Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 1152 journals)
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    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (960 journals)
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POLITICAL SCIENCE (960 journals)            First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Showing 201 - 281 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 11)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 58)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription  
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Earth System Governance     Open Access  
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Eastern African Literary and Cultural Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Eastern Review     Open Access  
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Ekonomi, İşletme, Siyaset ve Uluslararası İlişkiler Dergisi     Open Access  
El Banquete de los Dioses     Open Access  
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 44)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Encuentro     Open Access  
Entramados y Perspectivas     Open Access  
Environment and Planning C : Politics and Space     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 40)
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios digital     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Ethics & International Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Éthique publique     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription  
Eunomia. Rivista semestrale del Corso di Laurea in Scienze Politiche e delle Relazioni Internazionali     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Cultural and Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal  
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 61)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 60)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 85)
European Journal of Political Research : Political Data Yearbook     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
European Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal  
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
European Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
European Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
European Union Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
European Yearbook of Minority Issues Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Eurostudia     Open Access  
Evaluation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Evaluation and Program Planning     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Evidence Base : A journal of evidence reviews in key policy areas     Open Access  
Exchange : The Journal of Public Diplomacy     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Fascism     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Federal Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fédéralisme Régionalisme     Open Access  
FEU Academic Review     Open Access  
Fijian Studies: A Journal of Contemporary Fiji     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Financial Times     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 39)
Foreign Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 51)
Foreign Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Foro Interno. Anuario de Teoría Política     Open Access  
French Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Frontiers in Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Gaceta Laboral     Open Access  
Genocide Studies International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Geographische Zeitschrift     Full-text available via subscription  
Geopolítica(s). Revista de estudios sobre espacio y poder     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Geopolitics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Geopolitics under Globalization     Open Access  
German Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
German Politics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Germinal : Marxismo e Educação em Debate     Open Access  
Gestão & Regionalidade     Open Access  
Ghana Journal of Development Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Ghana Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Global Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Global Change, Peace & Security: formerly Pacifica Review: Peace, Security & Global Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 415)
Global Discourse : An Interdisciplinary Journal of Current Affairs and Applied Contemporary Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Global Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 48)
Global Journal of Peace Research and Praxis     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Global Media Journal : African Edition     Open Access  
Global Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Global Societies Journal     Open Access  
Global Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Global South, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Global War Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Göç Dergisi     Full-text available via subscription  
Good Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Governare la paura. Journal of interdisciplinary studies     Open Access  
Government and Opposition     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 24)
Granì     Open Access  
Group Processes & Intergroup Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Hague Journal of Diplomacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Hegel Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Helsinki Monitor     Hybrid Journal  
Hic Rhodus : Crisis capitalista, polémica y controversias     Open Access  
Historia i Polityka     Open Access  
History of Communism in Europe     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Hommes & Migrations     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Horyzonty Polityki     Open Access  
Human Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
Human Rights Case Digest     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
Human Rights Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 70)
Human Rights Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
Icelandic Review of Politics and Administration     Open Access  
Idäntutkimus     Open Access  
identidade!     Open Access  
Identities : Journal for Politics, Gender and Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Identity Papers : A Journal of British and Irish Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IDP. Revista de Internet, Derecho y Politica     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ids Practice Papers     Hybrid Journal  
IKAT : The Indonesian Journal of Southeast Asian Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indes : Zeitschrift für Politik und Gesellschaft     Hybrid Journal  
Index on Censorship     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
India Quarterly: A Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
India Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Indialogs : Spanish Journal of India Studies     Open Access  
Indonesia Prime     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Indonesian Journal of Community Engagement     Open Access  
Innovation Policy and the Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Innovations : Technology, Governance, Globalization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Insight on Africa     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
InSURgência : revista de direitos e movimentos sociais     Open Access  
Intelligence & National Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
Interdisciplinary Political Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Südasienforschung     Open Access  
Interest Groups & Advocacy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Interfaces Brasil/Canadá     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 69)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Communication of Chinese Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Critical Thought     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Interactions: Empirical and Theoretical Research in International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal : Canada's Journal of Global Policy Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of African Renaissance Studies - Multi-, Inter- and Transdisciplinarity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Area Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Children's Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
International Journal of Diplomacy and Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of E-Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of East Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Electronic Government Research     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Environmental Policy and Decision Making     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
International Journal of Group Tensions     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Human Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 59)
International Journal of Intelligence and CounterIntelligence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 583)
International Journal of Intercultural Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Journal of Peace Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
International Journal of Press/Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 40)
International Journal of Sexuality and Gender Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
International Journal of Social Quality     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Journal on Minority and Group Rights     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Migration     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Migration Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 281)
International Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International NGO Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Organization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 108)
International Peacekeeping     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 474)
International Political Science Abstracts     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 97)
International Political Sociology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 41)
International Quarterly for Asian Studies     Open Access  
International Regional Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
International Relations of the Asia-Pacific     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Review of Public Policy     Open Access  
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 76)
International Socialism     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Spectator : Italian Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Studies Perspectives     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
International Studies Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 55)
International Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
International Theory: A Journal of International Politics, Law and Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Irish Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Israel Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Istanbul Journal of Economics and Politics     Open Access  
Italian Political Science Review / Rivista Italiana di Scienza Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Italian Politics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
IZA Journal of Development and Migration     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Izquierdas     Open Access  

  First | 1 2 3 4 5     

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Global Media Journal : African Edition
Number of Followers: 0  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2073-2740
Published by Stellenbosch University Homepage  [14 journals]
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Conflict as an ideological
           orientation of the Nigerian media

    • Authors: Alozieuwa; Simeon H.O.
      Abstract: The reality of the impact of the media on violent conflict has become a global phenomenon. In Nigeria, this reality is obviously driving the growing desiratum for the instituting of peace journalism. Owing to its complex make-up, however, but essentially as a result of a lack of a national resolve to forge a truly united nation, Nigeria has remained a country where ethnicity, regionalism and religion are objective factors of daily life. General perception tends, therefore, to cast the country's media as influenced by these primordial pulls, especially in times of crisis. This paper, however, argues that rather than primordial considerations, the Nigerian media is fundamentally driven by an ideology of conflict into which it was born; within which it was nurtured and which it has internalized from the colonial through immediate post-independence political era to the authoritarian military period. Thus the Nigerian media tends to operate with a siege mentality and as a media in captivity. The paper posits that until the media weans itself from this orientation, its perception of issues will continue to be shaped by the ideology of conflict, in which case the efforts at peace journalism may remain a mirage.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:21Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Digging for transparency : how
           African journalism only scratches the surface of conflict

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: It has become a pattern to find academics, professionals and students of journalism bragging with the scope, techniques and dilemmas of investigative journalism. But there is one gaping hole: nowhere was information collated about the heroic contributions, and often the sacrifices, that were made for the profession by African investigative journalists across Africa. Writing a history or complete account of African investigative journalism is outside the scope of this article. But I am trying to offer here a series of contributions - some current, some historical - on the topic of safety of journalists, that will, hopefully, lay the foundations for further research, and also lay to rest decisively the myth that journalism which exposes social problems and criticizes the powerful is 'un-African'.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:21Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Review of curriculum for
           journalism students in middle level colleges in Kenya

    • Authors: Felix; Sialo W., Biwott, Edith J., Makokha, Millicent
      Abstract: Few can succeed as practitioners in mass communications without mastering the principles and practices of broad areas of knowledge that comprise the basic ingredients of college education. However, these principles have to be ingrained in the teaching curriculum of every media college. This study aims to establish how the journalism syllabi for training diploma and certificate students in middle level colleges in the Eldoret Municipality of Kenya are developed. The study targeted 18 colleges with a total target population of 72 participants. That is three class representatives from each college (54), and the 18 heads of journalism departments. Due to the small number of the target population, a Census technique was used in the collection of data from class representatives and heads of departments from the 18 colleges. The study collected data from sampled respondents by using questionnaires and interview schedules. The questionnaires were both open-ended and closed-ended, and Likert scaling was used to measure either a positive or negative response to a statement. The findings of the study showed that there was no standardized form of curriculum implementation and journalism tutors did not participate in curriculum development. The study recommends the establishment of a strong link between journalism training institutions and other stakeholders such as the Kenya Institute of Curriculum Development (KICD), and the Ministry of Education Science and Technology to effectively serve society.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:20Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Ethical challenges posed by online
           media to journalism : case of the Zambian Watchdog

    • Authors: Chishala; Francis C.
      Abstract: Online news media have spurred new concerns for a new ethics for online-journalism. Many online news media are unregulated and often cross the line in their reporting negating journalism ethics as practiced in the mainstream media. Questions that arise given the ethical challenges of online-journalism are whether online new media are exempt for ethical standards practiced in society or whether they require a new and different sets of ethics specific for online media. How do online media managers, editors and journalists approach their practice in relation to upholding journalistic integrity' This paper seeks to address these ethical issues by way of a case study with the Zambian Watchdog. Through critical analysis and speculation, the paper provides suggestions that online news managers, editors and journalists would apply if they were to be considered ethically astute.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:20Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: An analysis of Western and
           Nigerian media depictions of President Jonathan's presidential bid

    • Authors: Awobamise; Ayodeji O., Aderibigbe, Adebola A.
      Abstract: Nigeria is once again in the news, not for the nation's problems with the terrorist group Boko Haram, nor our mirage of economic problems plaguing Nigeria; rather we are attracting the attention of the world because we are on the verge of another major election in the country. An election that might see a change in leadership, thereby removing President Goodluck Jonathan from Aso Rock Villa, or one that might win him a mandate to remain for another four years as president of one of the richest countries in Africa. This election holds a lot of meaning for Nigerians, and for Africa generally, due to the fact that there has been an incessant call for change of leadership or leadership style as the incumbent has maintained a seemingly lackadaisical attitude in the face of rampant corruption and Boko Haram's continued reign of unabated terror on Nigerians in the north. Both foreign media and local media alike have reported numerous bombings, killings and corruption cases in Nigeria as well as having shown keen interest in the outcome of the next general election in Nigeria. On November 11, 2014, President Jonathan declared his intention to run for re-election come February 2015. This declaration has elicited different responses from different media outlets all over the world as there has been some doubt about the President's intention to run. This paper examines both Western and indigenously owned media depictions of this declaration. The author has made use of Van Dijk's Social Ideological Discourse Theory and Ideological Square Theory. It was found that although both news articles reported on the same issue, they are still very different with regard to macropropositions and Local meanings. The ideology and personal perception of the writers is reflected clearly in the way the news articles are written.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:19Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: ICTs, mobile telephony and
           politics in Africa : the end of the "communication for development"
           paradigm'

    • Authors: Agbobli; Christian, Fusaro, Magda
      Abstract: The mobile telephone has become an established research subject in many regions of the world. Government officials and business leaders work equally to devise the best way to take advantage of what mobile telephony has to offer in Africa. The growing interest in mobile telephony in this part of the world inspires us to reflect upon the manner in which theory can contribute to better understanding the growth, use and impact of mobile telephony in Africa according to its relationship with politics. In this sense, our goal here is two-fold: identify the social and theoretical context in which issues related to mobile telephony and politics in Africa insert themselves; and to analyze the traditional theories regarding information and communication technologies (ICTs) in Africa in relation to politics. New theoretical approaches for thinking about mobile telephony in Africa are also proposed in order to understand the new paradigms that are at stake in the continent's development.
      PubDate: 2015-07-03T11:11:18Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Negotiating control : the evolving
           political journalism culture : foreword

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: Political and media institutions are so deeply intertwined, so thoroughly engaged in a complex Tango dance with each other. Politics has become increasingly mediatised, though the process of mediatisation has not yet been properly addressed and understood. Political thinking distinguishes between two radically distinct meanings of power: power as a transformative capacity and power as domination, thus entailing asymmetry between those with whom power rests and those over whom power is exercised.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:41Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Online environmental activism in
           South Africa : a case study of the #IAM4RHINOS Twitter campaign

    • Authors: Carew; Joanne
      Abstract: The microblogging platform Twitter allows users to read and deliver short pieces of information called tweets. With the growth of social networks and various new media technologies, both locally and internationally, websites like Twitter have become platforms for activist groups to disseminate their messages, gather support, and start policy-related petitions championing a specific cause. The Internet and digital technologies open the door for everyday citizens to rally support for an initiative, and in so doing create large networked communities of normal people with shared beliefs. This article presents observations about the use of Twitter during the 2013 #Iam4rhinos conservation campaign. The article draws on data generated from Twitter users who participated in the campaign, which will be studied through a qualitative content analysis. Using the 2013 #Iam4rhinos Twitter campaign as a case study, this article traces some of the trends that emerged over the course of the 10 day initiative. The article also examines the online environmental activism landscape in South Africa, determining the power of retweets in message diffusion and highlighting the importance of regular users who, through their ardent support of the initiative, emerged as prominent influencers.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:40Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Core dimensions of community radio
           in action : the case of Ghana

    • Authors: Naaikuur; Lawrence, Diedong, Africanus L.
      Abstract: The present article seeks to serve as a 'how-to' text. Based on the relatively more matured experiences of some community radio (CR) stations in Ghana, the authors hope it could be a guide to CR stations in Africa and beyond on how to attain what we term the 'core dimensions' of CR that underpin its operations. The study reviews the literature on community radio and highlights some selected data on a survey by Diedong & Naaikuur (2012) to show how effective the implementation of relevant dimensions of CR in Ghana enables people in communities communicate within themselves and with the people making the decisions that affect them. The cases presented point to significant changes that the stations are inducing in various sectors of the lives of their communities across the country through innovative programming strategies. However, despite the significant impact that the CR sector in Ghana is making, there are challenges that need to be addressed to unleash its full potential. Notably, the study is based mainly on earlier studies and the personal experiences of the authors who have had some years of experience working with CR in Ghana.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:40Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Framing political change in Egypt
           : how ideology influences coverage

    • Authors: El Maghraby; Sara, Abu El Ela, Yasmine
      Abstract: The ousting of the Elected Egyptian President Mohamed Morsi in 2013 attracted the attention of media all over the world. This study examined how newspapers in different countries framed this political change. Framing Analysis was conducted on news stories published from the 3rd to the 10th of July 2013 in the New York Times (U.S.A), Jerusalem Post (Israel), and Asharq Alawsat (Saudi Arabia). The study also applied Ideological Analysis to examine the influence of different ideologies on the coverage of political change in Egypt and the effect of regions with different political, social, economic and media systems on the framing process. The study concluded that there was a difference in the coverage of change in Egypt in the three newspapers according to their different ideologies.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:39Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Indigenous communication systems
           versus modern communication systems : a case study of the Bukusu Subtribe
           of Western Kenya

    • Authors: Wefwafwa; Job Allan
      Abstract: This qualitative research attempts to tell a history of a people by highlighting the most life-threatening moments of their existence, and how they communicated the threats to mobilise the people into a common course to either save or better their lives. Through this, the study seeks to establish the most effective communication system(s) to address the rural folks' negative cultural practices such as Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) and wife inheritance. This will help development communication experts to device and package messages that will effectively target the negative cultural practices in developing countries. Purposive sampling was used to sample three interviewees (traditional diviners who are also custodians of their culture) with whom, through face to face interviews, the researcher obtained data for the study. The study established that rural folks regard modern communication systems as superficial and unable to address their deep seated cultural issues. They argue that the synthetic, glamorous, and vivid yet skeletonic value of TV and Radio lack the naturalness that they seek in communication. To them, metaphors, village dances, and folk songs deliver messages far more effectively. After all, African rural life is largely natural and knows no glamour. For this, modern communication systems alone cannot address the cultural issues. Both the indigenous communication systems and the modern communication systems need to be blended to generate (a) hybrid communication system(s) that can effectively address the negative cultural practices in Africa.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:38Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: A dialogue for social change on
           Facebook : A South African case study

    • Authors: Benzinger; Bettina
      Abstract: The increasing popularity of social media platforms and the Internet's increasing accessibility in developing countries establish a case for using social media in international development. This essay outlines the potential of social media to drive a dialogue for social change. I argue that social media posses an important potential that is grounded in the congruent philosophies of the two concepts 'social media' and 'social change.' Social media express a new mindset that distinguishes this evolved media species from the so-called traditional media. This social media mindset is expressed in six core ideas which I call the six Cs of social media: connectedness, community, content, conversation, collaborating crowd and collective action. . Before elaborating on the theoretical underpinnings, I will first present the most important empirical findings of a case study: loveLife, South Africa's largest HIV-prevention initiative, which engages youth in vivid dialogues on Facebook about societal grievances. I applied a model of communication for social change (Figueroa et al., 2002) in a deductive content analysis to a sample of the dialogues. The results confirm that there are elements of a dialogue for change inherent in the analysed dialogue sample and emphasize the potential of social media dialogues to drive social change. In making societal grievances a topic of discussion and participating in the dialogues on loveLife's Facebook page, the young people become aware of the status quo in their society. Furthermore, they actively negotiate understandings of the presented situations, identify causes,and to a smaller extent outline visions for the future and more or less concrete solutions and actions to take. Therefore, the dialogues trigger thought processes and create mutual understanding about the societal situation. The study could confirm previous research (Junge, 2012; Sheedy, 2011) which pointed out the power of online dialogues in change processes by making topics being present in the minds of people and making them discussed. However, the research also reveals some challenges that the approach has to face.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:38Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Making space in the public media
           functional for inter-cultural dialogue and social cohesion

    • Authors: Diedong; Africanus L.
      Abstract: The paper focuses on the mass media as a forum for inter-cultural dialogue and social cohesion with a view to teasing out some critical lessons/episodes which demonstrate the feasibility of the application of some models of cultural programming for journalists engaged and interested in promoting national development efforts. Through a review of relevant literature, the paper sets the scene for exploring how space in the media could be made more functionally relevant to discourses on inter-cultural dialogue and social cohesion. It is within the thinking of this paper that the dynamics of the way of life of Ghanaians, in particular, and Africans, in general, is such that any discourse on culture, rites and rituals, social norms and values would be incomplete without elements of religion being infused into in one way or the other. Melkote & Steves (2001) point out that religion has a crucial role in fostering peace, universal brotherhood and the promotion of a culture of human solidarity. The essence of religion for believers is experienced in the form of discourse. We talk about our beliefs, listen to sermons, interpret symbols, read the discourse of sacred tradition as we interact with one another. In this connection, religion can provide journalists with vital resources to promote understanding, cooperation and respect among cultures. In this paper, I argue that the world benefits from a rich variety of cultural identities through responsible 'meaning making' in the public media.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:37Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: 'We are after ideals' : a critical
           analysis of ideology in the tweets by Boko Haram

    • Authors: Chiluwa; Innocent, Ajiboye, Esther
      Abstract: This study critically examines the influence and power of ideology in the activities of Boko Haram - an Islamic radical group that claims responsibility for several bombing attacks in northern Nigeria. Data comprise tweets and retweets presumably produced by members of this group in their effort to promote their ideological stance and mobilize followers. Discursive content of the tweets show that the Islamic radicals adopt some existing African socio-cultural norms to champion Islamic religious ideologies that are intolerant to opposing views. The Boko Haram tweets generally reflect the positive construction of the 'we' in-group and negative representation of the 'others' who are referred to as 'infidels', and are worthy of death. This study also shows that twitter/tweeting has been used in recent times to popularize religious and political ideologies.
      PubDate: 2015-02-05T07:58:37Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The political rhetoric of violence
           and power : the making of modern memory in Africa : foreword

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: In the current mediatised societies, it is almost impossible to find any culture not gripped by an obsession with violence. From hate crimes to violent video games, from action films to the death penalty, it seems all aspects of our daily lives have violence as a common theme. Even when people try to forget the societal traumas in our national memory, they cannot escape the sense of panic associated with the senseless and devastating pain of violence. The theme of the current issue of the Global Media Journal, African Edition, is covering elections in Africa. The purpose is to examine the relationship between media, culture and power, and how it is reflected in the coverage of elections, as well as discuss the link between violent rhetoric and physical violence in the African context.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:17Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The commodification of political
           advertising on television during the 2009 General Elections in South
           Africa

    • Authors: Sindane; Sibongile
      Abstract: The research on which this article is based reports the extent to which political advertising on television commodifies politics in South Africa. Thus, this paper illustrates the commodification process of political advertising on television during the 2009 general elections. A critical political economy of political advertising and an inductive thematic content analysis were used to interpret the data collected. Altogether, the data were collected through document analysis and a self-administered questionnaire. A sample was employed and the findings showed that the issue of commodification in politics was prominent in the political advertisements on television during the 2009 election period. The conclusion made is that political advertising on television commodifies politics to a large extent. This is evident in the financial demands related to the production, access, as well as the distribution of the advertisements.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:16Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Naspers Media Group : ethnic past
           and global present. Media firms, class and ethnic identities during the
           age of convergence and expansion - the case of Naspers in the first decade
           of the 21st century

    • Authors: Mosime; Sethunya Tshepho
      Abstract: This work analyses the reasons why the South African media giant Naspers Limited scaled down its businesses in the early 2000s at a time when the political economy of communication and media economics pointed towards expansions and mergers as the business strategy of the future. Its acquisition of a controlling shareholding of OpenTV in March 1999, and the subsequent disposing of the same interests in May 2002, can be perceived as signalling the need to re-visit the belief that media firms in the future can only get bigger. The case of Naspers illustrated how in the global media economy, class and ethnicity become more complex as market interests grow from local to global. Local bourgeois class and ethnic interests that took a long time to invent become increasingly threatened in the age of global markets. From its inception, initially called Nasionale Pers, Naspers was characterised by "a certain symbiosis of material and ethnic interests" (Giliomee, 2003, p. 373). It was founded to invent Afrikaner group identity. It has also since then grown to become a powerful player in the global media economy by undertaking expansion and mergers. This presents a paradox with the very opportunity to grow bigger and more global simultaneously being a threat to Naspers's cultural 'rootedness' and past.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:15Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Women climbing the ladder -
           experiences of affirmative action in South African media

    • Authors: Zuiderveld; Maria
      Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine what effect an extensive affirmative action programme has had on a group of black women in the South African media, and how they perceive how existing power structures affect their everyday experiences within their respective media companies. The empirical base is an interview study with eight black women who hold or held top editorial positions in South Africa. Drawing on Bourdieu's field theory, the results suggest that there is an escape from journalism as other forms of symbolic capital have not managed to outweigh the negative capital of being a black woman in South African journalism.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:15Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Jos metropolitan residents'
           perception of government-owned broadcast media coverage of the 2011
           gubernatorial electioneering campaigns in Plateau State, Nigeria

    • Authors: Asemah; Ezekiel Shegun, Nwammuo, Angela Nkiru, Edegoh, Leo Onyeka Nwachukwu
      Abstract: The paper examines Jos residents' perception of the broadcast media coverage of the 2011 gubernatorial elections in Plateau State, Nigeria. The rationale behind the study was to find out how Jos metropolitan residents perceived the way and manner the Nigerian Television Authority (NTA, Jos) and Plateau Radio Television Corporation (PRTVC, Jos) covered the elections of 2011. The study adopted a quantitative research method employing questionnaires as instruments of data collection. The findings show that the Plateau state-owned PRTVC, Jos, paid more attention to the gubernatorial electioneering campaigns than the federal government-owned Nigerian Television Authority in Jos. The data show that PRTVC covered the gubernatorial electioneering campaigns to a very great extent. Findings further show that the ruling party (PDP) received more coverage than the other political parties. Respondents were dissatisfied with the way and manner the media covered the 2011 gubernatorial elections because parties were not equally covered. The paper, therefore, concludes that even though the government-owned broadcast media in Plateau State covered the 2011 gubernatorial elections in Plateau State, more coverage was given to the People's Democratic Party (PDP). They were not fair in the coverage of political parties that contested the 2011 gubernatorial elections. Based on the findings and conclusion, the paper recommends that the media should endeavour to give equal treatment to political parties that contest any given elections. Only then can the mass media be seen as credible.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:14Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Socially constructing contexts and
           imaginations through filmic simulacra - the case of Invictus

    • Authors: Wise; Nicholas
      Abstract: Geographies and histories are important to acknowledge when viewing filmic productions to understand renditions of places and social groups. Contemporary issues relevant to geography and history are often communicated through a host of visual images - widely and readily accessible. In this regard, films contribute to knowledge of places by creating geographical imaginations, and thus require an interpretation of their content and context. The following commentary assesses the film Invictus, critically examining the role of rugby alongside with racial divisions in South Africa. Geopolitical struggles over nationalism are incorporated to indicate the role of sport pertinent to contexts and representations of international events, domestic politics, and race in South Africa following the period of apartheid.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:13Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Media ownership and the coverage
           of the 2013 general election in Kenya - democracy at the crossroads

    • Authors: Simiyu; Tome Francis
      Abstract: This research explores the relationship between journalistic freedom and media concentration in Kenya through the lens of the propaganda model (Baker, 2007) as well as the Media Ownership Theory, as propounded by Shoemaker and Reese (1991). It concludes that media ownership and media concentration have led to a constriction of the diversity of viewpoints in Kenya. The research is based on two surveys: (1) a survey of the public's confidence in the conduct of journalists during the 2013 general election in Kenya, and (2) a survey of journalists' perceptions of the influence of media ownership on journalistic independence in Kenya.. The findings indicate that 71% of journalists believe media diversity in Kenya is at risk, whilst 69% of the respondents believe that the risk is occasioned by unhealthy media ownership trends in Kenya. While almost every journalist surveyed agreed that independence of the media is important to democratic life, more than half (52%) of journalists said media owners had direct editorial influence on their work. The perceived climate of distrust dogging the mainstream media in Kenya and the resultant viewpoint constriction explain why more Kenyans are turning to citizen journalism as an alternative source of information. This survey raises further questions about future implications for journalistic independence given the emergence and dominance of media concentration in Kenya.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:13Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Political journalism and elections
           in Africa

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: During elections it is particularly important to assess the role media have of holding government to account on behalf of citizens. While media, in particular commercial media, do not sign a formal contract stating that they endorse and will fulfill this role, this expectation must be recognised and honoured in support of the argument for a free and plural media.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:12Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Fine-tuning Africa's radio
           stations : connecting communities and cultures : review essay

    • Authors: Haron; Muhammed
      Abstract: For much of the 20th century, the increasing popularity of the radio as a 'hot' medium - to borrow Marshall McLuhan's words as quoted by David Hendy in his Radio in the Global Age - stimulated the imaginations of Africa's disparate and diverse communities. It not only kept them informed about their histories and cultures, but it also relayed information about the ongoing developments in and beyond their communities. The radio acted and continues to act as a powerful instrument that connected the pulsating and dynamic African cities with the mildmannered and placid African villages. It did so by transmitting news broadcasts about events that had taken place on different parts of their imagined continent and by relaying orally narrated stories about their communities' past.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:12Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: A research agenda for political
           advertising in Africa : the case of Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Chibuwe; Albert
      Abstract: Post-2000 Zimbabwe has been characterised by massive political contestations mainly between the President Robert Mugabe-led Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front (ZANU PF) government and the Movement for Democratic Change (MDC) led by Morgan Tsvangirai. This battle has been fought on many fronts including the media and international forums with ZANU PF accusing the MDC of being 'puppets' of the British and Americans. On the other hand, the MDC accuses ZANU PF of 'dictatorship'. This contestation has largely been more pronounced during election periods where it takes place through political advertisements in the media, music and election rallies among others. Whereas there have been many studies of the elections, media coverage of elections, alleged use of violence as an instrument of control, ZANU PF discourses through the media, official speeches and music among others, there has been little study of political advertising in Zimbabwe. This is despite the centrality of political advertising in political contestation in a democracy (Kaid, 2012). This paper, through a review and analysis of existing Zimbabwean literature on media coverage of elections, music nationalism, political journalism, cultural journalism among other political communication related studies, proposes a new theory of post-colonial African political communication and/or political advertising. It argues that existing scholarship tends to rely too much on Western theory and post-colonial essentialism to interpret ZANU PF discourses without acknowledging the peculiarities of the post-colonial African state which makes it different from the Western liberal democratic state and thus makes Western theory alone is inadequate as an analytical tool to understand post-colonial African phenomenon. The paper argues that the practice of political advertising in Zimbabwe can best be understood through political communication theory and through acknowledging that the African post-colonial state is an 'artefact' of colonialism that has no link to any pre-colonial reality (Shaw, 1986).
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:11Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Good governance and media
           ownership in Nigeria : dilemmatic practices, stoic challenges

    • Authors: Omenugha; Kate Azuka, Uzuegbunam, Chikezie Emmanuel, Omenugha, Obinna Nelson
      Abstract: Discourses on democracy in Africa often revolve around the relevance of Western democracy to African nations given the region's peculiar socio-economic and cultural conditions (Ezeani, 2013). In many African countries, evidence abounds of the absence of democratic dividends, an indicator of the apparent failure of liberal democracy in the region. The media as the fourth estate of the realm is often seen, albeit idealistically, as being positioned to rise above democratic failures and, in its watchdog roles, to work towards the enthronement of good governance. Unfortunately, in Nigeria, the environment within which the media operates vis-à-vis the ownership structures has continuously posed stoic challenges to its expected roles. The result is continuous dilemmatic practices, whereby the media's position as bastion of democracy is consistently negotiated. This article, with exemplars from the Nigerian media scene over the years, x-rays the stoic challenges which media ownership poses to Nigerian society as the nation works towards development through good governance. It argues that ownership patterns, pressures and politics continue to challenge the consistent and committed role of the media in deepening our march towards good democratic governance. The article, however, concludes that rather than heaping the blame on the media, one could more safely return a verdict of collective responsibility - viewing the failings of the media within the larger context of the failings of the social system in which the media are embedded. Such thinking invariably points to the fact that various stakeholders other than the media have a role to play in enthroning good governance in the Nigerian polity.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:11Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The role of the media in Africa's
           development : from vision to reality

    • Authors: Kakonage; John
      Abstract: African countries have prepared long-term plans and strategic visions for their national development that capture their aspirations, and these commonly include becoming industrialized by 2020 or at the latest 2030. However, the realization of these visions is constrained by several challenges. This paper will briefly examine the factors impeding implementation, and the positive role the media could play in accelerating the process.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:10Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The role of the private print
           media in post-socialist Ethiopia - views from government, opposition
           politicians, academics and the private press

    • Authors: Dejene; Melisew
      Abstract: Recounting the views of the government, opposition politicians, academics and the private press itself as represented by their editors, the study argues that the private print media in Ethiopia are subject to external and internal challenges that dwarf its role in helping the transition to democracy. The volatility of the socio-political context regarding their operation and the low readership culture could be singled out among the external challenges to the private media. The major challenge associated with the private print media themselves is lack of professional knowledge and capacity. The study uses McQuail's Normative Theory of Media Structure and Performance to frame the role of the private print media in Ethiopia of the last two decades. Though the private print media contributed to the struggle for democracy, their role is below the societal demands.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:10Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Are new media technologies
           positively influencing democratic participation? Evidence from the 2008
           elections in Zimbabwe

    • Authors: Mutsvairo; Bruce
      Abstract: This research is a case study analysis of the 2008 national elections in Zimbabwe. The elections are considered crucial in the history of the country because long-time President Robert Mugabe suffered an unprecedented defeat at the hands of opposition leader Morgan Tsvangirai in the first of the two rounds of voting. This study presupposes the view that as digital technologies become more accessible and affordable, more people are able to easily coordinate, organise and advance their interests. It aims to critically examine the overall role played by the Internet in propelling democratic reforms in Zimbabwe, specifically focusing on its role during the 2008 elections. The major question in the research pertains to the assumed use of new media technologies by Zimbabwean exiles to channel pro-opposition information into the country, effectively leading to President Mugabe's losing. The paper refutes, based on empirical interviews conducted with Zimbabwean expatriates and immigrants living in the UK as well as a sample of locally based Zimbabweans, the notion that new media technologies helped the opposition Movement for Democratic Change see off Mugabe in the elections.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:09Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: What about men? Gendered reception
           of an edutainment drama

    • Authors: Mahoney; L. Meghan
      Abstract: An estimated 34 million people globally are living with HIV, with Sub-Saharan Africabeing the most severely affected area, with nearly 1 in every 20 adults diagnosed (UNAIDS, 2012). Botswana experiences one of the highest adult prevalence rates in Sub-Saharan Africa, with almost 100,000 children, in a country of only two million people, having lost a parent to the virus (Botswana Country Report, 2010). Makgabaneng is a serial radio soap drama that addresses critical HIV/AIDS awareness and behaviour change issues in Botswana. This study aims to understand how fans of the programme understand the storyline that presents narratives where female characters are portrayed as educated, independent and confident individuals. Results of 42 in-depth interviews with self-defined fans of the drama show that males are constructed as uneducated, irresponsible and dependent in society. It is recommended that Makgabaneng address this inequity by creating a more balanced number of positive and negative female and male characters.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:08Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Media coverage of conflict in
           Africa

    • Authors: Odine; Maurice
      Abstract: Of the many problems that face Africa, conflict is perpetual. In a continent whose land mass is one-fifth of the world, and where ethnicity is omnipresent, conflict is nearly inevitable. Africans are captive to the divisive and manipulative colonial repression that has placed hurdles toward nation building, particularly because foreign powers partitioned Africa without regard to culture or socio-economic development. Hence, Africa has been, for decades, been the battleground for East-West political and economic interests. Despite flagrant suffering and millions dead due to conflict, media coverage (championed by western media) have either been silent or selective as evidenced by the United States (US) and British media. Even reportage filed from Africa has been edited to suit Western audiences and other pecuniary interests. To counter tribal connotations not only to forestall stereotypes, but also to assure accuracy and fairness, African countries have instituted peace journalism in association with sympathetic international media organizations with focus on conflict resolution. Furthermore, the advent of "peace journalism" is intended to undercut the "CNN factor" whereby incredulous sources are paraded before television cameras.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:08Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Communicating the findings and
           recommendations of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) reports in Africa
           : some observations

    • Authors: Kakonge; John O.
      Abstract: For African countries to make the environmental impact assessment (EIA) process effective, the findings and recommendations of EIA reports must be communicated horizontally and vertically to the stakeholders. This article proposes that for this communication to be successful, several challenges must be addressed. They include insensitivity to cultural and language barriers, lack of accessibility of EIA reports and overreliance on foreign experts. Use of mass media, increased training of media journalists and reporters as well as other professionals, public inquiries by local leaders, and increased awareness of environmental matters on the part of communities can improve the EIA process.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:07Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Narrating African politics :
           social imaginaries and climate change in the media

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: There are many hurdles in Africa to overcome in order to break down the barriers that prevent the majority of people from knowing and sharing information about climate change. However, this dilemma could be addressed by increasing trust in the media and news coverage (mainstream and alternative), which can only be realized by addressing the very particular concerns of different contributing communities in Africa. It is, therefore, the aim of this special issue of the Global Media journal, African Edition, to offer new insights with a view to increasing knowledge sharing capacity, improving potential collaborations, building on existing research, and creating a sense of collective responsibility towards the future among the African people.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:07Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Climate change and drama : the
           youth learning about and responding to climate change issues through drama
           

    • Authors: Buirski; Lindie
      Abstract: Mobilising cultural practitioners to promote understanding of climate change is important for public engagement, in particular for young learners and children. Over the past six years, interest in the 'science' of communicating climate change has flourished in South Africa. Psychologists, social workers, schools and the city of Cape Town, through the Department of Environment, have been united in the quest for systematic, reliable evidence with which to promote sustainable behaviour. They have been mobilising cultural and creative resources among young learners regardless of their race and ethnicities to enhance the general public engagement with climate change. To take one topical example, Yes Festival is an annual event that adopts the idea of "creativity versus climate change". The invisible nature of climate change is rendered real through everyday stories, performances, and simple yet authentic ideas through children and school teachers to create a positive social norm. Typically, the challenge of climate change communication is thought to require systematic evidence about public attitudes, sophisticated models of behaviour change and the rigorous application of social scientific research. All of this is true, but it is human stories, creative plays not carbon targets that capture children's attention. The science of climate change communication is essential to engage people's minds, but the art of engaging people's imagination may be just as important.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:06Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Investigating the use of the media
           in disseminating information on climate change in north central Nigeria

    • Authors: Falaki; A.A., Adegbija, M.V.
      Abstract: Information dissemination through the use of media technology is important to understanding the threat, impact and adaptation options that climate change poses regarding the livelihood of farmers in Nigeria specifically and the entire world generally. This study investigates the use of media in disseminating information on climate change and the constraints limiting climate change adaptation in north central Nigeria. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data from 411 farmers in the study area. A multi-stage sampling technique was used in selecting the respondents, and the data collected was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. The mean age of the farmers was 52 years. The mean years of farming experience was 33 years. 51.3% of the farmers were females. Their literacy level was low (30.6% had secondary education). The most common household appliances among the respondents were radio sets (77.6%), motor cycles (55%) and mobile telephones (30.6%). 59.4% received information from extension agents between 2008 and 2011; only about half of them received information (temperature and rainfall) on climate change from this source. Extension agents and battery-operated radios were ranked as the leading sources of information on climate change. Inadequate information due to inadequate media coverage of climate change in Nigeria in particular and the low literacy level were the principal constraints on climate change adaptation. It was recommended that the literacy level of the respondents be improved through the establishment of adult education or literacy classes in the study area so that they can benefit from print media. It was further recommended that timely and adequate information to rural farmers on climate change should be given via media technologies available to them (such as battery powered radios and mobile phones among others) and that extension agents should be properly equipped to give information on climate change to the farmers.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:06Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Environmental NGOs as news sources
           : a sociological approach to the study of environmental journalism in
           South Africa

    • Authors: Kwenda; Jaquelyne Crystal
      Abstract: The interconnectivity between climate change and critical economic, agricultural and social matters presents challenges in communicating the complexity and urgency of dealing with climate change. Commentators have criticised environmental journalism in Africa for its superficiality, inaccuracy and disassociation from broader developmental issues (Wasserman, 2012), thus generating a call for better communication that shapes adequately informed and pro-active African citizens. A precursor to a study on the interaction between the media and non-governmental news sources, this article argues that attempts to address the media's shortcomings should begin with a closer assessment of the politics of representation within mass media coverage of climate change. Beginning with an exploration of the literature on environmental organizations and the media, it shows that a media-centric approach dominates the study of news source strategies. As a result, this method emphasizes the impact of journalistic norms on news coverage by highlighting the dominant access of official news sources to news media. In so doing, the influence, or lack thereof, of the politically marginalized is neglected. In an attempt to bridge this gap, this article puts forward a framework which integrates concepts of journalistic norms and values with social constructionist views. Through this approach, environmental NGOs will be viewed as participants in the construction of climate change news circumscribed by social and political factors which determine their strategies and the extent to which they can enjoy media access.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:05Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Climate change and South Africa :
           a critical analysis of the National Climate Change Response White Paper
           and the push for tangible practices and media-driven initiatives

    • Authors: Smith; Shelley
      Abstract: The South African government's response to the universal crisis of global warming has resulted in the creation of the National Climate Change Response White Paper, a proposed country-wide course of action that would aid in the stabilization of greenhouse gas emissions and intervene in current harmful environmental practices. The role of communication and the media is crucial to the success of any policy implementation as well as of the establishment of an 'action-inspired' mind-set amongst citizens that will bolster lifestyle change to support the cause. This paper will assess the National Climate Change Response White Paper in conjunction with climate change coverage from the South African daily online news source, News24. Additionally, films released from the Bjerkness Centre for Climate Research and discussion surrounding youth's use of relatable mediums to invoke lifestyle change from Lindie Buirski, Head of Environmental Capacity Building, Training and Education in the City of Cape Town's Environmental Resource Management (ERM) Department, will aid in analysis. Moreover, they will serve to bolster the argument of communications' critical role in realizing any goals set forth by the government. The paper will close by offering proposed climate-change directed development projects for the South African context and will refer to current international successful examples of media use to carry the message of climate change, while inviting audience input, participation, and most importantly, action.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:05Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Ghana's experience in
           participatory community radio broadcasting

    • Authors: Diedong; Africanus L., Naaikuur, Lawrence
      Abstract: This article documents more than ten years' experience of community radio (CR) broadcasting in Ghana and the problems and the challenges community radio has encountered in attempts to apply the key principles and concepts underlying participatory radio broadcasting. Through a description of some main socio-cultural and political change episodes, the article clearly demonstrates how community radio can positively impact the quality of life of people. The study notes that attempts at creating truly democratic community radio stations can be fully realized by ensuring that the fundamental principles, which underpin the operation and democratic management of community radio stations, are actually implemented to benefit community members.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:04Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Foreword

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: This issue of the Global Media Journal, African Edition, marks two main steps forward. The first is the cooperation between the University of Cape Town and the University of Stellenbosch with a view to improving research culture in Africa and providing new research opportunities for African scholars. The second is taking the Global Media Journal, African Edition, to a more professional and academic level by providing blind peer review of the different contributions of scholars with the aim of securing quality and fairness. Research on journalism and media governance in Africa still suffers from a lack of adequate and comprehensive investigation as a result of the flagrant gap between the rhetoric of liberty and the double-standard policies which debilitate the will for profound social change.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:04Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: State-owned media and
           democratization in Eritrea : an analytical study

    • Authors: Murthy; C. S. H. N.
      Abstract: The paper discusses various dimensions of a complex situation arising out of the conflict between the media and the state, and the raging conflict between the general perception of democracy and the Eritrean government's perception of it. This is within the context of a fast developing global village of which all African states will be members one day. Eritrea, though liberated in 1991 from Ethiopian rule, shares many characteristics of other dictatorial regimes in the neighboring countries. The state-run electronic and print media, centralized economy, lack of a parliamentary election process, independent judiciary, and suppression of fundamental rights, especially the freedom of expression, mark the dictatorial character of the regime in Eritrea in contrast to the accepted conventions of democracy in the West. The Eritrean government promotes a democratic model in which democratization is sought through education. Achieving democratization is limited to holding regular elections to local bodies at grass-root level. By the Government's not holding elections to its Parliament, the present policies of governance have not only turned deviant from its own once highly avowed and publicized macro-policy and the Constitution, but also have become vulnerable to mounting criticism. The present study, supported by a survey of the opinion of a random sample of people via mobile as well as Internet channels by means of open-ended questions, offers a snapshot of the growing desire of the people for full implementation of the Constitution, a liberalized economy and the free media, which their counterparts enjoy in many European countries.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:03Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Media and governance in Nigeria :
           a critique of selected radio and TV programmes during the elections

    • Authors: Popoola; Tayo
      Abstract: This study is carried out through the case study method which uses multiple sources of evidence to investigate post-election violence in Nigeria's second republic. The main thesis of the study is anchored on the contention of Gana (2000) that the media in a democracy should "promote the culture of peace, development, people's participation, positive virtues as well as promoting a stable polity" (p. 11). Across centuries, normative theories of politics have been anchored on an assumption that modern representative democracies thrive in an information environment in which the citizens learn and consequently carry out certain obligations. According to Carpini (2004), "the citizens learn about pressing issues of the day, follow the actions of elected and government officials, and communicate their views to these officials" (p. 395). However, theories of direct democracy have established a scenario of richer communication environment that helps provide citizens with motivation, ability and opportunity to participate in on-going political activities through diverse ways. According to North (1967), "politics could not exist without communication, nor could wars be fought" (p. 301). The reason behind this assertion was provided by Deutsch (1963) who stresses that "it is communication, that is, the ability to transmit messages and react to them that makes organization" (p. 77). Isaak (1981) equally makes a similar assertion. He points out that "it is through communication that a political system relates to and copes with its environment" (p. 292). The study is a critique of selected political programmes of radio stations and TV in Nigeria during the elections. This is a period when politically articulate citizens are eager and, in some cases, anxious to know the latest about the on-going elections. Due to the sensitive nature of politics, it is expected that every piece of information that is aired is thoroughly investigated and authenticated to guard against any thing that could induce violence. When this is not done, violence will surely occur. Through a qualitative research method with emphasis on a case study, the study arrived at the conclusion that the post-election violence which erupted in the Old Ondo state was due to non-adherence to the broadcasting code, partisanship and the unprofessional conduct of media men.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:03Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Instructional media in teaching
           and learning : a Nigerian perspective

    • Authors: Adegbija; M. V., Fakomogbon, M. A.
      Abstract: The focus of this paper is to discuss the use of instructional media in teaching and learning from a Nigerian perspective. The problem with the use of instructional media has existed since the 1970s after the oil boom era. As soon as corruption and mismanagement of the oil resources became more serious, all other sectors including education were no longer properly funded or given the needed attention for national development. As a result, most lecturers and teachers in many Nigerian tertiary institutions now use the lecture method only in teaching their various courses. The use of this type of method as the sole teaching technique can lead to boredom in learners, lack of learner participation, noise factors that can cause communication breakdown during teaching, learners' mixing up of information, and lack of interest in or attention to the subject matter being taught. Some sources where lecturers can select instructional media for teaching their courses are identified and discussed. It is recommended that the Nigerian government should urgently assist teachers, especially at the tertiary level, in the procurement and use of instructional media through training and retraining, workshops, conferences, etc. in order to fit into the new scientific order of addressing the nation's educational problems.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:02Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Introducing intercultural
           communication, global cultures and contexts, by Shuang Liu, Zala Volcic
           and Cindy Gallois : book review

    • Authors: Rooney; Richard
      Abstract: The authors introduced a textbook that is useful for introductory classes in intercultural communication. Liu et al. (all from the University of Queensland, Australia) (2011) say their main impetus for writing this book was to situate "intercultural communication in a broader context that will help to bridge the gap left by existing textbooks and will have a wider application beyond the US context" (p. 6). Sadly, the range of the book is limited, offering insights into and explanations about culture in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceanic countries but ignoring Africa and South America.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:01Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The depiction of Julius Malema in
           the South African press

    • Authors: Kotze; Klaus
      Abstract: The contemporary South African press presents an antagonistic depiction of the actions of Julius Malema, the expelled (pending appeal) president of the African National Congress Youth League (ANCYL). This depiction embodies the oppositional political force the press exhibits in its representation of the near hegemonic political power of the ANC. In its assumed capacity of socio-political watchdog the press propagates influential depictions of the political elite, depicting selected individuals in antipathetic terms. These representations, which if assumed only as objective portrayals, neglect the intended opposition that the press acts in as 'fourth estate.' This study canvasses the aversive manner in which Julius Malema is pictured in the South African press through conducting a content analysis of two South African daily newspapers, The Cape Times and The Sowetan. The study analyses five intensely media-covered events in which Malema was central. Though the depiction of Malema does not present intrinsic malevolence, his actions are presented as antagonistic through predominantly episodic and emotive framing. His explicitly insolent diction is used as fodder to engage resistance. Such reporting signifies irresponsibility where, within a decontextualised framework, selective sound-bite journalism manipulates readers, accordingly shaping content from truncated snippets that are patched together within a prevailing media logic.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:39:01Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Characteristics of the Botswana
           press

    • Authors: Rooney; Richard
      Abstract: There are serious deficiencies in our knowledge of the press in Botswana in terms of its political economy, the professional practices of its journalists, and the editorial content of newspapers. This paper analyses the newspapers in Botswana. It begins with a general overview of Botswana and maps the newspaper landscape in the country. It then sets out some of the key characteristics of the press in Botswana by answering three research questions. (i) What are the characteristics of the editorial content in Botswana newspapers? (ii) How does the state-controlled Daily News impact on the newspaper market generally? (iii) What are the capacities of journalists in Botswana and where might there be areas for improvement?. The paper utilizes a content analysis of the editorials of the country's newspapers identifying the main news agendas and also the sources of information that journalists rely on for their reports.. It concludes that the Daily News distorts the newspaper market and undermines the private press; that there is a diverse private press, but that all newspapers rely on powerful voices for their editorial content to the exclusion of ordinary people; and that while there are many attributes of the press to admire, there is a need for the capabilities of journalists to be improved.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:57Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Foreword ...

    • Authors: Saleh; Ibrahim
      Abstract: Global Media Journal, African Edition is devoted to the publication of high-quality research on Africa. Its particular focus is on understanding how media and journalism are embedded in social and cultural activities as well as the reciprocating roles between individual uses and consumption, on the one hand, and agenda building on the other hand. Such understanding requires a careful analysis of the socio-political context and the communicative processes involved.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:57Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Deconstructing the reporting of
           hostage taking in the Niger Delta

    • Authors: Eti; Chigozi Ijeomah
      Abstract: The pattern of reporting the January 11, 2006 incident of the kidnapping of four expatriate oil workers from the EA Oil Field in Delta State provides a window into the nature of media coverage of the escalating crisis in the Niger Delta region. This study shows that conflict reporting in the Nigerian press is 'episodic', featuring such conflict behaviours as the bombing of drilling platforms and oil pipelines, killing and maiming of oil workers and state security operatives, and kidnapping and hostage taking, which are the focus of this study. Framing of these conflict behaviours is influenced by ethno-political factors, foreign policy implications, and the height of drama of the situation. Drawing data from three national daily newspapers - The Punch, the Daily Champion and the New Nigerian - this work shows that the reporting by The Punch and the Daily Champion indicated 'support framing' of the Niger Delta, while the New Nigerian showed 'distance framing'. The press, however, needs to reverse the practice of 'describing' conflict situations through straight news stories and to focus on more analysis-based features and editorials that 'prescribe' solutions.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:56Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The recent decline in press
           freedom in South Africa

    • Authors: Van Leeuwen; Lianne
      Abstract: Since the implementation of the 2008 Protection of the Information Bill and the 2010 proposed Media Appeals Tribunal, it is often argued that these two developments may affect the country's press freedom problematically. The research question of this paper is: how has press freedom in South Africa developed since 1994?. Firstly, two discourse analyses of presidential public speeches that refer to press freedom were carried out in order to gain an understanding of presidential discourse. Secondly, two content analyses of the Mail & Guardian were conducted where the articles that refer to press freedom were analysed to examine the way in which they cover this issue. The time periods for the content analyses match those of the discourse analyses so that the results of the comparisons can be compared safely. The content analyses show that journalistic rhetoric has changed while the political rhetoric seems to have remained the same.. As an alternative to the Media Appeals Tribunal, the author suggests the appointment of an independent regulatory body which will be able to solve issues between the two opposing discourses in an easy and fair manner, and the media can maintain its function as the 'fourth estate' while political figures can object to defamation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:55Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Press and terrorism in Nigeria : a
           discourse on Boko Haram

    • Authors: Popoola; I.S.
      Abstract: This paper is a political communication discourse on terrorism with specific reference to the emergence of the Boko Haram religious sect in Nigeria and the dangers it poses to press freedom in the country.. In spite of the provisions in Article 22 of the Nigerian 1999 constitution which provide for objective, truthful and comprehensive coverage of newsworthy activities in Nigeria, the activities of the Boko Haram sect have emerged as the greatest threat to press freedom in the country.. The article in question states that "the press, radio, television and other agencies of the mass media shall at all times be free to uphold the fundamental objectives contained in this chapter and uphold the responsibility and accountability of the government to the people.". The killing of some journalists by the sect has, however, intimidated Nigerian journalists, who now tread cautiously to avoid being eliminated by the sect.. After an elaborate treatment of press and terrorism in colonial and post-colonial Nigeria, the paper recommends a thorough overhauling of all the security agencies in the country to prevent a return of Thomas Hobbes' state of nature in Nigeria.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:55Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Rykie: 'n Lewe met Woorde (A Life
           with Words), Lizette Rabe : book review

    • Authors: Barker; Ruchelle
      Abstract: Journalism professor Lizette Rabe of Stellenbosch University takes on the big challenge of documenting the life of the 'legendary' Afrikaans female journalist Rykie Van Reenen. In her book, Rabe argues that despite Van Reenen's private nature, it is necessary to appreciate the journalistic contributions of this ground-breaking female South African journalist and renowned Afrikaans writer of the second half of the twentieth century. The book reminds us of the patriarchal oppression South African women experienced and how Van Reenen overcame male dominance, especially in the field of journalism.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:54Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Using the Internet for democracy :
           a study of South Africa, Kenya and Zambia

    • Authors: Janse van Rensburg; Aletta H.
      Abstract: For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet's networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries.. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT) usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:54Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Teaching journalism or teaching
           African journalism? Experiences from foreign involvement in a journalism
           programme in Ethiopia

    • Authors: Skjerdal; Terje S.
      Abstract: Journalism programmes across the African continent have different attitudes to the issue of universal vs. local values in journalism. This article discusses the issue in light of a post-graduate journalism programme that opened at Addis Ababa University in 2004. In its 5-year implementation phase, the programme engaged educators from Europe and North America in addition to local instructors. Thus, one could expect a potential conflict between Western and Ethiopian approaches to journalism. However, on the basis of experiences with the Addis Ababa programme, the present study questions the assumed dichotomy between Western and Ethiopian (or African) journalism discourses. Tensions did indeed come to the fore when the programme was planned and implemented, but they were defined by determinants such as professional background and personal preferences of the instructors involved rather than by geographical and cultural origin.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:53Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Networking African journalism
           educators : bonding, bridging, and linking

    • Authors: Berger; Guy
      Abstract: Professional networking of African journalism educators is a complex matter for reasons related to the fragmentary identity and fragile resource base of this constituency. African journalism educators thus share many characteristics which ironically dilute the sense of a clear and common identity that could facilitate networking as a community. The prospects for building a social network amongst this constituency can be analysed in terms of theories of social capital and a review of various experiences. The results suggest that "bridging" to external constituencies with resources is the most fertile method of community creation, and this driver is central to building social capital via enhanced relationships in the African journalism education sector.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:53Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Situating language at the centre
           of journalism training : the case for broadening the spheres of English
           teaching and learning in Journalism training institutions in Ghana

    • Authors: Fosu; Modestus
      Abstract: This paper derives its impetus from the consensus today that the media play an indispensable role in democratic governance for sustained development. The media foster, most importantly, accountability, transparency, rule of law, respect for human rights, and civic participation, which are vital in securing the economic well-being of a people. Language, as the main vehicle that drives communication or journalistic imperatives to the "consumer", thus becomes a critical factor. . The focus here is on the effective and appropriate use of English (Ghana's official language) in newspapers in Ghana. It is argued that the majority of newspapers display linguistic ineptitude, thereby weakening their capacity to package and make development-oriented messages accessible to the reader. Specifically, the majority of newspapers present news in grammatically faulty and semantically confusing constructions that blur meaning. Thus, through a comparative study of the English and English-related courses in four journalism training institutions in Ghana and the English provisions in the latest UNESCO journalism curricula for Africa (2007), the study shows that English competence appears to be taken for granted in the training institutions. . This paper therefore argues for journalism education in Ghana to focus on helping trainee journalists to acquire English language competency. A more worthwhile complement will be to de-emphasise the "core" journalism or media knowledge and skills students are made to focus all their attention on in the schools and rather emphasise English use and usage. The paper suggests a reorganisation of English studies including institutional structure, curriculum and syllabus development, infrastructure, teaching, and learning methodology as ways of broadening English language pedagogy to produce the calibre of journalists who can really champion the democratic and developmental aspirations of Ghana and Africa.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:52Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Institutionalising children
           journalism education in Nigerian communication / media studies

    • Authors: Oyero; Olusola
      Abstract: The media have a responsibility to voice the rights of children but need to be better equipped to do so. Repositioning the media is best initiated within an educational framework as education brings about progress in practical fields and invariably leads to improvements in society as seen in studies in development communication, health communication, science communication, environmental communication, etc. (Craig, 2000). Children journalism education will undoubtedly go a long way in improving children's media practice. This paper calls for a journalism education programme in Nigeria to remediate the shortcomings observed in the African child's media world and to promote the rights of children and the realisation of their dreams.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:51Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Broadening mass communication
           research for enhanced media practice

    • Authors: Amadi; Fred A.
      Abstract: This article examines how the attention which media scholarship gives to only the quantitative research method impacts on journalism practice in Nigeria. Firstly, typical mass media texts were purposively selected and presented on a titled table. Secondly Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA) methods were used to analyse selected texts. Thirdly e-mailing and audio recording were used to elicit comments from a reporter and an editor. The editor and the reporter who commented wrote the stories from which the selected newspaper texts were drawn. Lastly, elicited comments were used to buttress arguments as the analysis progressed. In Nigeria journalists report news without imputation. Reporting news without imputations flaws news presentation. In this article flaws in news presentation are attributed to the attention which media scholarship in Nigeria gives to only the quantitative research method. The article proposes that as the qualitative research method, more so than the quantitative method, imparts better critical skills to journalists, the qualitative method should be emphasised more in mass media research.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:51Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Political economy of the Kenyan
           media - towards a culture of active citizen journalism

    • Authors: Ogenga; Fredrick
      Abstract: This paper utilises Hall's (1977) 'encoding-decoding' theory in the context of critical political economy theories of the media and cultural studies to explain the political, economic and cultural factors that influence media operation and content both at a macro and micro level. While political economy provides the setting in which the Kenyan media operates, cultural studies show how media content is not only shaped by the political and economic environments comprising those in power positions. Audiences are also actively engaged in the process of meaning construction. Considering Hall's (1977) encoding-decoding theory, the audiences can reject, negotiate or accept media content based on their own value systems and cultural orientation. Meaning, therefore, becomes a product of continual struggle between different discourses and power cannot be located in a top down manner as to who influences meaning as seen in a propaganda model. This is due to the fact that texts are diffused in different locations in society. The 2008 Kenya Communication Bill is utilised as an example to trace briefly the political and historical developments of policy issues that have influenced the Kenyan media. The Bill, furthermore, indicates how a weak socio-economic, political and cultural environment is marred by ineffectual policies meant to safeguard and guarantee the freedom of the press as an extension of individual freedom of expression as enshrined in the Kenyan constitution. This weak policy context has ensured the Kenyan media remains subject to easy political manipulation and control. However, the paper concludes by showing how citizen journalism is growing out of a regulated mainstream media through internet technology.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:50Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Functional democracy and mass
           media: a critique

    • Authors: Opuamie-Ngoa; Stanley Naribo
      Abstract: This paper comprises two parts. The first part defines democracy and attempts an examination of the role of the media in a functional democracy. In an attempt to explain issues in the media and public opinion within the realm of democracy, the paper explores etymological origins of media, arguing that what the media ought to be differs from what is obtainable.. Part two examines the media's role in various African countries when they were under colonial rule and the continent's push for self-rule, observing that post-colonial Africa witnessed a bifurcated partisan media.. The paper, with specific reference to the role of the media in present day South Africa and Nigeria, concludes that, for the proper role of promoting a healthy culture of democracy in society, today's news media needs to reflect society's concerns and the media's interest in democratic equity.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:50Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Fair Lady : effective coverage of
           politics in a women's magazine

    • Authors: Boshoff; Chanel, Fourie, Lynnette, Swanepoel, Thalyta
      Abstract: The article discusses the coverage of politics in South African women's magazine Fair Lady in selected years from democratisation in 1994 to ten years later in 2004. In a democracy, the media has the explicit duty to inform society. Within this context three questions are asked: (1) Which political themes are covered? (2) In what genres do the political items feature? (3) In what ways does the magazine focus the reader's attention on political items? These aspects were selected to provide a clear view of the extent and manner in which Fair Lady presents politics in its content. This study was done by means of a qualitative content analysis. By focusing on these issues and by drawing on the functions of the media; the agenda setting theory; the schema theory and the on-line evaluation theory, it is argued that the magazine deems politics as important and incorporates it on its agenda to provide readers with necessary political information which they might not otherwise attain. Fair Lady overcomes the fact that politics does not traditionally feature in women's magazines by taking care in attracting and keeping readers' attention to political items. The publication (especially in 2004) can be held up as an example to other women's magazines trying to fulfil their function as a medium to educate and inform readers whilst at the same time not alienating the entertainment-seekers.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:49Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Cinematography and character
           depiction

    • Authors: Nicholson; William Francis
      Abstract: This essay investigates the ways in which cinematography can be used in depicting characters effectively in the motion picture medium. Since an aspiring filmmaker may be overwhelmed by the expansive field of cinematography, this essay aims to demystify and systematise this aspect of filmmaking. It combines information from written sources (mostly text books on filmmaking and cinematography) with observations made from viewing recent and older feature films. The knowledge is organised under the three main headings of lighting, camera view point and the camera's mode of perception.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:48Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Employment patterns of UNAM
           graduates : an assessment of the employability of the media studies
           graduates of the University of Namibia

    • Authors: Mwilima; Fred J.
      Abstract: The Department of Information and Communication Studies of the University of Namibia was established in 1998. Over the years the Department has grown, surpassing expectations to become the flagship of the Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences in terms of student numbers. This study was carried out in 2009 by the Department of Information and Communication Studies (DICS) and focused on the employment patterns of students who went through its programmes from 2000-2007. The purpose of the study was to obtain feedback from the former students on their current employment, a perspective of their education at the university and what they think may have been missing in their programme which may need to be adjusted to better prepare future students for the job market. Although this study covered graduates of all the programmes in the department, this article will concentrate on graduates of the media studies specialisation (B.A. Media Studies) of the department only.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:48Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Book announcements

    • Authors: De Beer; Arrie
      Abstract: From this edition on the Global Media Journal-African Edition will regularly present new books in the field of media studies in an additional section. Readers are invited to contact the Book Editor (asdebeer@imasa.org) to suggest books to be reviewed. Readers can also contribute their own reviews (not longer than 800 words). Refer to instructions to authors elsewhere in this journal for the copy presentation.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:47Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The necessity of a media literacy
           module within journalism or media studies curricula

    • Authors: Van Der Linde; Fidelia
      Abstract: Media today is more omnipresent covering all aspects of society, ranging from historical to topical to social and political, thereby forming an integral part of people's lives. In the South African context, the introduction of democracy, coupled with numerous global technological developments, has dramatically altered the media landscape rendering it more liberal with an increased exponential content. In most democratic countries media literacy education is considered the preferred alternative to censoring and boycotting. This is to empower both media professionals and consumers thereby allowing them to analyse critically, monitor and moderate media messages in order to reduce any negative impacts of the media and ensure enhanced enjoyment and discourse. The need has been motivated for a media literacy module to be included in the journalism or media studies curricula at undergraduate level. This article highlights the importance of media literacy education - especially in terms of fostering a democracy - and outlines the typical media literacy curricula suitable for journalism students.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:47Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Media and conflict in Sierra Leone
           : national and international perspectives of the civil war

    • Authors: Bau; Valentina
      Abstract: The end of the twentieth century saw an adverse escalation in armed conflict. A characteristic of this was that whilst the majority of wars that took place before the 1990s were fought between states, conflicts post 1990 progressively began to take place within countries. The doctrines of major world powers no longer seemed to determine the ideologies and objectives of warring groups and, almost as a new war strategy, combatants started to target civilians rather than fighting sections in order to achieve their objectives. Atrocities began to be the statements that publicised political positions. In countries that were rich in natural resources, such as diamonds, the political goals of wars were often linked to the complex logics of resource appropriation (Bangura, 2004).
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:43Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Diasporic grief and grievance
           on-line : how South African and Serbian diasporas use the web

    • Authors: Louw; Eric, Volcic, Zala
      Abstract: This paper explores the political and psychological angles of white South African and Serbian diasporas' discourses on-line. On the basis of textual analysis of diasporic web-sites we argue that participants speak of ongoing grievance over the loss of their countries and assert that they have been the victims of "unjust" history and globalisation. Each online discourse articulates claims of belonging not on the grounds of, for example, citizenship or multiculturalism, but rather on the basis of "a victim-hood", "civilisation", and "grief".
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:43Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Religion and the media :
           reflections on their position and relationship in Southern Africa

    • Authors: Haron; Muhammed
      Abstract: In this essay an attempt is made to reflect upon, and to provide, a general overview of the position of the media and religion and the relationship between these two sectors in Southern Africa. Instead of covering the vast Southern African region, it will confine itself to reviewing the position and interconnection of these elements in specific countries. Before contextualising religion and the media in a given region, there is a need to construct a theoretical framework that will assist the understanding and nature of this relationship.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:42Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Sixty years in the making : the
           history of Eikestadnuus (1950 - 2009)

    • Authors: Verster; Francois P.
      Abstract: Community papers perform a unique role by informing, educating and rallying their demarcated piece of society,as well as reflecting the opinion of such communities and shaping them. In this respect Eikestadnuus (in Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province, South Africa) is no different to any other weekly newspaper. Yet, it has its own story. A belated birth, maturity after 30 years (when it came under new ownership) and now, with 60 years behind it, it is still going from strength to strength. Eikestadnuus, as the news organ of a university town, and with different cultures, has to cater for a broad spectrum of readers. It had to adapt to opposing political systems, interpreting the nature of democracy differently as well and shifting ethical and practical priorities to the dictates of 14 editors to date. In this paper the above is discussed and Eikestadnuus is measured against the universal blueprint of a fully functional community newspaper.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:41Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Writing change : affirmative
           action as a tool for newspaper transformation at the Durban Post

    • Authors: Leshin; Miriam
      Abstract: This study explores the use of affirmative action as a tool for transformation in the mainstream English-language press in South Africa through a case study at The Durban Post. It seeks to understand the extent to which the newspaper has transformed its staff, coverage and readership in the eyes of its reporters and editors. Additionally, this paper investigates staff views on the implementation of affirmative action in their workspace and this policy's potential to impact on transformation. Observation, interviews and document analysis were used for data collection. This study finds that though The Durban Post's staff has transformed to some extent, the majority of staff members interviewed feel that the paper has yet to achieve significant transformation of coverage, readership and power structure, due to societal and internal systemic factors.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:41Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Your news in 140 characters :
           exploring the role of social media in journalism

    • Authors: Stassen; Wilma
      Abstract: "I saw on Facebook..." is a term frequently heard in conversations these days. This social network application, and others like it, was originally developed to help a person connect with friends and like-minded people. They have since evolved into powerful tools for communication that are being harnessed by the news media to interact with audiences. This article explores the use of social media in a local media organisation, and endeavours to determine its value to journalism.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:40Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The African filmmaker and content
           of African films : a study of the perspectives of the Nigerian film
           audience

    • Authors: Akashoro; Ganivu Olalekan
      Abstract: This paper attempts to appraise African filmmaking and the content of African films from a Nigerian film audience perspective. The study specifically explores the disposition of the audience towards contemporary African filmmaking for home video and cinema entertainment as well as the content of African films. The study used a qualitative questionnaire to determine the perspectives of residents in Lagos as members of the Nigerian film audience. The study found the perception of the content of contemporary African films, particularly home videos, to vary among the film audience. Opinion largely favoured a new orientation towards a de-emphasis on obscene scenes, rituals, fetish practices, violent crimes and display of partial or total nudity in the content of African films. The study, therefore, recommends that regulatory bodies set up in most African countries, such as the Nigerian Film and Video Censors Board, should own up to their responsibilities in terms of ensuring strict compliance of African film makers or producers with rules and regulations guiding film production, content of films and exposure guidelines.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:40Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: A democratised market? Development
           of South Africa's daily newspapers 1990 - 2006

    • Authors: Bauer; Tobias
      Abstract: This article looks at the development of the South African daily newspaper market between 1990 and 2006. The leading interest is to find out whether the market was able to develop from its apartheid-trenched roots, and in which areas the market is still influenced by its specific past. The market determinants, namely participants, growth, entrance barriers, distribution, readership, economic and editorial concentration, will be scrutinised over the 16 years. The relevant political, economical and legal background and the transformations taking place in these areas will be articulated. The data will reveal that by growing more and more, especially since the turn of the century, the market enables itself to break free from its old structure. This is mainly due to the successful introduction of new papers which break with the traditional orientation of South African papers towards a wealthy readership and thus win new readers for the product newspaper in general.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:39Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: English-oriented ICTs and ethnic
           language survival strategies in Africa

    • Authors: Omojola; Oladokun
      Abstract: This paper takes a critical look at information and communication technologies (ICTs) and asserts that the advantages and opportunities which they purportedly offer should not be exaggerated within the context of indigenous populations of Africa, most of which use ICT gadgets and applications that are built into languages alien to them. This scenario is reminiscent of technological determinism which assumes that the target users of ICTs should be able to understand the language in which the technologies are crafted. Unfortunately, the inability of indigenous peoples to adequately comprehend these technologies, as a result of language hindrances, has dramatically eroded the professed socio-economic benefits of ICTs and creates a sore point in the globalisation process, which these technologies drive. Attempted resolution of this colossal deficiency, by a few discerning makers of ICTs, has not succeeded and, in fact, has the potential of complicating the problem. This paper concludes that the solution to the challenge is still feasible within the domain of Afrocomplementarism, which promotes the convergence of indigenous contents and Western technologies. The process should start with local initiatives in developing indigenous languages. By imbuing local and global (such as the Internet) media with indigenous language content, the potential exists for raising awareness amongst ICT producers and encouraging them to develop technologies to accommodate these languages.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:38Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Development Reporting as a
           crumbling tower? Impact of Brown Envelope Journalism on journalistic
           practice in Zambia and Ghana

    • Authors: Kasoma; Twange
      Abstract: Development Reporting (DR) has long been considered the cornerstone of journalistic practice in Africa. The high prevalence of Brown Envelope Journalism (BEJ) - defined as a practice that involves news sources granting monetary incentives to journalists - is, however, posing a challenge to DR. BEJ has signaled a shift from a traditional model of DR, where journalists strived to report any legitimate development news to a public relations model where news is heavily influenced by source payments. Using Zambia and Ghana as case studies, this study provides insight into journalists' perspectives on DR and BEJ. Additionally, the study delves into the extenuating factors that perpetuate BEJ.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:38Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Ethical challenges facing
           Zimbabwean media in the context of the Internet

    • Authors: Chari; Tendai
      Abstract: The Internet has fundamentally transformed the practice of journalism in Africa. It has spawned enormous opportunities and challenges for the African media, and Zimbabwe is no exception. Not only has the concept of news changed but also the manner in which it is gathered and disseminated. Journalists no longer feel compelled to adhere to the ethical cannons of their profession owing to certain qualities of the Internet. This paper investigates ethical challenges faced by the Zimbabwean media as a result of the Internet. In particular the paper discusses ethical challenges in the Zimbabwean media that are either directly or indirectly linked to the Internet. The main argument advanced in this paper is that while the Internet has brought about a number of opportunities for the Zimbabwean media, the same technology has been the root of unethical reporting.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:37Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: World music, authenticity and
           Africa : reading Cesaria Evora and Ali Farka Toure

    • Authors: Kavoori; Anandam
      Abstract: In this essay, I engage with the complex set of sonic connections known as 'World Music'. The section on 'Framing World Music/The Global Postmodern/Authenticity' outlines some key elements in how World Music can be theoretically framed - as a specific kind of text, anchored in conditions of global post modernity and characterized by a defining discourse -that of 'authenticity'. This is followed by a biographical/textual account of two major global music stars from Africa - Cesaria Evora (Cape Verde) and Ali Farka Toure (Mali) - with a focus on examining how their biographical and textual imprint illustrates the different ways in which the discourse of 'authenticity' is mobilised within World Music/The Global Postmodern. Finally, the concluding section summarises some general ideas about authenticity and World Music. My overall goals are to engage with the specific textual elements that make up the sonic construct of World Music, steering clear of popular discourse about it.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:36Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: More public and less experts : a
           normative framework for re-connecting the work of journalists with the
           work of citizens

    • Authors: Myburg; Marietjie
      Abstract: The potential of journalists to build a habit of participative and informed political discussion between government and citizens and between citizens and citizens has been eroded by a breakdown in trust between citizens and journalists. This breakdown is in part due to journalists being seen as experts favouring other experts as sources and marginalising the views of citizens - not just in relation to the covering of events but also in the investigation of possible solutions to public problem solving. This mirrors technocratic and expert-driven tendencies in government which further alienate citizens from the political process.. This essay uses three theoretical frameworks - democratic professionalism, public journalism and deliberative democracy - to explore the effects of expert-driven professionalism both in the state and in journalism and the implications of this approach for the relationship between journalists and citizens. It proposes that a shift in the way journalists consider their professional role could lead to a re-assessment of the political work of journalists and the political work of citizens and build new habits of participation and discussion in the political process of communities.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:35Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Considering the role and analysing
           the effectiveness of the media in covering issues of personal finance :
           the case of Huisgenoot (2007-2008)

    • Authors: Marais; Andries
      Abstract: There is a real need for the public to be informed about personal financial matters (such as debt, savings, life insurance and retirement. The media can play an important role in informing and educating the public in this regard. Over the last decade a number of general newspapers and magazines have realised this need. The functions of the media in this regard may involve providing information, education and/or advice. A number of important personal financial topics may be identified for the media agenda. The content of the reporting can be considered in terms of its significance, applicability and complexity. It is difficult to determine the characteristics of the audience. The media can improve its effectiveness in reporting on personal financial matters through such research.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:35Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Practical reality of media freedom
           : an examination of the challenges facing the Namibian media

    • Authors: Mwilima; Fred J.
      Abstract: Namibia, formerly South West Africa, is a young country situated in the semi-desert off the Atlantic coast of southern Africa. The country has development opportunities as well as serious challenges, and, while it is unique in many respects, it shares important features with other countries in the southern African region.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:34Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Culture, language and niche
           publications in South Africa

    • Authors: Diederichs; Pedro
      Abstract: When speaking about culture in South Africa, we as South Africans tend to emphasise the wide variety of peoples that make up our population. We like to point out how different we are, but at the same time how we accept that we are all South Africans. And sooner or later we go on a bit about the Rainbow Nation and how successfully we integrated. We usually end discussions on this topic with how we find unity in our variety: as if this is a great achievement and unique to South Africa alone. But let us remember that we are not that unusual.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:34Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Bridging the divide between study
           and the real world of African journalism

    • Authors: Groepe; Francois
      Abstract: Professor Lizette Rabe, Head of the Department of Journalism at Stellenbosch University, Mr Joe Thloloe, Press Ombudsman, distinguished guests, ladies and gentlemen. I am honoured to address you on the occasion of this conference that coincides with the 30th anniversary celebrations of the Department of Journalism at Stellenbosch University.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:33Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Afro-humanism and the challenges
           for journalism education

    • Authors: Thloloe; Joe
      Abstract: Please allow me to start with a disclaimer: this is not going to be an academic paper but it will rather be a report from the coalface. It comes from my experiences as a journalist and as an avid consumer of news.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:33Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Save journalism - to what end?

    • Authors: Wiese; Tobie
      Abstract: I was given a rather sexy heading - 'Forget the rhino, save journalism' - under which to say a few words. I would agree with the assumption that both are under threat, but while most people will have a natural inclination to save an endangered animal I'm not so sure about how many will stand up for the survival of journalism. After all, why do we need journalism? And secondly, it seems to me that much of the woes that journalism is going through at present are self-inflicted.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:32Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Reporting Africa

    • Authors: Ankomah; Baffour
      Abstract: When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me. In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:32Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: How the 'natives' and the
           'hybrids' are transforming South African journalism

    • Authors: Mkhabela; Mpumelelo
      Abstract: Addressing the American Society of Newspapers Editors in April 2005, Rupert Murdoch, media mogul and owner of News Corporation, made several profound statements which were reported in The Independent (2005-04).
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:32Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Essentials of indigenous languages
           to journalism education in Nigeria

    • Authors: Salawu; Abiodun
      Abstract: This paper advocates for compulsory inclusion of indigenous languages in the mass communication/journalism curricula in Nigeria. Emphasising the point that every educational programme should be socially relevant and culturally sensitive, the paper argues that while it is not out of place for a journalist to be global in orientation and application, thereby equipping himself with proficiency in a very international language like English, it will, however, be out of place for him not to be able to communicate effectively with his very own people. This report concludes by calling for appreciation of the indigenous languages and support for the media's use of them, from both the people and the governments.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:31Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Why should journalism curriculum
           be Africanised

    • Authors: Ankomah; Baffour
      Abstract: It was Henry Kissinger, that quintessential American icon, who once said: 'Oil is much too important a commodity to be left in the hands of the Arabs.' Great, isn't it?
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:31Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Evolution of anti-corruption
           journalism in Africa : lessons from Zambia

    • Authors: Phiri; Isaac
      Abstract: All African countries, where there are functioning states express a strong desire to curb corruption. The African Union has a convention to prevent and combat corruption. Zambia, under President Levy Mwanawasa, has positioned itself as a leader in Africa's fight against corruption. Last year, former Zambian President Frederick Chiluba was found guilty of grand corruption by a London court in a case brought against him by the Zambian government. There is general agreement that the media plays a significant role in the war against plunder of national resources by African leaders. However, studies that examine exactly how the media influences the decisions and actions of public actors in Africa's anti-corruption agenda are few. This paper aims to fill this gap. The goal is to use the Zambian case to gain a clearer understanding of the evolution of anti-graft journalism in Africa and to derive enduring insights into the relationship between the anti-corruption actions of the state and anti-corruption reporting by the press. Three key questions provide a framework for this investigation: 1) Is the press driving the Zambian government's anti-corruption campaign 2) Is President Mwanawasa's 'zero-tolerance' campaign self-generated and the press simply following and reporting news events coming out of the bold steps already determined by the government? 3) Is it possible that the press and the state have found common ground and formed an informal but formidable alliance to combat graft?
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:30Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The new Swaziland constitution and
           its impact on media freedom

    • Authors: Rooney; Richard
      Abstract: This paper examines media freedom in Swaziland since the kingdom's new constitution came into effect in 2006. Despite the constitution, Swaziland remains a non-democracy and there continues to be a restrictive media environment.. The paper tackles three research questions: (i) How repressive were media laws in Swaziland before the constitution came into effect? (ii) What does the 2006 constitution say about media freedom? (iii) To what extent has the constitution improved media freedom?. The paper relies on a qualitative analysis of the pre-existing media laws, the constitution itself, and a survey of media events since 2006.. The paper concludes that there has been no discernible progress on media freedom in Swaziland and there is little reason to be optimistic in the near future that this will change.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:29Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Globalised girlhood : the teaching
           of femininity in Cosmopolitan and True Love

    • Authors: Donnelly; Deidre
      Abstract: A comparison of two South African women's magazines, Cosmopolitan and True Love, via both textual and reader analysis, examines their reception by teenage girls. Do women's magazines serve as cultural developmental markers and informal educational devices in the passage from girlhood to adulthood? The study adopts a poststructuralist view on the gendered self as socially constructed within discourse. Women's magazines give 'femininity' a material form and are discursive sites-of-struggle. Critical discourse analysis is applied to the text analysis, while the concept of 'interpretive repertoires' is applied to the focus group analysis.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:29Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: The South African media's (re)
           colonisation of Namibia

    • Authors: Tyson; Robin
      Abstract: This paper seeks to reveal the patterns of power, influence and ownership that South African media houses are having over Namibians and Namibian media outlets. The hypothesis is that there has recently been an increased interest in Namibia as a source of further revenue for South African media businesses as well as an opportunity for further strengthening ties of cultural and language issues between the two countries. In addition there might also be increased opportunities for South African political perspectives to be further advanced through linkages with Namibian media outlets.. The paper further seeks to expand academic discourse to include those countries, such as Namibia, living in South Africa's cultural and economic shadow, and, in a larger sense, looks at the increasingly regional and even nature of media systems in Africa.. It tries to move these discussions into everyday discourse, as opposed to the margins, where, as McMillin (2007:68) says:. we fail to understand the incredible impact of colonialism on the development of their media systems, the regional influence of these systems, and the unique character they take on as they assert their postcolonial identities and meet the challenges of globilization.. The research refers to the unique position of Namibia, having been, firstly, a German colony, and, later, a South African 'administered territory', and makes reference to the implications this had on the shaping and control over the media environment.. The findings reveal an increase in South African influence and shareholding over Namibian media companies and content. This parallel has strengthened economic ties with South Africa, and in particular the influence of South African retail chains and their stock levels of Namibian versus South African publications.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:28Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Mirror, mirror upon the wall - is
           reality reflected at all?

    • Authors: Van Der Spuy; Anri
      Abstract: Journalists often argue that their role in a society is to provide content that merely reflects reality. The critical theories regarding the media's role in society however suggest that the media are carriers of dominant ideologies, thereby "reflecting" that which is favourable to the dominant party in a society. Normative theories, on the other hand, suggest that political and social structures have a vast influence on the different things that may be expected of the media. Is it perhaps time that the media realise that that which their mirror reflects, is not reality at all?
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:27Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: Media, mediation and the war in
           Iraq : from broken to non-existent mirrors

    • Authors: Myburg; Marietjie
      Abstract: Media theory, says McQuail (2005:5) is an effort to 'make sense of observed reality'. The 'observed reality' of war is layered with themes of power, politics and culture on several levels. There is the journalist on the beat; the news institution he or she works for; the soldiers or armies involved in the conflict; the governments these armies represent and finally there are the media users on both sides of the conflict - that is if there are only two sides. In this sense war represents a highly concentrated or condensed version of everyday reality which forms the framework for media connecting with society.. This report will take the case of the war in Iraq as an example of how the media's role to 'sustain a shared sense of social order' (Allan, 2004:8) and to connect us 'to other experience' (McQuail, 2005:83) have been compromised by political, ideological and, on the side of the global media networks, economic agendas.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:27Z
       
  • Global Media Journal - African Edition: A critical and functional analysis
           of the mirror metaphor with reference to the media's responsibility
           towards society

    • Authors: Ekron; Zigi
      Abstract: Attempts to define the media's role and function as the fourth estate often rely on the use of the mirror metaphor to describe its relationship towards its audience. The metaphor suggests the media and its contents are merely a reflection of reality. The assumption is that this reflection serves society's need to have an unbiased, objective and critical view of itself. The image presented in the reflection should therefore enable society to evaluate and adjust itself accordingly.. Although this apparent pragmatic approach satisfies the most basic description of the media's role as a mediator of reality, it fails to consider the factors that may influence the reflection that is presented and the manner in which it is received.. This paper applies critical theory to examine the manner in which factors, such as media concentration and commercialisation, distort the reflection in the mirror. It also analyses the notion of a mass audience which consumes media content. The paper challenges the outdated assumption in normative theory that the media serves a homogenous society. Instead it proposes a move towards pluralism of the media as a means to address the needs of diverse and multicultural societies.
      PubDate: 2014-10-29T23:38:27Z
       
 
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