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  Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 1104 journals)
    - CIVIL RIGHTS (13 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (137 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (920 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCES: GENERAL (34 journals)

POLITICAL SCIENCE (920 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Review     Open Access  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 38)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ekonomi, İşletme, Siyaset ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios digital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethics & International Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Éthique publique     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription  
Eunomia. Rivista semestrale del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Politiche e delle Relazioni Internazionali     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 82)
European Journal of Political Research : Political Data Yearbook     Hybrid Journal  
European Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
European Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Union Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 54)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eurostudia     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Evaluation and Program Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Evidence Base : A journal of evidence reviews in key policy areas     Open Access  
Exchange : The Journal of Public Diplomacy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fascism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Federal Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fédéralisme Régionalisme     Open Access  
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 38)
Foreign Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política     Open Access  
French Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Geographische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Geopolítica(s). Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Geopolitics under Globalization     Open Access  
German Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
German Politics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Gestão & Regionalidade     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 410)
Global Discourse : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 46)
Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Media Journal : African Edition     Open Access  
Global Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global Societies Journal     Open Access  
Global Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Global South, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global War Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Göç Dergisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Granì     Open Access  
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hague Journal of Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Helsinki Monitor     Hybrid Journal  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
Historia i Polityka     Open Access  
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hommes & Migrations     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Human Rights Case Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Human Rights Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration     Open Access  
Idäntutkimus     Open Access  
identidade!     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Identity Papers : A Journal of British and Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
India Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Indialogs : Spanish Journal of India Studies     Open Access  
Indonesia Prime     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Intelligence & National Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Interdisciplinary Political Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Südasienforschung     Open Access  
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Critical Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal : Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Area Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Children's Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of E-Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Electronic Government Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 581)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Minority and Group Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Migration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 35)
International Migration Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 275)
International Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 106)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 471)
International Political Science Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 95)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Regional Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Review of Public Policy     Open Access  
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 75)
International Socialism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Spectator : Italian Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 53)
International Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Theory: A Journal of International Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Israel Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Istanbul Journal of Economics and Politics     Open Access  
Italian Political Science Review / Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica     Hybrid Journal  
Italian Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IZA Journal of Development and Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Izquierdas     Open Access  
Japan Forum     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Japanese Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
JCMS : Journal of Common Market Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 49)
Jewish Culture and History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
JKAP (Jurnal Kebijakan dan Administrasi Publik)     Open Access  
Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines     Hybrid Journal  
Journal Exit-Deutschland. Zeitschrift für Deradikalisierung und demokratische Kultur     Open Access  
Journal for Deradicalization     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Peace and Justice Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Journal for Perspectives of Economic Political and Social Integration. Journal for Mental Changes     Open Access   (Followers: 4)

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
European Journal for Security Research
Number of Followers: 1  
 
  Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
ISSN (Print) 2365-0931 - ISSN (Online) 2365-1695
Published by Springer-Verlag Homepage  [2573 journals]
  • Reflecting on the Ethical and Legal Implications of the State-Led War
           Against International Terrorism
    • Abstract: Abstract This article takes critical issue with the state-led global war against international terrorism, focusing specifically on the ethical and legal implications of that protracted international conflict. Following others, the paper conceptualises terrorism as an aspect of modern political violence that tends to service the overall interest of extant liberal global political economy at the expense of the human security challenges. To this end, the article seeks to shed light on the flux of alliances and allegiances between formal state agents and informal political actors (e.g. religious extremist or terrorist groups and left-/right-wing para-militias, etc.), whose bellicose political activities not only underscore the global war on terror but in part also inform the post-Cold War liberal international order. It is only in viewing the ongoing state-led global war against international terrorism through the prism of the state system’s perennial bellicose activities that we would be able to fully appreciate the adverse effects the global war on terror on the development of both domestic and international law that is critical to safeguarding the security and/or protection of civilians in times of peace and war.
      PubDate: 2019-11-28
       
  • Before, Now, and After the Event of Terror: Situational Terror Awareness
           for Civilians in US Homeland Security
    • Abstract: This article examines terror awareness as an individualized security practice that allows civilians to respond to situations of emergent terror as they occur, that is, in real time. It is a practice that targets the “time–space” (Walters in Comp Eur Polit 15(5):794–817, 2016) just before, during, and immediately after an event of terror. In recent years, the notion of “terror awareness” has gained salience in official US homeland security discourses. To protect themselves and their communities from harm and ensure an uninterrupted “way of life,” citizens are routinely encouraged to be vigilant and aware to signs of potential terror as they attend to their daily affairs. They are asked to stay informed, remain alert, and be ready to respond to the incipiency of terror so that they may avert—or, at least mitigate—its potentially catastrophic and disruptive consequences. According to the authorities, this kind of habitualized threat awareness can help prevent acts of terror and strengthen community resilience. But what exactly do government and security officials mean when they speak of “terror awareness”' What does this practice of being “terror aware” entail' And how is it supposed to function as a protective mechanism against potential terror' What is its relationship to such abstract concepts as “security,” “preparedness,” and “resilience”' This article seeks to answer these questions. It is based on a careful reading of official and publicly available texts (press statements, policy documents, reports, training brochures, websites, etc.) about homeland security and anti-terrorism, where the notion of “awareness” finds mention and a specific understanding of it—namely as an individualized security technology—is being communicated to the wider public.
      PubDate: 2019-11-06
       
  • An Acid Test for Europeanization: Public Cyber Security Procurement in the
           European Union
    • Abstract: Abstract Public procurement refers to processes through which national, regional, and local public authorities, state-owned enterprises, or other related bodies governed by public law, purchase products, services, and public work. Such purchases have been a particularly important element in developing the Internal Market of the European Union (EU). Given recent procurement reforms in the EU, including the 2009 reform on defense procurement, this paper examines public cyber security procurement in Europe. Two questions are examined: (1) whether cyber security procurement differs from public procurement in general, and (2) whether there are any noteworthy signs of Europeanization in terms of cyber security procurement. According to the empirical results, cyber security procurement tends to differ from general public procurement. In particular, competition obstacles are visible in terms of bids for cyber security procurement tenders. This result is accompanied with a visible lack of Europeanization, although the same observation generalizes to public procurement in the EU generally. With these results and the accompanying discussion, the paper contributes to the recent lively discussion about European security and its relation to marketization.
      PubDate: 2019-10-05
       
  • A Fast-Track Method for Assessing the Risk of a Terrorist Attack on
           Transportation Facilities
    • Abstract: Abstract The study reported in this paper was designed to develop a fast-track method for assessing the risk of a terrorist attack on transportation facilities. This method may be of particular significance for transportation systems with numerous facilities, like subways and railroads. For instance, in a situation where there is information that in the coming days a terrorist attack may occur along a subway line, employing this method can enable the experts to promptly determine the facilities (stations) which are the likeliest to be attacked by the terrorists. Upon receipt of the data, the police and security team will be able to go ahead and concentrate the forces around those specific facilities, which should help boost the likelihood of the terrorist attack getting prevented.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • A Framework for GDPR Compliance for Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises
    • Abstract: Abstract The EU’s General Data Protection (GDPR) is an EU regulation that affects everyone in the EU and all organisations outside the EU that wants to do business with the EU. GDPR introduces tougher requirements for processing personal data, which may be difficult for many small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to follow without major adjustments. This work uses design science to develop a framework for SMEs to adapt to GDPR. The framework was empirically evaluated in three different types of organisations, resulting of GDPR compliance according to their Data Protection Officers. It was also theoretical evaluated against scientific literature including the identified implications of GDPR. In this paper the framework is presented, from initial analysis and design to implementation and future work, with advice on how to work with each part to achieve compliance. The paper also highlights some of the most important changes in GDPR compared to its predecessor, Directive 95/46/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 24 October 1995 on the protection of individuals with regard to the processing of personal data and on the free movement of such data (DIR95).
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Behavioural Economics of Security
    • Abstract: Abstract For years, the field of behavioural psychology has shaped the understanding of human behaviour. More and more findings of that discipline are also applied in economics. However, potential implications for the specific area of economics of security have been widely ignored. This paper transfers empirically proven phenomena of behavioural psychology, such as decision heuristics and fallacies, to the economics of security. In particular, we will focus on the subjective perception of risks and its implications on the evaluation of security solutions. Our paper provides an overview on aspects of behavioural psychology in economics of security. We argue that findings from behavioural psychology bear the potential to influence the assessment of security measures, and therefore need to be clearly identified for ensuring the efficient allocation of limited budgets for security solutions. In our view, sensitising decision-makers in the field of security for aspects of behavioural psychology is useful and conducive to enhance the management of risks for public security.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • Indus Water Treaty in the Doldrums Due to Water–Power Nexus
    • Abstract: Abstract Hydropower dams on rivers in the Indus Basin are becoming new elements in power geopolitics due to the threat of “aqua bombs” to downstream regions. Water law may limit such perceived water wars. The transboundary river water sharing agreements that bind bordering states are overstretched, particularly between Pakistan and India. Meanwhile, factors such as the expansion in industry and population, global warming, and reduction in oil and gas resources diminish scarce natural water resources. In addition, due to water pumping at levels above natural recharge rates, the underground water table has reached a state of continual free fall in the Indian and Pakistani Punjab. This work points out the dire need to reform international law to address such transboundary river conflicts, as water conflicts may become fully fledged armed conflicts with the current approach. The concurrence of power, energy, food, and water crises may wreak havoc on international river agreements if not addressed in international law. However, the laws that define rights among developed states may not be suitable for developing countries, and water and food security are critical issues for sovereign nations. Water sustains life, effectively determining all other geopolitical issues. The aim of this work is to investigate how international law could be adjusted with regard to international water sharing in order to resolve issues such as the energy crisis, economic collapse, global warming, and climate change.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • On the Application of the Safety-II Concept in a Security Context
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper presents an alternative and broader security risk perspective, incorporating uncertainty, as a two-dimensional combination of (1) threat (Th) on value (Vl), (2) vulnerability (Vu) given coping capabilities (Cc), and associated uncertainties U (will the threat scenario occur' and to what degree are we vulnerable'). Moreover, this work attempts to provide an integrated approach to the safety and security fields. We look closely into the issues related to Safety-I, Safety-II and security. Whereas conventional safety management approaches (Safety-I) are based on hindsight knowledge and risk assessments calculating historical data-based probabilities, the concept of Safety-II looks for ways to enhance the ability of organisations to be resilient in the sense that they recognise, adapt to and absorb disturbances. Three determinants that shape the Safety-II concept in the security perspective are the capacity of organisations to operate in changing circumstances; formulating strategies that promote a willingness to devote resources to security purposes, driven mainly by the organisation’s leader; and an organisational culture that encourage people to speak up (respond), think creatively (anticipate), and act as mindful participants (monitor and learn). Based on clarifying some of the fundamental building blocks of security risk assessment, this work develops an extended security risk assessment, including an analysis of both vulnerability and resilience. The analysis explores how the system works following any type of threat scenario and determines whether key functions and operations can be sustained.
      PubDate: 2019-10-01
       
  • A Review of Methods for Evaluating Security Awareness Initiatives
    • Abstract: Abstract The ‘human factor’ is commonly considered to be the weakest link in an organization’s security chain, and a significant percentage of companies have implemented security awareness (SA) programs to address this vulnerability. However, an element whose usefulness is still underestimated is the importance to perform measurements of the different SA programs’ effectiveness in order to assess their adequateness for achieving the intended goals. This gap has serious consequences as most of the security awareness campaigns have resulted to be largely unsuccessful. Awareness measurement tools might be determinant in providing feedback on the outcome of a program as well as in helping with the strategic planning for endorsing security. This article will introduce and critically compare a set of measurement methods. It will then discuss their attributes and suggested applications.
      PubDate: 2019-09-26
       
  • Risk and Resilience Analysis of Public Civil Buildings Against Shelling
           with Explosive Sources in Urban Contexts
    • Abstract: Abstract Due to their high availability and low cost level, passive protection measures are a key factor for reducing the vulnerability of persons within and close to assets against potentially impacting mortar, rocket and artillery threats. Particularly, mortar shelling has even most recently been reported. At risk are permanent and nonpermanent assets of civil, (non)governmental or peacekeeping organizations with corresponding effects, e.g., on civil society, civil services or successful nation building, respectively. Of interest are the identification of vulnerable areas and the assessment of the effectiveness of protective structures while taking also other counter measures into account. To this end, a seven-step quantitative risk and resilience analysis and management methodology is described and applied. It consists of the analysis of scenarios, frequencies, hazards, damage effects and risks and yields individual and collective risks for multi-threat scenarios. Local individual or collective risks can be minimized below criteria, thus reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience in an efficient way, e.g., by using geometrical changes, by structural roof, wall and window retrofits, by mitigating barriers and/or organizational measures. The approach is demonstrated along with three detailed example cases.
      PubDate: 2019-08-26
       
  • Obituary
    • PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Trends of Modern Terrorism in the Metro Systems of the World
    • Abstract: Abstract The issue of anti-terrorist protection of metro systems in recent decades has significantly worsened. This is due to the general growth of the terrorist threat in the world. According to the Global Terrorism Database of the National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism (START), a number of terrorist attacks have been committed in metro systems of various countries of the world, including Britain, Russia, USA, Japan and France. For effective measures to counteract such attacks, it is necessary to clearly know the trends of modern terrorism, particularly on the basis of systematization and analysis of statistical data on the terrorist attacks committed in the metro systems with the subsequent formation of a matrix of trends, which in this case was carried out by the authors of the article. The main statistical analysis method is the factor analysis. The proposed matrix helps to assess terrorist threats for metro systems and can be used to develop measures to ensure their security. The Matrix of Trends of Modern Terrorism in the Metro Systems’ main trends are identified: frequency of attacks; object of attacks; tool of attacks; method of attacks.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • On the Economic Impact of Crypto-ransomware Attacks: The State of the Art
           on Enterprise Systems
    • Abstract: Abstract According to Cybersecurity Ventures research in 2017, in every 40 s, a business falls prey to a ransomware attack and the rate is predicted to rise to 14 s by 2019. Business organizations have had to pay cybercriminals even up to $1 million in a single attack, while others have incurred losses in hundreds of millions of dollars. Clearly, ransomware is an emerging cyberthreat to enterprise systems that can no longer be ignored. In this paper, we address the various facets of the ransomware pandemic narrowing down to the technical and economic impacts. We formulate an attack model applicable to cascaded network design structures common in enterprise systems, detailing the various susceptible ransomware entry points. We evaluate how the incorporation of asymmetric and symmetric encryption in hybrid cryptosystems with worm-like properties in recent ransomware strains has brought about tragic targeted ransomware attacks campaigns such as WannaCry, Erebus, and SamSam. We also detail the economic impact of ransomware on various businesses in terms of paid ransoms and loss of revenue due to downtime and loss of production. Results show the substantial role played by the Bitcoin cryptocurrency and email as the prevalent attack vector in indiscriminate attack campaigns, while vulnerability exploitation is dominant in targeted attacks. Furthermore, results show that lack of offline backup and poorly implemented offline backup strategies end up costing businesses more than the ransom demand itself. We suggest mitigation strategies and recommend best practices based on the demystified core components of successful ransomware attacks campaigns.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Identity and Insecurity: Societal (In)security and Emergent Legal
           Challenges to European Identity
    • Abstract: Abstract This paper challenges the notion that European identity building remains a certain and effective path to societal security in the European Union. Instead, it argues that other emerging securitizations in the face of the migration crisis now represent a major challenge to European identity as the foundation of societal security in Europe. It begins by addressing the nature of the Copenhagen school and the societal security concept, then illustrates how it can be used to understand the post-war securitization of European identity and subsequent identity building process. However, the article then challenges the established normative position at European identity is a reliable security referent by highlighting the ongoing challenges posed by member-state counter-securitizations in the context of the migration crisis. These securitizations in turn manifest into legal challenges that threaten the foundations of European identity building. By focusing on themes of identity building, threat perception, and response, this paper highlights how the position occupied by the constructed notion of pan-European identity is declining in its role as a source of security and increasingly portrayed as a referent for member-state insecurity.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Validated 3D Spatial Stepwise Quantitative Hazard, Risk and Resilience
           Analysis and Management of Explosive Events in Urban Areas
    • Abstract: Abstract Urban physical security and resilience with respect to accidental and intentional explosive events are an increasing issue regarding civil safety and security of modern societies and their citizens. Examples include industrial on-site explosions, gas explosions or terrorist attacks. In particular, multiple, simultaneous and maliciously time-coordinated events are an increasing event type such as complex attack events consisting of targeted combinations of improvised explosive devices. The paper presents a comprehensive, tailorable and stepwise process. This includes methodologies for scenario, hazard, damage, exposure, event frequency, risk and resilience analysis that have been developed, refined and praxis-tested over decades. The focus is on a summarizing description of the modern best practice approach, the validation efforts undertaken for each step as well as two detailed case studies for exemplary presentation and overall validation. In a comprehensive table, the present approach is compared with other state-of-the-art approaches. The paper shows a refined process how to systematically improve resilience when using the tool, in particular through barriers at explosive sites and at exposed sites of various geometries. Furthermore, along the presentation a set of quality requirements regarding explosive event risk and resilience analyses are provided as collected over the years from the in-field, user group and engineering science perspective as well as a broad outlook on extension options for the future.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • How to Improve the Security Awareness in Complex Organizations
    • Abstract: Abstract The increasing interest arising around the field of security becomes a pragmatic issue when we consider the behavior of the employees of large organizations involved in critical infrastructures. As a matter of common knowledge, the human factor is the weakest link in the security chain. This introduces the topic of the security awareness of employees in large organizations. In this paper, we describe the results of a survey designed and delivered to large organizations in Europe, to understand how the topic of security is perceived and implemented and which are the security awareness initiatives held by organizations to instruct their employees. Moreover, we evaluate 23 methods to increase the security awareness, on the basis of several indicators describing their effectiveness, cost, implementation time, and other relevant aspects, to emphasize their pros and cons and their areas of applicability. Finally, we describe a tool developed to support the design of a security awareness campaign respecting the constraints imposed by the needs of each organization.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Situational Awareness, Information Exchange and Operational Control for
           Civilian EU Missions
    • Abstract: Abstract The European Union conducts a common security and defence policy (CSDP) that follows an integrated approach to external conflict and crisis. One means of the CSDP are external civilian missions, in some cases operating with military missions in the same operational environments. In order to better support the conduct of civilian missions, a Horizon 2020 project was awarded to propose design options for a “Situational Awareness, Information Exchange and Operational Control Platform”, in short an “operational control platform” (OCP). The design of the OCP raises challenges that are relevant not only for European CSDP missions but also for crisis management operations in general, namely questions of situational awareness, interoperability, security and local versus remote operational control. The Civilex project has provided an overview of the actual state of operational control in CSDP missions, investigated current challenges, collected requirements for an OCP and, ultimately, proposed design options for a future platform with the goal to improve situational awareness, information exchange and operational control for CSDP missions. This paper presents the outcomes of the Civilex project.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Restorative Justice in Uruguay: A Change of Lenses in a Reform of Criminal
           Justice'
    • Abstract: Abstract In recent decades, several countries have adopted restorative justice as a means of conflict resolution. While this tradition has deep roots in English-speaking and European countries, the use of restorative justice has been limited in Latin America. In an innovative effort, the Uruguayan Ministry of the Interior developed a restorative justice program as part of a comprehensive reform of the criminal justice system that entailed significant transformations, mainly in the legal system (from an inquisitorial to an adversarial one) and the Uruguayan National Police Force. This article examines this restorative justice initiative in detail, describing the context of its implementation, its implications for the reform of the criminal justice system, its preliminary results and future challenges that lie ahead.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • The Conceptual and Scientific Demarcation of Security in Contrast to
           Safety
    • Abstract: Abstract Increased focus on protection from terrorism, espionage, cybersecurity and other malicious crimes has led to increased academic interest in the topic of security, especially in risk and safety studies. This article aims to investigate the conceptual and scientific demarcation of security in contrast to safety, and discuss the status of security as an independent science. Security is a multifaceted concept and academic definitions often distinguish security from safety in terms of intentionality. However, intentionality also plays a part in safety research thus this is not a sufficient parameter for distinguishing the two fields. The dichotomy of non-malicious versus malicious is suggested as a means for differentiation. A new definition of security that incorporates elements associated with the current security research field is proposed. Security can be defined as the perceived or actual ability to prepare for, adapt to, withstand, and recover from dangers and crises caused by people’s deliberate, intentional, and malicious acts such as terrorism, sabotage, organized crime, or hacking. The conclusion is that before security can be established as an independent discipline, it is necessary to determine what concepts and theories are related to the field, what levels of and objects in society should be included, in addition to the interrelationships and interdependencies with other disciplines.
      PubDate: 2019-04-01
       
  • Special Issue: Predictive Security Technologies
    • PubDate: 2018-10-01
       
 
 
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