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Showing 1 - 83 of 83 Journals sorted alphabetically
Accounting and Business Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Accounting and the Public Interest     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Accounting Education: An International Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Accounting Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Accounting, Organizations and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Advances in Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Advances in Developing Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Afro-Asian Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
American Journal of Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 331)
Attachment & Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Australian Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
British Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Burnout Research     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Coaching : Theorie & Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Accounting Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Corporate Governance and Organizational Behavior Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Critical Perspectives on Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
EURO Journal on Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Accounting Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
FOR Rivista per la formazione     Full-text available via subscription  
German Journal of Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Global Perspectives on Accounting Education     Full-text available via subscription  
HR Future     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Human Resource and Organization Development Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Human Resource Development International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Human Resource Development Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Human Resource Development Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 86)
Human Resource Management Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 78)
Human Resource Management Research     Open Access   (Followers: 23)
Human Resource Management Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 62)
Intangible Capital     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Accounting Information Systems     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Accounting, Auditing and Performance Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Banking, Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Behavioural Accounting and Finance     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Critical Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Economics and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Human Capital and Information Technology Professionals     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Human Resource Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
International Journal of Human Resource Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Management Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Management Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Journal of Accounting and Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
Journal of Accounting and Public Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Journal of Accounting Education     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Accounting Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of Contemporary Accounting & Economics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Corporate Citizenship     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of HR intelligence     Open Access  
Journal of Human Capital     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Journal of Human Development and Capabilities : A Multi-Disciplinary Journal for People-Centered Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Human Resource and Sustainability Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Human Values     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Journal of International Accounting, Auditing and Taxation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Marketing and HR     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Journal of Professions and Organization     Free   (Followers: 6)
Kelaniya Journal of Human Resource Management     Open Access  
New Horizons in Adult Education and Human Resource Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Open Journal of Leadership     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
Personality and Individual Differences     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Professions and Professionalism     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Psychologie du Travail et des Organisations     Hybrid Journal  
Public Personnel Management     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Quarterly National Accounts - Comptes nationaux trimestriels     Full-text available via subscription  
Research in Accounting Regulation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Research in Human Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Review of Accounting Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Review of Public Personnel Administration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Revista Gestión de las Personas y Tecnología     Open Access  
Revista Portuguesa e Brasileira de Gestão     Open Access  
South Asian Journal of Human Resources Management     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Southern African Journal of Accountability and Auditing Research     Full-text available via subscription  
Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Personality and Individual Differences
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.181
Citation Impact (citeScore): 2
Number of Followers: 27  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 0191-8869 - ISSN (Online) 0191-8869
Published by Elsevier Homepage  [3206 journals]
  • ISSID Pages
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s):
       
  • Editorial Board/Publication Information
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s):
       
  • Insert a joke about lawyers: Evaluating preferences for the Dark Triad
           traits in six occupations
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Cameron S. Kay, Gerard SaucierAbstractThe current research examined how perceptions of the Dark Triad traits vary across occupations. Results from two studies (NTOTAL = 933) suggested that participants believe it is acceptable, if not advantageous, for lawyers and musicians to be high in the Dark Triad traits. Participants, likewise, indicated that teachers should be high in narcissism but low in Machiavellianism and psychopathy. Potentially, the performative aspects of narcissism are considered an asset for teachers, while Machiavellianism and psychopathy are considered a liability. The findings further indicated that, regardless of the occupation in question, people high in a specific Dark Triad trait believe others should also be high in that same trait. All results are considered in the context of the attraction-selection-attrition model.
       
  • Does acting extraverted evoke positive social feedback'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Mariya Davydenko, John M. Zelenski, Ana Gonzalez, Deanna WhelanAbstractPersonality traits describe average tendencies, yet momentary behaviors in trait domains vary widely. Notably, both dispositional introverts and extraverts experience greater positive affect when behaving in extraverted ways. We test a potential explanation: extraverted behavior may evoke more positive social feedback from others. In Study 1, participants who were randomly assigned to interact with confederates who acted extraverted (vs. introverted) displayed more positive verbal and nonverbal social behaviors during interactions. Behaviors were rated by the participant, confederate, and an observer (via video). Study 2 reversed roles; neutral confederates who interacted with participants who were randomly assigned to act extraverted (vs. introverted) displayed more positive social behaviors. This research extends previous findings by examining how enacted extraversion influences interaction dynamics.
       
  • The mediating role of alexithymia between earthquake exposure and
           
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Wanjie Tang, Dun Xu, Jiuping XuAbstractAlexithymia refers to difficulties in recognizing and describing one's emotions. We studied potential connections of alexithymia with severity of earthquake exposure, panic/somatic symptoms, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression in 5,195 adolescents affected by the Wenchuan earthquake. Participants completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Children's Revised Impact of Event Scale (CRIES)-13, the abbreviated Kutcher Adolescent Depression Scale (KADS), and the panic/somatic subscale of the Screen for Child Anxiety-Related Emotional Disorders. The rate of alexithymia was 6.7%, and a greater proportion females were alexithymic than males (7.6% vs 5.7%). Alexithymia was more frequent among older subjects and those who were only-children. Alexithymia, severity of earthquake exposure and negative life events were independently associated with post-disaster psychological or somatic symptoms, and alexithymia was a mediator between traumatic experiences and psychopathology. Our data highlight the importance of alexithymia in the development of psychological distress, implying that alexithymia-targeted interventions may help treat or even prevent psychological distress after a disaster.
       
  • The relationship between alexithymia, hostile attribution bias, and
           aggression
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Xu Li, Bingbing Li, Jiamei Lu, Li Jin, Juan Xue, Xianwei CheAbstractPrior studies found a positive association between alexithymia and aggression. This study extended existing findings by adopting a subdimensional approach to investigate the unique association of alexithymia factors with reactive and proactive aggression, such as difficulty identifying feelings (DIF), difficulty describing feelings (DDF), and externally oriented thinking (EOT). This study also explored factors associated with the link between alexithymia and aggression by investigating the potential moderating role of hostile attribution bias (HAB). Four hundred and eighty-five college students (275 females) were recruited. Results showed that alexithymia was positively associated with aggression; however, different alexithymia factors did not show equally strong associations with aggression subtypes. Specifically, DIF (in contrast to DDF and EOT) was the strongest correlate of reactive aggression, while EOT (in contrast to DIF and DDF) was the strongest correlate of proactive aggression. Meanwhile, HAB was a moderator for the relationship between alexithymia and aggression, but not between alexithymia factors and aggression subtypes. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed.
       
  • Class-based differences in the use of (aggressive) humor: The mediating
           role of empathic concern
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Ginés Navarro-Carrillo, Jorge Torres-Marín, Hugo Carretero-DiosAbstractRecent research indicates that individuals’ social class (SC) is connected to a wide range of psychological outcomes. Nonetheless, the question of how SC is related to people's uses of humor during social interactions remains unexplored. Consequently, in this research, we tested whether a person's SC, as measured by both objective indices of material wealth (i.e., income and educational attainment) and subjective perceptions of one’ SC standing, is differentially related to affiliative and aggressive forms of humor. Study 1 (N = 156; 52.6% females) showed that there were no class-based differences in the use of affiliative humor, but provided preliminary support for a positive association between income and aggressive humor – even after controlling for age and gender. Study 2 (N = 201; 54.2% females) widely replicated these findings and revealed that the income-aggressive humor relationship was mediated by empathic concern. Overall, our results suggest that higher-income individuals, relative to their lower-income counterparts, tend to use aggressive humor more often because of their reduced others-oriented feelings of sympathy and compassion. To our knowledge, this research contains the first empirical evidence on the association of SC and the way in which individuals habitually use humor in their day-to-day lives.
       
  • Under what circumstances is helping an impulse' Emergency and
           prosocial traits affect intuitive prosocial behavior
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Rong Shi, Wei (Gabriel) Qi, Yi Ding, Chang Liu, Wangbing ShenAbstractWhile prosocial behavior is suggested to be a central feature of human life, there is an ongoing debate as to whether individuals have developed a general intuitive tendency to act prosocially or not. We show that prosocial behavior is better described as a person × situation interaction. In two studies (total N = 170), we tested the influence of processing mode on helping behavior in emergency and non-emergency situations and the moderating effect of prosocial traits (i.e., Honesty–Humility and social value orientation) using different experimental manipulations. These studies were conducted among Chinese samples, and provide evidence on prosocial behaviors beyond the “WEIRD” population. Consistent with the existing experimental literature on spontaneous cooperation, we consistently found intuitive processing led to more helping behavior. Moreover, this intuitive prosociality is context-dependent, moderated by the emergency and prosocial traits. Overall, we find clear evidence that the role of intuition and deliberation varies across both situations and individuals as predicted by the social heuristics hypothesis. Our findings reconcile previous diverging results by demonstrating these moderators, and extend our understanding of the model of intuitive prosociality based on social heuristics.
       
  • The relationship between trait anger and loneliness among early
           adolescents: The moderating role of emotion regulation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Ali KarababaAbstractThis study has two main objectives: (1) to examine the relationships among trait anger, emotion regulation strategies (internal-functional, internal-dysfunctional, external-functional, and external-dysfunctional), and loneliness in early adolescents; (2) explore whether emotion regulation strategies moderate the relationship between trait anger and loneliness. The participants were 475 secondary school students (241 female, 234 male) from an age range of 10–14. The findings revealed significant relationships among trait anger, emotion regulation strategies, and loneliness. Trait anger and loneliness were found to be moderately correlated with each other. More importantly, emotion regulation strategies moderated the relationship between trait anger and loneliness. The degree to which trait anger was related to loneliness was found to be dependent on emotion regulation strategies. Specifically, the relationship between trait anger and loneliness appeared to increase if early adolescents utilized low levels of internal- and external-functional strategies, and high levels of internal- and external-dysfunctional strategies. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
       
  • The power of extraversion' Reduced false memories for positive events
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Chiara Mirandola, Enrico Toffalini, Emilia Ferruzza, Francesca PazzagliaAbstractEvidence on the relation between personality traits and false memories is scarce and partly contradictory. For example, extraverts have been found to be less suggestible to induced memory distortion (through the misinformation paradigm); however, they tend to produce a higher amount of spontaneous false memories (through the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm). Whether Extraversion influences false memories for positive and negative events is unclear. The current study was aimed at clarifying the effects of Extraversion (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire) on false memories using an ecological paradigm for emotional events. Participants were 151 volunteering undergraduate students. Results showed that Extraversion predicted reduced false memories for positive events, compared to negative ones. No effects of Neuroticism and Psychoticism were found. Results are discussed in terms of the stable characteristics of the rememberer that may affect memory distortions.
       
  • Cross-cultural differences in personality, motivation and cognition in
           Asian vs. Western societies
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Gregory J. Boyle, Nongkran Wongsri, Mark Bahr, Jonathan V. Macayan, Peter M. BentlerAbstractThe Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), Goal Orientation Questionnaire (GOQ), Revised Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F), and Academic Volitional Strategy Inventory (AVSI) plus a brief demographics questionnaire were administered to 395 Thai, and 313 Australian undergraduate students to investigate cross-cultural differences in personality, motivation, learning styles and academic achievement (measured via GPAs). Equivalence of English- and Thai-language measures was ensured using a well-established standard translation-backtranslation procedure. Australian students exhibited higher AVSI scores, whereas Thai students scored more highly on Psychological Wellbeing, as well as on Study Approach, Self-Efficacy Enhancement, Stress Reducing Actions, and Negative-Based Incentives. Nevertheless, our findings provide some evidence that Asian and Western learning style stereotypes may be breaking down in the modern digitally connected world.
       
  • Fathers high in psychopathy invest more in offspring who resemble them
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Cristina Ene, Vlad Burtăverde, Peter K. Jonason, Eugen AvramAbstractOver ancestral time, men had more paternity uncertainty than women. If the father and his offspring have similar facial features, the former is more confident of his paternity and he, therefore, tends to invest more resources in the child. In 158 dyads of adolescents (i.e., teenagers) and their fathers, we tested—using actor-partner interdependence modeling (APIM)—the relationship between facial resemblance and personality similarity on the one hand and paternal investment (i.e., emotional and financial) on the other hand. We also examined how important personality (i.e., emotionality, psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism) similarity is in predicting paternal investment controlling for facial resemblance. Both facial and personality resemblance were associated with paternal investment. We also found that personality similarity accounts for incrementally more variance in paternal investment over facial resemblance. Additionally, we found that psychopathy moderated the relationship between facial resemblance and paternal investment.
       
  • Sex differences in intelligence on the SPM+ in Dhofar in the Sultanate of
           Oman
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Nasser Said Gomaa Abdelrasheed, Yussef Ahmed Bakhiet Albaraami, Edward Dutton, Jan te Nijenhuis, Muna Bakhiet Masoud Issa QatanAbstractFollowing the Developmental Theory of Sex Differences, males and females have roughly the same IQ during childhood. However, because females enter puberty earlier their general IQ exceeds that of males during early adolescence, after which males enter puberty. By their late teens, males have a small IQ advantage. To test this model, we administered the SPM+ to a sample of 701 male and 705 female school students aged 10 to 19 years from different schools in the Dhofar Governorate in the Sultanate of Oman. Our results broadly validated Lynn's model, as males scores exceeded those of females from the age of 16 onwards. However, we note that there are also alternative explanations for our findings.
       
  • Forethought and intelligence: How conscientiousness, future planning, and
           general mental ability predict net worth
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Jonathan A. ShafferAbstractThis study examined a model in which conscientiousness is related to net worth through its relationship with future planning, and in which general mental ability (GMA) moderates the effects of future planning on net worth. Data for this study were drawn from 1,135 participants in the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. Results from an analysis of conditional indirect effects suggest that conscientiousness shared a positive, indirect association with net worth through its relationship with future planning that was realized only for individuals higher in GMA. In contrast, conscientiousness had no indirect association with net worth for those low in GMA. This study helps add to the understanding of how noncognitive (personality) and cognitive (ability) traits affect individual-level economic outcomes and offers an explanation for both how and when conscientiousness influences net worth. These findings may be particularly important given efforts to design interventions that help improve individual financial outcomes.
       
  • Resting state frontal alpha asymmetry predicts emotion regulation
           difficulties in impulse control
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 June 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 159Author(s): Jing Zhang, Yan Hua, Lichao Xiu, Tian Po Oei, Ping HuAbstractFailure in emotion regulation would cause barriers to individuals’ adaptive behavior, which negatively affect a human's happy and healthy life. Recent studies indicate that decreased activity of the left frontal cortex can be treated as a neural marker of emotion disorders. The present study examined how resting state frontal alpha asymmetry could predict emotion regulation difficulties and related dimensions by resting state electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and a measure of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS). Eighty participants completed the resting state EEG recording and DERS ratings. Results revealed that after controlling for gender and depression scores, those participants with higher left frontal activity than the right frontal activity in the resting state have less difficulties in everyday emotion regulation, especially in the dimension of impulse control. However, there was no relation pattern with other dimensions of DERS. This study provided evidence that resting state frontal alpha asymmetry could predict emotion regulation difficulties, mainly in impulse control.
       
  • The effect of positive childhood experiences on adult personality
           psychopathology
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Rumeysa Gunay-Oge, Fatmatuz Zehra Pehlivan, Sedat IsikliAbstractMost of the current literature on the subject focuses on the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and adult personality psychopathology; however, as far as is known, there is no research investigating the relationship between positive childhood experiences and adult personality disorder symptoms. The present study aims to highlight the association between positive childhood experiences and adult personality psychopathology. To investigate this association, 341 participants were recruited for this study, in which the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale, the Benevolent Childhood Experiences Scale and the Coolidge Axis II Inventory Plus were used. Stepwise linear regressions supported the position that despite the presence of adverse childhood experiences, there are independent relationships between positive childhood experiences and 11 out of 14 personality disorder symptoms (Antisocial, Avoidant, Borderline, Dependent, Depressive, Obsessive-Compulsive, Paranoid, Passive-Aggressive, Schizoid, Schizotypal and Self-defeating Personality Disorder (PD) symptoms). Results did not support an independent relationship between positive childhood experiences and histrionic, sadistic or narcissistic personality disorder traits. The results of the study illuminate how positive childhood experiences may counteract long-term effects of childhood adversity.
       
  • Childhood religious experiences with peers and primary caregivers:
           Associations with individual differences in adult religiosity
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Adam E. Tratner, Yael Sela, Guilherme S. Lopes, Todd K. Shackelford, Melissa M. McDonald, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, Mohaned G. AbedAbstractPeers and primary caregivers influence the development of religious beliefs during childhood and adolescence. However, previous research has not assessed whether childhood religious experiences with peers and primary caregivers are differently related to individual differences in adult religiosity. We investigated whether the frequency of childhood religious experiences with peers and primary caregivers are related to adult religious beliefs and religious service attendance. An online sample of adults (n = 525) completed a survey that included a measure of religious beliefs and two recently developed measures that assess the ways in which peers and primary caregivers influenced religious experiences during childhood and adolescence. Results suggest that the frequency of childhood religious experiences with peers and primary caregivers are differently related to individual differences in adult religiosity: 1) Participation in religious activities with a peer, and primary caregiver's disapproval of religious deviation, are positively associated with adult religious attendance, 2) participation in religious activities with a peer, and primary caregiver's religious assurance, are positively associated with adult religious belief, and 3) primary caregiver's encouragement of religious skepticism is negatively associated with adult religious belief. Discussion highlights limitations of the current study and important directions for future research.
       
  • Machiavellian males with high emotional intelligence exhibit fewer
           depressive symptoms
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Renzo Bianchi, Nathan Patthey, Danijela Mirkovic, Bruno Lemaitre, Katja SchlegelAbstractResearch on the link between Machiavellianism and depression has yielded equivocal results. In this study, we examined the possible moderating role of ability emotional intelligence (a-EI) on the Machiavellianism-depression relationship. a-EI was approached as a factor influencing the effectiveness of Machiavellians' manipulative strategies. A total of 469 participants were recruited (34% male; mean age: 42.37). Machiavellian dispositions were assessed with the Machiavellianism subscale of the Dirty Dozen. a-EI was measured with the 10-scenario version of the Geneva EMOtion Knowledge-Blends—a performance-based test. Depressive symptoms were evaluated with the PHQ-9, a scale covering both cognitive-affective and somatic aspects of depression. Correlational analyses revealed no raw association between Machiavellianism, a-EI, and depression. In men, a-EI was found to moderate the effect of Machiavellianism on depression in such a way that Machiavellianism was protective against depressive symptoms when coupled with high a-EI. Component-level analyses indicated that the observed interaction was essentially underpinned by somatic depression. Machiavellianism predicted somatic depression negatively in males with high a-EI and positively in males with low a-EI. No association was identified in females. This study suggests that Machiavellianism is not depressogenic in itself. Remarkably, Machiavellianism might have antidepressant virtues in men exhibiting high a-EI.
       
  • Family relationships and personality disorder functioning styles in
           paranoid schizophrenia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 1 February 2020Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Minggang Jiang, Xu Shao, Yan Zhang, Yupeng Yan, Yuanyuan Hu, Hong Chen, Hongying Fan, Wei WangAbstractDysfunctional family relationships are prominent factors influencing personality development and psychiatric disorder progression, but the detailed relationships between personality disorders and family relationships in schizophrenia are less studied. In this study, we invited 92 paranoid schizophrenia patients and 76 healthy volunteers to answer the Family Relationship Questionnaire (FRQ) and the Parker Personality Measure (PERM). Compared to controls, patients scored higher on Paternal/ Maternal Abuse, but lower on General Attachment, Paternal Encouragement and Paternal/ Maternal Freedom Release. Patients also scored higher on all PERM styles except the Obsessive-Compulsive. In controls, Paternal Freedom Release predicted Paranoid (-), Maternal Abuse predicted Schizoid, General Attachment predicted Schizotypal (-), Histrionic (-) and Narcissistic (-), Paternal Abuse predicted Antisocial, and Maternal Freedom Release predicted Avoidant (-). While in patients, Paternal Abuse predicted Schizotypal, Antisocial, Borderline, Histrionic, Narcissistic, Dependent, and Passive-Aggressive. In conclusion, there were prominent family relationships and personality problems in schizophrenia, and the family relationships, especially paternal abuse, were associated with personality disorder functioning styles. Therefore, the intervention of paternal abuse in the early life might beneficial to reducing personality disorder traits in schizophrenia.
       
  • The art of flirting: What are the traits that make it effective'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Menelaos Apostolou, Christoforos ChristoforouAbstractFlirting is an essential aspect of human interaction and key for the formation of intimate relationships. In the current research, we aimed to identify the traits that turn it more effective. In particular, in Study 1 we used open-ended questionnaires in a sample of 487 Greek-speaking participants, and identified 47 traits that make flirting effective. In Study 2, we asked 808 Greek-speaking participants to rate how effective each trait would be on them. Using principal components analysis, we classified these traits into nine broader factors. Having a good non-verbal behavior, being intelligent and having a gentle approach, were rated as the most important factors. Sex difference were found for most of the factors. For example, women rated gentle approach as more effective on them, while men rated good looks as more effective. Last but not least, older participants rated factors, such as the “Gentle approach,” to be more effective on them.
       
  • Need satisfaction and frustration profiles: Who benefits more on social
           networking sites'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Ruoxuan Li, Yunxiang Chen, Hongrui Liu, Meilin YaoAbstractThe current study was designed to assess the association between the profiles of basic need satisfaction and frustration and SNSs-related outcomes among Chinese university students from the perspective of self-determination theory (SDT)(N = 491). LPA identified four profiles: unsatisfied and frustrated, satisfied and un-frustrated, average, satisfied and frustrated. Results showed that satisfied and un-frustrated users demonstrated higher both general and SNSs related well-being and lower SNSs addiction; unsatisfied and frustrated users experienced lower well-being and had higher SNSs addiction. These results support the social enhancement hypothesis, which states that satisfied users experience higher levels of well-being on SNSs, whereas frustrated users are at higher risks of SNSs addiction. Furthermore, users in the satisfied and frustrated profile demonstrated dual characters, such as reporting both higher levels of SNSs-related well-being (especially flow) and SNSs addiction. These findings provide further evidence for distinction between need satisfaction and frustration, and contribute to deeper understanding of the associations between basic need satisfaction and frustration and individuals’ well-being and experience on SNSs.
       
  • College students and inappropriate social media posting: Is it a question
           of personality or the influence of friends'
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Robert E. MillerAbstractThe present paper examines the relationship between the Big Five personality traits and inappropriate posting by college students on Facebook and Twitter. In this case, inappropriate posting is defined as posting content that would be viewed negatively by a potential employer. As such, the existing Faux Pas Scale was modified to more closely align with current recruiting literature regarding inappropriate posting behavior. The paper also examines how the posting behavior of close friends affects students beyond their personality traits. One hundred and eighty undergraduate business students completed an online survey capturing their personality traits and posting behaviors. Results indicate that conscientiousness was negatively related to inappropriate posting on Facebook, while none of the Big Five traits was a significant predictor of inappropriate posting on Twitter. The results also indicate that inappropriate posting by close friends is positively related to similar behavior by students on both Facebook and Twitter.
       
  • Speed of saccadic responses and intelligence: An exponential-Gaussian
           analysis
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Paul Wilson, Kostas A. Papageorgiou, Colin CooperAbstractIndividual differences in the speed of making rapid eye movements (saccades) may have potential for exploring the link between neural conduction and cognitive abilities. Participants (N = 56) performed tasks devised to measure the speed at which humans started to move an eye towards a stimulus which appeared in peripheral vision (saccade) or in the opposite direction (anti-saccade). Cognitive abilities were measured using the Wide Range Intelligence Test, and ex-Gaussian parameters from the eye-movement tasks were correlated with these abilities. The findings showed that scores on the pro- and anti-saccade tests correlated substantially and that the anti-saccade condition led to consistently longer, more variable and more skewed responses. None of the parameters correlated significantly with the cognitive abilities assessed. The findings do not support the theory that nerve conduction velocity explains the correlation between reaction times and cognitive abilities. However, the findings do provide evidence of the existence of individual differences in saccadic eye-movements that can be captured by ex-Gaussian analysis of reaction time and also show that saccadic movements do not follow Hick's Law when task difficulty is manipulated.
       
  • Introduction to the special issue from personality to politics
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Peter K. Jonason, Aaron C. Weinschenk, Bert Bakker, Christopher T. Dawes, Gillian Finchilescu, Robert Klemmensen
       
  • Subclinical autistic traits mediate the relationship between emotional
           intelligence and resiliency in adolescents
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Shannon A. McCarthy, Talitha C. Ford, Justine E. Lomas, Con StoughAbstractIndividuals with autism and those with high subclinical autistic traits often report poor trait emotional intelligence (EI) and psychosocial outcomes. EI predicts resiliency in adolescents, however, the interrelationship between autistic traits, EI and resiliency is unknown. The Adolescent Swinburne University EI Test, Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) and Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents were completed by 212 adolescents (193 males; 14–17 years). In line with previous studies, adolescents with better EI reported more resiliency, and fewer autistic traits, while fewer autistic traits were associated with better resiliency. Mediation analyses revealed that the relationships between EI dimensions and resiliency were partially or fully mediated by AQ Social Skills and AQ Communication, suggesting that trait EI is an important predictor of resiliency, but that these autistic trait dimensions drive this relationship. The findings have significant implications for developing EI programs that foster resiliency in adolescents across the clinical and subclinical autism spectrum.
       
  • Inhibitory brainstem reflexes under external emotional-stimuli in schizoid
           and histrionic personality disorders
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Chu Wang, Xu Shao, Yanli Jia, Bingren Zhang, Chanchan Shen, Wei WangAbstractBackgroundSchizoid personality disorder patients behave inhibitedly and histrionic personality disorder patients openly, which might be due to different cortical and brainstem inhibitory activities. The exteroceptive suppressions of the temporalis muscle activity, especially the second period (ES2), under different external-emotions might be different in the two personality disorders.MethodsWe have invited 18 patients with schizoid, 17 with histrionic personality disorders, and 37 sex- and gender-matched healthy volunteers, to undergo the ES2 test under external emotions of Blank (nil emotion), Disgust, Erotica, Fear, Happiness, and Sadness. Their ongoing affective states of mania, hypomania and depression were also measured.ResultsOne-way ANOVA has detected that schizoid group scored higher on depression than healthy volunteers did, histrionic group scored higher on mania and hypomania than healthy volunteers did. Compared to those in controls, ES2 durations under fear and sadness in schizoid and under erotica in histrionic were longer.ConclusionsOur results indicated that the brainstem inhibitory dysfunction was more pronounced under fear and sadness in schizoid, but more pronounced under erotica in histrionic patients, which might imply different emotional control therapies for the two personality disorders.
       
  • Understanding the overlap and differences in terms describing patterns of
           maladaptive avoidance and intolerance of negative emotional states
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Adrienne Juarascio, Stephanie Manasse, Kelsey E. Clark, Katherine Schaumberg, Stephanie Kerrigan, Stephanie P. Goldstein, Brittney C. Evans, Emily Wyckoff, Helen B. Murray, Christina R. Felonis, Evan FormanMaladaptive avoidance/intolerance of negative emotional states has been widely shown to contribute to negative outcomes. Growing interest in this construct has led to the use of multiple terms (e.g., emotion dysregulation, distress intolerance, experiential avoidance, anxiety sensitivity, negative urgency) to describe such individual differences, each with their own measurement tools. However, to date, the degree to which these terms reflect truly unique attributes is understudied. The aim of the current manuscript is to review five of the most common terms (and associated measurement tools) used to describe these patterns of avoidance/intolerance of negative emotional states to better understand areas of overlap and key differences. We used qualitative content analysis and examined correlations between measures across 114 datasets from published manuscripts (i.e., Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Distress Tolerance Scale, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Anxiety Sensitivity Index, UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale–Negative Urgency Subscale; N = 28,648 administrations). Our review suggests that measurement tools for existing terms demonstrate considerable qualitative overlap and moderate-to-large positive correlations (r = 0.24–0.67). Failures to emphasize the unique features associated with each term in existing measures may have minimized the field's ability to evaluate distinct facets of avoidance/intolerance of negative emotional states and to determine whether these facets differentially predict outcomes.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
       
  • Humility is associated with less aggressive motivation
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Elizabeth Summerell, Cindy Harmon-Jones, Thomas F. Denson, Eddie Harmon-JonesAbstractEffective, evidence-based methods for the reduction of anger and aggression are limited. We propose that one potentially effective method for reducing anger and aggression involves the increase of affective states that have response tendencies that oppose anger and aggression. One affective state that may have such response tendencies is humility. In three studies, we tested the prediction that humility would be associated with less anger and aggressive motivation. Study 1 confirmed that individual differences in humility were significantly inversely associated with individual differences in anger and aggression, and predicted less anger and aggression independent of narcissism and other major personality traits derived from the HEXACO model. Studies 2 and 3 found that experimentally-induced humility significantly reduced the motivation to aggress. Results suggest that humility may reduce the approach motivational urges associated with experiences of anger (i.e., aggressive urges).
       
  • Narcissism and the experience of pain
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 31 January 2020Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Amy B. Brunell, Melissa T. Buelow, Zina TrostAbstractIn the present set of studies, narcissism and painful experiences were examined. In Study 1, kinesiophobia and pain catastrophizing were assessed. In Study 2, participants experienced a socially painful experience via the game of Cyberball and were given a set of cognitive tasks to complete. In Study 3, participants’ reactions to experiencing a physically painful experience (a cold pressor task) were examined. Results indicated that vulnerable narcissists were more concerned about having physically painful experiences, but did not report greater pain when having an actual physically painful experience. Vulnerable narcissists also reported negative affect following negative experiences of physical and social pain (in addition to more need threat). Grandiose narcissists appeared to be less concerned about having physically painful experiences. Although grandiose narcissism was not associated with experiencing physical pain, it was associated with worse mood from experiencing pain. When experiencing a socially painful experience, they reported being relatively unaffected and were not overly distracted from cognitive tasks. The facets of narcissism such as psychological entitlement, interpersonal exploitativeness, and grandiosity were also explored.
       
  • Grandiose narcissism and vulnerable narcissism in prisoner's dilemma game
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Marta Malesza, Warsaw PolandAbstractThe aim of this article is to investigate the role of the grandiose and vulnerable narcissism in the economic game. One widely employed paradigm in this field of experimental economic games is the prisoner's dilemma—used to examine competitive versus cooperative behaviour. In the present study a prisoner's dilemma game was administrated to individuals (N = 320), along with measures of grandiose narcissism, vulnerable narcissism and impulsivity. Specifically, our results show that vulnerable narcissism has a significant positive effect on defecting behaviors, while grandiose narcissism has a significant positive effect on cooperation in the initial round. However, while the game proceeded, grandiose narcissism started to have a positive effect on defecting behaviors too. This suggests that grandiose narcissists have, at least initially, positive qualities to them which can make them popular, but in the long run they lose their positive reputation and their likeability and willingness to cooperate decrease.
       
  • Personality, emotion and individual differences in response to online
           fraud
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Gareth Norris, Alexandra BrookesAbstractThe growth in social communication facilitated by technology mean that online scams represent a growing societal issue, with perpetrators successfully persuading people to make fraudulent payments or download malicious attachments. Incidents of online scams have continued to increase across the world, aided by technology that allows fraudsters to mimic communications so as to appear to come from legitimate sources. Much of the previous literature has focused on dispositional factors, such as personality, alongside experiential factors, such as knowledge of security policy; there is limited examination of the context or state induced factors, such as emotional state of the individual, and, importantly, how that may impact upon their decision making process. This paper reviews and applies the literature exploring the role of emotions in decision making to understand how individuals may be susceptible to scams in online contexts. The mood maintenance/mood-repair view is proposed as an appropriate theoretical foundation for research in this area; it provides the focus on the interaction between the individuals current emotional state and the emotional appeals embedded in any message, and what the likely response will be.
       
  • The impact of the Extraversion-Introversion personality traits and
           emotions in a moral decision-making task
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Yanqiang Tao, Ying Cai, Chandni Rana, Yuan ZhongAbstractBehavioural studies have previously examined the fundamental psychological processes behind two moral dilemma types (e.g., impersonal vs. personal dilemmas) across conditions (e.g., emotion or cognition, etc.). However, it is unknown how individual personality traits influence moral decisions by inducing emotions. The goal of the present study was to examine whether different personality traits interact with different types of moral dilemmas by inducing emotions in moral decisions. 100 participants performed a moral decision-making task and data were analyzed using mixed-model ANOVA. The result revealed that when faced with personal moral dilemmas, introverted individuals will make more utilitarian decisions when experiencing induced negative emotion, supporting the hypothesis that moral types, emotional valence, and personality traits can play an essential role in moral decision-making.
       
  • Birds of a feather work together: The role of emotional intelligence and
           cognitive ability in workplace interaction and advice networks
    • Abstract: Publication date: 1 May 2020Source: Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 158Author(s): Luke Treglown, Adrian FurnhamAbstractThe study investigated whether cognitive ability or trait emotional intelligence impacted the formation of task-contingent communication and advice seeking in the workplace. Contrary to the theory driven hypothesis, an employee's level of EI has no impact on their position within both interaction and advice networks. As predicted, those with higher levels of fluid intelligence represented ‘knowledge hubs’ and were sought out more by their colleagues. Those perceived to be capable of solving novel problems quickly and accurately had greater indegree centrality for both interaction and advice networks. Additionally, employees with similar levels of cognitive and emotional intelligence were more likely to have interaction and advice ties. This study suggests that employees do use affective judgements when evaluating the perceived utility of a relationship, but this is primarily influenced by how similar that person is to the evaluator and not the disposition of the evaluated.
       
  • Approach and avoidance personality traits in acute pain and placebo
           analgesia
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Arianna Vecchio, Vilfredo De PascalisAbstractPain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential damage to the body. The experience of acute pain reflects the continuous processing of a complex hierarchical system of motivations to act that incorporates expectations and beliefs serving to limit the impact of adverse events. Research on placebo analgesia highlights that placebo analgesia can be modulated by dispositional characteristics that interact with environmental and personality-state variables. Generally, acute pain relief, and particularly placebo analgesia, is conceptualized as a self-regulated homoeostatic process associated with the achievement of a reward that serves to interrupt the ongoing pain sensation. Motivational states that drive the behaviour of aversion to acute pain and the attainment of pain relief or placebo analgesia can be conceptualized in terms of behavioural inhibition, behavioural approach, and the fight-flight-freeze system. It is desirable to conduct more research on placebo analgesia to evaluate the role of individual approach/avoidance behaviour to allow the planning of individual treatments to reduce pain.
       
  • Understanding persons: From Stern's personalistics to Five-Factor Theory
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Robert R. McCrae, Paul T. CostaAbstractWilliam Stern, a founder of differential psychology, was also an early exponent of person-centered approaches to personality. Lamiell (2009) and Block (1961) argued that interactive or ipsative approaches to assessment are more suitable for person-centered psychology, but these methods are susceptible to distortions that can be corrected by standardization, the usual method used in variable-centered assessments. We argue that persons can be understood by (1) employing a comprehensive and multi-faceted personality inventory, preferably completed by two sources; (2) supplementing the personality profile by gathering information on the person's characteristic adaptations and life outcomes; and (3) explaining adaptations and outcomes in terms of enduring personality traits, as suggested by Five-Factor Theory (McCrae & Costa, 2008). We conclude with a case study.
       
  • Radix Intelligence: A new definition and integrative model of intelligence
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Konstantinos V. PetridesAbstractThis paper introduces Radix Intelligence, a new definition and integrative model of intelligence developed within the overarching system of Psychobionomy (Petrides, 2019). Following a discussion of misconceptions and pitfalls plaguing existing models of intelligence, with emphasis on the IQ literature, I point at Radix Intelligence as the primal energy underpinning mind activity in its entirety. All existence unfolds according to the laws of Radix Intelligence, whose nature is collective, impersonal, and non-local. Within the confines of the personalized human mind, the self-construct, a latent structure within the Thinking stage of the Psychobionomic system, refracts the unitary flow of Radix Intelligence into a manifold of major traits, including trait cognitive, trait emotional, and trait social intelligence, among others. In the context of elucidating Radix Intelligence, I offer a radical reinterpretation of the so-called “crud factor” and also touch on the issue of common method variance. Theoretical implications of Radix Intelligence are discussed with reference to the need for dynamic integration across the whole field of differential psychology, and practical implications with dual reference to the potential for establishing a new field of subconscious psychometrics and the pressing urgency for the individual to transition from a psychology of becoming to a psychology of being.
       
  • A three-step procedure for analysis of circumplex models: An example of
           narcissism located within the circumplex of personality metatraits
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Radosław Rogoza, Jan Cieciuch, Włodzimierz StrusCircumplex models are widely utilized in the field of personality and individual differences research. Although within the literature one could find many suggestions on how to analyze such models, none of them are comprehensive enough. Within the current paper we propose a three-step procedure, which will systematize and standardize the analysis of circumplex models and the localization of external variables within such circumplex models. First, we propose to verify the underlying circumplex structure through structural equation modeling. Second, we propose to test the possibility to locate external variables in the space of the empirical circumplex model through the investigation of their structural summary profiles. Finally, we propose to test the congruence between empirical locations and theoretical predictions within the circumplex structure through the Procrustes rotation. The three-step procedure is described using the example of narcissism embedded within the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits model. This paper is supplemented by pedagogical tutorials assisting other researchers in applying the three-step procedure to their own data.Graphical abstractImage, graphical abstract
       
  • Faking on a self-report personality inventory: Indiscriminate,
           discriminate, or hyper-discriminate responding'
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 18 December 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Ronald R. Holden, Zdravko MarjanovicAbstractThis research evaluated an easily-computed novel method, the inter-item standard deviation (ISD), for detecting faking on a self-report personality inventory. Six independent samples of instructed fakers (total N = 1360) answered NEO-FFI items under varying dissimulation directions, modes of testing, and response time limitations. Across samples while demonstrating some variability possibly related to sample-specific factors, the ISD demonstrated a medium effect size for identifying faking good and a medium effect size for identifying faking bad. Further, the direction of these effects indicated that faking is a complex process resulting in heterogeneous responding rather than a simple strategy that produces overly consistent, homogeneous answering.
       
  • Patterns of cumulative continuity and maturity in personality and
           well-being: Evidence from a large longitudinal sample of adults
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Frank D. Mann, Colin G. DeYoung, Robert F. KruegerAbstractLongitudinal studies have shown that, on average, agreeableness and conscientiousness increase and neuroticism decreases in adulthood, a phenomenon dubbed the “maturity principle”. The rank-order stability of personality also tends to increase with age, sometimes called the “cumulative continuity principle”. It remains unclear, however, whether the rank-order stability and average levels of different types of well-being increase with age. Therefore, using a large longitudinal sample of adults (N> 6,000), the present study aimed to replicate studies of the maturity and cumulative continuity of the Big Five and test whether these developmental trends extend to different types of well-being. The present study demonstrates that, although many types of well-being exhibit developmental trends that are similar to those of the Big Five, distinguishing the general tendency toward all forms of well-being from variation in specific kinds of well-being can illuminate potentially important developmental differences.
       
  • Calibrating personality self-report scores to acquaintance ratings
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): John A. JohnsonAbstractBy convention in individual personality assessment, scores on self-report questionnaires within ±.5 standard deviations of the mean score for that trait are considered "average," whereas scores outside that range are reported as "high" or "low" levels of the trait. To date, no one has examined how well this convention corresponds to perceptions of low, average, or high trait levels by acquaintances. The present study compares the accuracy of the conventional ±.5 SD cutting scores for low, average, and high trait levels with cutting scores derived from Optimal Data Analysis (ODA; Yarnold & Seltysik, 2005) for 160 participants who completed the IPIP-NEO-300 (Goldberg, 1999; Johnson, 2014) and were rated by acquaintances on the 30 facets and 5 domains of that instrument. In 32 of 35 comparisons, the ±.5 convention was found to be less accurate than the ODA method for deriving cutting scores.
       
  • How is time perspective related to burnout and job satisfaction' A
           conservation of resources perspective
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Umit Akirmak, Pinar AylaAbstractResearch on time perspective has not been reliably applied to organizational settings primarily because there have not been attempts to empirically and theoretically link time perspective to job attitudes. We utilized the framework of conservation of resources theory (COR) and assumed that time perspective is a valuable personal resource that buffers the adverse effects of burnout leading to more favorable job appraisals. Measures of time perspective, core self-evaluations, burnout and job satisfaction were collected from 135 bank employees. We replicated the indirect effect of core self-evaluations on job satisfaction through burnout and further showed that participants with a more balanced time perspective had lower burnout leading to higher job satisfaction. These results suggest the importance of time perspective in job attitudes and provide insights into enhancing human strengths from a positive psychology perspective. We argued for a connection between the COR and time perspective theories based on motivation and goal attainment processes and further discussed the implications of our findings.
       
  • Spatial perspective taking is related to social intelligence and
           attachment style
    • Abstract: Publication date: Available online 30 November 2019Source: Personality and Individual DifferencesAuthor(s): Xavier Job, Louise Kirsch, Sandra Inard, Gabriel Arnold, Malika AuvrayAbstractIndividuals differ both in spatial and social perspective-taking, yet the links between the two are not well understood. Individuals differ in the spatial perspective they naturally adopt, but also in their ability to change perspectives. The present study investigated whether individual differences in spatial perspective-taking are related to social intelligence and adult attachment style. Spatial perspective-taking was measured using a graphesthesia task, in which ambiguous tactile symbols can be interpreted from different spatial perspectives. The task identified the spatial perspective individuals spontaneously adopted, then assessed the ability to change between natural and unnatural perspectives. Participants demonstrated a cost of switching to an unnatural perspective and a benefit of returning to their natural perspective. A greater cost of switching to an unnatural perspective was associated with lower anxious attachment. A stronger benefit of returning to one's natural perspective was associated with higher social intelligence. These findings suggest that a strong grounding in one's natural spatial perspective is associated with lower interpersonal anxiety and higher social intelligence. Building on these results, future studies should further investigate causal relationships between social and spatial perspective-taking.
       
 
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