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  Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1467 journals)
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    - CORPORATE LAW (89 journals)
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    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (188 journals)
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LAW (877 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 601 - 354 of 354 Journals sorted alphabetically
Rechtsidee     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Religion, State and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Revenue Law Journal     Open Access  
Review of Central and East European Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Review of European Administrative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Review of Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
Review of Litigation, The     Full-text available via subscription  
Review of Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Revista Acadêmica : Faculdade de Direito do Recife     Open Access  
Revista Arbitrada de Ciencias Jurídicas y Criminalísticas Iustitia Socialis     Open Access  
Revista Brasileira de Direito     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Catalana de Dret Privat     Open Access  
Revista catalana de dret públic     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista CESCO de Derecho de Consumo     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chilena de Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Chilena de Derecho del Trabajo y de la Seguridad Social     Open Access  
Revista Chilena de Derecho Privado     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Derecho y Tecnología     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Chilena de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Científica do Curso de Direito     Open Access  
Revista da Faculdade de Direito UFPR     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista da Faculdade Mineira de Direito     Open Access  
Revista de Bioética y Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Ciencias Jurídicas     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho (Coquimbo)     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho (Valparaiso)     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho de la Seguridad Social, Laborum     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista de Derecho de la UNED (RDUNED)     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho de la Unión Europea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Derecho Fiscal     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho Político     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho Privado     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho Privado     Open Access  
Revista de Derecho Público     Open Access  
Revista de Direito     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Agrário e Agroambiental     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Ambiental e Socioambientalismo     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Direito da Administração Pública     Open Access  
Revista de Direito da Faculdade Guanambi     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Sanitário     Open Access  
Revista de Direito Sociais e Políticas Públicas     Open Access  
Revista de Educación y Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios de la Justicia     Open Access  
Revista de Estudios Historico-Juridicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de Estudos Empíricos em Direito     Open Access  
Revista de Estudos Institucionais     Open Access  
Revista de Historia del Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Escuela de Medicina Legal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho     Open Access  
Revista de la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias Políticas     Open Access  
Revista de la Maestría en Derecho Procesal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Secretaría del Tribunal Permanente de Revisión     Open Access  
Revista de Llengua i Dret     Open Access  
Revista de Movimentos Sociais e Conflitos     Open Access  
Revista de Processo, Jurisdição e Efetividade da Justiça     Open Access  
Revista de Sociologia, Antropologia e Cultura Jurídica     Open Access  
Revista Derecho del Estado     Open Access  
Revista Diálogos do Direito     Open Access  
Revista Digital Constituição e Garantia de Direitos     Open Access  
Revista Digital de Derecho Administrativo     Open Access  
Revista Direito Ambiental e Sociedade     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Direito GV     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Direitos Emergentes na Sociedade Global     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Direitos, Trabalho e Política Social     Open Access  
Revista do Curso de Direito     Open Access  
Revista do Curso de Direito do Centro Universitário Brazcubas     Open Access  
Revista Electrónica Cordobesa de Derecho Internacional Público : RECorDIP     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica Direito e Política     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito - PUC Minas Serro     Open Access  
Revista Eletrônica do Curso de Direito da UFSM     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Española de Medicina Legal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Revista Estudios Jurídicos     Open Access  
Revista Estudios Socio-Jurídicos     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Eurolatinoamericana de Derecho Administrativo     Open Access  
Revista Historia y Justicia     Open Access  
Revista Icade. Revista de las Facultades de Derecho y Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Internacional de Derecho del Turismo     Open Access  
Revista IUS     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Jurídica da UFERSA     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica de Asturias     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica de la Universidad de León     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica do Cesuca     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica IUS Doctrina     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica Portucalense/Portucalense Law Journal     Open Access  
Revista Jurídica Universidad Autónoma de Madrid     Open Access  
Revista Latinoamericana de Derecho Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Latinoamericana de Derechos Humanos     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Revista Opinión Jurídica     Open Access  
Revista Pedagogía Universitaria y Didáctica del Derecho     Open Access  
Revista Persona y Derecho     Full-text available via subscription  
Revista Pesquisas Jurídicas     Open Access  
Revue générale de droit     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Revue internationale de droit pénal     Full-text available via subscription  
Revue Marocaine de Droit, d’Economie et de Gestion     Open Access  
Revue pro právo a technologie     Open Access  
Riau Law Journal     Open Access  
RUDN Journal of Law     Open Access  
Russian Law Journal     Open Access  
Russian Politics & Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
SA Mercantile Law Journal = SA Tydskrif vir Handelsreg     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Santa Clara Computer & High Technology Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Santa Clara Law Review     Open Access  
Science & Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 444)
ScienceRise : Juridical Science     Open Access  
Scientiam Juris     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Scientometrics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
SCRIPTed - A Journal of Law, Technology & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Seattle Journal for Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Seattle University Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Selçuk Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi / Selçuk Law Review     Open Access  
Seqüência : Estudos Jurídicos e Políticos     Open Access  
Seton Hall Circuit Review     Open Access  
Seton Hall Journal of Sports and Entertainment Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Seton Hall Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Singapore Academy of Law Annual Review of Singapore Cases     Full-text available via subscription  
Singapore Academy of Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription  
Singapore Journal of Legal Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Social & Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Social Security Reporter     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Società e diritti     Open Access  
Sociologia del diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Sociological Jurisprudence Journal     Open Access  
Soumatera Law Review     Open Access  
South African Crime Quarterly     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
South African Journal of Bioethics and Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
South African Journal of Environmental Law and Policy     Full-text available via subscription  
South African Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
South East European University Review (SEEU Review)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Southern African Public Law     Full-text available via subscription  
Southern Illinois University Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Sri Lanka Journal of Forensic Medicine, Science & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
St. John's Law Review     Open Access  
Stanford Law & Policy Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Stanford Law Review     Free   (Followers: 35)
Stanford Technology Law Review     Free   (Followers: 1)
Statute Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Statutes and Decisions : Laws USSR     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Studenckie Zeszyty Naukowe     Open Access  
Studia Canonica     Full-text available via subscription  
Studia Iuridica Lublinensia     Open Access  
Studia Iuridica Toruniensia     Open Access  
Studia z Prawa Wyznaniowego     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Social Justice     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Suffolk University Law Review     Free  
Suhuf     Open Access  
Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Dergisi     Open Access  
Supremasi Hukum : Jurnal Penelitian Hukum     Open Access  
Supreme Court Review, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Sustainable Development Law & Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Swiss Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Sydney Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Syiar Hukum     Open Access  
Tanjungpura Law Journal     Open Access  
Társadalomkutatás     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tax Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Te Mata Koi : Auckland University Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Teisė : Law     Open Access  
Temas Socio-Jurídicos     Open Access  
Texas Journal of Women and the Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Texas Law Review     Free   (Followers: 10)
Texas Review of Law & Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The American Lawyer     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
The Journal of Legislative Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
The Jurist : Studies in Church Law and Ministry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
The Modern American     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
The National Legal Eagle     Open Access  
THEMIS - Revista de Derecho     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Theoretical Criminology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
Theoretical Inquiries in Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Theory and Practice of Legislation     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Ticaret ve Fikri Mülkiyet Hukuku Dergisi     Open Access  
Tidsskrift for erstatningsrett, forsikringsrett og trygderett     Full-text available via subscription  
Tidsskrift for Rettsvitenskap     Full-text available via subscription  
Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis / Revue d'Histoire du Droit / The Legal History Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Tijdschrift voor Religie, Recht en Beleid     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Tilburg Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Toruńskie Studia Polsko-Włoskie     Open Access  
Touro Law Review     Open Access  
Transactions : The Tennessee Journal of Business Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Legal Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Transport Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Transportation Planning and Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Trusts & Trustees     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Tulane Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tulsa Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
UCL Journal of Law and Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
UCLA Entertainment Law Review     Open Access  
UCLA Law Review     Free   (Followers: 8)
UCLA Women's Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Udayana Journal of Law and Culture     Open Access  
UniSA Student Law Review     Open Access  
University of Baltimore Journal of Land and Development     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Transport Policy
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.51
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 16  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0967-070X
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3182 journals]
  • An early look at plug-in electric vehicle adoption in disadvantaged
           communities in California
    • Abstract: Publication date: June 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 78Author(s): Kathryn Canepa, Scott Hardman, Gil Tal Prior research on plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) adoption has revealed that early adopters tend to be wealthy consumers, this may mean that the benefits of PEVs are not being equitably distributed. Extensive research has shown that low-income and minority commutes are disproportionately impacted by environmental and transportation injustice. PEVs can contribute to importing air quality and could provide lower cost and more reliable transportation to low-income and minority communities if they are deployed there. This paper takes an early quantitative look at PEV adoption in disadvantaged communities (DACs), which are census tracts in California that suffer from a combination of economic barriers and environmental burden. We use six datasets to examine PEV market share, socioeconomic characteristics of PEV owners, and PEV charging infrastructure. Analysis confirms that adoption of both new and used PEVs in DACs occurs at very low rates - 5.7% and 8.7% of all PEV sales, respectively - that are disproportionate with the number of households that reside in these areas. Owners of new or used PEVs in DACs have slightly lower incomes than PEV owners in non-disadvantaged communities. However, as a group they have higher incomes, are higher educated, and fewer are home-renters than the DAC average, indicating that they are not representative of their surrounding community. Encouragingly, charging infrastructure is present in DAC census tracts, suggesting that further PEV adoption could be supported. Additionally, there are higher proportions of used PEVs in DACs than new PEVs, which may indicate potential for adoption of these lower-priced vehicles, however rates of adoption are still low. Despite the considerable benefits that PEVs could offer in DACs, there are still substantial barriers to PEV. Key barriers for policy-makers to continually address are the prohibitive price of the technology, lack of knowledge about or ease of accessing PEV incentives, and lack of access to public or private charging infrastructure located near multi-unit housing.
       
  • Lessons from port sector regulatory reforms in Denmark: An analysis of
           port governance and institutional structure outcomes
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 27 March 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Axel Merkel, Stefan Kirkegaard Sløk-MadsenThis paper studies the recent regulatory reform and current institutional structure of the Danish port sector. We document changes with regard to the structure of management, the financial strength and the market power of partially or fully municipally controlled ports in response to the Port Law passed in 1999 and most recently revised in 2012. This law enabled greater degrees of freedom for ports to engage in cargo handling operations while in some cases retaining advantageous public financing. During a period of overall slowdown in goods volumes, we document expansionary development of municipally controlled ports, and we argue that such a phenomenon is attributable to the institutional structure and rules set by the Danish Port Law. For a future legal framework to successfully aid the port sector in realizing its relevant goal of cost-efficiently producing goods handling services, the risk of opportunistic behaviour needs to be explicitly recognized and managed.
       
  • Future life course and mobility: A latent class analysis of young adults
           in Victoria, Australia
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Alexa Delbosc, Farhana Naznin Many studies have explored whether young adults are using cars less than previous generations. Where reductions in car-based mobility have occurred, they are often linked to delays in adult life stage transitions among the millennial generation. What is not yet known is whether young adults will revert entirely to the car-based mobility of previous generations when they ‘grow up’. This study is the first to measure the predicted future life course of young adults and link it to their travel behaviour. The aim of this study is to explore the diversity of life paths among young adults, drawing from a survey of 885 21-25 year olds in Victoria, Australia. Results found that young adults fell into one of five ‘prospective life course segments’ with distinct demographics and mobility patterns. Although no-one can predict the future, the study provides additional insights into the diversity of life and mobility pathways among Australian young adults.Graphical abstractImage 10693
       
  • A contingency view of the effects of sustainable shipping exploitation and
           exploration on business performance
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Kum Fai Yuen, Xueqin Wang, Yiik Diew Wong, Fei Ma Anchored to the resource-based view, this study identifies the types of sustainable shipping capabilities that can be pursued and developed by shipping companies to enhance their business performance. The paper also examines internal and external contextual factors that moderate the relationship between the identified shipping capabilities and business performance. Survey data were collected from 225 shipping companies with business offices in Singapore and analysed using structural equation modelling and a multiple-sample approach. The results show that both sustainable shipping exploitation and exploration capabilities have positive effects on business performance. Organisational slack and environmental uncertainty negatively moderate the relationship between sustainable exploitation capability and business performance but positively moderate the relationship between sustainable exploration capability and business performance. The results imply that sustainable shipping should be viewed as a dynamic capability rather than a set of practices, which connote stasis. In addition, management policies to develop sustainable exploitation or exploration capabilities should depend on the internal and external environment of shipping companies. This paper introduces an alternative theoretical lens through which to manage and improve the allocation of organisational resources to enhance corporate sustainability and business performance of shipping companies.
       
  • Can carsharing services be profitable' A critical review of
           established and developing business models
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Marion Lagadic, Alia Verloes, Nicolas Louvet
       
  • Port governance revisited: How to govern and for what purpose'
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Qiang Zhang, Shiyuan Zheng, Harry Geerlings, Abdel El Makhloufi This review paper investigates and presents generalized answers to the two basic questions of port governance, namely how to govern and for what purpose. The study is based on a total sample of 118 studies on port governance. The results from the analysis of these studies show that port devolution and port re-centralization are the main governance tools at the institutional level. At the strategical level, the main governance tools are port co-opetition, port regionalization, port integration, stakeholder management strategy, and corporate governance. While at the managerial level, the main governance tools are port pricing, port concession, port user/customer relationship management, monitoring and measuring, regulatory control, port security management, and information and communication technologies. The institutional governance tools are generally used by governmental organizations to set the fundamental regulative rules for the port governance system, while strategical tools are applied by port organizations in gaining competitive advantages and increasing market share in the long term. Managerial tools are related to the port business operations and management. Furthermore, The study clearly shows that the main objective of port governance is the improvement of port efficiency and port effectiveness. However, the choice of efficiency-oriented or effectiveness-oriented configuration is largely determined by the port organization's external operating environment, strategies and structures.
       
  • Utilizing multi-stage behavior change theory to model the process of bike
           share adoption
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Alec Biehl, Alireza Ermagun, Amanda Stathopoulos This paper studies bike share adoption decisions as a dynamic change process from early contemplation to consolidated user status. This runs counter to the typical representation of mode adoption decisions as an instantaneous shift from pre to post usage. A two-level nested logit model that draws from the stage-of-change framework posited by the Transtheoretical Model is developed to study the adoption process. Using survey data collected from an online U.S. sample (n = 910), the model illustrates how personal, psychosocial, and community-oriented factors influence the probability of transitioning between different levels of readiness to participate in a bike share scheme. The findings suggest that encouraging forward movement in the contemplation-use ladder requires tailored, stage-specific interventions that are likely be overlooked if instead a one-size-fits-all psychological theory is applied to investigate travel behavior. In particular, the intermediate stages encapsulate more flexible (i.e. less habitual) orientation among respondents. Among the explanatory variables, the pronounced elasticities for active travel identity formation and norm integration are especially significant for crafting policies that influence bike share membership decisions. This paper adds to the nascent literature on the behavioral foundations of shared mobility adoption. The findings are translated to practical interventions, from operations to design and community-initiatives to guide practitioners seeking to promote bike share. The stage-based adoption representation helps to align interventions across the spectrum of user readiness to translate intention into behavior.
       
  • South Korean consumers’ preferences for eco-friendly gasoline sedans:
           Results from a choice experiment survey
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): Ga-Eun Kim, Ju-Hee Kim, Seung-Hoon Yoo The South Korean government is considering eco-friendly gasoline sedans with 2,000 cc engine as a promising future form of transportation and is tightening regulations on current gasoline sedans to reduce air pollutant emissions. This article attempts to look into consumers' preferences for the attributes of an eco-friendly gasoline sedan with 2,000 cc engine compared to a conventional gasoline sedan with 2,000 cc engine. The three attributes for a gasoline sedan chosen in this study are: decrease in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, abatement in particulate matter emissions, and improvement of fuel efficiency. The potential consumers’ trade-offs between each of the attributes and purchasing price for it were evaluated in a choice experiment (CE) survey of 1,000 people during August 2018. The CE data were examined by a Bayesian approach to the mixed logit model. The marginal values for a 1 point of percentage decrease in GHG emissions, a 1 point of percentage abatement in particulate matter emissions, and a 1 km/L improvement of fuel efficiency are computed to be KRW 257 thousands (USD 229), KRW 340 thousands (USD 303), and KRW 491 thousands (USD 438), respectively. These results can be useful for policy-making and decision-making regarding eco-friendly gasoline sedans. For example, they can provide information on how much value potential consumers place on a new eco-friendly gasoline sedan.
       
  • Forecasting passenger movement for Brazilian airports network based on the
           segregation of primary and secondary demand applied to Brazilian civil
           aviation policies planning
    • Abstract: Publication date: May 2019Source: Transport Policy, Volume 77Author(s): R.O. de Paula, L.R. Silva, M.L. Vilela, R.O.M. Cruz The paper describes a model developed in the Brazilian National Secretariat of Civil Aviation for predicting the movement of passengers by commercial flights at airports, consolidating two types of demand, a primary, captive demand, that exclusively utilizes the airport of the respective Airport Zone (ZA), as long as it supplies flights. To that primary demand, we add a secondary demand, which is residual and more volatile, depending on the distance from the airport with commercial flights. Four examples are presented showing the results of the model in relation to the competition between airports and catchment areas.
       
  • Competition of airline and high-speed rail in terms of price and
           frequency: empirical study from China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Rui Zhang, Daniel Johnson, Weiming Zhao, Chris Nash High-speed rail (HSR) is developing at an unprecedented speed in China, however its impact on the air market is under-investigated. In order to fully assess strategic response behaviour, two aspects of competition should be considered: fares and frequency. We present the first ex-post analysis of HSR’s influence on both air pricing and frequencies in China using a panel dataset of 30 different routes. In modelling frequency we use a novel application of Instrumental Variables to address the potential bias arising from the co-dependency between modal frequencies. Our results indicate that the presence of inter-modal competition can induce air to reduce fares and frequencies greatly: air fares are 0.397 CNY/km (34%) lower and air frequencies are 60.2% less on the routes with HSR. Where competition from HSR exists, air fares and frequencies are found to be higher on the routes with lower HSR frequencies and lower air travel times relative to those of HSR. We find that the inter-temporal price discrimination (IPD) of air fares can also be influenced by HSR competition: the J-curve of air prices reaches a minimum value earlier, ie more days ahead of departure, on the routes with HSR services. Air fares’ variation by distance is also influenced by HSR competition: fares per kilometre reach their minimum at longer distances (around 1500km) on the routes with HSR services.
       
  • The role of the port industry in China’s national economy: An
           input–output analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Yixuan Wang, Nuo Wang Over the past 30 years, China’s port industry has developed by leaps and bounds. According to input–output (I–O) analysis, this study considers the port industry as exogenous and assesses its economic impacts. Specifically, the industry linkage effect, the production-inducing effect, the sectoral supply shortage effect, and the employment-inducing effect are presented over the period 1987–2012. These models are effective to quantify the direct and indirect contribution of China’s port industry and to analyse the ports’ evolution over time. Finally, policy applications within China’s port industry of input–output analysis are outlined.
       
  • Shipping and port marketing: Policy and strategy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Francesco Parola, Athanasios A. Pallis, Dong-Wook Song
       
  • Freight transport models: Ready to support transport policy of the
           future'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Hilde Meersman, Eddy Van de Voorde The traditional model-based approach is no longer capable of grasping developments in freight transport within an ever more rapidly changing world. Most models that have been used in the past to explain and predict the demand for freight transport did not devote sufficient consideration to structural, organisational and behavioural changes. Several important global developments that are taking place could have a structural effect on freight transport, with a number of consequences for modelling. This paper addresses several global developments in greater depth, along with their impact on freight transport. This is followed by a discussion of the future of freight models. It is unclear which approach would be appropriate for freight transport under these conditions. This is a clear problem that is linked to a research agenda.
       
  • Innovative solutions for shipping market turmoil: The search for
           profitability, sustainability and resilience
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Dong Yang, Liping Jiang, Theo Notteboom
       
  • Evaluating the key factors of green port policies in Taiwan through
           quantitative and qualitative approaches
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Po-Hsing Tseng, Nick Pilcher This paper presents a holistic picture of the factors that affect green port policies through the use of both quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitatively, fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP) method with 25 questionnaires was used to identify key factors. Questionnaire participants included 13 ocean carriers and 12 governmental officials, all of whom were senior port experts with a minimum of 10 years working experience. Qualitatively, in-depth interviews based on grounded theory with ocean carriers (5) and governmental officials (4) in three ports were conducted in Taiwan. The quantitative FAHP analysis found the key factors to be environmental policy and regulation, followed by economic leverage, human and technical leverage. The qualitative interviews contextualise and enhance these FAHP results by illustrating the complexities and subtleties of these key factors for different stakeholders. Theoretical and practical implications are considered and suggestions are made for future policy approaches and to help develop green port approaches.
       
  • Value co-creation in maritime logistics networks: A service triad
           perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ceren Altuntaş Vural, Aysu Göçer, Árni Halldórsson Maritime logistics networks face several challenges in the supply chains they serve. Tackling those challenges requires a perspective of treating value as a co-creation through interactions amongst the key actors in the maritime logistics sector. By adopting a triadic approach, this paper explores how maritime logistics value is co-created in the service triad composed of the shipper, the logistics service provider (LSP), and the carrier (that is, the shipping line). Based on the service-dominant logic, this study identifies a number of operant resources and investigates various configurations of operant resources amongst these three players in the maritime logistics service triad. The results provide guidance for policymakers as well as firm-level decision-makers who must take an integrative approach to capture the multi-actor nature of the phenomenon. The findings may help managers understand how operationalization of their policies and decisions may affect both the type of operant resources used for value creation as well as their interdependence. Finally, studying maritime logistics value with a network approach offers opportunities for research on value and interaction between supply and transport service networks.
       
  • Learning from Hanjin Shipping’s failure: A holistic interpretation
           on its causes and reasons
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Dong-Wook Song, Young-Joon Seo, Dong-Wook Kwak Recent years have observed that the world shipping industry is reflected by the developments of unprecedented dynamism, instability and uncertainty. These developments in the industry have led its stakeholders to take such a counter-balancing measure as merges and acquisitions, and more aggressive and bigger scaled alliance establishment. One of the most striking incidents happened in the shipping industry was the bankruptcy of Hanjin Shipping. More frightful is the fact that the process and speed of Hanjin's collapse was remarkably brief and short given the size and scale of the company. The Hanjin case is unique in a sense that the company had been grown in line with its nation's economic development, which was (and still is) made by the export-oriented economic policy: the late shipping company had been evolved as having moved the nation's wealth. This paper aims (i) to holistically examine what and why it was happened as it was, by reviewing available literature as a way to synthesise, (ii) to interpret intrinsic and extrinsic causes, and internal and external reasons by establishing an interpretative structural model, and (iii) to discuss provisional findings as a way to offer an implication to transport policy in general and shipping policy in particular. In doing so, this paper attempts to provide industrial stakeholders with an insight from the failure as a lesson to be learned.
       
  • Mediating effects of service recovery on liner shipping users
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Shih-Liang Chao, Ru-Yan Lin, Yu-Han Sun Offering appropriate service recovery is important for service providers to retain their existing customers. Given that service failures are both common and inevitable when using liner shipping services, in this study, a model was established by which to examine the impact of service recovery on customer loyalty. An empirical questionnaire survey was conducted, and structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to test the hypotheses proposed in this study. The results showed there to be a significant positive impact from service recovery on the customer loyalty of liner shipping users, which was found to be mediated via customer satisfaction and satisfaction after recovery.
       
  • Land use and transportation planning in a diverse world
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 December 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Lingqian Hu, Hiroyuki Iseki
       
  • Port marketing from a multidisciplinary perspective: A systematic
           literature review and lexicometric analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 5 December 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Tibor Mandják, Alexandre Lavissière, Julian Hofmann, Yann Bouchery, Mary Catherine Lavissière, Olivier Faury, Romain Sohier This paper aims at a systematic analysis of previous academic research on port marketing. First, we posit that port marketing is multidisciplinary by essence, and we analyze whether our assumption is reflected in the academic literature. Second, this paper aims at identifying the theoretical foundations of port marketing in the academic literature. With these two objectives in mind, we first conduct a large systematic literature review, and we identify 369 relevant academic publications over the last 40 years. Second, we implement an automated content analysis – a lexicometric analysis – on the 369 identified articles dealing with port- and marketing-related topics to analyze whether a conceptual field linking port and marketing appears in the literature.Despite the large existing academic research dealing with port marketing, our results do not confirm the expected multidisciplinary embodiment of port marketing (e.g., involving combined work done by researchers from both (per se) independent fields). Hence, considering (theoretical) concepts from the domain of marketing management research might leverage further research on the value creation done by ports.Moreover, our lexicometric analysis highlights the lack of a clear theoretical foundation of port marketing as a holistic concept. We conclude in proposing a pathway towards such a framework and outline specific topics for further research to foster such a holistic port marketing concept.
       
  • The determinants of CO2 emissions of air transport passenger traffic: An
           analysis of Lombardy (Italy)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 November 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Pak Lam Lo, Gianmaria Martini, Flavio Porta, Davide Scotti We study the determinants of aviation CO2 emissions by designing an econometric model applied to a panel data set covering all flights departing from Lombardy, Italy over the 1997–2011 period. We consider two dimensions of CO2 emissions: total and per available seat kilometer. The latter is a measure of emission efficiency. We focus on different categories of determinants: technical progress; aircraft and network carrier management; policy/business decisions that may not be oriented to limiting CO2, but may indirectly affect it by offsetting projected outcomes of policies adopted to reduce emissions (e.g., the EU Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) or the ICAO Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation); and others. We find that although aircraft size increases total emissions, it reduces emissions per available seat kilometers (ASK), while the route distance increases total emissions and decreases emissions per ASK, implying that CO2 is less of a problem for long-haul connections. Technical progress decreases CO2 emissions per ASK with an estimated elasticity equal to −0.06%. Last, liberalization in the EU market has generated the development of low-cost carriers, which in turn have lowered CO2 emission per ASK, that is, liberalization in Europe has brought the collateral effect of reducing the CO2 externality per passenger.
       
  • Investigating effectiveness of on-street parking pricing schemes in urban
           areas: An empirical study in Rome
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 November 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Cristiana Piccioni, Marco Valtorta, Antonio Musso Management of on-street parking is a long-standing issue, impacting on livability of urban environments, and against which there is not a common solving approach. According to an extensive literature review, the price elasticity of parking demand widely ranges from −0.14 to −1.02. Besides, the existing gap between the theoretical background and parking practices implemented by cities does not allow framing local experiences into a systemic view. The above confirms the multifaceted and complex nature of such topic. This paper summarizes the findings of a study aimed at investigating whether and to what extent specific parkers' behaviors can affect the success of a parking pricing strategy. Starting from the analysis of possible attitudes of parking users (systematic and occasional) in four high-attractive potential districts of the city of Rome, the key variables affecting their decision making process were identified. According to a framing of desired parkers' behaviors as well as possible side effects deriving from unwanted habits, the statistical relationship between the key variables and such users' attitudes was also examined. The effectiveness of selected parking pricing schemes was finally assessed, also drawing up a sort of parking user's taxonomy. In doing so, it is intended to provide a further contribution fueling the debate of on-street parking management and a support for local Authorities coping with pricing issues.
       
  • Supply-side network effects on mobile-source emissions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 October 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Rohan Shah, N. Nezamuddin, Michael W. Levin Mobile-source emissions are pivotal in quantifying the negative externalities of surface transportation, such as environmental pollution and climate-change, and in evaluating low-carbon traffic strategies. In such assessments, it is important to avoid prospective policy shortcomings. Hence, a wide range of sensitivities of mobile-source emissions must be understood, particularly from a traffic modeling standpoint. This paper takes a step in that direction and explores the effects of certain supply-side network attributes on emissions. Three key elements are investigated: level-of-detail of traffic activity, link speeds in the network, and link lengths. Both aggregated (hourly) and fine-grained (per-second) traffic activities are modeled using a simulation-based dynamic traffic assignment tool. Emissions are modeled using US Environmental Protection Agency's Motor Vehicle Emissions Simulator (MOVES). System-wide estimates of five criteria pollutants (CO, NO2, PM10, PM2.5, and SO2) and greenhouse-gases (CO2) are developed for a weekday morning peak-hour modeling period. Numerical experiments on a rapidly growing county in Central Texas, US, indicate that emission estimates are sensitive to all the aforementioned supply-side variables. Most notably, median network-wide estimates are found to increase in magnitude with aggregation of traffic activity and speeds. Effects of link lengths appear to be more prominent in high-speed traffic corridors, such as restricted-access highways, than low-speed unrestricted-access arterials. The latter, however, witness more traffic dynamics and subsequently contribute more to deviation in emission estimates across levels-of-detail. The findings highlight the need to be mindful of such physical sensitivities of emissions while enacting policy decisions, which frequently rely on network-based regional emissions inventories.
       
  • Congestion pricing policies: Design and assessment for the city of Rome,
           Italy
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 October 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ernesto Cipriani, Livia Mannini, Barbara Montemarani, Marialisa Nigro, Marco Petrelli Congestion pricing is classified as a transportation demand management measure adopted to reduce impacts modern cities are suffering in terms of traffic congestion, road accidents and air and noise pollution. Such a measure allows linking road transport externalities directly to travelers producing them. The definition of proper tolling schemes enables this measure to act on demand short-term choices, forcing travellers to shift towards low impact road itineries (route diversion) and sustainable transport systems (modal diversion).This paper presents key findings in the design of pricing policies to a specific real size and complex case (city of Rome, Italy) addressing overall transport performances (on the multimodal network) and impacts (affecting the entire community), in a demand elastic context. Main contribution derives from equity matters dealt with in the impact assessment of pricing policies, so filling a gap not extensively studied in this field. Specifically, different tolling schemes have been defined from a quantitative (toll level) and spatial (city zones where pricing is implemented) viewpoint in order to guarantee equity aspects in the application of the measure: affected road users are limited to those travelling in city zones where the mass public transport network (metro and rail) is available; besides, the toll amount is related to the level of accessibility to public transport (whether only in origin/destination of the trip or in both).Results, evaluated adopting a simulation-based approach, are consistent with those obtained in other real world cases, and highlight that the adoption of a proper pricing policy in the city of Rome guarantees a demand diversion towards sustainable transport modes up to 25% for those zones directly involved by the pricing implementation; promising benefits have been observed even in a wider area, entire Province of Rome, not directly affected by the measure, in terms of reduction both of road users (up to 6%) and congestion costs (about 2%).
       
  • Chinese third-party shipping internet platforms: Thriving and surviving in
           a two-sided market (2013–2016)
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 October 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Yang Chen, Qiang Zhang, Shun Chen, Zheng Wan How can cargo owners be persuaded to switch their traditional offline business practices to a third-party online shipping platform' To address this question, we selected 10 representative third-party shipping Internet platforms in China and analyzed them based on grounded theory. In-depth interviews that lasted an average of 2.5 h were conducted with each company. After applying open coding and axial coding to interview transcripts that included more than 110,000 words (in Chinese), we propose three industrial characteristics that may hinder the development of Chinese third-party shipping Internet platforms. The two most popular initiating strategies adopted to address these issues are "disintermediation" and "service upgrading.” Our theoretical framework suggests that each initiating strategy should include three interconnected issues that can ensure a platform's success: value proposition, entry mode and competitive advantage. The final sections of our study describe our contributions to theoretical development and implications for practitioners.
       
  • Innovative solutions for enhancing customer value in liner shipping
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 12 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Jasmine Siu Lee Lam, Xiunian Zhang In liner shipping, business conditions have become tougher in recent years in an already very competitive industry. Retaining customers and trying to attract new customers are crucial for liner companies’ survival. Thus, it is vital for liner companies to deliver superior customer value with limited resources. This study aims to introduce 7 innovative solutions as design requirements (DRs) and examine to what extent these 7 solutions facilitate to enhance 5 proposed customer values (CVs) in liner shipping. CVs and DRs are identified based on literature analysis and then validated by interviewing academic and industry professionals. A case study of K Line provides insight of the relationship between the CVs and DRs. The Fuzzy QFD approach is deployed to analyze the relative importance of each DR. The results reveal that “Use of Eco Ship and Eco Container Technology”, “Big Data Solution for Ship Information Management” and “Automation and Digitalization of System” are the three most effective innovative solutions for enhancing customer value in liner shipping.
       
  • Spatial distribution of high-rise buildings and its relationship to public
           transit development in Shanghai
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): ChengHe Guan The relationship between dense urban development, often represented by high-rise buildings, and its location vis-à-vis metro stations reflects the connection between transportation infrastructure and land use intensity. Existing literature on high-rise buildings has focused either on developed countries or on cities where urban and public transit developments have occurred in an uncoordinated manner. This paper examines the following questions: What is the spatial proximity and spatial correlation between high-rise buildings and metro stations in different stages of development in various parts of the city' What were some of the factors that resulted in the observed patterns' The results suggest that buildings constructed after 2000 and buildings within the urban core/Shanghai Proper districts had a greater spatial proximity to the metro stations. However, the spatial correlation, measured by the number of high-rise buildings within a 500-m buffer from the nearest metro stations and the time-distance to these stations, is stronger in the outer districts than in the urban core. These differences can be accounted for by Shanghai's stages of urban development, the existence of metro infrastructure when high-rise development was undertaken, and the city's land use policies. This case study sheds light on the relationship between high-density developments and metro systems in other large cities in China and other developing countries where rapid urban development coincides with the establishment of a comprehensive public transit system.
       
  • The highway resilience and vulnerability in Taiwan
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Cheng-Hsien Hsieh, Cheng-Min Feng Owing to extreme climatic events caused by global environmental changes, the frequency and magnitude of natural hazards in Taiwan have increased in recent years, leading to deaths, injuries, and substantial damages to properties. Disruptions to critical infrastructures have impaired the ability to ensure sustainable daily operations and have caused further failures in other systems. Along with resource allocation and pre-evacuation, highway networks profoundly impact disaster response and recovery, particularly emergency disaster logistics and rescues. This study reviews the highway vulnerability assessments in Taiwan and examines the resilience of highway networks in regard to failures from the perspectives of interdependency. Analytical results demonstrate that the accessibility of emergency medical facilities plays an essential role in highway resilience in Taiwan. Moreover, the connectivity is critical for metropolitan road network resilience, whereas remote highway resilience is associated with the exposures with insufficient self-protection capacities. The proposed method can assist planners in understanding the assessment tools for highway resilience and help decision makers prioritise their adaptation strategies to improve serviceability of the road network during hazardous conditions.
       
  • Improving taxi-out operations at city airports to reduce CO2
           emissions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Maria Nadia Postorino, Luca Mantecchini, Filippo Paganelli City airports cause many environmental concerns on population living in their neighbourhood and several actions are often imposed to airport operators and other involved stakeholders in order to reduce impacts and improve the life quality of neighbouring inhabitants. While some solutions have been widely studied – e.g., green surface accessibility – some others, such as taxi-out procedures, have received less attention. However, taxi-out procedures, which are part of the Landing and Take-Off (LTO) cycle, generate a remarkable amount of the whole airport environmental impact, especially carbon emissions. The goal of this paper is to propose an element-by-element approach that could help stakeholders to adopt targeted solutions. Particularly, the airport activity contributing to the airport carbon impact is split into elementary segments in order to compute the environmental effects produced by each elementary source of pollution. The advantage of this approach is the identification of targeted actions on specific segments, which generates more positive effects for the several involved stakeholders. While the study focuses on taxi-out procedures, the proposed approach is general and can be applied widely to simulate other airport activities that contribute to the airport carbon impacts.
       
  • Earthquake risk and inter-temporal fairness: An economic assessment of the
           national land-use structure
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Masanobu Kii, Kenji Doi Population concentration in metropolitan areas is recognized not only as a factor in earthquake disaster risk, but also as a factor in economic efficiency. In other words, with regard to the geographic concentration of urban functions, there is a trade-off between a reduction in earthquake disaster risk and increased economic efficiency. This suggests that we need a coherent assessment method to enable the development of a better national land-use structure incorporating inter-temporal fairness in the context of earthquake disaster risk.In this study, the impact of the national land-use structure on social welfare is assessed while considering earthquake risk and inter-temporal fairness. The results suggest that a decentralized national land-use structure cannot be justified under the risk-neutral and utilitarian welfare function, but can be justified using a welfare function incorporating inter-temporal fairness.
       
  • The impact of distance, national transportation systems and logistics
           performance on FDI and international trade patterns: Results from Asian
           global value chains
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 September 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Tilo F. Halaszovich, Aseem Kinra With almost 30 per cent of the global foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows channeled to Asia the region is world leading in attracting FDI. Yet, on a sub-regional level South Asia is the weakest region among all Asian sub-regions. This gives raise to the question what separates South Asian countries from their more successful East and South East neighbouring countries.The general question why certain countries manage to attract FDI while others fail has been frequently addressed in literature. Moreover, research in logistics and transportation claims on a host of determinants that explains the location considerations of MNEs based on host country logistic performance. By implementing these determinants into more traditional FDI and trade models our objective is to shed more light on the importance of the individual aspects of national transportation systems on the FDI and trade patterns in the Asian region. Moreover, we provide theoretical arguments and empirical evidence that national transportation systems moderate the effects of the different dimensions of (between-) country distance on international trade and FDI performance.Our findings show that the elements of national transportation systems positively influence both trade and FDI. Additionally, more developed national transportation systems are able to overcome the costs of distance to some degree. We also find support for the notion that the nature of the costs of geographic distance (e.g. transportation costs) differ between trade and FDI. While the former is related to international transportation and port infrastructure, the latter is based on within-country transportation and is moderated by land-based transportation infrastructure.
       
  • Locating charging stations for electric vehicles
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 9 August 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Zhuo Sun, Wei Gao, Bin Li, Longlong Wang The insufficient charging infrastructure greatly obstructs the development of the electric vehicle(EV) industry. How to efficiently deploy charging stations in a city becomes an urgent problem for the local government. Previous refueling location models are not suitable for fulfilling the EVs' charging demand. This paper proposes a location model for charging stations based on the characteristics of travel behaviors of urban residents. The model consists of two parts: one for short distance commuters which utilize slow charging (SC) facilities, and the other for long distance travelers which utilize fast recharging (FR) facilities. It aims to harness limited resource to meet as much as possible charging demand for both parking vehicles and vehicles on long journeys. A typical city of China is used as an example to demonstrate the implementation and results of the model. We employed sensitive analyses to search for specific factors having strong impact on the number and location of charging stations. It is suggested that travel distance and locating capacity will greatly affect the final result.
       
  • Development of a multi-objective decision-making method to evaluate
           correlated decarbonization measures under uncertainty – The example of
           international shipping
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 2 August 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Hongtao Hu, Jun Yuan, Victor Nian Shipping is a major contributor to total global CO2 emissions. In recent years, various operational and technical measures have been proposed to decarbonize the shipping sector. The cost-effectiveness of these mitigation measures is usually evaluated on an individual basis. However, the cost-effectiveness of individual measures could be influenced by the presence of other measures (when selected simultaneously) used to meet the decarbonization targets. As such, it is important to take into consideration such interdependencies when ranking and selecting the mitigation measures. In response to this problem, we propose a method to systematically rank and select the mitigation measures whose cost and carbon abatement potentials depend on the presence of one another. The proposed method is also capable of accounting for uncertain input factors, such as implementation costs and fuel costs. Through a case study considering a set of 14 measures, findings from our study demonstrate the importance of considering the interdependencies of these mitigation measures. We further conduct a sensitivity analysis, in order to ascertain the influence of the relevant input parameters.
       
  • Minimization of urban freight distribution lifecycle CO2e emissions:
           Results from an optimization model and a real-world case study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 July 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Miguel Figliozzi, Jesus Saenz, Javier Faulin This research models urban freight distribution services lifecycle CO2e emissions. A lifecycle emissions minimization model for the fleet size and composition problem is presented and applied to a real-world case study. The model explicitly incorporates parking and idling emissions which are significant in multi-stop urban distribution routes. Lifecycle emission elasticities as well as the impact of logistics constraints such as route duration and vehicle cargo capacity are estimated and analyzed. Policy implications and tradeoffs between electric tricycles and conventional diesel vans are discussed.
       
  • The impacts of rail transit on future urban land use development: A case
           study in Wuhan, China
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Liyuan Zhao, Le Shen In urban development, the integration of an Urban Rail Transit System (URT) and land use is vital for transit-oriented, low carbon, and sustainable cities. Understanding how URTs shape urban land use patterns is important to make proactive planning and achieve the integrated development. This study proposes a consolidated multinomial logit (MNL) and land use allocation model to quantify the impacts of URTs on urban land use change, and forecasts future land maps taking such influence into consideration. The newly built transit rail lines in Wuhan metropolitan area, China are selected as the case study. The parcel-based land use data for years 2000 and 2010 are utilized to analyze the actual change of land floor/building area in three rail transit served areas: existing-served, proposed-served, and non-served. The MNL models are employed to verify how and to what extent URTs affect the change of land use, including both land cover and density. At a grid cell level (50 m × 50  m), the MNL models are calibrated. To maximize the land suitability from the calibrated MNL models, a network-flow based land allocation model is used to generate future land use maps. Model validation shows high predictive ability (92.1%) for simulating land use change from year 2000–2010. The results indicate that the model is effective in quantifying the impacts of URTs and is able to reflect them in simulating land use change. The future land use maps in 2020 are produced to provide an important reference for urban planners to intuitively visualize the future land development under the impacts of the proposed URTs. Most importantly, the generalized model framework could be applied to other cities to evaluate the impacts of URTs on land development and visualize future land maps to make proactive spatial planning interventions for sustainable urban development.
       
  • Multi-level urban form and commuting mode share in rail station areas
           across the United States; a seemingly unrelated regression approach
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 May 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Arefeh Nasri, Lei Zhang Transit-friendly development has recently become a popular strategy to increase transit mode share in the United States. Many policies and programs have been proposed and implemented across the country to increase residential and job densities, walkability, and mixed-use development around major transit stations in order to encourage transit ridership. Using data from all rail transit stations across the United States, this paper presents an analysis of commute mode share for people who live within walking distance to rail transit with regard to the urban form at both neighborhood and regional levels. This study provides additional evidence to better understand how transit accessibility and urban design jointly aim to encourage transit use and reduce driving in rail stations areas across the U.S. and thus cope with ever-growing traffic congestion in urban areas. It is one of the first analyses to examine the relationships between urban form measured at both local/neighborhood and metropolitan levels and the commuting mode share across major transit station areas nationwide. It utilizes a Seemingly Unrelated Regression modeling method (SUR) -which is based on generalized least squares (GLS)- and estimates three primary modes of auto, transit, and walk/bike.Findings suggest that urban form at both station area (local effect) and at the whole metropolitan area (regional effect) influences commuting patterns. Factors such as population and employment densities, walkability, and transit accessibility at both local and regional levels are significantly associated with commute mode share. Job accessibility via transit in the entire region (measured by the number of jobs located within 45 min from a transit stop) is another important factor encouraging transit ridership for every-day commuting trips.
       
  • Examining the effect of the Hiawatha LRT on auto use in the Twin Cities
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 May 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Xinyu Jason Cao Many studies have investigated the impact of rail transit on transit use. However, few have focused on auto use. This study explores the effect of the Hiawatha LRT in Minneapolis on vehicle miles driven (VMD). Negative binomial models show that Hiawatha residents drive shorter distance than those in urban and suburban control corridors, after demographics and neighborhood characteristics are controlled for. The LRT can reduce an urban resident's VMD by about 20%, all else equal. Once attitudes are included in the model, however, the differences become insignificant. Demographics and attitudes altogether are more important in influencing auto use than the built environment. Overall, the LRT reduces driving because it enables new housing development and allows those valuing transit to better match their attitudes.
       
  • Towards sustainable urban transport in Singapore: Policy instruments and
           mobility trends
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Mi Diao In this study, we review a series of policy instruments for sustainable transport in Singapore, a city-state with significant land constraints and rapid population and economic growth. We analyze three pillars of Singapore's approach to sustainable transport: reducing car dependency, promoting public transport, and integrated land use and transport planning. We summarize three directions guiding the evolution of transport policies in Singapore: smartness, inclusiveness, and greenness. Drawing on official annual transport statistics, we evaluate the effect of transport policies on mobility patterns of Singapore residents. We find that the policy package of the government has successfully constrained car dependency, promoted public transit use, mitigated road congestion, and maintained affordable transit fares in Singapore. The research findings have significant policy implications for Singapore to meet its mobility needs in the future, and for other cities to develop their own strategies for sustainable transport, especially for high-density, rapid expanding Asian cities.
       
  • Company performance and environmental efficiency: A case study for
           shipping enterprises
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 May 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Xiaoxing Gong, Xiaofan Wu, Meifeng Luo Traditional performance evaluation seldom considers the side-effects of a production process—the negative impact of pollution. Even when taking this into consideration, a high ranking is not necessarily equivalent to greater environmental efficiency, as the latter is based on outputs per environmental resource used. This may create anomalies in a company's environmental performance evaluation, as well as in its setting of environmental management standards. This study illustrates the problem by evaluating the economic and cargo efficiencies of shipping companies both with and without considering the negative impact of emissions, and compares this with their environmental efficiencies. The efficiency measures with and without adjusting for the negative environmental impacts are found to be similar, which are different to the environmental efficiency. The container shipping sector has greater economic efficiency, while bulk shipping has greater cargo efficiency. The similarities and inconsistencies among these three measures are highlighted, with possible explanations as to the performance of individual companies. Implications are provided for public policy makers to assist in reducing emissions from shipping, as well as marketing strategies for shipping companies and strategies for shipping investors.
       
  • Road intersections ranking for road safety improvement: Comparative
           analysis of multi-criteria decision making methods
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 3 May 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Gianfranco Fancello, Michele Carta, Paolo Fadda The aim of this paper is to propose a methodology for identifying the most critical road sections in urban networks in terms of road safety. This approach is useful for the managers of the road network when they need to allocate limited financial resources to several critical sections. Since the resources are not always sufficient to solve all road safety issues, they require a methodology that is able to rank the critical sections. Road safety depends on the interaction of several factors so this methodology has to be based on a multicriteria approach. In earlier articles, the authors of this paper first adopted Electre III and later Concordance Analysis as multicriteria methods for ranking critical points in an urban road network. Both methods have some critical elements, associated with threshold choice (Electre III) and ranking procedure (Concordance Analysis). In order to improve the methodology, the authors have selected two further multicriteria methods (Vikor and Topsis), for comparison with the Concordance Analysis and for evaluating which performed best. In order to identify critical sections in a road network, a suitable set of indicators is defined, taking into account geometric and traffic volume criteria. The multicriteria methods are applied to a real case for ranking, from the worst safety conditions to the best, the most critical road intersections within the urban road network, on the basis of eight criteria. The results of all three methods considered are compared and a sensitivity analysis is performed to test the stability of the results. The results show that the Topsis method performs best in determining a complete ranking of the critical road sections, overcoming some negative aspects associated with the other methods.
       
  • Analysis of real driving data to explore travelling needs in relation to
           hybrid–electric vehicle solutions
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 26 April 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Bruno Dalla Chiara, Francesco Deflorio, Marco Eid The paper presents a methodology and an analysis applied to a real-life dataset, which refer to an extended period that lasted more than one year, pertaining to trips undertaken in Europe by more than one thousand vehicles. The results in this paper are an example of the detailed information that can be extracted from rough data to support the decisions of stakeholders and final users (e.g. car makers, authorities, drivers), as well as to understand which road vehicle features will be able to comply with the observed daily usage of automobiles.The main scope of the paper has been to focus on variables concerning the duration and lengths of trips, the idle times, and the energy consumed by engines. These variables have been correlated and compared with the current and expected hybrid and electric ranges of autonomy, as constrained by the present and next generation of electric batteries, both in terms of autonomy and time required for their recharging. Therefore, the aim of the study has been to find answers to the following research question: considering the daily mileage, actual fuel consumption and idle time structure, can hybrid and electric powertrains represent adequate alternatives to traditional engines, considering the present battery ranges and charging alternatives?Long distance trips have been analysed in detail to obtain a better understanding of whether they can be covered by electric cars in the same ways as they are with those based on internal combustion engines. In the extensive sample that has been analysed, in order to satisfy 99,9% of the daily trips, it would be necessary to raise the range to 400 km. This target could be reached by adopting a PHEV (plug-in) or a full-electric car with an equivalent range. This study provides a quantitative analysis of the energy needs, obtained over a wide range of usage of road vehicles, and attempts to correlate them with the opportunities of recovering energy during the idle time detected over real-life 24h driving cycles, assuming the availability of intermediate charges.Graphical abstractImage 1
       
  • Planning urban distribution center location with variable restocking
           demand scenarios: General methodology and testing in a medium-size town
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 25 April 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Giuseppe Musolino, Corrado Rindone, Antonio Polimeni, Antonino Vitetta The paper proposes a methodology for the evaluation of an Urban Distribution Center (UDC) location in order to pursue sustainability goals. The methodology integrates indications deriving from public policies (objectives and constraints) and efficiency needs of carriers and retailers. For this reason, two planning levels are integrated into the methodology: an outer level in which a set of feasible UDC locations is defined; an inner level in which, for each location, the carrier behaviour in delivering freight to a set of retailers, characterized by variable restocking demand, is simulated (by means of a vehicle routing problem). The aim of the paper is to support the planning of city logistics measures by means of quantitative evaluations; that could be carried out by public authority to verify sustainability of logistic operations.A laboratory test is implemented in the town of Reggio Calabria (Southern Italy) to assess the effects of a combination of two city logistics measures: a nodal physical measure, such as an UDC, and an equipment measure, specifically Fully Electric Vehicles (FEVs).
       
  • The impact of undesirable externalities on residential property values:
           spatial regressive models and an empirical study
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 19 April 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Ruben Cordera, Vincenza Chiarazzo, Michele Ottomanelli, Luigi dell’Olio, Angel Ibeas Pollutant emissions, noise and other externalities generated by heavy infrastructures, might impact negatively on real estate values. To test this effect, this paper presents the results of an analysis based on Hedonic Linear Regression, Spatial Hedonic Linear Regression and Hedonic Geographically Weighted Regression models, carried out for the study case of the province of Taranto (Italy). The biggest steel factory in Europe is located here, and some population movements have been observed in relation to the high levels of pollution in the areas close to the factory. The variables used to measure the impact of externalities are of two types: objective indicators such as the distance from the industrial area and the levels of NO2 and PM10, and subjective indicators such as the level of pollution and noise perceived by the population. Results show that the distance from factory was a positive factor in the real estate prices although not always clearly significant, and among pollution indicators, only high levels of NO2 had a negative effect. The accessibility to employment did not prove to be a significant variable in the real estate prices, which indicates that factors related to environmental quality have a greater weight in residential location. Moreover, models including subjective indicators do not show better estimates than models considering only objective indicators. Finally, spatial regression models were useful to analyse the spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity observed in the data.
       
  • A methodology based on parking policy to promote sustainable mobility in
           college campuses
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Luigi dell’Olio, Ruben Cordera, Angel Ibeas, Rosa Barreda, Borja Alonso, Jose Luis Moura Many university campuses are suffering from serious mobility problems resulting from excessive use of the private car by students, teachers and administrative staff. This article proposes a methodology based on a revealed and stated preferences survey aimed at estimating the importance of different variables on users mobility choices in order to simulate their reaction to policies such as the introduction of new modes of transport or charging for on campus parking. This estimation was based on a Mixed Logit model considering the possible presence of heterogeneity in user preferences. The introduction of these results into an optimization model has also allowed us to calculate the optimal parking fare that should be charged which would minimize the number of free spaces on campus or maximize the income received. This methodology has been applied to a case study at the campus of the University of Cantabria (Spain). The elasticities calculated using a Mixed Logit model confirm that setting a fare for parking on campus would be a serious disincentive against private car use in favor of more sustainable transport modes. Furthermore, the optimization model allowed us to calculate the fare that would maximize the income obtained from the parking spaces, an income that could then be used to strengthen the campus sustainable mobility policies.
       
  • Selection of papers from the 19th ATRS World Conference, Singapore, 2015
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 April 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Gianmaria Martini, Davide Scotti
       
  • User satisfaction based model for resource allocation in bike-sharing
           systems
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 15 March 2018Source: Transport PolicyAuthor(s): Leonardo Caggiani, Rosalia Camporeale, Mario Marinelli, Michele Ottomanelli Over the past decade, the number of ongoing bike-sharing programs has remarkably risen. In this framework, operators need appropriate methodologies to support them in optimizing the allocation of their resources to globally enhance the bike-sharing program, even without massive and costly interventions on the existing configuration of the system.In this paper, we propose an optimization model able to determine how to employ a given budget to enhancing a bike-sharing system, maximizing the global user satisfaction. During the day, each bicycle station has a certain number of bikes that fluctuates according to the travel demand; it happens, however, that for certain time slots, the station is full or empty. Then, we propose to consider as key performance indicators the zero-vehicle time and the full-port time, that reflected respectively the duration of vehicle shortage and parking stall unavailability in the stations. Both these indicators, together with the lost users of the system, need to be kept to a minimum if the final aim is maximizing the customer satisfaction, i.e. not forcing the user to use other stations or turn/shift to other travel modes. We have analyzed the historical usage patterns of the bike-sharing stations, smoothing their trends (by wavelets), and operated a preliminary spatio-temporal clustering. Our model verifies the necessity of adding or removing racks to each station, setting at the same time the optimal number of bikes to allocate in them, and decide the eventual realization of further stations. Then, an application, both on a small test and a real-size network, is presented, together with a sensitivity analysis.
       
 
 
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