and legitimate expectations. In the case of investment treaty arbitration, the principles advanced by Global Administrative Law are akin to the constitutive elements of the fair and equitable treatment that international arbitral tribunals have identified in investor-state disputes. As classified by international law scholars, these constitutive elements of fair and equitable treatment include due process, arbitrariness, non-discrimination, vigilance, legitimate expectations, stability and predictability, transparency, good faith, and proportionality. Incidentally, some of these principles have found conventional support in state practice. This Essay answers the question of whether this dogmatic similarity is a mere coincidence or proof of the influence exerted by the tenets of Global Administrative Law over the way the fair and equitable treatment clause has been construed. For that purpose, it briefly explains Global Administrative Law, its approach to investment treaty arbitration, and the fair and equitable treatment standard of international investment law.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:31 PST
  • Investment Treaties, Offshore Finance, and the Resource Curse

    • Authors: Karl M.F. Lockhart
      Abstract: Questions of how best to understand offshore financial centers (“OFCs”)—countries that have low or zero tax rates, strong banking secrecy regulation, and easy-to-form legal entities—and what, if anything, the international community should do about them remain fixed on the agenda of national and international discourse. This Essay seeks to provide a new theoretical perspective on tax havens and applies this perspective to the cross-border legal regimes that govern international investment. This new analytical framework sees offshore financial centers as countries that are victims of the “resource curse,” as that term is described in economic development literature. Often physically small, isolated islands with scant natural resources, OFCs lack any true commodity to exchange in the global marketplace. As a result, OFCs have transformed their legal systems into a resource, “selling” their favorable laws to businesses and individuals in exchange for corporate registration costs and money management fees as a means of gaining revenue for the state and its inhabitants. Applying this framework to international investment law yields new insights into why countries enter into bilateral investment treaties and how the true social costs of international investment should be understood.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:24 PST
  • Property Rights as Human Rights in International Investment Arbitration: A
           Critical Approach

    • Authors: Enrique Boone Barrera
      Abstract: The treaty-based regime of investment protection is said to protect the property rights of foreign investors. Arbitral tribunals are usually tasked with settling investment disputes using principles of international law, some of which refer to the doctrine of protection of aliens. These features have led some commentators to compare the protection of foreign investment with the protection of property rights by human rights instruments and courts. This Essay provides a critical perspective on the relationship between these two systems. The Essay re-examines the widespread assumptions that underlie efforts to find parallels between human rights and foreign investment protection. The analysis reveals that even when investment tribunals protect property rights, they do so within the narrow confines of a monetary dispute. Substantive treaty provisions, as interpreted by arbitral tribunals, cannot be placed in the tradition of the protection of aliens, but rather in the efforts of developed countries to entrench the Hull formula. Furthermore, after examining the distinct approaches to the protection of property rights by arbitral tribunals and human rights courts, this Essay concludes that the narrow goals of international investment agreements are fundamentally different from those pursued by human rights instruments.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:16 PST
  • (Re)Calibration, Standard-Setting and the Shaping of Investment Law and

    • Authors: Eric De Brabandere
      Abstract: Calibrating or (re)calibrating investment law and arbitration—depending on whether the exercise takes place for the first or a subsequent time—is different from rebalancing investment law and arbitration. A balancing exercise denotes a situation in which different elements are equal or in the correct proportions to maintain a sort of equilibrium. This Essay argues that investment law and arbitration are not necessarily about creating a situation in which all “elements” are in balance and that (re)calibrating is an interesting starting point for a discussion about the contemporary regime of investment law and arbitration, and especially to explore, understand, or visualize the current and future developments in the field. The central questions in this Essay include determining what the standards are and who sets them. This Essay examines (re)calibration and looks at the process from the vantage point of the standards which are used for such (re)calibration and evaluates how the standards have evolved substantially over the years and how new treaties—in an exercise of (re)calibration—are in fact following or adapting to these new standards.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:10 PST
  • Introduction: Investment Law for the Twenty-First Century

    • Authors: Frank J. Garcia et al.
      PubDate: Wed, 21 Nov 2018 21:03:04 PST
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