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  Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 871 journals)
    - CIVIL RIGHTS (10 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (100 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (738 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCES: GENERAL (23 journals)

POLITICAL SCIENCE (738 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Contracorriente     Open Access  
Ab Imperio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Borealia: A Nordic Journal of Circumpolar Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Politica Estica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Affirmations : of the modern     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa Renewal     Free   (Followers: 5)
Africa Review : Journal of the African Studies Association of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African East-Asian Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Afrique contemporaine : La revue de l'Afrique et du développement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agenda Política     Open Access  
Agenda: A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agrarian South : Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
América Latina Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 225)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
American Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anacronismo e Irrupción     Open Access  
Analecta política     Open Access  
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Politologia     Open Access  
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 121)
Apuntes Electorales     Open Access  
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Minor Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asian Affairs: An American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Astropolitics: The International Journal of Space Politics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AUDEM : The International Journal of Higher Education and Democracy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aurora. Revista de Arte, Mídia e Política     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Austrian Journal of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of European Studies     Open Access  
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Beleid en Maatschappij     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC International Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access  
Brésil(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 129)
British Journal of Politics and International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
British Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Estudos Sociais e Políticos     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de Sciences politiques de l'ULg     Open Access  
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambio 16     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Review of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Foreign Policy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Caucasus Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Central and Eastern European Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Central Banking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Review International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Global Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of International Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cittadinanza Europea (LA)     Full-text available via subscription  
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union     Open Access  
Class, Race and Corporate Power     Open Access  
Cold War History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Commonwealth & Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communist and Post-Communist Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Comparative Politics (Russia)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Conferences on New Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Confines     Open Access  
Conflict and Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 357)
Congress & the Presidency: A Journal of Capital Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Constellations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Security Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contenciosa     Open Access  
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Cooperation and Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
CQ Researcher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Critical Review : A Journal of Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews on Latin American Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultura de Paz     Open Access  
Cultural Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Décalages : An Althusser Studies Journal     Open Access  
Decolonization : Indigeneity, Education & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Democracy & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Democratic Communiqué     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Democratic Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Democratization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Demokratie und Geschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equal Opportunities International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Éthique publique     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Europe's World     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover European Journal of Political Research
  [SJR: 2.791]   [H-I: 62]   [63 followers]  Follow
    
   Hybrid Journal Hybrid journal (It can contain Open Access articles)
   ISSN (Print) 0304-4130 - ISSN (Online) 1475-6765
   Published by John Wiley and Sons Homepage  [1589 journals]
  • Dehydrogenative (Hetero)arene Alkoxylations Triggered by PdII-Catalyzed
           C(sp2)–H Activation and Coordinating Substituent: PdII,III or PdIV
           Complex as Key Intermediate?
    • Authors: Jean Le Bras; Jacques Muzart
      Abstract: This review summarizes the intermolecular PdII-catalyzed dehydrogenation procedures leading to regioselective coupling of alcohols with (hetero)arenes bearing tethered coordinating groups. Unusual oxidative conditions of catalyst regeneration are required, and the optimum oxidant varies with the substrate. Emphasis is placed on the mechanism of these intriguing reactions. Either PdII–Pd0 or PdII–PdIV redox catalytic cycles, possibly with PdIII intermediates, could be involved, depending on the directing group. ortho-Alkoxylation of (hetero)arenes bearing tethered coordinating groups is catalyzed by PdII species. According to computational, NMR and ESI-MS studies, the mechanism should greatly depend on the nature of the coordinating group.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T11:51:38.839083-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601592
       
  • Cycloadditions of Donor–Acceptor Cyclopropanes and Nitriles
    • Authors: Brian L. Pagenkopf; Naresh Vemula
      Abstract: Lewis acid promoted cycloaddition reactions of donor–acceptor (DA) cyclopropanes are one of the well-studied approaches for the construction of heterocyclic and carbocyclic frameworks. During our efforts to exploit this strategy for the synthesis and functionalization of carbohydrate-derived systems, we discovered the cycloaddition of nitriles with DA cyclopropanes. This personal account details our contributions to the development of this cycloaddition. The reaction discovery, methods development, and application in total synthesis along with related examples from others are discussed herein.This microreview is an account of our contributions to the development of cycloadditions between donor–acceptor cyclopropanes and nitriles. The reaction discovery, methods development, and application in total synthesis along with contextual examples from others are discussed herein.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T11:50:03.874161-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700201
       
  • Recent Approaches to the Synthesis of Pyrimidine Derivatives
    • Authors: Mafakher Mahfoudh; Raoudha Abderrahim, Eric Leclerc, Jean-Marc Campagne
      Abstract: The synthesis of pyrimidines is a very active area of research, due to the wide applicability of such compounds in pharmaceutical or coordination chemistry. The recent advances since the most recent reviews (2008/2009) are collected here, demonstrating the surge of creativity that this domain has experienced during the last seven years.The synthesis of pyrimidines is a very active area of research, due to the wide applicability of such compounds in pharmaceutical or coordination chemistry. The recent advances since the last reviews (2008/2009) are collected in this microreview, demonstrating the surge of creativity that this domain has witnessed during the last seven years.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T11:49:11.546483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700008
       
  • Iodine- and PhI(OAc)2-Mediated Multicomponent Synthesis of
           (E)-1,3-Diphenyl-1-butene Derivatives
    • Authors: Mokgethwa B. Marakalala; Henok H. Kinfe
      Abstract: A multicomponent reaction, promoted by molecular iodine and diacetoxyiodobenzene, for the synthesis of (E)-1,3-diphenyl-1-butene derivatives from styrene and thiophenol was developed. The attractiveness of the protocol is its ability to introduce a sulfur heteroatom without a need for an extra reaction step. The scope and limitations of the protocol are investigated.A regio- and stereoselective three-component reaction towards 1,3-diphenyl-1-butene derivatives has been developed. The reaction proceeds in the presence of iodine and PhI(OAc)2; addition of metals or strong acids is not needed. Unlike previously developed protocols, the current methodology allows the incorporation of a sulfur heteroatom as well as two different styrene derivatives in the dimer.
      PubDate: 2017-04-13T10:57:51.642739-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700199
       
  • Front Cover: Synthesis of Chiral Tetrahydrofurans and Pyrrolidines by
           Visible-Light-Mediated Deoxygenation (Eur. J. Org. Chem. /2017)
    • Authors: Daniel Rackl; Viktor Kais, Eugen Lutsker, Oliver Reiser
      Abstract: The cover picture shows the blue-light-mediated, deoxygenative cyclization of allylated diols or amino alcohols, giving rise to chiral tetrahydrofurans or pyrrolidines. Specifically, Zeus takes pleasure in carrying out the title reaction with Bacchus's favorite tartaric acid derivatives during one of their frequent visits to the Regensburg Walhalla, which they consider to be their second home. Details are discussed in the Full Paper by O. Reiser et al. on page -- ff (
      DOI : 10.1002/ejoc.201700014).
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:46:12.810533-05:
       
  • Back Cover: Visible-Light, Photoredox-Mediated Oxidative Tandem
           Nitroso-Diels–Alder Reaction of Arylhydroxylamines with Conjugated
           Dienes (Eur. J. Org. Chem. /2017)
    • Authors: Veronica Santacroce; Raphael Duboc, Max Malacria, Giovanni Maestri, Geraldine Masson
      Abstract: The cover picture shows the nitroso-Diels–Alder reaction between hydroxylamines and conjugated dienes. This tandem process is achieved by an in situ aerobic oxidation. In fact, the Ru2+ photocatalyst can selectively oxidize hydroxylamines to nitroso intermediates, allowing the one-pot synthesis of the desired 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines. These oxidizing conditions show a broad functional-group tolerance towards both reaction partners, validating the synthetic potential of the method. Details are discussed in the Communication by G. Masson et al. on page -- ff (
      DOI : 10.1002/ejoc.201601492).
      PubDate: 2017-04-12T06:46:11.600234-05:
       
  • Photocatalysis in Organic Synthesis – Past, Present, and Future
    • Authors: Burkhard König
      Abstract: The use of visible light as a catalyst in organic reactions has developed greatly in the last decade as a result of the increasing urge to implement energy-efficient and green processes and through the availability of light-emitting diodes as convenient sources of visible light. Although photoredox reactions with visible light have been used in a broad range of transformations, the mechanism behind these reactions needs to be understood to design better catalytic systems.Photoredox catalysis has developed rapidly over the last decade, but where will the field move to in the future? The illustration “The Modern Alchemist” (cold-needle etching, 2015, 19.5 × 13.5 cm) was created by Sebastian Dorn, art student at the University of Regensburg. Reproduced with permission of the artist.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T06:42:28.092679-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700420
       
  • Unique Strategies for Controlling Enantioselective Stereochemistry of
           Cyclizations via Radical Intermediates
    • Authors: Hideto Miyabe
      Abstract: Enantioselective stereocontrol in cyclization reactions continues to attract much interest. This review article highlights the recent progress in the conceptually and mechanistically unique enantioselective cyclization approaches involving radical intermediates, which cannot be strictly classified according to the typical enantioselective radical cyclizations. This review summarizes the chiral memory effect or transfer of axial chirality in radical cyclizations, [2+2] photocycloaddition controlled by chiral Lewis acids or by chiral hydrogen-bonding organocatalysts, CoII-based metalloradical catalysis, and radical-polar/polar-radical crossover reactions controlled by chiral imidazolidinone organocatalysts or chiral copper catalysts. New radical methodologies for asymmetric synthesis are emerging continuously. This review summarizes the conceptually and mechanistically important enantioselective cyclization approaches involving radical intermediates.
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T08:05:37.423523-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700036
       
  • The time inconsistency of long constitutions: Evidence from the world
    • Authors: GEORGE TSEBELIS
      Abstract: This article analyses the mechanisms establishing time consistency of constitutions. It explains why shorter and more locked constitutions are more likely to be time consistent (change less) and that long constitutions are more time inconsistent (change more, despite locking). Empirical evidence from all of the democratic countries in the world indicates that the length and locking of constitutions are not independent criteria, and that their combination leads to less time consistency. To address this inter-relationship, a measure of time inconsistency (a combination of locking and amendment rate) is developed and it is demonstrated that it is connected with the length of constitutions. The article shows how time inconsistency is incompatible with theories of ‘constitutional amendment culture’ not only at the theoretical level, but also empirically. Finally, the article proves that the empirical finding that the length of constitutions is related to lower per capita income and higher corruption are not only in agreement with time inconsistency arguments, but this also extends beyond OECD countries to all democracies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:05:38.044951-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12206
       
  • The time inconsistency of long constitutions: Evidence from the world
    • Authors: GEORGE TSEBELIS
      Abstract: This article analyses the mechanisms establishing time consistency of constitutions. It explains why shorter and more locked constitutions are more likely to be time consistent (change less) and that long constitutions are more time inconsistent (change more, despite locking). Empirical evidence from all of the democratic countries in the world indicates that the length and locking of constitutions are not independent criteria, and that their combination leads to less time consistency. To address this inter-relationship, a measure of time inconsistency (a combination of locking and amendment rate) is developed and it is demonstrated that it is connected with the length of constitutions. The article shows how time inconsistency is incompatible with theories of ‘constitutional amendment culture’ not only at the theoretical level, but also empirically. Finally, the article proves that the empirical finding that the length of constitutions is related to lower per capita income and higher corruption are not only in agreement with time inconsistency arguments, but this also extends beyond OECD countries to all democracies.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:05:38.044951-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12206
       
  • Connecting deliberative mini-publics to representative decision making
    • Authors: MAIJA SETÄLÄ
      Abstract: Despite some prominent critics, deliberative democrats tend to be optimistic about the potential of deliberative mini-publics. However, the problem with current practices is that mini-publics are typically used by officials on an ad hoc basis and that their policy impacts remain vague. Mini-publics seem especially hard to integrate into representative decision making. There are a number of reasons for this, especially prevailing ideas of representation and accountability as well as the contestatory character of representative politics. This article argues that deliberative mini-publics should be regarded as one possible way of improving the epistemic quality of representative decision making and explores different institutional designs through which deliberative mini-publics could be better integrated into representative institutions. The article considers arrangements which institutionalise the use of mini-publics; involve representatives in deliberations; motivate public interactions between mini-publics and representatives; and provide opportunities to ex post scrutiny or suspensive veto powers for mini-publics. The article analyses prospects and problems of these measures, and considers their applicability in different contexts of representative politics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:05:29.18049-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12207
       
  • Connecting deliberative mini-publics to representative decision making
    • Authors: MAIJA SETÄLÄ
      Abstract: Despite some prominent critics, deliberative democrats tend to be optimistic about the potential of deliberative mini-publics. However, the problem with current practices is that mini-publics are typically used by officials on an ad hoc basis and that their policy impacts remain vague. Mini-publics seem especially hard to integrate into representative decision making. There are a number of reasons for this, especially prevailing ideas of representation and accountability as well as the contestatory character of representative politics. This article argues that deliberative mini-publics should be regarded as one possible way of improving the epistemic quality of representative decision making and explores different institutional designs through which deliberative mini-publics could be better integrated into representative institutions. The article considers arrangements which institutionalise the use of mini-publics; involve representatives in deliberations; motivate public interactions between mini-publics and representatives; and provide opportunities to ex post scrutiny or suspensive veto powers for mini-publics. The article analyses prospects and problems of these measures, and considers their applicability in different contexts of representative politics.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T21:05:29.18049-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12207
       
  • An Overview of 2-Styrylchromones: Natural Occurrence, Synthesis,
           Reactivity and Biological Properties
    • Authors: Clementina M. M. Santos; Artur M. S. Silva
      Abstract: 2-Styrylchromones are a small class of oxygen-containing heterocycles. Despite their sparse occurrence in nature, several synthetic approaches have been developed in order to synthesize a large variety of derivatives, possessing different substituents in different positions of the main core. They are also versatile building blocks in the synthesis of new heterocyclic systems and important intermediates in the search for bioactive compounds. It is our intention in this review to give a general overview on the natural occurrence, synthesis, reactivity and biological properties of 2-styrylchromones, which were published up until 2016.(E)-2-Styrylchromones are a small group of naturally occurring oxygen heterocycles that have been attracting great attention due to their biological activities and also as starting materials in the synthesis of other bioactive oxygen and nitrogen heterocycles. The natural occurrence, reactivity and biological evaluation of these compounds are reviewed, together with methods for their synthesis.
      PubDate: 2017-04-03T08:50:47.795881-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700003
       
  • Synthesis and Application of Cyclic Diaryliodonium Salts: A Platform for
           Bifunctionalization in a Single Step
    • Authors: Nachiketa Chatterjee; Avijit Goswami
      Abstract: In recent years the chemistry of cyclic iodonium salts has experienced ever-growing development. The advantages of using cyclic iodonium salts over acyclic iodonium salts are that the reactions between cyclic iodonium salts and various nucleophiles lead, under suitable reaction conditions, to dual arylations in a one-pot manner and to the formation of new heterocycles. Variously functionalized thiophenes, carbazoles, fluorenes, phenanthrenes and triazolophenanthridines have been synthesized by utilizing cyclic diaryliodonium salts. Various new ladder-type π-conjugated systems have also been synthesized by employing cyclic iodonium salts. In this microreview, the recent advancements in the synthesis and application of cyclic diaryliodonium salts are discussed in a systematic and concise manner.Diaryliodonium salts (Ar2I+X–) are an important class of hypervalent organoiodine(III) compounds. The chemistry of their cyclic forms has recently experienced notable development, by treatment with nucleophiles leading to single-step, one-pot dual arylation and bifunctionalization. Variously functionalized heterocycles, carbocycles and ladder-type π-conjugated systems have also been synthesized.
      PubDate: 2017-03-28T08:45:33.256481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601651
       
  • Building 1,2,4-Thiadiazole: Ten Years of Progress
    • Authors: Luís M. T. Frija; Armando J. L. Pombeiro, Maximilian N. Kopylovich
      Abstract: Thiadiazoles are among the privileged pharmacological building blocks due to their unique chemical properties for diverse biological and clinical applications. 1,2,4-Thiadiazole derivatives have recently attained a therapeutic and economic importance that they did not possess a few years ago, thus leading to growing interest in this class of heterocycles. Moreover, the importance of such molecules is not restricted to medicinal chemistry; they also perform well as N,S ligands in coordination chemistry or as important intermediates for fine-chemicals synthesis. In this context, this review systematizes the main advances in the synthesis of 1,2,4-thiadiazole-based compounds in the last ten years and discloses some relevant applications of these compounds during that period.1,2,4-Thiadiazoles have recently attained a therapeutic and economic importance that they did not possess a few years ago. This review provides a report on developments in the synthesis of 1,2,4-thiadiazole-based compounds during the last decade.
      PubDate: 2017-03-24T07:25:58.782783-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601642
       
  • Carboxamides as N-Alkylating Reagents of Secondary Amines in
           Indium-Catalyzed Reductive Amination with a Hydrosilane
    • Authors: Yohei Ogiwara; Wataru Shimoda, Keisuke Ide, Takumi Nakajima, Norio Sakai
      Abstract: A method for the catalytic reductive N-alkylation of amines by using secondary amides as the alkyl source was developed. A versatile type of carboxamide functioned as an N-alkylation reagent in the presence of an indium(III) catalyst and a hydrosilane to provide alkylated tertiary amines efficiently. This amide-based catalytic N-alkylation strategy is considered to be a highly useful protocol to access unsymmetrical tertiary amines. Amides as an alkyl source: Carboxamides function as N-alkylation reagents with an indium(III)/silane catalytic reducing system for the effective production of a wide range of unsymmetrical tertiary amines. This amide-based catalytic N-alkylation strategy can lead to a direct and complementary, or alternative, approach to tertiary amines.
      PubDate: 2017-03-23T08:05:54.233461-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601629
       
  • Multicomponent Mannich-Like Reactions of Organometallic Species
    • Authors: Jérôme Paul; Marc Presset, Erwan Le Gall
      Abstract: A century after the pioneering works of Carl Mannich in 1917, the aminoalkylation of carbonylated compounds has become a classical reaction of organic chemistry. Thanks to its modular character, the so-called multicomponent Mannich reaction has found numerous applications throughout the fields of chemistry, especially for synthetic and biomedical purpose. After 100 years of good service, recent developments involving nucleophile diversification through the use of stoichiometric or even catalytic amounts of organometallic species have greatly revitalized this venerable reaction and expanded its scope, thus opening the way to a new world of possibilities. This Microreview on the organometallic Mannich reaction aims to highlight seminal contributions to the field as well as the major progress recently made in this area. Mannich of steel: A century after its discovery, the Mannich reaction has benefited from improved or original versions of the process involving alternative nucleophiles. Here we provide an up-to-date overview of Mannich-like reactions employing stoichiometric or catalytic organometallic reagents, which have significantly enhanced the synthetic potential of this classic of organic chemistry.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:31:10.007618-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700038
       
  • Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed 1,2-Rearrangements of 3-Hydroxyindolenines to
           Indoxyls and 2-Oxindoles: Reagent-Controlled Regioselectivity Enabled by
           Dual Activation
    • Authors: Eva Schendera; Stephanie Lerch, Thorsten von Drathen, Lisa-Natascha Unkel, Malte Brasholz
      Abstract: A common synthetic route to indoxyl and 2-oxindole alkaloids utilizes the oxidation of indoles to 3-hydroxyindolenines, followed by acid-mediated 1,2-rearrangement. However, controlling the regioselectivity is often challenging and there is an ongoing need for new reaction conditions allowing to steer product selectivity. We report herein that phosphoric acids are ideal organocatalysts for the highly regioselective 1,2-rearrangement of 3-hydroxyindolenines to 2-oxindoles, with predictable product selectivity arising from an efficient dual activation mode.Acid-induced 1,2-rearrangements of hydroxyindolenines lead to indoxyls and 2-oxindoles, but controlling product selectivity is often challenging. Phosphoric acids are found to be ideal organocatalysts to induce the highly regioselective rearrangement to 2-oxindoles for many examples.
      PubDate: 2017-03-21T05:30:57.109525-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700085
       
  • Recognition of Chiral Amines by a Terpyridine-Zn(II) Complex-Based
           Circular Dichroism Sensor
    • Authors: Lin Pu; Liming Chen, Shanshan Yu, Meng Xiao, Zeng Huang, Kaili Wen, Yimang Xu, Feng Zhao, Xiaoqi Yu
      Abstract: A terpyridine-based aldehyde is discovered to exhibit strong circular dichroism (CD) signals at wavelengths much greater than the absorptions of the chiral substrates when treated with chiral amines, amino alcohols and amino acids in the presence of Zn2+. This sensor system can be used to determine the enantiomeric composition of the chiral compounds by CD measurement.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T14:30:38.431278-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700066
       
  • Synthesis of Functionalized Quinolines from 4-(o-Nitroaryl)-substituted
           3-Acyl-4,5-dihydrofurans: Reductive Cyclization and C=C Double Bond
           Cleavage
    • Authors: Sergey Zaytsev; Elena Villemson, Konstantin Ivanov, Ekaterina Budynina, Mikhail Melnikov
      Abstract: A new synthetic approach to functionalized quinolines was developed based on the application of Zn-AcOH system as a simple and efficient reductive agent towards 4-(o-nitroaryl)-3-acyl-substituted 4,5-dihydrofurans. Reduction of 3-carbonyl-substituted dihydrofurans is accomplished by C=C double bond cleavage in the dihydrofuran ring and 1,6-cyclization leading to 3,4-dihydroquinolines. The latter can be easily oxidized to quinolines or reduced to tetrahydroquinolines. For dihydrofuran-3-carboxylates, reduction proceeds with retention of the dihydrofuran ring and affords a tricyclic dihydrofuroquinoline core under harsher conditions. The proposed general reaction pattern was supported by results of DFT calculations. Moreover, a similar reductive system can be successfully applied in the conversion of dihydrofuran acyclic precursors, -(o-nitroaryl) α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds, into quinoline derivatives.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T09:21:04.09094-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700256
       
  • The structure of foreign policy attitudes in transatlantic perspective:
           Comparing the United States, United Kingdom, France and Germany
    • Authors: TIMOTHY B. GRAVELLE; JASON REIFLER, THOMAS J. SCOTTO
      Abstract: While public opinion about foreign policy has been studied extensively in the United States, there is less systematic research of foreign policy opinions in other countries. Given that public opinion about international affairs affects who gets elected in democracies and then constrains the foreign policies available to leaders once elected, both comparative politics and international relations scholarship benefit from more systematic investigation of foreign policy attitudes outside the United States. Using new data, this article presents a common set of core constructs structuring both American and European attitudes about foreign policy. Surveys conducted in four countries (the United States, the United Kingdom, France and Germany) provide an expanded set of foreign policy-related survey items that are analysed using exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM). Measurement equivalence is specifically tested and a common four-factor structure that fits the data in all four countries is found. Consequently, valid, direct comparisons of the foreign policy preferences of four world powers are made. In the process, the four-factor model confirms and expands previous work on the structure of foreign policy attitudes. The article also demonstrates the capability of ESEM in testing the dimensionality and cross-national equivalence of social science concepts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T04:16:20.823783-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12197
       
  • Phase-Transfer-Catalyzed Asymmetric Michael Addition of
           Iminomethylphosphonates to α, β-Unsaturated Ketones: Acess to
           α-Aminophosphonic Acids Derivatives
    • Authors: Jun-An Ma; Jin-Shan Li, Han-Feng Cui, Ke-Feng Zhang, Jing Nie
      Abstract: A phase-transfer catalytic asymmetric Michael addition of iminomethylphosphonates to α, β-unsaturated ketones is described. In the presence of 1 mol-% chiral dinuclear N-spiro-ammonium salts, the addition reaction proceeded smoothly to afford the adducts in up to 96% yield with 99/1 dr and 78% ee. One of the adducts could be readily converted into cyclic α-aminophosphonic acid derivative without any erosion of its enantiopurity.
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T02:10:45.259449-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700249
       
  • Redox Center Modification of Lapachones Toward the Syntheses of
           Nitrogenated Heterocycles as Selective Fluorescent Mitochondrial Imaging
           Probes
    • Authors: Fabíola dos Santos; Gleiston G. Dias, Rossimiriam P. de Freitas, Lucas S. Santos, Guilherme F. de Lima, Hélio A. Duarte, Carlos A. de Simone, Lidia Rezende, Monique J. X. Vianna, José R. Correa, Brenno A. D. Neto, Eufrânio Nunes da Silva Júnior
      Abstract: This work describes a synthetic strategy for the syntheses of new fluorescent imidazole and phenazine derivatives synthesized from lapachol, a naturally occurring naphthoquinone isolated from Tabebuia species (ipê tree). Photophysical properties and computational details of these compounds were studied aiming at a complete understanding of the potential of these derivatives as probes capable of staining mitochondria selectively. Cell imaging experiments proved the imidazole derivatives capacity as selective fluorescent mitochondrial imaging probes. These heterocycles presented the same staining patterns of MitoTracker red corroborating the potential of these compounds as new mitochondria markers permeable to the cell membrane
      PubDate: 2017-03-20T02:05:38.370319-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700227
       
  • How federalism influences welfare spending: Belgium federalism reform
           through the perspective of the synthetic control method
    • Authors: TOBIAS ARNOLD; ISABELLE STADELMANN-STEFFEN
      Abstract: The question of whether and how federalism influences a country's welfare state has been a longstanding concern of political scientists. However, no agreement exists on exactly how, and under what conditions, federal structures impact the welfare state. This article examines this controversy. It concludes theoretically that the specific constellation of federal structures and distribution of powers need to be considered when theorising the effects of federalism on the welfare state. Using the case of Belgium and applying the synthetic control method, it is shown in the article that without the federalism reform of 1993, the country would have had further decreases in social spending rather than a consolidation of this spending in the years after 1993. In the case of Belgium, the combination of increased subnational spending autonomy in a still national financing system provided ideal conditions for a positive federalism effect on social spending to occur.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T03:30:45.368081-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12196
       
  • Women's rights in democratic transitions: A global sequence analysis,
           1900–2012
    • Authors: YI-TING WANG; PATRIK LINDENFORS, AKSEL SUNDSTRÖM, FREDRIK JANSSON, PAMELA PAXTON, STAFFAN I. LINDBERG
      Abstract: What determines countries’ successful transition to democracy? This article explores the impact of granting civil rights in authoritarian regimes and especially the gendered aspect of this process. It argues that both men's and women's liberal rights are essential conditions for democratisation to take place: providing both women and men rights reduces an inequality that affects half of the population, thus increasing the costs of repression and enabling the formation of women's organising – historically important to spark protests in initial phases of democratisation. This argument is tested empirically using data that cover 173 countries over the years 1900–2012 and contain more nuanced measures than commonly used. Through novel sequence analysis methods, the results suggest that in order to gain electoral democracy a country first needs to furnish civil liberties to both women and men.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T03:30:37.00463-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12201
       
  • Economic crises and the nationalisation of politics
    • Authors: IGNACIO JURADO; SANDRA LEÓN
      Abstract: The literature on party system nationalisation has yet to provide a better understanding of the impact of short-term factors upon the nationalisation of politics. This article helps to fill this literature gap by analysing the effect of economic conditions on party system nationalisation. The argument is that economic crises will decrease levels of nationalisation by amplifying territorial variation in preferences for redistribution, limiting political parties’ capacity to coordinate divergent interests across districts and triggering the emergence of new political forces. Data on 47 countries for the 1960–2011 period confirm this hypothesis and show that lower economic growth during the years prior to the election is associated with a decrease in levels of party system nationalisation in the next election. The result is robust to variation in the specification of the econometric model and to the use of different measures of nationalisation. Results also show that federal institutions increase the impact of economic conditions on the nationalisation of politics, whereas any moderating effect of electoral system proportionality on the economy is not found.
      PubDate: 2017-03-17T01:15:31.308886-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12198
       
  • Cycloisomerization of Pyridine-Substituted Propargylic Alcohols or Esters
           To Construct Indolizines and Indolizinones
    • Authors: Li-Xia Wang; Ya-Lin Tang
      Abstract: Nitrogen-containing heterocycles are found in a vast number of natural products and biologically active compounds, and have attracted a lot of attention. Among all the reported methods, cycloisomerization transformations involving the activation of alkynes with the aid of transition metals are a very active area in synthetic organic chemistry. This review covers the most important recent advances in the use of metal-catalyzed or metal-free cycloisomerizations for the preparation of indolizines and indolizinones from starting substrates consisting of pyridine-containing propargylic esters or alcohols. Cycloisomerization transformations to heterocycles are very efficient and atom-economic, and we hope that this review will result in further focused research to widen the application of indolizines and indolizinones.Cycloisomerization transformations affording heterocycles are very efficient and atom-economic. This review covers the most important recent advances in metal-catalyzed or metal-free cycloisomerizations to prepare indolizines and indolizinones from starting substrates consisting of pyridine-containing propargylic esters or alcohols.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T10:00:58.719637-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601530
       
  • Malonic Acid Derivatives on Duty as Electron-Withdrawing Units in
           Push-Pull Molecules
    • Authors: Milan Klikar; Veronika Jelínková, Zdeňka Růžičková, Tomáš Mikysek, Oldřich Pytela, Miroslav Ludwig, Filip Bures
      Abstract: Based on the 2 (N-piperidinyl)thiophene central donor, 32 model push-pull molecules with systematically varied malonic acid-derived peripheral acceptors have been prepared. Further property tuning has been achieved by modifying the π-linker and the structural arrangement (linear vs. quadrupolar D-π-A systems). Malonic acid derivatives such as cyanoacetic acid, malondinitrile, diethyl malonate, Meldrum´s acid, and N,N´-dibutyl(thio)barbituric acid as well as 1,3-diketo analogues dimedone and indan-1,3-dione were employed as acceptor moieties. Knoevenagel condensation with four thiophene aldehydes afforded target chromophores in satisfactory yields. Withdrawing abilities of malonic acid acceptors were examined both by experiment including X-ray analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, electrochemistry, and UV Vis absorption spectroscopy and by DFT calculations. Thorough structure-property relationships have been elucidated. According the increasing electron withdrawing ability, the widely used malonic acid acceptor units can be ordered as follows: diethyl malonate ≤ cyanoacetic acid ˂ malondinitrile ˂ Meldrum's acid ˂ dimedone ≤ N,N'-dibutylbarbituric acid ˂ indan-1,3-dione ≤ N,N' dibutylthiobarbituric acid.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T07:40:56.8009-05:00
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700070
       
  • Multicomponent Reactions of Arylglyoxal, 4-Hydroxycoumarin, and Cyclic
           1,3-C,N-Binucleophiles: Binucleophile Directed Synthesis of Fused Five and
           Six Membered N-Heterocycles
    • Authors: Md.Lokman H. Choudhury; Richa Mishra, Anoop Kumar Panday, Jagannath Pal, Ranga Subramanian, Ajay Verma
      Abstract: Multicomponent reaction of arylglyoxal, 4-hydroxycoumarin and various cyclic 1,3-C,N-binucleophiles in acetic acid medium under microwave conditions provide fused five or six membered N-heterocycles depending on the ring size of the binucleophiles. 1,3-C,N-binucleophiles such as amino pyrazole/oxazole having five membered ring provided fused six membered dihydropyrdines or pyridine derivatives whereas amino uracil, cytosine and 4/3-amino coumarines having six membered ring provided corresponding five membered fused pyrroles. Using DFT calculation, mechanism of the ring size dependent multicomponent cyclization has also been explained. Cyclic 1,3- C,N-binucleophiles such as aminopyrazole, aminooxazole, aminocoumarin, aminouracil and cytosine have been explored in this MCR and corresponding fused pyrroles/dihydropyridine or pyridines were obtained in very good yields. The structures of fused molecules have been unambiguously confirmed by spectroscopic techniques as well as by Single crystal X-ray analysis.
      PubDate: 2017-03-16T05:40:49.977426-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700115
       
  • Why and how to compare deliberative systems
    • Authors: JOHN BOSWELL; JACK CORBETT
      Abstract: The systemic turn in deliberative democratic theory presents empirical researchers in this field with a problem. Deliberative systems are complex, porous and shifting in nature. These features cannot be adequately assessed by existing tools for measuring deliberative and democratic qualities. Such qualities only become apparent when set against practices in other systems. Meaningful analysis rests on comparison. However, in turning to the comparative politics literature for inspiration, we caution that the two dominant traditions in this subfield – rigidly systematic comparison or thickly descriptive area studies – are of only limited utility. On the one hand, rigid comparative analysis will map uncomfortably on the systemic account. On the other, there is a need to move beyond idiographic accounts produced in thick descriptions. Instead, this article emphasises the value of two alternative traditions in comparative political analysis. The first is through the use of ‘family resemblances’ in comparative research design. The second is through post hoc comparisons that draw together eclectic affinities between systems. Both approaches are sensitive to the contextual complexities of deliberative systems in practice. Both can tell us a great deal about why and how deliberative practices and institutions emerge, flourish or fail, and how they enable, enhance or undermine the democratic and deliberative qualities of the system overall. This article draws on promising examples of these two approaches to emphasise their value in understanding deliberative systems in practice.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T22:51:51.880437-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12205
       
  • Does personal contact with ethnic minorities affect anti-immigrant
           sentiments? Evidence from a field experiment
    • Authors: HENNING FINSERAAS; ANDREAS KOTSADAM
      Abstract: This article explores the causal effect of personal contact with ethnic minorities on majority members’ views on immigration, immigrants’ work ethics, and support for lower social assistance benefits to immigrants than to natives. Exogenous variation in personal contact is obtained by randomising soldiers into different rooms during the basic training period for conscripts in the Norwegian Army's North Brigade. Based on contact theory of majority–minority relations, the study spells out why the army can be regarded as an ideal contextual setting for exposure to reduce negative views on minorities. The study finds a substantive effect of contact on views on immigrants’ work ethics, but small and insignificant effects on support for welfare dualism, as well as on views on whether immigration makes Norway a better place in which to live.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T22:51:49.657246-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12199
       
  • Ferrier-Nicholas cations from (C3)-alkynyl glycals: Access to C3-branched
           allylic glycosides and ring-opening derivatives
    • Authors: Silvia Miranda; Fernando Lobo, Ana M Gomez, J. Cristobal Lopez
      Abstract: Dicobalt hexacarbonyl (C3)-alkynyl-substituted glycal derivatives, when treated with BF3.OEt2 give rise to Nicholas-stabilized Ferrier cation intermediates (Ferrier-Nicholas cations) that react with alcohols or C-nucleophiles to give C3-branched 2,3-unsaturated glycosides or C-glycosides, respectively. α-C-Glycosides are the sole compounds obtained when allyltrimethylsilane was used as the nucleophile. On the contrary, the reaction of (C3)-alkynyl glycals with heteroaryl or alcohol nucleophiles led to anomeric mixtures in which the β-anomers prevailed. The presence of the C3-alkynyl-hexacarbonyl substituent seems to be of key importance in the stereoselectivity of these transformations, since the reaction of C3 alkynyl glycals -devoid of the hexacarbonyl moiety− displayed a preferred α-stereoselectivity. Furthermore, a bis-indolyl linear compound could be obtained in the reaction of a dicobalt hexacarbonyl (C3)-alkynyl glycal with two equivalents of indol.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T14:35:55.833223-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700189
       
  • Photocatalytic Phenol–Arene C–C and C–O
           Cross-Dehydrogenative Coupling
    • Authors: Anna Eisenhofer; Johnny Hioe, Ruth M. Gschwind, Burkhard König
      Abstract: Phenol-containing nonsymmetrical biaryls play an important role in natural-product synthesis, as ligands in metal catalysis, and in organic functional materials. Their synthesis through cross-coupling reactions by two-fold direct C–H activation are important and challenging transformations. In the last decade, a variety of useful oxidative methods have been developed. The key to efficiency and selectivity typically is the application of highly fluorinated solvent systems. Herein, we describe the visible-light-mediated C–C and C–O cross-coupling of electron-rich phenols and arenes by using [Ru(bpz)3](PF6)2] as photocatalyst and ammonium persulfate as terminal oxidant. The method requires no leaving group functionalities, which allows the use of simple activated arenes as starting materials. Furthermore, the approach features good chemo- and regioselectivity as well as functional group tolerance, even upon the replacement of fluoro alcohols by acetonitrile. The selectivity for the formation of nonsymmetrical biaryls is rationalized on the basis of the nucleophilicity N values and the oxidation potentials Eox of the electron-rich substrates.The formation of C–C and C–O cross-coupling products of phenols and arenes by direct C–H activation has been achieved in the absence of leaving-group functionalities by visible-light photoredox catalysis. The efficiency and chemoselectivity (homo- vs. cross-coupling and C–C vs. C–O) were rationalized on the basis of the oxidation potentials and nucleophilicity values of the aromatic substrates.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T10:05:30.741973-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700211
       
  • Recyclable Chiral Bifunctional Thioureas Derived from [60]Fullerene and
           Their Use as Highly Efficient Organocatalysts for the Asymmetric
           Nitro-Michael Reaction
    • Authors: José M. Andrés; Miguel González, Alicia Maestro, Daniel Naharro, Rafael Pedrosa
      Abstract: Three novel fullerothioureas derived from natural valine, phenylalanine, and tert-leucine have been prepared by Prato's reaction of [60]fullerene and the corresponding aldehydes. These hybrids have been used as organocatalysts in a typical stereoselective nitro-Michael addition reaction under homogeneous and neat conditions. The catalysts are easily recoverable by filtration, and are recyclable for at least five times. The addition products were obtained in excellent yields and stereoselectivities by using catalyst loadings of as low as 0.5 mol-%.Hybrids of [60]fullerenes and bifunctional chiral thioureas have been easily prepared by Prato's reaction. These molecular thioureas behave as excellent organocatalysts for the nitro-Michael addition reaction. The catalysts function at very low loading, are easily recoverable, and reusable for five cycles.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T04:56:00.235897-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601640
       
  • Photoredox/Nickel Dual Catalysis for the C(sp3)–C(sp3) Cross-Coupling of
           Alkylsilicates with Alkyl Halides
    • Authors: Christophe Lévêque; Vincent Corcé, Ludwig Chenneberg, Cyril Ollivier, Louis Fensterbank
      Abstract: Alkylsilicates were engaged under photoredox/nickel dual catalysis conditions with alkyl halides for the first time. The C(sp3)–C(sp3) cross-coupling products were obtained in moderate yields and were accompanied by the homocoupling products of the alkyl halide derivatives. These promising findings are strongly suggestive of the high synthetic potential of the dual catalytic approach for the forging of alkyl carbon–carbon bonds. We introduce bis-catecholato silicates as radical precursors in a photoredox/nickel dual-catalysis process. Moderate yields of C(sp3)–C(sp3) cross-coupling products are obtained, which thus confirm the feasibility of this approach.
      PubDate: 2017-03-15T04:55:37.655768-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601571
       
  • An Articulate Oxidative Transition Metal-Free Homocoupling of Imidazo
           Heterocycles via C(sp2)-C(sp2) Bond Formation
    • Authors: S M Abdul Shakoor; Sanjay Mandal, RAJEEV Sakhuja
      Abstract: Direct oxidative homocoupling of 2-arylimidazo heterocycles was successfully achieved by phenyliodine diacetate-mediated BF3.OEt2-accelerated protocol at room temperature. A series of biimidazo heterocycles were synthesized under ambient conditions without the prior activation of C(sp2)-H bond. The desired biimidazo heterocycles were also obtained using catalytic amounts of iodobenzene and m-CPBA/AcOH in an organocatalytic fashion.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T23:20:26.602483-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700238
       
  • Copper-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reactions: Synthesis of Fused
           1,2,3-triazolo-1,3,6-triazonines
    • Authors: Fernando Peringer; José Edmilson R Nascimento, Paola B Abib, Thiago Barcellos, Erik V Van der Eycken, Gelson Perin, Raquel G Jacob, Diego Alves
      Abstract: We describe herein our results on the synthesis of fused 1,2,3-triazolo-1,3,6-triazonines through a copper-catalyzed multicomponent reaction. The named products were obtained in moderate to excellent yields by the reaction of 2-azidobenzaldehydes, substituted diaminobenzenes and a range of terminal alkynes, using a catalytic amount of copper iodide, Et3N as base in DMSO at 100 °C. This methodology proved to be efficient for the combinatorial synthesis of new medium-sized N-heterocyclic rings with potential applications in biological studies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T10:20:24.561228-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700170
       
  • Molecular tweezers inhibit PARP-1 by a new Mechanism
    • Authors: Michael Kirsch; Peter Talbiersky, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Torsten Schaller, Frank-Gerrit Klaerner, Thomas Schrader
      Abstract: Inhibition of the key enzyme for DNA quality control, i.e. PARP-1, by synthetic molecular tweezers is demonstrated via a non-competitive mechanism with an IC50 value of 3 µM. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays and molecular docking experiments point to a simultaneous inclusion of lysine side chains in the tweezers cavity and one phosphate arm to the central Zn2+ ion of the zinc finger thereby displacing DNA.Abstract Text, 800-1000 characters.
      PubDate: 2017-03-13T09:22:49.073296-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601596
       
  • Direct Regioselective Alkylation of Non-Basic Heterocycles with Alcohols
           and Cyclic Ethers through a Dehydrogenative Cross-coupling Reaction under
           Metal-Free Conditions
    • Authors: Ebrahim Kianmehr; Maryam Fardpour, Khalid Mohammed Khan
      Abstract: A metal-free, simple and highly efficient method for the direct alkylation of non-basic heterocycles as well as basic ones with various alcohols and cyclic ethers has been developed based on an oxidative C-H activation process. The corresponding products were generated through a dehydrogenative C-C cross-coupling reaction in the presence of di-tert-butyl peroxide in good to high yields.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T12:37:42.404508-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700030
       
  • Chemical Synthesis of Ketopentose-5-phosphates
    • Authors: Wei-Chih Wei; Che-Chien Chang
      Abstract: A chemical synthesis of ketopentose-5-phosphates that are involved in the pentose phosphate pathway has been developed. The ketopentose phosphates, d-ribulose-5-phosphate and d-xylulose-5-phosphate, were prepared in five steps starting from known intermediates. Starting from readily available d-aldopentoses, reduction of the corresponding furanose derivatives gave key intermediates in the form of aldopentitols. Selective phosphorylation, oxidation, and deprotection provided the target molecules. This chemical synthesis makes such ketopentose phosphates readily available, and as a result they could be used as assay substrates for mechanistic studies. Since the pentose phosphate pathway is important in cancer-cell metabolism, this synthetic approach provides an opportunity for preparing potential enzymatic inhibitors for use in drug development. To further extend this synthetic approach, a different protecting group (a trityl group) was used for the synthesis of the two parent ketopentoses (d-ribulose and d-xylulose) in a similar manner.A chemical synthesis of ketopentose-5-phosphates that are involved in the pentose phosphate pathway has been developed. This method provides an efficient approach for the preparation of ketopentose-5-phosphates for enzymatic studies and potential drug development.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:55:39.216282-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601639
       
  • Heterogeneous Photoredox Catalysis: Reactions, Materials, and Reaction
           Engineering
    • Authors: Jonathan Z. Bloh; Roland Marschall
      Abstract: This microreview briefly summarizes recent developments in heterogeneous photoredox catalysis, with a special focus on materials, reactors, and reaction design to optimize yields. New areas such as the integration of enzymatic processes are also presented, together with an extended overview of materials, reactors, and engineering.The preparation of organic compounds through heterogeneous photoredox reactions with the aid of semiconductors has attracted a lot of attention in recent years. We summarize recent advances in the field, including an extended overview of materials, reactors, and engineering.
      PubDate: 2017-03-10T10:37:45.970996-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601591
       
  • Towards sustainable amino acid-derived organocatalysts for asymmetric
           syn-aldol reactions
    • Authors: Vasiliy V. Gerasimchuk; Alexandr S. Kucherenko, Artem N. Fakhrutdinov, Michael G. Medvedev, Yulia V. Nelyubina, Sergei G. Zlotin
      Abstract: Undesirable side processes responsible for fast deactivation of primary amino acid-derived organocatalysts in asymmetric aldol reactions have been identified. Novel ionic liquid-supported (S)-valine / (S)-a,a-diphenylserinol-derived catalyst 9 designed basing on these results exhibited much better recyclability in asymmetric syn-aldol reaction between hydroxyacetone and aldehydes. Furthermore, this catalyst appeared useful for the stereoselective synthesis of the naturally occurring 1(3H)-isobenzofuran-1-one scaffold via the asymmetric syn-aldol / lactonization cascade reaction.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T10:40:24.844673-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700166
       
  • Cu-catalyzed hydrophosphonylation of 2-(2-enynyl) pyridines: Easy access
           to indolizine containing diarylmethylphosphonates
    • Authors: Sriram Mahesh; Ramasamy Vijaya Anand
      Abstract: A competent method for the synthesis of indolizine based diarylmethylphosphonates is described. This protocol involves a metal catalyzed 5-endo-dig cyclization of 2-(2-enynyl)pyridine derivatives followed by a remote addition of diarylphosphites to provide indolizine-containing diarylmethylphosphonates in good yields.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T10:35:56.019036-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700146
       
  • Evaluation of a NIS-mediated Oxidative Cyclisation from Phenol-Containing
           N-Acyl Tryptamine Precursors Towards Phalarine: Synthesis of
           Spiro-Dihydro-[1,3]-Oxazino-Indolenines.
    • Authors: Terry Tomakinian; Hussein Abou Hamdan, Natacha Denizot, Régis Guillot, Jean-Pierre Baltaze, Cyrille Kouklovsky, Guillaume Vincent
      Abstract: In order to access the benzofuro[3,2-b]indoline scaffold of the natural product phalarine, we planned to achieve a NIS-mediated oxidative coupling of a N-acetyltryptamine derivative and a phenol. In order to control the regioselectivity of the benzofuroindoline formation, the phenol was appended before the cyclisation at the C2-position of the indole ring through an optimized gram scale C-H arylation. The indole nucleus was indeed oxidized at its C3-position, however, the cyclisation did not occurred from the phenol but from the acetamide and a 3,3-spiro- dihydro-[1,3]oxazino indolenine was obtained instead of the benzofuro[3,2-b]indoline scaffold of the natural product.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T02:36:05.490347-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601563
       
  • Radical Cyclizations in the Synthesis of
           3-Methyl-cis-octahydroindol-5-ones
    • Authors: Sergi Jansana; Guilhem Coussanes, Faïza Diaba, Josep Bonjoch
      Abstract: Three approaches to the stereoselective synthesis of 3-methyl-cis-octahydroindoles through a 5-endo-trig radical cyclization are described, starting from: a) a N-vinylic α-chloroacetamide followed by lactam methylenation and hydrogenation; b) an alkyne tether enamide promoted by Bu3SnH, followed by protonolysis of the vinylstannane and hydrogenation of the exocyclic alkene; and c) a 2,2-dichloropropanamide cyclization onto the alkenyl bond and hydrogenation of the resulting endocyclic double bond, which constitutes the most efficient sequence toward the targeted compounds. 1,5-Enyne cyclizations through a 5-endo-trig process are reported, in which a remote functional group (acetal or ketone), allowed the diastereoselectivity in the octahydroindole ring formation to be overturned, through steric control in the facial hydrogen radical delivery step.
      PubDate: 2017-03-09T02:30:42.985911-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700086
       
  • Construction and Functionalization of Heteroarenes by Use of Photoredox
           Catalysis
    • Authors: Oualid Boubertakh; Jean-Philippe Goddard
      Abstract: The functionalization and the construction of heteroarenes with the aid of visible-light photoredox catalysis have been investigated by a number of research groups. In this review, two different approaches are reported. In the first part, substitution of different heteroaryl derivatives is presented according to four classes of reactions: alkylation, perfluoroalkylation, C–X bond formation, and arylation. In the second part, construction of heteroaromatic cycles is reported according to the size and the structure of the ring. All of the processes deal with pure photoredox catalysis, and recent developments in dual catalysis are omitted. Photoredox catalysis has developed into a powerful method that has been used in the context of heteroarene chemistry. This review deals with the functionalization of defined heteroaromatic compounds or their construction by the help of visible light and photocatalysts.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T08:20:41.526914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601653
       
  • Catalytic Intramolecular Wittig Reaction Based on a Phosphine/Phosphine
           Oxide Catalytic Cycle for the Synthesis of Heterocycles
    • Authors: Long Wang; Mei Sun, Ming-Wu Ding
      Abstract: The catalytic intramolecular Wittig reactions of carbonyl-containing bromides are reported. The R3PO byproducts participate in the catalytic cycle; therefore, the Wittig reaction can be accomplished with only a catalytic amount of organophosphorus reagent. The reaction has also been applied to the efficient and selective synthesis of isoquinolin-1(2H)-ones, indoles, 2,3-dihydro-1H-2-benzazepin-1-ones, benzofurans, and 1,2-dihydroquinolines with a catalytic amount of phosphine oxide (0.1 equiv.) and a tetramethyldisiloxane/titanium isopropoxide [TMDS/Ti(OiPr)4] reductant system (yields: 35–88 %). The catalytic intramolecular Wittig reactions of carbonyl-containing bromides are reported. The R3PO byproducts participate in the catalytic cycle; therefore, the Wittig reaction can be accomplished with only a catalytic amount of organophosphorus reagent.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T07:40:49.293312-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601628
       
  • An indirect legitimacy argument for a directly elected European Parliament
    • Authors: CHRISTOPHER LORD
      Abstract: Can a directly elected European Parliament help deliver standards by which the European Union can be indirectly legitimated through its component national democracies? This article argues that the Union can be indirectly legitimate where it helps member state democracies meet their own obligations to their own publics. The Union can do just that by managing externalities in ways needed to secure core values of justice, democracy and freedom from arbitrary domination within member states. Yet that poses a predicament: for if any one member state has an interest in imposing negative externalities or in freeriding on positive externalities provided by another, then so may its voters and democratic institutions. The article argues a directly elected European Parliament can help manage that predicament both by identifying externalities and by ensuring their regulation meets standards of public control, political equality and justification owed to individual national democracies.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T22:15:41.375056-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12204
       
  • Failed expectations: Quality of government and support for populist
           parties in Europe
    • Authors: MATTIAS AGERBERG
      Abstract: This article addresses an issue previously neglected in the research on support for populist parties: How do perceptions of the local quality of government (QoG) and local service delivery affect voters’ propensity to vote for a populist party? It argues that personal experience with poor QoG makes voters more likely to support populist parties. The argument highlights the interplay between supply and demand factors in explaining populist support and discusses why populist parties have been particularly successful in certain regions in Europe. A unique dataset from the Quality of Government Institute that surveys citizens’ perception of QoG in their area is used to estimate both individual- and regional-level models of the link between perceived local QoG and populist support in Europe. The empirical results show a strong and robust association between within-country variation in QoG and support for populist parties.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T22:15:39.406998-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12203
       
  • Bridging the enduring gender gap in political interest in Europe: The
           relevance of promoting gender equality
    • Authors: MARTA FRAILE; RAUL GOMEZ
      Abstract: Notwithstanding the improvement in gender equality in political power and resources in European democracies, this study shows that, on average, declared interest in politics is 16 per cent lower for women than for men in Europe. This gap remains even after controlling for differences in men's and women's educational attainment, material and cognitive resources. Drawing on the newly developed European Institute for Gender Equality's (EIGE) Gender Equality Index (GEI) and on the European Social Survey (ESS) fifth wave, we show that promoting gender equality contributes towards narrowing the magnitude of the differences in political interest between men and women. However, this effect appears to be conditioned by the age of citizens. More specifically, findings show that in Europe gender-friendly policies contribute to bridging the gender gap in political engagement only during adulthood, suggesting that childhood socialisation is more strongly affected by traditional family values than by policies promoting gender equality. In contrast, feminising social citizenship does make a difference by reducing the situational disadvantages traditionally faced by women within the family and in society for middle-aged people and older.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T22:15:35.652379-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12200
       
  • The ‘third way’ and the politics of law and order: Explaining
           differences in law and order policies between Blair's New Labour and
           Schröder's SPD
    • Authors: GEORG WENZELBURGER; HELGE STAFF
      Abstract: Advocating more repressive law and order policies along the slogan ‘tough on crime, tough on the causes of crime’ in their election manifesto, Tony Blair in the United Kingdom and Gerhard Schröder in Germany were elected in the late 1990s. Once in power, however, only New Labour substantially toughened law and order policies, whereas the German Social Democrats did not change the legal status quo, to a similar extent, during their mandate. This article tackles this puzzle, arguing that the preferences of the ministers and the formal and informal rules shaping the balance of power in government are crucial to understanding why two governments that initially advocated similar policies adopted a rather different policy stance. The results are based on meticulous process tracing and a series of elite interviews concerning two major topics in the realm of law and order during the 1990s: policies directed at sexual offenders, and policies responding to the terrorist attacks of 9/11.
      PubDate: 2017-03-07T22:15:31.685303-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12202
       
  • A Direct Access to Indoles via Ir(III)-Catalyzed C-H Functionalization of
           Acetanilides with Diazo Compounds
    • Authors: Pitambar Patel; Gongutri Borah
      Abstract: A one pot synthesis of indole derivatives from readily available acetanilide via Ir(III)-catalyzed C-H alkylation and annulations with diazo compounds have been developed. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions and generates molecular nitrogen and water as by-products. Various types of synthetically adaptable N-substituted indoles were accessed which includes N-acetyl, N-Pivolyl and N-Benzoyl groups.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T08:20:43.201054-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700095
       
  • Perylene diimide (PDI)- benzanthrone Dyad: novel organic chromophores with
           enhanced third-order nonlinear optical activities
    • Authors: Liu Cao; Dingfeng Zhang, Liang Xu, Zilin Fang, Xiao-Fang Jiang, Fushen Lu
      Abstract: Several PDI-based chromophores with peripheral benzanthrone groups have been developed and characterized for their third-order nonlinear properties using femtosecond Z-scan technique. As a consequence, these chromophores exhibit moderate 2PA cross section value with the biggest one 1072.81 GM.
      PubDate: 2017-03-06T04:15:28.794871-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700094
       
  • Toward sustainable organic semiconductors from a broad palette of green
           reactions
    • Authors: Alexandre Faurie; Jérémie Grolleau, Frédéric Gohier, Magali Allain, Stéphanie Legoupy, Pierre Frère
      Abstract: New conjugated materials, based on TPA-thiophene moieties and integrating azomethine bonds with dibenzofuran unit or cyanovinyl bond with phenyl-thiophene and bithiophene units, have been synthesized by using a wide range of green reactions such as direct heteroarylation coupling reaction, Knoevenagel and Schiff base condensations and Stille cross coupling reaction from thiophene-containing organotin reagent supported on ionic liquid. The electronic properties of the new molecules were analyzed by using UV/Vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The potential use of the molecules as donor materials for photovoltaic conversion were evaluated in simple bilayer solar cells by using C60 fullerene as acceptor material, leading to performances reaching up 2% of PCE.
      PubDate: 2017-03-05T22:20:29.593416-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700317
       
  • Chiral Imidazolium Ionic Liquids derived from (S)-Prolinamine as
           Organocatalysts in the Asymmetric Michael Reaction and Michael-Aldol
           Cascade Reaction under Solvent-Free Conditions
    • Authors: Arturo Obregón-Zúñiga; Marco Guerrero-Robles, Eusebio Juaristi
      Abstract: The synthesis of three novel chiral imidazolium ionic liquids (prepared by the combination of one new chiral organic cation with different anions) and their application in the enantioselective Michael reaction between cyclohexanone and substituted nitrostyrenes under solvent-free conditions is described. In addition, the first asymmetric cascade Michael-Aldol reaction of cyclohexanone and benzylidenepyruvate organocatalyzed by chiral ionic liquids is reported. Recyclability of the catalyst was evaluated on both reactions observing no loss in stereoselectivity up to the third cycle.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T12:15:28.294165-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700133
       
  • Pyrazoles and C-imidoylaziridines via [4+1]-annulation and
           [2+1]-cycloaddition of 1-azabuta-1,3-dienes with a synthetic equivalent of
           phthalimidonitrene
    • Authors: Aleksandr Stukalov; Viktor Sokolov, Vitalii Suslonov, Mikhail Kuznetsov
      Abstract: Oxidative addition of N-aminophthalimide to 1,2,4-triaryl-1-azabuta-1,3-dienes leads, in most cases, to the regiodefined formation of 1,3,5-triarylpyrazoles via [4+1]-annulation in moderate to good yields. This transformation is supposed to proceed via a nitrenoid attack onto a lone pair of the imine nitrogen atom giving the vinyl-azomethine imine, followed by its 1,5-electrocyclization into pyrazoline and further aromatization into pyrazole. Rare examples of 2-imidoyl-1-phthalimidoaziridines that are formed via competitive [2+1]-cycloaddition onto the C=C bond were isolated in low yields for 1-azadienes with electron-deficient aryl substituents at the imine nitrogen atom.
      PubDate: 2017-03-04T06:15:28.691595-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700172
       
  • Iodocarbamation of homopropargyl N-carbamates: mild and stereoselective
           entry to functionalized oxazinan-2-ones
    • Authors: Pierre Quinodoz; Alexandre Quelhas, Karen Wright, Bruno Drouillat, Jérôme Marrot, François Couty
      Abstract: An efficient and general iodocarbamation of homopropargyl N-Cbz carbamates was developed using iodine as the electrophilic agent. This regio- and stereoselective cyclization yields (E)-6-iodomethylen-oxazinan-2-ones, which can be further transformed through palladium cross-coupling reactions followed by hydrogenation, to produce 1,3-oxazinan-2-ones.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T11:15:25.02698-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700231
       
  • Photoredox-Induced Radical 6-exo-trig Cyclizations onto the Indole
           Nucleus: Aromative versus Dearomative Pathways
    • Authors: Dirk Alpers; Malte Brasholz, Julia Rehbein
      Abstract: The investigation of photoredox-induced intra- and intermolecular radical [4+2] annulations of indoles confronted us with a puzzling dichotomous behavior of structurally closely related intermediate 3-indolyl radicals, which either undergo exclusive oxidation to tricyclic tetrahydropyridoindoles or reduction to benzindolizidine products under identical reaction conditions. A combined experimental and computational study revealed that only very subtle structural changes in the substrate–reactant complexes of the key radical intermediates with amine radical cations steer the divergent product selectivities, instead of the usual reactivity parameters such as ionization potentials or partial charges.3-Indolyl radicals generated in photoredox-induced cyclizations undergo either exclusive oxidation or highly efficient reduction by amine radical cations. A combined experimental and computational study identifies the elusive structural and electronic factors governing the competing aromative and dearomative reaction pathways.
      PubDate: 2017-03-03T02:00:42.620846-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700150
       
  • Solvent-free Fluorination of Electron Rich Aromatic Compounds with
           F-TEDA-BF4 Reagent: Toward "Dry" Processes
    • Authors: Pavel A. Zaikin; Ok Ton Dyan, Darya V. Evtushok, Andrey N. Usoltsev, Elena V. Karpova, Gennady I. Borodkin, Vyacheslav G. Shubin
      Abstract: Effective protocol of solvent-free fluorination of electron rich aromatic compounds with F-TEDA-BF4 reagent is described. The protocol allows easy and efficient isolation of fluorinated products by vacuum sublimation without use of any solvent with high yields and purity and low E-factor values. Solid-state fluorination of naphthalene-2-ol was suggested by differential thermal analysis. Scanning electron microscopy is used to obtain evidences for solid-state process. Crucial influence of alkali metal carbonates on the rate of solvent-free fluorination was demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T21:51:14.716855-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700179
       
  • Hydrogen Atom Transfer (HAT): A Versatile Strategy for Substrate
           Activation in Photocatalyzed Organic Synthesis
    • Authors: Luca Capaldo; Davide Ravelli
      Abstract: The adoption of hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) in a photocatalytic approach, in which an excited catalyst is responsible for substrate activation, offers unique opportunities in organic synthesis, enabling the straightforward activation of R–H (R = C, Si, S) bonds in desired reagents. Either a direct strategy, based on the intrinsic reactivity of a limited number of photocatalysts in the excited state, or an indirect one, in which a photocatalytic cycle is used for the generation of a thermal hydrogen abstractor, can be exploited. This microreview summarizes the most recent advances (mainly from the last two years) in this rapidly developing area of research, collecting the selected examples according to the nature of the species promoting the HAT process. From the synthetic point of view, this area has led to the development of a plethora of strategies for C–C, C–Si, C–N, C–S, and C–halogen (particularly, fluorine) bond formation, as well as for oxidation reactions.Photocatalytic approaches involving the activation of substrates through hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) offer unique opportunities in organic synthesis. This microreview summarizes the most recent advances in this rapidly developing area, collecting the selected examples according to the nature of the species promoting the HAT process.
      PubDate: 2017-03-02T09:50:31.152662-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601485
       
  • Metal-Free Visible-Light Radical Iodoperfluoroalkylation of Terminal
           Alkenes and Alkynes
    • Authors: Tomoko Yajima; Mako Ikegami
      Abstract: The organic-dye-catalyzed visible-light-induced iodoperfluoroalkylation of unactivated terminal alkenes and alkynes was explored. This process was found to be effective for the simultaneous introduction of iodide and various perfluoroalkyl groups (including difluoroacetate) to alkenes and alkynes possessing a variety of functional groups. A possible reaction mechanism is proposed. This reaction provides a new, metal-free, green method for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylated compounds.Visible-light-induced iodoperfluoroalkylation of unactivated terminal alkenes and alkynes by using eosin Y is described. This process is effective for various perfluoroalkyl groups including difluoroacetate and alkenes and alkynes possessing a variety of functional groups. This reaction provides a new, metal-free, green method for the synthesis of perfluoroalkylated compounds.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T07:01:47.424377-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700077
       
  • Synthesis of Chiral Tetrahydrofurans and Pyrrolidines by
           Visible-Light-Mediated Deoxygenation
    • Authors: Daniel Rackl; Viktor Kais, Eugen Lutsker, Oliver Reiser
      Abstract: The synthesis of chiral tetrahydrofurans and pyrrolidines starting from 1,2-diols or β-amino alcohols, respectively, by visible-light-mediated deoxygenation is described. Easily accessible monoallylated/propargylated substrates were activated either as inexpensive ethyl oxalates or as recyclable 3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)benzoates to generate alkyl radicals suitable for 5-exo-trig/5-exo-dig cyclizations under visible-light irradiation.Chiral tetrahydrofurans or pyrrolidines can be readily obtained by deoxygenative photocyclization of allylated 1,2-diols or amino alcohols, respectively. The reactions proceed best in the absence of a sacrificial electron donor, thus accessing the oxidative quenching cycle of the iridium photocatalyst, and by activation of the hydroxy group as the oxalic ester.
      PubDate: 2017-02-28T03:21:25.968998-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700014
       
  • First Detection of a Ruthenium–Carbene–Resorc[4]arene Complex During
           the Progress of a Metathesis Reaction
    • Authors: Federica Aiello; Federica Balzano, Francesca Ghirga, Ilaria D'Acquarica, Bruno Botta, Gloria Uccello-Barretta, Deborah Quaglio
      Abstract: For the first time we describe the detection of a ruthenium-carbene-resorc[4]arene complex produced, as a key intermediate, during an olefin metathesis reaction carried out on a resorc[4]arene bicyclic olefin with [Ru(=CHPh)Cl2(PCy3)2] Grubbs first-generation (G1ST) catalyst. The complex was identified by using high-resolution (600 MHz) 1H, 31P NMR and DOSY spectroscopy, in a non-invasive fashion. The singlet at δ = 19.98 ppm (1H NMR), attributed to the alkylidene proton in the G1ST catalyst and that at δ = 53.37 ppm (31P NMR), attributed to the phosphorus atom coordinated with the metal, were selected as probes for a kinetic analysis. The intensity of these signals decreased at the expense of the singlets at 19.26 (1H NMR) and 52.68 ppm (31P NMR), diagnostic for the formation of the ruthenium-carbene-resorc[4]arene complex 3a[Ru]. The resorc[4]arene activated olefin proved to behave as a key propagating species leading to oligomers according to a ROMP pathway. A ruthenium-carbene-resorc[4]arene complex was detected, for the first time, during an olefin metathesis reaction carried out on a resorc[4]arene bicyclic olefin with [Ru(=CHPh)Cl2(PCy3)2] Grubbs first-generation (G1ST) catalyst. The complex was identified by high-resolution (600 MHz) 1H, 31P NMR and DOSY spectroscopy, in a non-invasive fashion.
      PubDate: 2017-02-27T10:11:02.344246-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601502
       
  • Light on Unsaturated Hydrocarbons – “Gotta Heterofunctionalize
           Them All”
    • Authors: Doriane Menigaux; Philippe Belmont, Etienne Brachet
      Abstract: Carbon–heteroatom bond formation is a long-standing hot topic in organic chemistry owing to the ubiquitous presence of these bonds in organic molecules. A major pathway to form them is the heterofunctionalization of unsaturated moieties mediated by transition metals or radical initiators. Recently, visible-light catalysis has become a powerful method for the synthesis of many chemical bonds, and carbon–heteroatom bond formation has attracted the particular attention of photochemists. In this review, we highlight recent advances in visible-light photocatalysis for the formation of C–N, C–O, C–S, and C–P bonds through the hydro- or carbo-heterofunctionalization reactions of unsaturated partners. An overview of the visible-light-induced heterofunctionalization of unsaturated compounds is provided, and its usefulness as a powerful tool for the synthesis of complex molecules is demonstrated.
      PubDate: 2017-02-24T09:11:11.820689-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601626
       
  • Visible-Light Photocatalysis as an Enabling Tool for the Functionalization
           of Unactivated C(sp3)-Substrates
    • Authors: Sara Roslin; Luke R. Odell
      Abstract: Over the past decade, visible-light photocatalysis has emerged as one of the brightest and most dynamic fields in modern organic chemistry. By employing a transition-metal- or organic-dye-based photocatalyst in conjunction with a low-energy visible-light source, this synthetic manifold allows the facile generation of radical intermediates that can subsequently be directed through a wide range of transformations. Although initial studies focused largely on the functionalization of stabilized radical intermediates, over the past few years significant efforts have been directed towards the functionalization of challenging unactivated radical precursors. In this review we summarize the recent developments in the use of visible-light photocatalysis for the functionalization of unactivated C(sp3)-substrates. The last few years have witnessed tremendous developments in the field of visible-light photocatalysis. This review summarizes recent advances in the functionalization of challenging unactivated radical precursors with an emphasis on the different classes of substrates now utilizable.
      PubDate: 2017-02-20T09:40:45.852189-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601479
       
  • Photocatalytic Oxidation of Sulfinates to Vinyl Sulfones with
           Cyanamide-Functionalised Carbon Nitride
    • Authors: Andreas Uwe Meyer; Vincent Wing-hei Lau, Burkhard König, Bettina V. Lotsch
      Abstract: The cyanamide-functionalised carbon nitride (NCN-CNx) can be employed as a photo-redox catalyst for the light-induced sulfonylation of alkenes with sulfinate salts, attaining product yields twice those obtained with the non-functionalised counterpart and comparable to those achieved with the benchmark homogeneous photocatalyst Eosin Y. NCN-CNx as a heterogeneous photocatalyst is easily isolatable and can be re-used for this reaction for over three cycles. This photocatalytic reaction can proceed with various sulfinates (aryl-, alkyl- and thiophene-based) and alkenes with electron-donating and -withdrawing groups, obtaining good to excellent product yields. A reductive quenching route was determined to be the likely mechanism for this photocatalyst.The cyanamide-functionalised carbon nitride (NCN-CNx) can act as a photocatalyst for the sulfonylation of alkenes with sulfinate salts with product yields comparable to those obtained with the benchmark Eosin Y, while benefiting from the advantages of heterogeneous catalysis, i.e. ease of catalyst recovery for multiple re-use.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T05:35:29.802519-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601637
       
  • Photoredox-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation of Michael Acceptors
    • Authors: Ana M. del Hoyo; Marcos García Suero
      Abstract: A new protocol for the catalytic cyclopropanation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with diiodomethane by means of photoredox catalysis has been successfully developed. The transformation is characterized by its mild conditions, functional-group compatibility, and excellent selectivity profile.A new protocol for the cyclopropanation of α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds with simple diiodomethane has been developed by means of photoredox catalysis. The process involves the photocatalytic generation of the iodomethyl radical, a novel carbenoid species able to transfer a CH2 group to a wide variety of Michael acceptors in a stereocontrolled manner.
      PubDate: 2017-02-16T05:11:38.206847-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601604
       
  • Erythrosine B Catalyzed Visible-Light Photoredox Arylation–Cyclization
           of N-Alkyl-N-aryl-2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylamides to
           3-(Trifluoromethyl)indolin-2-one Derivatives
    • Authors: Zsombor Gonda; Ferenc Béke, Orsolya Tischler, Milán Petró, Zoltán Novák, Balázs L. Tóth
      Abstract: 3-Trifluoromethylindoline-2-one derivatives were prepared in a visible-light photocatalytic transformation of acrylamides. The arylation–cyclization sequence was initiated by light-induced aryl radical generation from aryldiazonium salts with the utilization of erythrosine B as an organic photocatalyst.Erythrosine B has been utilized as a novel photoredox sensitizer in the arylation-cyclization reaction of N-alkyl-N-aryl-2-(trifluoromethyl)acrylamides to indolin-2-ones. Arenediazonium tetrafluoroborates served as the source aryl radicals under the irradiation of blue LEDs at –50 °C. The scope and the limitations were investigated, and 27 examples (up to 83 % yield) are presented.
      PubDate: 2017-02-10T05:10:42.758435-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601493
       
  • Explaining non-participation in deliberative mini-publics
    • Authors: VINCENT JACQUET
      Abstract: This article investigates citizens’ refusal to take part in participatory and deliberative mechanisms. An increasing number of scholars and political actors support the development of mini-publics – that is, deliberative forums with randomly selected lay citizens. It is often argued that such innovations are a key ingredient to curing the democratic malaise of contemporary political regimes because they provide an appropriate means to achieve inclusiveness and well considered judgment. Nevertheless, real-life experience shows that the majority of citizens refuse the invitation when they are recruited. This raises a challenging question for the development of a more inclusive democracy: Why do citizens decline to participate in mini-publics? This article addresses this issue through a qualitative analysis of the perspectives of those who have declined to participate in three mini-publics: the G1000, the G100 and the Climate Citizens Parliament. Drawing on in-depth interviews, six explanatory logics of non-participation are distinguished: concentration on the private sphere; internal political inefficacy; public meeting avoidance; conflict of schedule; political alienation; and mini-public's lack of impact on the political system. This shows that the reluctance to take part in mini-publics is rooted in the way individuals conceive their own roles, abilities and capacities in the public sphere, as well as in the perceived output of such democratic innovations.
      PubDate: 2017-02-08T01:41:56.616433-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12195
       
  • Proton-Coupled Electron Transfer in Photoredox Catalytic Reactions
    • Authors: Norbert Hoffmann
      Abstract: Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is studied in different research domains of chemistry. Many reports involve biochemical processes. Although related phenomena have often been investigated in photochemical electron- and hydrogen-transfer processes, only recently have a larger variety of such steps come to be discussed under the comprehensive concept of PCET. In photoredox catalytic reactions applied to organic synthesis, various PCET steps have been identified in cases in which redox or simple electron-transfer steps are estimated to be endergonic by simple comparison of redox potentials. Such steps become exergonic when the electron transfer is coupled with proton transfer. In this article, examples of photoredox catalytic reactions of synthetic interest are reported, with the PCET discussed in detail. Proton-coupled electron transfer facilitates partial steps in photoredox catalytic reactions when corresponding electron transfer is endergonic. The scope of such reactions is considerably enlarged by such processes.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T10:30:39.877815-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601445
       
  • Metal-Free Photocatalytic Reductive Dehalogenation Using Visible-Light: A
           Time-Resolved Mechanistic Study
    • Authors: Rebeca Martinez-Haya; Miguel A. Miranda, M. Luisa Marin
      Abstract: The reductive dehalogenation of organic bromides has been achieved in the presence of riboflavin (RF) as photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation. Specifically, benzyl bromide (2) and α-bromoacetophenone (3) were quantitatively converted into toluene and acetophenone, respectively, by using amines as electron donors and iPrOH as hydrogen donor, whereas bromobenzene (1) did not react. The thermodynamics of the reduction of the radical anion of RF were evaluated by using the redox potentials of the species involved: The reaction was found to be thermodynamically exergonic for 2 and 3, but not expected to occur for bromobenzene (1). The viability of the different competing processes on the timescales of the corresponding singlet and triplet RF excited states (1RF* and 3RF*) was analyzed by time-resolved techniques. The quenching of 1RF* by amines was very efficient, and comparison of the transient absorption spectra recorded in the absence and presence of amines additionally confirmed the efficient redox process between 1RF* and the amines. Moreover, RF·– was quenched by bromides 2 and 3, but not by 1. Thus, a deeper understanding of the overall mechanism of the photocatalytic reductive reaction has been achieved, and the key role of the radical anion of the photocatalyst has been demonstrated.The reductive dehalogenation of organic bromides has been achieved by using riboflavin (RF) as photocatalyst under visible-light irradiation. The viability of the different competing processes on the timescale of the corresponding RF excited states and RF radical anion were evaluated by time-resolved techniques. Thus, the key role of the RF radical anion has been proven.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T03:56:18.493914-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601494
       
  • Quantitative Profiling of the Heavy-Atom Effect in BODIPY Dyes:
           Correlating Initial Rates, Atomic Numbers, and 1O2 Quantum Yields
    • Authors: Yannick P. Rey; Dario G. Abradelo, Nico Santschi, Cristian A. Strassert, Ryan Gilmour
      Abstract: Direct oxidation using molecular oxygen is both attractive and atom-efficient. However, this process first requires the catalyst-based activation or electronic reconfiguration of inert O2. The most expedient strategy relies on the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2; a1Δg) from the triplet state (3O2; X3Σg–) by a photosensitizer. In the current arsenal of photosensitizers, boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY) cores are considered privileged on account of their unique photophysical characteristics and the ability to tune their behavior through facile structural modifications such as halogen (X) incorporation. Thus, the scaffold has become synonymous with the renowned heavy-atom effect (HAE), a phenomenon that correlates the increasing atomic number (ZX) of pendant halogen atoms with an enhanced probability of intersystem crossing (S1T1). Herein, a facile GC-based method to assess catalyst performance has been developed and validated with a focused set of halogenated BODIPY scaffolds. An initial-rate approximation was applied to a model transformation and follows the HAE trend (v0,H < v0,Cl < v0,Br < v0,I). This operationally simple approach was corroborated by complementary determinations of absolute singlet oxygen and photoluminescence quantum yields and time-resolved luminescence decays to evaluate lifetimes. For double logarithmic plots, linear correlations between relative intersystem-crossing rates kXisc/kYisc and relative atomic numbers ZX/ZY for the respective substituents with corresponding slopes of approximately 4 were obtained, that is, kisc ~ Z4, which also was shown to hold for the fluorescence-lifetime-corrected singlet-oxygen quantum yields as independent measurements. This substantiates theoretical predictions pertaining to the heavy-atom effect.A GC-based method to assess catalyst performance is developed and validated with a set of halogenated BODIPY scaffolds. An initial-rate approximation is applied to a model transformation, and the trend follows the heavy-atom effect (v0,H < v0,Cl < v0,Br < v0,I). This approach is corroborated by determinations of absolute 1O2 and photoluminescent quantum yields and time-resolved luminescence decays.
      PubDate: 2017-02-07T03:50:39.151922-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601372
       
  • Visible-Light-Mediated 5-exo-dig Cyclizations of Amidyl Radicals
    • Authors: Daniel Fernandez Reina; Elizabeth M. Dauncey, Sara P. Morcillo, Thomas D. Svejstrup, Mihai V. Popescu, James J. Douglas, Nadeem S. Sheikh, Daniele Leonori
      Abstract: A visible-light-mediated synthesis of 5-methylene-pyrrolidinones is reported. This constitutes to the first reported example of a 5-exo-dig hydroamination reaction involving a nitrogen-centered radical.Visible-light irradiation of electron-poor aryloxyamides in the presence of K2CO3 leads to the formation of amidyl radicals that undergo 5-exo-dig hydroamination–cyclization reactions to yield 5-methylene-pyrrolidinones.
      PubDate: 2017-02-06T09:15:27.654974-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601607
       
  • Decarboxylative Giese-Type Reaction of Carboxylic Acids Promoted by
           Visible Light: A Sustainable and Photoredox-Neutral Protocol
    • Authors: Nieves P. Ramirez; Jose C. Gonzalez-Gomez
      Abstract: We describe herein a transition-metal-free method for the decarboxylative generation of radicals from carboxylic acids and their 1,4-addition to Michael acceptors. The Fukuzumi catalyst (9-mesitylene-10-methylacridinium perchlorate, [Acr-Mes]ClO4) enabled this transformation under visible-light irradiation at room temperature with CO2 as the only byproduct. The scope and limitations of this protocol were examined by using a range of Michael acceptors (15 examples) and carboxylic acids (18 examples). The use of 3-hydroxypivalic acid in this protocol allowed the straightforward formation of a diastereomerically pure δ-lactone. Moreover, when a homoallylic acid was used, a radical cascade reaction took place with the formation of three C–C bonds.The decarboxylative alkylation of carboxylic acids can be efficiently promoted by visible light under air at room temperature by using 9-mesitylene-10-methylacridinium perchlorate ([Acr-Mes]ClO4) as photocatalyst. A range of readily available starting materials are well tolerated in this transition-metal-free protocol.
      PubDate: 2017-01-31T09:53:19.130937-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601478
       
  • Conceptualising the policy engagement of interest groups: Involvement,
           access and prominence
    • Authors: DARREN R. HALPIN; BERT FRAUSSEN
      Abstract: While much progress has been made in empirically mapping and analysing a variety of interest group activities in the last decade, less attention has been devoted to conceptual work that clearly defines and distinguishes different forms of policy engagement. This article contributes to this endeavour by developing a theoretical framework that explicitly links currently available measures of the policy engagement of groups to the distinct concepts of group involvement, access and prominence. It argues that greater conceptual clarity will lead to better accumulation of knowledge in the sub-field and a better understanding of the role of interest groups in political systems.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T21:40:55.449826-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12194
       
  • Constitutional courts as veto players: Lessons from the United States,
           France and Germany
    • Authors: SYLVAIN BROUARD; CHRISTOPH HÖNNIGE
      Abstract: The number of constitutional courts and supreme courts with constitutional review rights has strongly increased with the third wave of democratisation across the world as an important element of the new constitutionalism. These courts play an important role in day-to-day politics as they can nullify acts of parliament and thus prevent or reverse a change in the status quo. In macro-concepts of comparative politics, their role is unclear. Either they are integrated as counter-majoritarian institutional features of a political system or they are entirely ignored: some authors do not discuss their potential impact at all, while others dismiss them because they believe their preferences as veto players are entirely absorbed by other actors in the political system. However, we know little about the conditions and variables that determine them as being counter-majoritarian or veto players. This article employs the concept of Tsebelis’ veto player theory to analyse the question. It focuses on the spatial configuration of veto players in the legislative process and then adds the court as an additional player to find out if it is absorbed in the pareto-efficient set of the existing players or not. A court which is absorbed by other veto players should not in theory veto new legislation. It is argued in this article that courts are conditional veto players. Their veto is dependent on three variables: the ideological composition of the court; the pattern of government control; and the legislative procedures. To empirically support the analysis, data from the United States, France and Germany from 1974 to 2009 is used. This case selection increases variance with regard to system types and court types. The main finding is that courts are not always absorbed as veto players: during the period of analysis, absorption varies between 11 and 71 per cent in the three systems. Furthermore, the pattern of absorption is specific in each country due to government control, court majority and legislative procedure. Therefore, it can be concluded that they are conditional veto players. The findings have at least two implications. First, constitutional courts and supreme courts with judicial review rights should be systematically included in veto player analysis of political systems and not left aside. Any concept ignoring such courts may lead to invalid results, and any concept that counts such courts merely as an institutional feature may lead to distorted results that over- or under-estimate their impact. Second, the findings also have implications for the study of judicial politics. The main bulk of literature in this area is concerned with auto-limitation, the so-called ‘self-restraint’ of the government to avoid defeat at the court. This auto-limitation, however, should only occur if a court is not absorbed. However, vetoes observed when the court is absorbed might be explained by strategic behaviour among judges engaging in selective defection.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T21:40:51.211486-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12192
       
  • Sequential Silver-Catalyzed Oxidative Cyclization Reactions of Unprotected
           2-Alkynylanilines to Anthranils
    • Authors: Antonio Arcadi; Marco Chiarini, Luana Del Vecchio, Fabio Marinelli, Véronique Michelet
      Abstract: The full details of the original Ag-catalyzed domino oxidative cyclization reactions of unprotected 2-alkynylanilines with Oxone are described. The influences of several parameters including the substrate features, oxidant, reaction conditions, and catalyst on the reaction outcome were explored. A plausible mechanism is provided for the unusual silver-catalyzed oxidative cyclization reactions of 2-alkynylanilines to anthranils. The scope and limitations of the unusual silver-catalyzed oxidative cyclizations of 2-alkynylanilines to 2,1-benzisoxazoles are studied.
      PubDate: 2017-01-30T08:51:15.202239-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601600
       
  • Porphyrin-Catalyzed Photochemical C–H Arylation of Heteroarenes
    • Authors: Katarzyna Rybicka-Jasińska; Burkhard König, Dorota Gryko
      Abstract: Organic dyes are a promising class of photoredox catalysts and offer a meaningful alternative to broadly applied Ru and Ir complexes. We found that porphyrins with tuned physicochemical properties, by tailoring various substituents at the periphery of the macrocycle, are effective in catalyzing the light-induced direct arylation of heteroarenes and coumarins with diazonium salts. Mechanistic studies confirmed that the reaction operates by an oxidative quenching pathway of the porphyrin.Porphyrins are suitable photoredox catalysts for the direct C–H arylation of heteroarenes with aryl diazonium salts. The reaction involves photoelectron transfer from a porphyrin in its exited state to a diazonium salt.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T09:31:30.117089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601518
       
  • A Photocatalytic Meerwein Approach to the Synthesis of Isochromanones and
           Isochromenones
    • Authors: Stefano Crespi; Stefanie Jäger, Burkhard König, Maurizio Fagnoni
      Abstract: A visible-light RuII photoredox Meerwein synthesis of isochromanones and isochromenones is described starting from diazonium salts of differently substituted anthranilic acids and various alkenes. This approach has allowed the reliable and efficient preparation of structures found in many biologically active molecules or used in materials chemistry.A mild and facile photoredox approach towards synthetically interesting isochromanones and isochromenones is presented. The diazonium salts of various functionalised anthranilic acids have been converted by reaction with various alkenes into the desired bi- and tricyclic compounds in good to excellent yields.
      PubDate: 2017-01-27T09:31:20.613494-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601458
       
  • Flavin-Mediated Visible-Light [2+2] Photocycloaddition of Nitrogen- and
           Sulfur-Containing Dienes
    • Authors: Michael Jirásek; Karolína Straková, Tomáš Neveselý, Eva Svobodová, Zdeňka Rottnerová, Radek Cibulka
      Abstract: The [2+2] photocycloaddition mediated by 1-butyl-3-methyl-7,8-dimethoxyalloxazine (1) has been found to be an effective tool for cyclising ω-phenyl- and ω,ω′-diphenyl-4-aza-1,6-heptadienes, in which the nitrogen atom is protected by acylation or quaternisation, towards the synthesis of a variety of phenyl- and diphenyl-3-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptanes and their corresponding quaternary salts. Thia derivatives, with the sulfur atom in the form of a sulfone group, underwent an analogous cyclisation. Advantageously, visible light (400 nm) was used for the cycloadditions in the presence of 1, in contrast to the previously described procedures affording azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptanes by using UV irradiation. Practical applications are demonstrated through the synthesis of bicyclic quaternary ammonium salts, 6-phenyl-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptanes known to exhibit biological activity or chiral spiro ammonium salts. Flavin 1 was also found to promote the efficient EZ isomerisation of electron-rich cinnamyl derivatives to produce mixtures enriched with the Z isomer (with Z/E ratios of up to 77:23).The photoorganocatalytic [2+2] cycloaddition of dienes mediated by flavin derivative 1 and visible light affords a variety of aza and thia analogues of bicyclo[3.2.0]heptanes with high diastereoselectivities.
      PubDate: 2017-01-26T08:50:26.228603-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601377
       
  • ‘Going beyond the Troika’: Power and discourse in Portuguese
           austerity politics
    • Authors: CATHERINE MOURY; ADAM STANDRING
      Abstract: This article analyses the margin of manoeuvre of Portuguese executives after the onset of the sovereign debt crisis in 2010–2015. To obtain a full understanding of what happened behind the closed doors of international meetings, different types of data are triangulated: face-to-face interviews; investigations by journalists; and International Monetary Fund and European Union official documents. The findings are compared to the public discourse of Prime Ministers José Sócrates and Pedro Passos-Coelho. It is shown that while the sovereign debt crisis and the bail-out limited the executive's autonomy, they also made them stronger in relation to other domestic actors. The perceived need for ‘credibility’ in order to avoid a ‘negative’ reaction from the markets – later associated with the conditions of the bail-out – concurrently gave the executives a legitimate justification to concentrate power in their hands and a strong argument to counter the opponents of their proposed reforms. Consequently, when Portuguese ministers favoured policies that were in congruence with those supported by international actors, they were able to use the crisis to advance their own agenda. Disagreement with Troika representatives implied the start of a negotiation process between the ministers and international lenders, the final outcome of which depended on the actors’ bargaining powers. These strategies, it is argued, constitute a tactic of depoliticisation in which both the material constraints and the discourse used to frame them are employed to construct imperatives around a narrow selection of policy alternatives.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T03:41:12.588576-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12190
       
  • State of the Field
    • Authors: KENNETH M. ROBERTS
      Abstract: Although scholars of West European politics have long debated whether the region's highly institutionalised party systems were becoming de-aligned and electorally unstable, the political fallout from the post-2008 financial crisis has lent a new sense of urgency to the debate. The threats posed to party systems by economic crises are hardly unique to Europe, however. The Latin American experience with the debt crisis of the 1980s and 1990s suggests that party system upheaval was not simply a function of retrospective economic voting during the period of crisis. It was also attributable to programmatically de-aligning policy responses to crises – namely the ‘bait-and-switch’ imposition of austerity and adjustment measures by labour-based, left-leaning parties that were traditional champions of statist and redistributive policies. Such patterns of reform made it difficult for party systems to channel societal resistance to market orthodoxy in the post-adjustment era, setting the stage for convulsive ‘reactive sequences’ when such resistance arose outside and against mainstream parties through varied forms of social and electoral protest, typically on the left flank. This article explores the political fallout from the European and Latin American economic crises from a comparative perspective, arguing that it is essential to think beyond the short-term political dynamics of crisis management to consider the longer-term institutional legacies and fragilities of the different political alignments forged around crisis-induced policy reforms.
      PubDate: 2017-01-19T03:41:10.627291-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12191
       
  • Getting away with foul play? The importance of formal and informal
           oversight institutions for electoral integrity
    • Authors: SARAH BIRCH; CAROLIEN HAM
      Abstract: Electoral integrity is increasingly being recognised as an important component of democracy, yet scholars still have limited understanding of the circumstances under which elections are most likely to be free, fair and genuine. This article posits that effective oversight institutions play a key role in scrutinising the electoral process and holding those with an interest in the electoral outcome to account. The main insight is that deficiencies in formal electoral management can be effectively compensated for via one or more other institutional checks: an active and independent judiciary; an active and independent media; and/or an active and independent civil society. Flawed elections are most likely to take place when all four checks on electoral conduct fail in key ways. These hypotheses are tested and supported on a cross-national time-series dataset of 1,047 national-level elections held in 156 electoral regimes between 1990 and 2012.
      PubDate: 2017-01-18T00:15:52.24738-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12189
       
  • Electoral rules, corruption, inequality and evaluations of democracy
    • Authors: TODD DONOVAN; JEFFREY KARP
      Abstract: Features of electoral systems have been found to have positive effects on evaluations of democracy. This article proposes that there are larger social forces that must be accounted for in such analyses. Using European Social Survey measures of democratic expectations and the ‘satisfaction with democracy’ item, this study tests for effects of electoral rules on perceptions of democracy. It is found that multipartyism/proportionality and preferential ballot structure appear to correspond with positive evaluations of elections and parties, and with greater satisfaction with how democracy is functioning. However, these relationships dissipate when corruption and income inequality are accounted for. This suggests substantial limits to the capacity of electoral reforms to enhance democratic legitimacy. It also suggests that studies of mass perceptions of democratic performance may over-estimate effects of electoral rules if country-level corruption and income inequality are not accounted for.
      PubDate: 2017-01-13T03:20:43.733275-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12188
       
  • Issue Information
    • Pages: 215 - 216
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:21:45.557937-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12209
       
  • Note by the Editors
    • Pages: 217 - 217
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T21:21:46.986799-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12208
       
  • Front Cover: Surprising Outcomes of Classic Ring-Expansion Conditions
           Applied to Octaethyloxochlorin, 2. Beckmann-Rearrangement Conditions (Eur.
           J. Org. Chem. 14/2017)
    • Authors: Ruoshi Li; Mathias Zeller, Torsten Bruhn, Christian Brückner
      Pages: 1804 - 1804
      Abstract: The cover picture shows some of the many accidental oxidation-product hits formed in the unsuccessful attempts to generate the ring-expanded target lactam or lactone from octaethyloxochlorin by using classic ring-expansion reactions (Baeyer–Villiger, Beckmann, and Schmidt reaction conditions); only one, — and also unexpected — ring-expanded product could be made. The work highlights how the conformation constraints within a porphyrin macrocycle thwart the expected outcomes of classic name reactions. Details are discussed in the consecutive Full Papers by C. Brückner et al. on page 1820 ff (
      DOI : 10.1002/ejoc.201601422), 1826 ff (
      DOI : 10.1002/ejoc.201601424) and 1835 ff (
      DOI : 10.1002/ejoc.201601423).
      PubDate: 2017-04-04T03:05:45.590244-05:
       
  • The Aza-Prins Reaction in the Synthesis of Natural Products and Analogues
    • Authors: B. V. Subba Reddy; Preethi Narayanan Nair, Aneesh Antony, Claudia Lalli, René Grée
      Pages: 1805 - 1819
      Abstract: The classical Prins cyclization reaction has been one of the most studied reactions during the last two decades and it has found many applications in key steps of natural product syntheses, especially for products containing pyran units and related structures in their core skeletons. The nitrogen-based version of the Prins reaction, aza-Prins cyclization, has found its own relevance in organic synthesis owing to the fact that it gives direct access to piperidines, which are even more widespread in natural products and in drugs. Even though the potential scope of the reaction is vast, and despite it having afforded significant progress in the synthesis of various azaheterocycles, its applications in the field of natural product synthesis is massively underdeveloped in comparison with the classical Prins reaction. A compilation of the applications of aza-Prins cyclization in the preparation of natural products and selected analogues, especially compounds of potential biological interest, is presented, with emphasis placed on the key roles of this reaction in the total synthesis of these products. The aza-Prins and related reactions have demonstrated high efficiencies in the direct synthesis of piperidine-, indolizidine- and quinolizidine-type alkaloids. More recently, new strategies combining the aza-Prins reaction in sequences with other reactions have proven to be very powerful for the preparation of complex polyheterocyclic natural products and bioactive molecules.
      PubDate: 2017-03-08T05:10:39.284481-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601411
       
  • Surprising Outcomes of Classic Ring-Expansion Conditions Applied to
           Octaethyloxochlorin, 1. Baeyer–Villiger-Oxidation Conditions
    • Authors: Ruoshi Li; Matthias Zeller, Christian Brückner
      Pages: 1820 - 1825
      Abstract: The conversion of synthetic porphyrins to derivatives that contain a nonpyrrolic building block is an appealing method to generate porphyrinoids with functional groups at their periphery for sensing applications or chromophores with fine-tuned electronic properties for a number of technical and biomedical applications. Baeyer–Villiger oxidations are potentially suited to generate such pyrrole-expanded porphyrinoids from known octaethyloxochlorin. However, the application of different Baeyer–Villiger-oxidation conditions to this ketone merely led to the formation of novel and known compounds, such as porphyrinic meso-OH and N-oxide derivatives. This work demonstrates how the extraordinary structural stability of the porphyrin macrocycle redirects the reactivity patterns of classic ring-expansion reactions, which outlines some limits of the methods to convert a pyrrole in porphyrins into a nonpyrrolic building block.Application of Baeyer–Villiger oxidations to oxochlorins did not lead to ring-expanded porphyrinods instead to meso- or N-oxidized products.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T08:20:27.872569-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601422
       
  • Surprising Outcomes of Classic Ring-Expansion Conditions Applied to
           Octaethyloxochlorin, 2. Beckmann-Rearrangement Conditions
    • Authors: Ruoshi Li; Eileen Meehan, Mathias Zeller, Christian Brückner
      Pages: 1826 - 1834
      Abstract: The step-wise conversion of synthetic porphyrins to derivatives that contain a non-pyrrolic building block is an appealing method to generate functionalized porphyrinoids. Applied to octaethyloxochlorin oxime, a Beckmann rearrangement is potentially suited to generate a nitrogen-expanded porphyrinoid. Unexpectedly, this reaction led to a ring-expansion by an oxygen atom. The mechanism – an abnormal Beckmann reaction, followed by an intramolecular ring-closing reaction and hydrolysis – was conclusively derived by trapping and structural characterization of the key secochlorin intermediate. The structural and UV/Vis spectral changes observed upon ring-expansion of the oxochlorin are discussed. Other Beckmann-rearrangement conditions failed to produce ring-expanded products altogether. This work demonstrates in many ways how the extraordinary structural stability of the porphyrin macrocycle redirects the reactivity patterns of classic ring-expansion reactions, which outlines the limits of the “breaking and mending of porphyrins” approach toward pyrrole-modified porphyrins.Application of acidic or basic Beckmann-rearrangement conditions to the oxime of octaethyloxochlorin led to an abnormal Beckmann rearrangement and eventually formed a ring-expanded porpholactone or, using alternative reaction conditions, a 2-iminoporphyrin, respectively.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T08:25:30.040464-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601424
       
  • Surprising Outcomes of Classic Ring-Expansion Conditions Applied to
           Octaethyloxochlorin, 3. Schmidt-Reaction Conditions
    • Authors: Ruoshi Li; Mathias Zeller, Torsten Bruhn, Christian Brückner
      Pages: 1835 - 1842
      Abstract: The Schmidt reaction (treatment of a ketone with sodium azide and a mineral acid) is an alternative to the Beckmann rearrangement to expand a cyclic ketone to a lactam. However, when applied toward the conversion of a synthetic porphyrin into a derivative containing a nonpyrrolic building block, this approach failed to generate the expected lactam. Instead, by using sulfuric acid as a catalyst, a novel heptaethyl-2-hydroxy-chlorin-3-one was formed, structurally characterized, and its mechanism of formation deduced. The work demonstrates how the extraordinary structural stability of the porphyrin macrocycle redirects the reactivity patterns of classic ring-expansion reactions. By using hydrochloric acid as a catalyst, a somewhat regioselective chlorination of the meso-positions of the oxochlorin was observed. The halogenation sites were determined spectroscopically and by X-ray crystallography of selected derivatives. The regioselectivity of the halogenation was computationally rationalized. This method is superior to alternative halogenation methods for the regioselective generation of 5-chloro-, 10-chloro-, and 5,10-dichlorooxochlorins.Application of Schmidt-reaction conditions to octaethyloxochlorin led, depending on the mineral acid used, to either a loss of an ethyl group and the formation of an α-OH–ketochlorin, or to the step-wise and controlled chlorination of the meso-positions.
      PubDate: 2017-01-24T08:20:34.254723-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601423
       
  • Synthesis and Investigation of Solar-Cell Photosensitizers Having a
           Fluorazone Backbone
    • Authors: Béla Mátravölgyi; Tamás Hergert, Angelika Thurner, Bálint Varga, Nicola Sangiorgi, Riccardo Bendoni, Lorenzo Zani, Gianna Reginato, Massimo Calamante, Adalgisa Sinicropi, Alessandra Sanson, Ferenc Faigl, Alessandro Mordini
      Pages: 1843 - 1854
      Abstract: A synthetic sequence for the preparation of fully conjugated 2,7-disubstituted fluorazone (9H-pyrrolo[1,2--a]indol-9-one) derivatives has been developed comprising an Elming–Clauson–Kaas-type pyrrole formation, POCl3-mediated ring closure, selective halogenation and elongation of the conjugated backbone through cross-coupling reactions. As a proof of principle, this methodology was used to prepare for the first time two organic D–π–A dyes containing the fluorazone moiety. The new compounds display broad absorption bands in the visible-light region when adsorbed on nanocrystalline TiO2 and electrochemical properties compatible with their employment as photosensitizers in dye-sensitized solar cells. Small-scale photovoltaic devices fabricated with the fluorazone dyes yielded power conversion efficiencies in the range of 2.1–2.4 %, which correspond to approximately 70 % of the efficiency obtained with the reference organic dye DF15 under the same conditions. A synthetic sequence for the preparation of two fully conjugated, 2,7-disubstituted fluorazone (9H-pyrrolo[1,2-a]-indol-9-one) derivatives has been developed. Owing to their broad absorption bands in the visible-light region and their favourable electrochemical properties, the new compounds could be successfully used as sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:36:21.167817-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601622
       
  • Quinazoline-Directed C–H Bond Functionalization Catalyzed by
           Ruthenium(II) Carboxylate – Construction of Polyconjugated
           Aryl-Heteroaryl Systems
    • Authors: Bogdan Štefane; Helena Brodnik Žugelj, Uroš Grošelj, Petra Kuzman, Jurij Svete, Franc Požgan
      Pages: 1855 - 1864
      Abstract: A series of coupling products have been prepared by a ruthenium(II)-catalyzed direct ortho-C–H arylation of 2-(aryl/heteroaryl)-substituted quinazolines with (hetero)aryl bromides. Tri(hetero)aryl-substituted alkenes were also prepared by olefinic C–H activation of 2-(2-arylvinyl)quinazoline derivatives. High conversions and selectivities were achieved by choosing the appropriate ruthenium(II) carboxylate catalyst system, solvent, and reaction temperature. The possibility of a C(sp3)–H functionalization by applying an arylation/reduction reaction sequence was also demonstrated.The arylation of (hetero)aryl-substituted quinazolines and quinazolinyl alkenes through C–H bond activation by using a ruthenium(II) carboxylate catalyst system has been developed as a simple method for the construction of conjugated heteroaromatic systems.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:31:41.962472-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700097
       
  • Organocatalytic Enantioselective Synthesis of
           6-Aryl-5,6-dihydrophenanthridines by a Modified Pictet–Spengler Reaction
           of Biphenyl-2-amines and Aromatic Aldehydes
    • Authors: Chaoceng Wang; Dong An, Xukai Guan, Yansen Fan, Guofeng Liu, Guangliang Zhang, Suoqin Zhang
      Pages: 1865 - 1869
      Abstract: A straightforward approach to the enantioselective synthesis of chiral 5,6-dihydrophenanthridines was developed. A series of chiral 6-aryl-5,6-dihydrophenanthridines were obtained through an organocatalytically modified Pictet–Spengler reaction of biphenyl-2-amines and aromatic aldehydes. In the reaction, H8-BINOL-derived chiral imidodiphosphoric acid exhibited strong stereocontrolling and catalytic activities to afford the desired 6-aryl-5,6-dihydrophenanthridines in high yields (up to 98 %) with high enantioselectivities (up to 99 % ee). An enantioselective Pictet–Spengler reaction of biphenyl-2-amines and aromatic aldehydes is realized by using H8-BINOL-derived chiral imidodiphosphoric acid. Chiral 6-aryl-5,6-dihydrophenanthridines are obtained in up to 98 % yields with up to 99 % ee.
      PubDate: 2017-04-10T07:31:26.175564-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700185
       
  • Efficient Bimetallic Catalysis of Nitrile Hydration to Amides with a
           Simple Pd(OAc)2/Lewis Acid Catalyst at Ambient Temperature
    • Authors: Sicheng Zhang; Haosheng Xu, Chenlin Lou, Ahmed M. Senan, Zhuqi Chen, Guochuan Yin
      Pages: 1870 - 1875
      Abstract: Transition-metal-catalyzed nitrile hydration is an atom-economic method for the synthesis of various amides. This work demonstrates for the first time that the addition of non-redox metal ions like Sc3+ dramatically accelerate the hydration of various nitriles to amides at ambient temperature with the simple Pd(OAc)2 salt as catalyst, whereas the reactions with Pd(OAc)2 alone were very sluggish. The formation of a heterobimetallic PdII/ScIII species has been proposed as the key species for the hydration that demonstrates a bimetallic synergistic effect in this process.This work reveals for the first time that the addition of non-redox metal ions can dramatically accelerate the hydration of nitriles with the simple Pd(OAc)2 salt as catalyst at ambient temperature, whereas with Pd(OAc)2 alone, the reaction is very sluggish.
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T03:20:33.087366-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601495
       
  • (±)-Peharmaline A: A Pair of Rare β-Carboline–Vasicinone Hybrid
           Alkaloid Enantiomers from Peganum harmala
    • Authors: Kai-Bo Wang; Sheng-Ge Li, Xue-Yan Huang, Da-Hong Li, Zhan-Lin Li, Hui-Ming Hua
      Pages: 1876 - 1879
      Abstract: (±)-Peharmaline A (1), a pair of rare β-carboline–vasicinone hybrid alkaloid enantiomers with the hitherto
      PubDate: 2017-04-11T04:25:34.650502-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201700137
       
  • Visible-Light, Photoredox-Mediated Oxidative Tandem Nitroso-Diels–Alder
           Reaction of Arylhydroxylamines with Conjugated Dienes
    • Authors: Veronica Santacroce; Raphael Duboc, Max Malacria, Giovanni Maestri, Geraldine Masson
      Abstract: Arylhydroxylamines were used in the nitroso-Diels–Alder reaction to generate in situ nitrosoarenes under visible-light, catalytic and aerobic conditions. Mixing a solution of aryl- or heteroarylhydroxylamines with conjuguated dienes in the presence of a catalytic amount of Ru(bpy)3Cl2 afforded 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines in good yields under an oxygen atmosphere. A visible-light, photoredox-mediated oxidative tandem nitroso-Diels–Alder reaction generates 3,6-dihydro-1,2-oxazines from arylhydroxylamines and dienes via intermediary nitrosoarenes in the presence of Ru(bpy)3Cl2 (bpy = 2,2′-bipyridine).
      PubDate: 2016-12-30T07:00:39.667089-05:
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601492
       
  • Political competition and de facto judicial independence in
           non-democracies
    • Authors: BRAD EPPERLY
      Abstract: This article investigates the role of political competition in explaining de facto judicial independence in non-democratic regimes. It argues that the electoral, political insurance explanation popular in the study of courts in democracies also offers explanatory power in the autocratic context, despite popular wisdom otherwise: due to the relatively greater risks of losing power in non-democracies, electoral competition is highly salient when present. This is examined via hierarchical and fixed effects models that show competition strongly associated with increased levels of independence. This relationship is robust to alternative model and data specification, and has strong out-of-sample predictive accuracy.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30T07:00:33.538804-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12186
       
  • Democracy without choice: Citizens’ perceptions of government autonomy
           during the Eurozone crisis
    • Authors: RUBÉN RUIZ-RUFINO; SONIA ALONSO
      Abstract: In this article it is argued that citizens take into account the degree of a government's political autonomy to implement particular policies when expressing their views on satisfaction with democracy (SWD) but, in order to do so, they need to perceive it. When citizens directly observe the external constraints that reduce their government's autonomy, then variations in levels of regime satisfaction may no longer be exclusively about government performance – as widely argued by political economists – but also about democratic choice. The argument develops after comparing the existing scenarios in the Eurozone before and after the Great Recession. Citizens only began to perceive their own lack of choice to decide between policy alternatives when the sovereign debt crisis broke out in May 2010, the date of the first Greek bail-out. It is then when citizens started to update their beliefs about the functioning of democracy as a system in which alternative policies can be adopted as bail-out deals were signed between national governments from the Euro periphery and the Troika. This updating process towards the way democracy works explains the increasing gap in the levels of SWD between bailed-out economies and the rest of the countries in the Eurozone. Empirical confirmation for this claim is found after analysing Eurobarometer surveys from 2002 to 2014 and using a two-step difference-in-difference analysis that combines individual and aggregate data.
      PubDate: 2016-12-30T07:00:29.183796-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12187
       
  • Sunflow: Sunlight Drives Fast and Green Photochemical Flow Reactions in
           Simple Microcapillary Reactors – Application to Photoredox and
           H-Atom-Transfer Chemistry
    • Authors: Alexander M. Nauth; Alexander Lipp, Benjamin Lipp, Till Opatz
      Abstract: “Sunflow“ – The combination of a microcapillary reactor in continuous flow mode with sunlight as the most sustainable energy source imaginable was applied to a range of photoredox and H-atom-transfer reactions making them both fast and green.“Sunflow” – The combination of a microcapillary reactor and sunlight enables fast and green photoredox and H-atom-transfer reactions in continuous flow. Kinetic studies reveal high reaction rates with a simple and inexpensive reactor setup (less than 90 USD acquisition value).
      PubDate: 2016-12-28T07:25:35.87776-05:0
      DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201601394
       
  • The weakness of postcommunist civil society reassessed
    • Authors: ROBERTO STEFAN FOA; GRZEGORZ EKIERT
      Abstract: During the last two decades, scholars from a variety of disciplines have argued that civil society is structurally deficient in postcommunist countries. Yet why have the seemingly strong, active and mobilised civic movements of the transition period become so weak after democracy was established? And why have there been diverging political trajectories across the postcommunist space if civil society structures were universally weak? This article uses a new, broader range of data to show that civil societies in Central and Eastern European countries are not as feeble as commonly assumed. Many postcommunist countries possess vigorous public spheres and active civil society organisations strongly connected to transnational civic networks able to shape domestic policies. In a series of time-series cross-section models, the article shows that broader measures of civic and social institutions are able to predict the diverging transition paths among postcommunist regimes, and in particular the growing gap between democratic East Central Europe and the increasingly authoritarian post-Soviet space.
      PubDate: 2016-11-24T01:30:52.986824-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12182
       
  • Public support for coercive diplomacy: Exploring public opinion data from
           ten European countries
    • Authors: MICHAL ONDERCO
      Abstract: Scholarship has increasingly acknowledged the importance of public attitudes for shaping the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. Economic sanctions emerged as one of CFSP's central tools. Yet despite the emergence of sanctions as a popular instrument in the EU foreign policy toolbox, public attitudes towards sanctions are yet to be studied in depth. This article explains public support for EU sanctions, using the empirical example of sanctions against Russia. It looks at geopolitical attitudes, economic motivations and ideational factors to explain the variation in public support for sanctions. The conclusion suggests that geopolitical factors are the most important, and that economic factors matter very little. Euroscepticism and anti-Americanism play an important role in explaining the support for sanctions at the individual level.
      PubDate: 2016-11-18T03:15:29.64681-05:0
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12183
       
  • Prescribing democracy? Party proscription and party system stability in
           Germany, Spain and Turkey
    • Authors: FERNANDO CASAL BÉRTOA; ANGELA BOURNE
      Abstract: When democracies ban political parties, one of the central issues that usually emerges in both public and academic debate concerns the effects of proscription. Some argue that proscription may lead to radicalisation, a growth of militancy and readiness to use violence. Others argue that, in the long run, banning parties may damage the foundations of a democratic polity as the ban may be interpreted as a silent weakening of democratic rights in the state and therefore a failure of democracy itself. However, and notwithstanding its centrality for the conduct of democratic politics, the impact of party bans on party system development has remained mostly under-researched. Trying to address this lacuna, and employing a new dataset of banned parties in Europe between 1945 and 2015, the study reported in this article compares the effects of party ban regulation on party system stability in three different arenas: electoral, parliamentary and governmental. In particular, the impact of party proscription on electoral volatility, fragmentation and closure is examined in three countries: Turkey, Germany and Spain. Using examples both at national and regional (e.g., Basque Country, Navarre, Saxony) levels, and making use of survey data when available, it is found that the banning of a relevant political party not only increases volatility and reduces fragmentation, but also alters the existing structure of competition at the time of government formation. Likewise, the empirical analysis also suggests a number of alternative hypotheses (i.e., organisational succession, electoral system) when trying to explain why the outcomes of some cases within each country deviate from theoretical expectations. Finally, the article also examines the phenomenon of ‘non-banning’ and how the failure of attempts to ban political parties might affect the development of a party system.
      PubDate: 2016-11-17T06:21:10.077802-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12179
       
  • Institutions, governmental performance and the rise of political newcomers
    • Authors: MIGUEL CARRERAS
      Abstract: This article analyses the institutional and contextual factors that facilitate the election of political newcomers as heads of government in democratic regimes. Using data from 870 democratic elections between 1945 and 2015, it is found that political newcomers are more likely to be successful in presidential systems, in new democracies and when party systems are weakly institutionalised. The election of politically inexperienced candidates is also related to governmental performance. Political newcomers are more successful when the economic performance of the government is bad and when the government engages in high-level corruption.
      PubDate: 2016-11-09T15:36:32.010884-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12181
       
  • Conflict, choice or geography? Explaining patterns of democracy in
           continental Europe
    • Authors: JULIAN BERNAUER; ADRIAN VATTER
      Abstract: The ‘character’ of democracy is regularly summarised using political-institutional measures of, for instance, ‘consensus’ or ‘majoritarian’ democracy. Yet, there is little quantitative-comparative research on the origins of such configurations. Drawing on literature on endogenous institutions and constitutional design, this article proposes a model for the explanation of empirical patterns of democracy. Using a novel database of 26 continental (neighbouring) European democracies and Bayesian spatial modelling, the results indicate that while today's empirical patterns of democracy in terms of proportional power diffusion can be traced back to waves of democratisation rather than historical partisan power configurations, decentral power diffusion can partially be explained by socio-structural factors, and spatial dependencies exist for all variants of power diffusion.
      PubDate: 2016-11-07T00:26:24.975762-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12174
       
  • Clarifying multilevel governance
    • Authors: PIER DOMENICO TORTOLA
      Abstract: Despite its widespread use in European studies and beyond, the concept of multilevel governance (MLG) still suffers from a considerable degree of uncertainty as to its precise meaning, which in turn hinders the cumulative development of this research programme. In an attempt to stimulate a systematic methodological discussion of the idea of MLG, this article presents a critical reconstruction of the concept structured around three ‘axes of ambiguity’– the applicability of MLG beyond the European Union; the role of non-state actors; the focus on policy-making structures versus processes – followed by a conceptual assessment and clarification strategy based on John Gerring's criterial framework. Building particularly on Gerring's criterion of causal utility, the article argues that the MLG concept is best clarified along the (not necessarily exclusive) lines of two theoretical directions emerging from the literature: MLG as a theory of state transformation, and MLG as a theory of public policy. For each of the two models, the criterial framework also indicates a number of corresponding conceptual shortcomings which MLG scholars should try to reduce as much as possible in future refinements of this idea.
      PubDate: 2016-11-03T03:02:54.097654-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12180
       
  • Beyond Kriesiland: EU integration as a super issue after the Eurocrisis
    • Authors: SIMON OTJES; ALEXIA KATSANIDOU
      Abstract: Where some researchers have seen only a limited impact of Europeanisation on national party politics, others have added a separate European Union dimension to the pre-existing economic left-right dimension to model the national political space. This article examines the effects of the European crisis on the national political space across the EU utilising data from the 2014 European Election Survey. It analyses the effect of a country's economic development on the coherence between attitudes towards the EU and economic issues using multilevel regression. Strong evidence is found that in the Southern European debtor states economic and European issues are merging as a result of strong European interference in their economic policy. In the Northern European creditor states a second relevant dimension focuses on cultural issues. These results offer the next step in theorising Europeanisation.
      PubDate: 2016-10-24T05:25:25.187379-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12177
       
  • A multilevel puzzle: Migrants’ voting rights in national and local
           elections
    • Authors: JEAN-THOMAS ARRIGHI; RAINER BAUBÖCK
      Abstract: How does international migration impact the composition of the demos? Constitutional doctrines and democratic theories suggest contrasting responses: an insular one excludes both non-citizen immigrants and citizen-emigrants; a deterritorialised one includes all citizens wherever they reside; a postnational one includes all residents and only these. This article argues that none of these predicted responses represents the dominant pattern of democratic adaptation, which is instead a level-specific expansion of the national franchise to include non-resident citizens and of the local franchise to include non-citizen residents. This is demonstrated by analysing an original dataset on voting rights in 31 European and 22 American countries, and outlining a level-sensitive normative theory of citizenship that provides support for this pattern as well as a critical benchmark for current franchise policies. The findings can be summarised in two inductive generalisations: (1) Voting rights today no longer depend on residence at the national level and on citizenship of the respective state at the local level; (2) Voting rights do, however, generally depend on citizenship of the respective state at the national level and on residence at the local level. In the article, these are called the patterns of franchise ‘expansion’ and ‘containment’. The former supports the idea of widespread level-specific expansion of the franchise and refutes the insular view of the demos. The latter signals corresponding level-specific restrictions, which defeats over-generalised versions of deterritorialised or postnational conceptions of the demos. In order to test how robust this finding is, cases are analysed where the dominant patterns of expansion have been resisted and where unexpected expansion has occurred. With regard to the former, the article identifies constitutional and political obstacles to voting rights expansion in particular countries. With regard to the latter, the article shows that even where national voting rights have been extended to non-citizen residents, containment remains strong through indirect links to citizenship.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T05:05:24.764068-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12176
       
  • What can a government do? Government issue ownership and real-world
           problems
    • Authors: HENRIK BECH SEEBERG
      Abstract: Despite major interest in issue ownership, what shapes it remains a puzzle. In his pioneering work on issue ownership, John Petrocik emphasises the importance of a party's performance. Recent research acknowledges this by pointing to the role of real-world problems and incumbency for issue ownership. However, if performance truly matters, it should be difficult to understand the impact of such problems without taking into account the government's response to it. Based on novel data on issue ownership, policy development and government attention across five issues in nine countries over time, the analysis shows that the government's issue-handling reputation is associated with the policy development, and the government's attention to the problem is important for this association. This is especially true for parties with no history of issue ownership on the issue and if the government is a coalition or in minority.
      PubDate: 2016-10-19T05:00:22.867768-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12175
       
  • When and why politicians do not keep their welfare promises
    • Authors: ALEXANDER HORN; CARSTEN JENSEN
      Abstract: Although the welfare state is a core theme in most national elections in Western democracies, surprisingly little attention has been paid to the causes of welfare state pledge-breaking. This article presents an argument that explains when governments do not do what they promised and tests it using an innovative research design with data covering four decades and 18 countries. The argument is able to account for several important but, until now, undescribed phenomena. First, nowadays, governments, on average, deliver less welfare than they promised, whereas in the 1970s they used to deliver more than promised. Second, the pledge-breaking of governments has become highly dependent on the parliamentary opposition's position on the welfare issue. When the opposition favours fiscal and economic responsibility, governments’ tendency to deliver less welfare than promised is amplified. In contrast, when the opposition emphasises the positive benefits of generous welfare, such as equality and social justice, governments become more prone to keep their promises. Third, this conditional effect of the opposition is a recent occurrence that only emerged after the number of potential swing voters increased as class-based voting gradually declined from the 1970s onwards.
      PubDate: 2016-09-29T23:15:24.749782-05:
      DOI: 10.1111/1475-6765.12173
       
 
 
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