Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 2152-8713 - ISSN (Online) 2154-5731
Published by Scripps College [1 journal]
- Shifting Immigration Policies in Response to the Syrian Refugee Crisis
Across the European Union: A Case Analysis of Germany, Hungary, and
Authors: Anna M. Winslow
Abstract: Over one million refugees have entered the borders of the European Union (EU) in 2015, forcing a discordant shift in the immigration policies of individual member states and upsetting the political stability of the region. This analysis answers the question of how immigration policies regarding asylum seekers in Germany, Hungary, and Lithuania specifically have changed recently and what these changes could indicate for the future of the European Union’s own immigration legislation. This research primarily paper analyzes asylum policy before the onset of the refugee crisis and evaluates how policy interests in the three different governments have developed in responses to the crisis. The approaches of each country towards immigration and asylum policy are distinct, and it is important to recognize these developments in order to understand the vulnerability of the Schengen Agreement as well as the future of EU solidarity. This research would fit to panels on the EU’s immigration and asylum policy, responses to the current refugee crisis, and the future of EU solidarity.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:28:11 PDT
- After the Avalanche: The Post-Snowden Intelligence Politics between the
United States, the United Kingdom, and Germany
Authors: Jobel Kyle P. Vecino
Abstract: The revelations of PRISM and XKeyscore by ex-National Security Agency (NSA) analyst Edward Snowden resulted in arguably the largest intelligence leak so far in the 21st century. The leak revealed that the NSA was working with the British Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) on surveillance and data collection of individuals throughout Europe. Similarly, the NSA also colluded with the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) on similar data collection and surveillance activities. Whereas the British government reacted relatively benignly to the revelations despite cries of government abuse, the German government reacted negatively to the revelations, eventually opening a rift between Washington and Berlin. This paper examines the reactions to and the immediate political consequences of the Snowden revelations within the United Kingdom and Germany. By comparing and contrasting the two cases, one can determine whether the United States unnecessarily antagonized the Germans or if larger forces were at work.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:28:07 PDT
- Nation and History in the Mobilization of Collective Identity Among LGBT
Authors: Cleo M. Spencer
Abstract: Social movement theories are often built on Western and US-centric understandings of civic life and the values that underpin it. Studying participation in the LGBT movement in Prague, Czech Republic provides one context for complicating such underlying assumptions. Within theory on mobilization, collective identity is said to act as a conduit for developing personal investment through individuals’ identities. Interviews with LGBT people in Prague, however, show that there is little sense of or desire for collective identity among these potential participants. Czech national history contextualizes respondents’ distinct descriptions of the role of civic life and activism, value of private life, and contemporary situation for LGBT people in Prague. Drawing from these descriptions, and an analysis of the influence of values on movement participation in the Czech Republic and other CEE countries, I argue that nation and history complicate the application of collective identity for mobilization in Prague’s LGBT movement.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:28:04 PDT
- Community-based Counterterrorism: What French Security Forces Can Learn
from the British CONTEST Model
Authors: Brian T. Preece
Abstract: France has been the victim of twelve high-profile terrorist attacks since 2012, despite its heavy-handed, legalistic approach to counterterrorism. The United Kingdom, in comparison, has undergone only one major attack since 2007. Is the British counterterrorism model, which focuses on engagement with community organizations and NGOs, proving more successful than the French approach? This paper proposes that France’s security forces should consider adopting aspects of the British community-based counter-radicalization model.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:28:01 PDT
- Finland's Economic Freeze
Authors: Shivang Mehta
Abstract: Abstract The Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has been well documented and so has Germany’s booming manufacturing economy but these events are relatively easy to explain. Greece’s troubles can easily be traced to its social security structure and lack of land registry while Germany’s success is a result of labour reforms, an undervalued currency and an emphasis on small scale businesses which form the backbone of the economy. A relatively paradoxical case has been that of Finland; ranked second for global innovation by the World Economic Forum and with over $1.8 billion being invested by the government in the country’s tech market, Finland’s lack of success presents a unique case. The European Union’s only Nordic member has suffered a stark decline of 0.6 pc in the 3rd quarter GDP growth of 2015, a figure worse than that of Greece. The implications of Finland’s lack of performance are clear cut, it is now the deadweight whose burden the EU must bear; the question lies in whether the government based in Helsinki can revive its once booming economy and at what cost. Current predictions don’t paint a rosy picture with the Finnish economy destined to be one of the worst performing economies, only second to Greece. This paper seeks to analyse the rise and fall of Finland from the perspective of Nokia, the steadily declining tech giant, and the internal changes that have occurred in the consumption patterns. The paper also uses the decline of the Russian economy as a quantitative reason for a lack of capital in the country and seeks to perform a cost benefit analysis of Finland’s participation in the single currency market as one of the obstacles to its path to recovery. The only way to thaw Finland’s frozen economy involves a series of austerity measures and structural reforms that will, at the very least, test the strength of the Eurozone’s economy.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:27:54 PDT
- Galileo: European Collaboration for Space
Authors: Pedro Maddens Toscano
Abstract: This paper examines the Galileo satellite navigation system as an example of European collaboration, and illustrates how the project has put Europe and European industry at the forefront of the space industry. It discusses the history of the program as well as its technical and financial aspects. The collaboration efforts are discussed highlighting the nature of the political, economic and technological forms of both intergovernmental and supranational cooperation. In addition to the Galileo system, the paper also includes a brief discussion on the Global System for Mobile Communications, one of the greatest successes of European technical collaboration.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:27:51 PDT
- Why Ireland: How Bank Failure Was Their Key To Success
Authors: Nia R. Gillenwater
Abstract: Despite Ireland’s status as the first EU country to receive a bailout, Ireland appears to be bouncing back extremely well from the ongoing financial crisis in Europe and the EU. Looking at recent Irish economic statistics it begs the question whether the government’s complete guarantee of all Irish debts was the best response. Ireland’s financial crisis seemed quite similar to America’s: for both the root causes are freely lending for real estate and property. The responses however, were very different. While America let Lehman Brothers fail and only provided a partial guarantee to its banks, Ireland provided a complete guarantee to all debt-holders. Yet as of late, Ireland’s unemployment rate has fallen below the EU average, the growth rate of the economy in 2015 was a surprising 5.2% and may be the fastest growing economy in the EU at the moment. Using an analysis of the Irish government’s response to the crisis this paper investigates why Ireland’s complete guarantee, without traditional Emergency Liquidity Assistance funds, became the best move for the country.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:27:47 PDT
- 'Trumpian' Attitudes in Central Europe: Causes for Hungary’s,
Germany’s and Poland’s Attitudes Towards Transatlantic Trade
Authors: Alexis Cooper et al.
Abstract: This paper explores the various causes for anti-trade sentiment and its relation to far-right populist politics among Germany, Hungary, and Poland as case studies.
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:27:42 PDT
Authors: David Andrews
PubDate: Thu, 22 Sep 2016 13:27:38 PDT
- A Multiracial Republic? The Challenges Faced by the Maghreb Population
Authors: Anahita Vasudevan et al.
Abstract: As European society becomes more multiethnic and multiracial, Member States of the European Union are faced with the need to formulate adequate policy responses to immigration and integration issues. France has had a distinctive history, lasting over five decades, as a recipient country for non-European immigrants from the Maghreb region of Northern Africa. Over time, discrepancies in living conditions between Maghreb immigrants and the wider French society have only deepened. To investigate the current state of the Maghreb community in France, this analytical paper pursues the following questions: How does the persistence of political, economic, and social differences affect the position of Maghreb immigrants in French society? What efforts are being made by the French government to minimize disparities between the Maghreb population and the wider society? What is the relationship between the French model of integration and the policies of other EU states on immigrant integration?
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:40 PDT
- Shuttling More than Goods: Collective Support among Turkish-Bulgarian
Authors: Nikolina Stoykova
Abstract: Given that the European Union is a free trade, market-oriented economic zone that should, theoretically, eliminate market distortions that fuel the informal economy, why are we seeing continued participation in the informal economy, specifically, the shuttle trade between Bulgaria and Turkey? Many scholars frequently cite price distortions, market gaps, lucrative exchange rates, and economic survival as prominent reasons, however, these explanations do not suffice in explaining why the shuttle trade thrives 25 years after the communist collapse in Bulgaria. Through the use of meta-linguistic analysis of the interviews and analysis of the individuals that I interviewed, I argue that, in addition to being a viable method of income supplementation, the shuttle trade also serves as a platform for social support and identity reconciliation for Turkish-Bulgarian participants. Collective nostalgia about the communist past and similar post-communist experiences and a strong sense of interpersonal trust serve to integrate shuttle traders, who invest in social capital via the shuttle trade.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:34 PDT
- The EU Budget's Impact on Public Opinion
Authors: Kai Stern
Abstract: Public opinion on the European Union (EU) is significant and therefore a worthwhile topic of consideration. Analyses have identified and ordered the factors that impact public opinion on the EU, as well analyzed the efficacy of EU funds. Yet the confluence of these two lines of inquiry is understudied. Some Member States have surpluses and others deficits relative to the EU budget, which could impact citizens’ perceptions of the EU. To gauge this potential relationship, this article notes deficit and surplus Member States and responses to one Eurobarometer question about trust in the European Commission from 2000-2013. These variables are used to evaluate the EU budget’s impact on public opinion towards the EU. The data suggest that there is a limited correlation between the two. EU funds are overshadowed as a cause of public opinion formation on the EU by other forces, but can still influence it at the margins.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:28 PDT
- Spatial Transgressions, Anxiety, and the Discourse of Pussy Riot's
Authors: Katherine Schroeder
Abstract: The 2012 performance of Pussy Riot’s “Punk Prayer” in the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow, their subsequent release of an extended and edited video, and their ultimate arrest for committing “hooliganism” generated a large amount of interest both within Russia and on an international scale. While Western accounts and analyses were marked by their tendency to frame the political content, Russian responses were framed by references to tradition and history. Significantly, there was disagreement amongst the latter with regard to the activist value of Pussy Riot. I argue that this ambiguity arises from a profound socio-spatial anxiety that was triggered by the Pussy Riot performances but was never examined. At the core of the anxiety lies a discomfort with the implications of Pussy Riot’s spatial transgressions because the techniques used to engage in activism ultimately invoked regimes of vision and technology to exert power over the public that implicitly resembles surveillance techniques used by the very object of criticism, the Russian regime.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:22 PDT
- The Patterns and Impacts of Turkish Immigration to the European Union
Authors: Elie Katzenson
Abstract: Since the early 1960s, Turkish nationals have immigrated to the European Union in large numbers. Germany, the Netherlands, and Belgium have the highest Turkish populations in the European Union and have managed differing models of incorporation. A number of motivating factors have contributed to the unflagging numbers of Turks such as the implementation of guest-worker programs, the reunification of families, and microstructures within migratory chains. Though the likelihood of Turkey gaining membership to the European Union has dimmed as of late, the mere possibility of its joining warrants the analysis of Turkish immigration to the EU, as it could shed light on the social and economic changes that could occur with Turkish membership to the EU. This analytical paper will detail the impacts of the varying methods of incorporation employed by the receiving countries and examine the historical patterns and impacts of Turkish immigration in the European Union.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:16 PDT
- Of Uranium and Carbon: Divergence of Energy Policy in Germany and France
Authors: Jie Ming Chong
Abstract: After the 2011 Fukushima nuclear accident, Chancellor Merkel of Germany announced a complete nuclear phase-out in Germany by 2022, while President Hollande of France assured the French government of his commitment to nuclear energy. Fossil fuels, notably lignite and coal, dominated the German energy sector with 47.9% market share of total energy production in Germany; nuclear energy is the leading energy source in France with a market share of 80.9% in 2013. The difference between natural resources’ abundance in Germany and France shaped the development of energy policy in both countries. Huge lignite and coal reserves in Germany continued to sustain Germany’s growing economy, while France, lacking fossil fuel deposits, pursued nuclear energy to gain economic and energy independence after the 1973 oil crisis. Anti-nuclear movement in Germany succeeded in mass mobilization and gained major political representation in both federal and state governments through the Green Party and Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The French anti-nuclear movement faced a strong centralized French government and failed to gain public support, and political isolation prevented any influence on French energy policy.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:10 PDT
- Euroskepticism’s Many Faces: The Cases of Hungary and the UK
Authors: Joseph Bebel et al.
Abstract: While increasing numbers of Europeans are skeptical about the EU, the primary causes behind Euroskepticism vary widely from country to country. Our paper examines the differing sources of Euroskepticism within Hungary and the United Kingdom, using these examples as case studies for the broader EU. Hungarian Euroskeptics accuse the EU of suppressing Hungarian culture and violating the country’s national sovereignty, fostering a growing sense that EU membership has not brought the promised benefits. The primary driving forces behind British Euroskepticism, however, are opposition to intra-EU immigration and a sense that the island nation is inherently separate from the Continent. The case studies of Hungary and the UK demonstrate that the motives behind Euroskepticism vary widely across the continent. If confidence in the EU is to be restored, the wide array of concerns held by various Euroskeptic groups must be specifically addressed.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:20:02 PDT
- Gendered Disparities in the German Workforce: Development of Female Labor
Union Participation and Current Challenges
Authors: Kelly Ancharski
Abstract: With an increasing global female presence in political and economic representation, the continuation of a gendered division of labor and the rise of market flexibility draws into question how historical policies and decision making influence sociocultural-value systems, mobility, and market access in Germany. This paper explores the German labor market through the critical lens of labor union formulation, the dynamics within a German-European Union relationship, and social policy reforms to uncover the reasoning and rationale behind the reinforcement of female labor as precarious. An inclusive discourse on correcting imbalances within the formal/public and informal/private spheres must include the devaluing and exploitation of domestic and feminized labor. For Germany, the consistent segregation of female labor into part-time work and social policies that emphasize motherhood and childrearing stress the historical socioeconomic disincentives to enter and retain work within the productive economy.
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:19:55 PDT
- List of Abbreviations
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:19:50 PDT
PubDate: Fri, 18 Mar 2016 11:19:45 PDT