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  Subjects -> POLITICAL SCIENCE (Total: 871 journals)
    - CIVIL RIGHTS (10 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS (100 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCE (738 journals)
    - POLITICAL SCIENCES: GENERAL (23 journals)

POLITICAL SCIENCE (738 journals)                  1 2 3 4 | Last

Showing 1 - 200 of 281 Journals sorted alphabetically
A Contracorriente     Open Access  
Ab Imperio     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Acta Borealia: A Nordic Journal of Circumpolar Societies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Acta Politica Estica     Open Access  
Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, European and Regional Studies     Open Access  
Administrative Science Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 134)
Affirmations : of the modern     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AFFRIKA Journal of Politics, Economics and Society     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africa Conflict Monitor     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Africa Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
Africa Institute Occasional Paper     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Africa Renewal     Free   (Followers: 5)
Africa Review : Journal of the African Studies Association of India     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Africa Today     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
African Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 57)
African Conflict and Peacebuilding Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
African Diaspora     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
African East-Asian Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
African Identities     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
African Journal of Democracy and Governance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
African Journal of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Renaissance     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
African Yearbook of Rhetoric     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Africanus     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Afrique contemporaine : La revue de l'Afrique et du développement     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Agenda Política     Open Access  
Agenda: A Journal of Policy Analysis and Reform     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Agrarian South : Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Akademik İncelemeler Dergisi     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Alternatives : Global, Local, Political     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Altre Modernità     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
América Latina Hoy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
American Communist History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
American Foreign Policy Interests: The Journal of the National Committee on American Foreign Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
American Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 227)
American Political Science Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 193)
American Political Thought     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
American Politics Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
American Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Anacronismo e Irrupción     Open Access  
Analecta política     Open Access  
Análise Social     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Annales UMCS, Politologia     Open Access  
Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Annual Review of Economics     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
Annual Review of Political Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 120)
Apuntes Electorales     Open Access  
AQ - Australian Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Arabian Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arctic Review on Law and Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arena Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 15)
Asia Minor Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asia Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Asia-Pacific Journal : Japan Focus     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Asia-Pacific Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Asian Affairs: An American Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Asian Journal of Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Asian Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Asian Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
Astropolitics: The International Journal of Space Politics & Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
AUDEM : The International Journal of Higher Education and Democracy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Aurora. Revista de Arte, Mídia e Política     Open Access  
Australasian Review of African Studies, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Australian Journal of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Austrian Journal of Political Science     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Balcanica Posnaniensia Acta et studia     Open Access  
Baltic Journal of European Studies     Open Access  
Basic Income Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Beleid en Maatschappij     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
BMC International Health and Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Brazilian Political Science Review     Open Access  
Brésil(s)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
British Journal of Canadian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Journal of Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 130)
British Journal of Politics and International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
British Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
British Review of New Zealand Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Brookings Papers on Economic Activity     Open Access   (Followers: 47)
Bulletin d'histoire politique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Bustan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cadernos de Estudos Sociais e Políticos     Open Access  
CADUS - Revista de Estudos de Política, História e Cultura     Open Access  
Cahiers de l'Urmis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Cahiers de Sciences politiques de l'ULg     Open Access  
California Journal of Politics and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Cambio 16     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Cambridge Review of International Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Canadian Foreign Policy Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Caucasus Survey     Hybrid Journal  
Central and Eastern European Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Central Asian Affairs     Hybrid Journal  
Central Banking     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Central European Journal of Public Policy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
China : An International Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
China perspectives     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
China Quarterly     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
China Report     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
China Review International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
China-EU Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Chinese Journal of Global Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Chinese Journal of International Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Cittadinanza Europea (LA)     Full-text available via subscription  
Civil Wars     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union     Open Access  
Class, Race and Corporate Power     Open Access  
Cold War History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Commonwealth & Comparative Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Communication, Politics & Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Communist and Post-Communist Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Comparative Political Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 120)
Comparative Politics (Russia)     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Comparative Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Competition & Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Conferences on New Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Confines     Open Access  
Conflict and Society     Full-text available via subscription  
Conflict Management and Peace Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Conflict Trends     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Conflict, Security & Development     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 358)
Congress & the Presidency: A Journal of Capital Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Conjunctions. Transdisciplinary Journal of Cultural Participation     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Constellations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Japan     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Journal of African Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Contemporary Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 32)
Contemporary Review of the Middle East     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contemporary Security Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
Contemporary Southeast Asia: A Journal of International and Strategic Affairs     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Contemporary Wales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Contenciosa     Open Access  
Contexto Internacional     Open Access  
Cooperation and Conflict     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
CQ Researcher     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Criterio Jurídico     Open Access  
Critical Asian Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Critical Review : A Journal of Politics and Society     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Review of International Social and Political Philosophy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Critical Reviews on Latin American Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Critical Social Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Critical Studies on Terrorism     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
Cuadernos de historia de España     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Cultura de Paz     Open Access  
Cultural Critique     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Culture Mandala : The Bulletin of the Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies     Open Access  
Décalages : An Althusser Studies Journal     Open Access  
Decolonization : Indigeneity, Education & Society     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Defence Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Defense & Security Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Democracy & Education     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Democratic Communiqué     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Democratic Theory     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Democratization     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
Democrazia e diritto     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Demokratie und Geschichte     Hybrid Journal  
Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Der Donauraum     Hybrid Journal  
Der Staat     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Desafíos     Open Access  
Development and Change     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 47)
Digest of Middle East Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Diplomacy & Statecraft     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Diplomatic History     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Diritto, immigrazione e cittadinanza     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Dissent     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Diversité urbaine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Dynamics of Asymmetric Conflict: Pathways toward terrorism and genocide     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
East European Jewish Affairs     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)
East European Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Economia Politica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 34)
Ecopolítica     Open Access  
eJournal of eDemocracy and Open Government     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
El Cotidiano     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Electoral Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
Em Pauta : Teoria Social e Realidade Contemporânea     Open Access  
Encuentro     Open Access  
Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Equal Opportunities International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Espacios Públicos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudios Políticos     Open Access  
Estudos Avançados     Open Access  
Ethical Theory and Moral Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Ethics & Global Politics     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Ethics in Science and Environmental Politics     Hybrid Journal  
Éthique publique     Open Access  
Études internationales     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Eureka Street     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Europe's World     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Integration Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of American Culture     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of Government and Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
European Journal of International Relations     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 46)
European Journal of Political Economy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
European Journal of Political Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 63)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 31)
European Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 13)

        1 2 3 4 | Last

Journal Cover European Integration Studies
  [9 followers]  Follow
    
  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
   ISSN (Print) 1822-8402 - ISSN (Online) 2335-8831
   Published by Kaunas University of Technology Homepage  [10 journals]
  • Editorial

    • Authors: Rasa Daugėlienė, Kęstutis Kriščiūnas
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • Notes for Contributors

    • Authors: Robertas Blaudziunas
      PubDate: 2016-11-30
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • DILEMMAS OF POST-ENLARGEMENT EUROPE: BUILDING AN ‘INSECURITY
           COMMUNITY’?

    • Authors: Martin Victor Dangerfield
      Abstract: This article reflects on the development and operation of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) from the perspective of the post-1989 attempt to extend the West European ‘Security Community’ into the wider Europe via processes of both EU enlargement and attempts to foster deep integration with former Soviet states. Whilst the EU’s strategy towards eastern neighbours should certainly not be taken as the sole or even key cause of the ‘insecurity zone’ in and around the EU’s eastern frontier, it seems hard to avoid the conclusion that actions such as the ENP and EaP have played an important part in these developments. This is an analytical contribution rather than a study based on primary research. As well as extending existing discussions about the expansion of the European Security Community and the application of the ‘Optimum Integration Area’ concept to the EaP countries, the article includes a focus on EU states’ economic relations with Russia which is a critical albeit underexplored constraint upon EU ‘eastern’ policy.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14579
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • SOCIAL DIMENSION AND INEQUALITY PROBLEMS IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    • Authors: Elena Dubra
      Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to introduce evaluation of social development convergence between EU-28 member states in the context of the EU cohesion policy. The main tasks of this study is to assess social dimension and inequalities problems in the European states by applying theory of convergence for real estimations social situations in EU countries. Additionally the development challenges are discussed for improvement of the socio-economic well-being of EU states and to avoid social disparities. The research methodology is based on the convergence theory, on the EU strategies, European Commission legitimate documents application, on the calculations and socio-economic forecasts analysis of the welfare level in the EU states. This research present information about various different socio-economic indicators, indexes and scheme of information flows for social situation estimation in the EU states. This study contain changes of key concepts related to the cohesion policy of the European Union and compares objectives and general outlines of period 2014-2020 in the framework of Europe as a whole, as well as its impact on EU member states economics and living conditions. The speed of convergence depends on the initial discrepancy of the development level in the EU states. The efficiency of European convergence policy can also be improved by significant economic growth and by clever choice of the country-specific social activities. This research investigate major information for social situations estimation in EU states as well as GDP growth,  population’s income level, unemployment and  welfare condition indicators. The key results reflect the overall social situation analysis in the EU countries and present current and future’s European convergence policy’s impact on social development in the European states. The conclusions consist of national social development inequality problems estimations in the EU states and of new challenges of EU convergence and social policy goals.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14445
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • Cultural integration and cross-cultural management challenges in the
           Central European Countries: Lithuania and Poland

    • Authors: Jolita Greblikaite, Włodzimierz SROKA, Rasa DAUGĖLIENĖ, Joanna KUROWSKA-PYSZ
      Abstract: Purpose (mandatory). The article focused on disclosing the situation of cultural integration in Lithuania and Poland leading to the different issues of cross-cultural management in labour market and companies’ activity.   Design/methodology/approach (mandatory). As the main research method, a critical analysis of scientific literature on cultural integration and cross-cultural management applied in the companies as well as secondary research data and legal documents are analysed focusing on both countries – Lithuania and Poland.  Practical examples’ analysis is based on particular issue of global company ANG activity in Poland. In Lithuania the third countries citizens’ integration in labour market is discussed.   Findings. The main challenges, problems and improvement possibilities in cultural integration and cross-cultural management context in both countries are disclosed. The context of cross-cultural management, in terms of cultural integration and globalisation evaluated focusing terms of companies’ activity in Poland and labour market issues in Lithuania in terms of third countries’ citizens’ integration in it.     Research limitations/implications (if applicable). The content of the paper implies further empirical research in companies itself in terms of application of cross-cultural management and employment of third countries citizens’ issues in Lithuania and Poland.   Practical implications (if applicable). The research presents actual analysis of legal documents of third countries citizens in Lithuania as well as the tools of improving the situation. Particular issues for companies’ consideration are presented in case of Poland.   Social implications (if applicable). The research presents actuality of cultural integration and cross-cultural management in terms of society and business in Poland and Lithuania integrating different cultural groups and ethnic minorities in labour market of both countries.   Originality/value (mandatory). The paper considers actual and problematic issues in the life of two countries in the frames of national identity and cultural integration’s conjunction and diversity. Some particular issues as labour market and companies’ specificity are analysed. The comparative analysis provides some useful solutions for business and society.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.16281
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • ROLE OF INTERNET MARKETING FOR EXPORTING AND NOT EXPORTING COMPANIES
           (RESULTS OF RECENT COMPANY SURVEY IN LATVIA)

    • Authors: Biruta Sloka, Ināra Kantāne, Renāte Vidruska
      Abstract: The aim of current paper is to analyse the role of internet marketing for exporting and non-exporting companies. Methods used in research: scientific publications studies, survey of companies in Latvia. The survey was conducted from November 2014 to March 2015. The company register data base LURSOFT is used for survey sample creation. A systematic sampling was applied in the survey to guarantee a random selection of units included in the sample. For the analysis of the survey data – descriptive statistical analysis, cross tabulations, Mann-Whitney U test are applied. The companies’ survey results show that exporting companies and non-exporting companies do not use internet marketing properly, the half of companies home page use only as a business card. About 32% of exporting companies and about 19% of non-exporting companies does not sell the products/services on the internet, but customers can order the product in home page. Products/services sell both on the Internet and at points of sale about 25% of exporting companies and about 26% of non-exporting companies. Theoretical findings and empirical research results indicates that internet marketing could be used more efficient in companies to promote and develop expert.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.16282
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • THE EUROPEAN CONCEPTION OF THE UNIVERSITY KNOWLEDGE WITHIN THE
           BOLOGNA-INITIATED COMPETENCE-BASED CURRICULUM MODERNISATION: REPERCUSSIONS
           AT THE NATIONAL POLICY LEVEL IN ESTONIA AND LITHUANIA

    • Authors: Rūta Petkutė
      Abstract: The European 'knowledge economy' policies and higher education policies and reforms associated with the Bolognian process, as largely driven by efficiency concerns, have continually stressed the failures of European universities to meet efficiency targets. This has provided the justification for a radical European-wide modernisation of the higher education curriculum which has uniformly introduced a competence (outcomes)-based curriculum rationale to all European universities as a strategic device to enhance the efificiency and relevance of the university curriculum. Within the competence-based curriculum rationale, competence has been designated as a major component within the university curriculum, whereas knowledge, traditionally being the main educational category of the university curriculum and a fundamental pillar of the university research, has been increasingy given a scarce mention in the European policy documents dispite the common European policy discourse on the 'knowledge economy' and 'knowledge society' and a new prominence of knowledge that these notions imply. Accordingly, the European assumptions about the nature of the university curriculum knowledge have had significant implications for the way university knowledge and the role of university have been defined at the national policy level in the light of the curriculum change. Thus, it becomes important to examine the explicit and implicit epistemological stances behind the Bologna-initated competence-based curriculum modernisation and their repercussions throughout the national higher education policies. The aim of this paper is to examine the way the European assumptions about the nature of the university curriculum knowledge as implied within the Bologna initiated competence-based curriculum modernisation reverberate throughout the national higher education policies in Estonia and Lithuania. The objectives of this study are to examine
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • FREE MOVEMENT OF PERSONS AS THE CAUSE FOR PROBLEMS TO PREVENT THREATS TO
           NATIONAL SECURITY

    • Authors: Virginijs Keinis
      Abstract: Immigration and free movement of persons has become one of the main questions on the agenda of security institutions all over Europe. These aspects are now taken into consideration when drafting national security conceptions and prevention plans. Experts are defining threats that arise specifically from this phenomena – free movement of persons. Together with this, another problem is outlining – is the current instruments to limit free movement for the cause of national security enough to prevent certain security risks? In this paper author is researching the threats to national security caused by the free movement of persons and views the possibilities to limit these threats. The task of the research is to determine whether today we should understand free movement as it was understood previously and what are the current consequences of this phenomena, what new threats to national security it has caused and what could be done to eliminate these threats. In the preparation of the paper author uses number of scientific research methods. Author applies analytical method by analysing available literature, laws and other legal documents. Comparative method is used to compare different legal and practical studies. Statistical method is used when gathering statistical data, performing surveys and expert interviews. The results of the research show that existing instruments available to limit free movement of persons for the sake of national security are not enough to prevent complex threats. Europe’s expectations that immigration and free movement of persons are one of the core instrument to warm the economy have not been met. Thus Europe is flooded by immigrants that are subjects of threat to national security. Hostile third countries are using existing situation for their advantage and challenge Europe’s core values.  Current situation in the migration field, refugee crisis, lingering to solve immigration problems and create effective instruments to manage the immigration flows are the aspects that should be considered as a favour to hostile countries. Solution in this situation could be rising capacities and intensifying counterespionage. Widening the view on conventional migration issues and strengthening the cooperation could be more appropriate to manage identified threats. Another way to manage alternating situation is to create new instruments to limit free movement of persons for the sake of national security and adjusting or creating common legal basis.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14633
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • Refugee Quota: Is Estonia Ready to Receive Refugees? A Review of the
           Literature on Migration and Ethnic Minorities in Estonia

    • Authors: Aminul Islam
      Abstract: This study analyzes literature about migration and ethnic minorities in Estonia. Following initial identification and using content analysis process, existing literature were characterized into four major patterns: definition of immigrant population in Estonia, emigration and ethnic return migration in Estonia, formation of ethnic minorities and their structure, and ethnic minorities and integration. Despite of having long historical background of emigration, return migration and ethnic minorities in Estonia; existing literature lacks focusing on refugees and ethnic minorities having background from outside Europe. New question emerged from the reviewed literature, whether Estonia is ready to accept quota refugees under EU quota system?
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.16104
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • ENIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN EUROPEAN UNION: SURVEY OF ISO 14001 CERTIFIED
           ESTONIAN COMPANIES

    • Authors: Natalja Gurvits, Triinu Habakuk
      Abstract: The growing importance of sustainable development and influence of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) on the performance of companies have forced companies to care more than ever about the environmental impact of their activities. Wide range of environmental legislations has been enforced by the European Union during recent years in order to ensure sustainable development of European cities. As a result, various initiatives have taken place to boost companies’ interest to take control over the environmental performance. An environmental management area has developed strongly in recent decades and various systems and tools have been introduced to effectively manage sustainable environmental development of companies. More and more organizations both in Estonia and worldwide are initiating the ISO14001 certification process, which specifies requirements for environmental management systems, in order to develop and implement environmental policy and objectives. The main purpose of the present research was to identify the main factors of initiating the ISO certification process by Estonian companies and to get their opinion regarding the future of the ISO 14001 certification in Estonia. To achieve the aim of the research, the authors have set the following research tasks: to provide a wide overview of the scientific literature covering the main relevant studies in the selected research area; to research the implementation of standards in European Union and Estonia; to conduct a survey in the form of questionnaire among ISO 14001 certified enterprises; to reveal respondent’s opinion about the current situation and future development of ISO 14001 certification in Estonia. The main methods applied in this article include analytical method and quantitative research method.
      Authors conducted a survey among ISO 14001 certified Estonian companies in September-October 2015 and collected 115 replies. The findings of the present research clearly demonstrate that Estonian companies are actively involved into the environmental management process; therefore, they initiated the ISO 14001 certification procedure and are willing to renew the certificate upon expiration. They also confirm that Estonian stakeholders are aware of the environmental management initiatives and their opinions are valued by companies and inspire them to show better performance in the field of environmental sustainability. The companies are also caring about their reputation and compliance with environmental laws and legislation, and believe that ISO 14001 certification will assist in this matter. However, it should be pointed out that surveyed companies do not identify a direct link between the ISO 14001 certification and reductions of certain costs and expenses. Therefore, there should be more workshops and training organized in order to explain how the sustainability helps to boost the effectiveness of the company by reducing various expenses and increasing profits.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14490
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • SHRINKING OF RURAL TERRITORIES IN LATVIA

    • Authors: Armands Pužulis, Laila Kūle
      Abstract: Development in the last decade was characterized by economic, social and spatial shrinking. This phenomenon is observed in many Western and post-Soviet countries. In spite of the existence of wide-spread research and publications on shrinking the concept rarely are applied to rural areas outside metropolitan regions. Until now there is no national-level in-depth research or targeted policies towards shrinking phenomenon in Latvia. The aim of the study is to examine if and how the concept of population shrinkage is represented in Latvian rural areas, and how this phenomenon might be incorporated in spatial development of the country. The article explores the inconsistence of application of shrinking at the Latvian context. Theoretical concepts used in this research are the result of a review of the literature. Empirical research is carried out in seven local municipalities of the former Alūksne, Balvi and Gulbene districts in north-eastern Latvia by interviewing local government employees and analysing statistical data and policy documents. Spatial shrinking is wider concept than population decline by incorporating not only demographics but also drivers, outcomes and impacts of the process as well as governance, planning and policy response aspects. Our study indicates that whole Latvia, both its rural and urban spaces, has to be considered as shrinking territory that needs to prepare place-specific policies for different areas. The investigation results approve that Latvian countryside can be defined as typically shrinking. This process requires a change in attitude among decision-makers at both national and regional governmental levels. The scarcity and incompleteness of available data is reflective of the realities of regional policy implementation. Drivers of rural spatial shrinking are due to socio-economic structural changes and rescaling and consequent changes of former economic, social and cultural linkages. Shrinkage processes have an impact on rural social capital and services. Shrinking requires the need for a set of innovative; knowledge-, evidence- and place-based; coordinated; pro-active; multi-disciplinary; spatial; economic and socially-targeted policy measures.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14988
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • IMPACT OF REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT ON ENTERPRISE ENVIRONMENT

    • Authors: Linda Sunina, Ligita Azena, Baiba Rivza
      Abstract: Scholars from the USA, Western Europe, Russia and other countries (H.W. Richardson, Y. Butenko, Ph. Kotler, K. Asplund, I. Rain, I. Haider and others) have worked out theories of regional development that serve as grounds for planning, researching and forecasting changes in the country region. Theories of regional development reflect methods of spatial economics. „Space as limited resource” should be planned since necessary for people space utilization in the particular way precludes another, alternative mode of space usage. The economical aspect of space utilization – development of the spatial segments, their interrelation and their impact on the development of the common space, for instance, the influence of Latvian county economics on the whole region or country. While choosing the location enterprises have to take into account the optimal structure of space for all economic activities. Where is the best location for the stable development of enterprise? Where are the best conditions for the enterprise existence? The sequence of spatial location can begin from the particular region, from the specific place in this region. The result of the search for the spatial location is the result of the more or less successful decision of the single entrepreneur. Purpose of the present research was to study the impact of regional development on the development of enterprise environment. In order to implement the aim the authors had to investigate theories of regional development and study the indicators of environment development in two cities of national level in Latvia – Valmiera and Jekabpils. The research was implemented with the following methods: analysis of theoretical literature, statistical data analysis, document analysis. The primary conclusions were as following:
      When researching territory, economical aspects of the space utilization shall be taken into consideration;
      National orientation criteria should be considered when choosing the enterprise location.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14614
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • EXPLORING THE OBSTACLES OF LATVIAN FOOD COMPANIES EXPORT TO CHINA

    • Authors: Haidong Feng, Kaspars Viksne
      Abstract: As we know, China is the biggest trader in the world. European Commission has revealed that China has become the European Union (EU)`s second largest trading partner behind the United States, and EU is China`s biggest trading partner. This situation just proves the necessity of making good partnership with China, which is especially needed for such a small country as Latvia. The main export fields for Latvia are wood, metal, electrical devices and minerals. As the population of China is growing very fast, leading to more than one billion people in 2016 (increased for more than 41 million in last six years), the food market is in need of more and more products. Of course, Chinese market may seem a golden ticket to each food producer, but there are some obstacles that doesn`t allow European companies export to China right away. In this paper, based on the statistics from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia as well as sample food market research report of Latvian export to China, the author introduces some of the legal and cultural obstacles (differences) that may stop food producers from entering Chinese market, and give some ideas to assist Latvian food small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to export to China and establish, develop, and maintain commercial activities in Chinese market. Meanwhile, the authors do some specific researches of marketing barriers, such as Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) protection issues, infrastructure and logistics, and food labelling to analyze the marketing strategy of opening the food market in China. At last, the authors provide some information and advices to Latvian and EU`s food producers to discover China market.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14637
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • THE OPPORTUNITIES OF RELATIONSHIP MARKETING: ASPECT OF THE EU DIGITAL
           MARKET

    • Authors: Elina Radionova, Valerijs Praude
      Abstract: The purpose of research is to analyse and evaluate opportunities of using relationship marketing in online trading. The objectives of research are to analyse scientific literature on the topic, to conduct a relationship marketing research, to make the internet trade industry analysis, to evaluate opportunities of using relationship marketing in online trading. The methods of research are: theoretical analysis of scientific literature, experts’ survey and its statistical analysis. In the course of time it becomes necessary to have long-term relationships between businesses and consumers. Many companies want not only to sell their products to the consumer just once, but also to make up a new relationship with them, to increase the level of loyalty to the company and its products in future. Therefore, it is necessary not only to "create" consumer`s base, but also to work to encourage consumers to re-purchase products. This means that there is a necessity in two-sided communication or relationship marketing. The suitable environment for relationship marketing is online trading market, where communication is much faster and easier than in real life, and which influences the effectiveness of communication. In the EU digital market consumers also search for solutions to purchase as effective as it is possible. The author's research shows that online trading companies use relationship marketing in their activities. The research results can be used in practice, which will help online trading industry, especially in the EU digital market, to communicate more efficiently with their customers, and use the existing databases more efficiently.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14605
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • RISK AVERSION IN THE BOARD ROOM. AN ANALYTICAL APPROACH ON CORPORATE
           GOVERNANCE OF GERMAN STOCK-LISTED COMPANIES

    • Authors: Knut J. Michelberger
      Abstract: According to the agency theory, a positive relationship between company performance and good corporate governance should exist. A broader study of the author of this paper examines a sample of German stock-listed companies whereas Germany can be seen as one of the most highly regulated countries concerning corporate governance. The overall purpose of the author’s study is to analyze the effect of supervisory board characteristics and procedures on firm performance. Several corporate governance variables such as number of committees, board independency, supervisory board compensation, personal risk liability, etc. are examined regarding their effects on firm performance in terms of firm growth and profitability. Two different approaches were selected: (1) a quantitative data analysis, based on financial figures and corporate governance variables, and (2) a survey of supervisory board members out of this sample. The total sample consists of 128 German stock-listed companies. The financial data are obtained from the financial databases providers ThomsonOne and Morningstar. The corporate governance data are also collected from annual reports and from corporate governance compliance statements. According to the German Corporate Governance Codex (DCGK) each stock-listed company has to explain their compliance with the DCGK rules. Thus, the DCGK represents a benchmark of good corporate governance and allows collecting objective and comparable quantitative data to estimate the corporate governance level. The main data analysis methods are bivariate analysis and tests for statistical differences (t-test), the latter in particular to find differences between groups clustered by their 5-years total shareholder return (TSR) growth resulting in a TSR top-30 group and TSR bottom-30 group. While the fulfilment of good corporate governance standards over all shows no significant effect on firm performance, this paper focusses on the findings that risk aversion in the board room is increasing as a result of governance regulations and that growth outperformers have a lower degree of risk aversion. It is concluded that an own-risk deductible in the D&O insurance policy leads to risk-averse supervisory board behavior and thus to lower TSR growth.Keywords: Corporate Governance; Supervisory Board; Principal–Agent Theory; Risk Aversion; Firm Performance;
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.16191
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • ANALYSIS OF BARRIERS FOR BUSINESS START

    • Authors: Biruta Sloka, Ināra Kantāne, Elita Jermolajeva, Valdis Avotins
      Abstract: Entrepreneurship is one of driving forces for economic development, in European Union it has to be paid more attention to keep competitiveness in the world. Various aspects of entrepreneurship including on barriers for business start are covered in research world-wide. The aim of the current paper is to analyse barriers of new business starters in Latvia. The tasks of the current research: analysis of theoretical findings in scientific publications; analysis of new business starters views on barriers for business start; to perform statistical analysis of new business starters evaluations on business barriers. Research methods: scientific literature studies, survey of entrepreneurs in the business start phase in Latvia (survey was conducted in the period between October 2013 and March 2014, the number of respondents 209). In survey for most of questions evaluation scale 1 – 5 is applied. For data processing descriptive statistical indicators, cross tabulations, factor analysis, Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal Wallis test are applied. The key results: in Latvia entrepreneurs as the serious barriers for business start evaluate – unreliable employees, complex and confusing tax system, weak economy, availability of long-term financial capital. The complex factors – barriers for business start are: infrastructure and unsafe environment; knowledge and skills in management; business environment; lack of financial resources.
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14570
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF LATVIAN CONSUMER’S ATTITUDES AND PERCEPTIONS
           TOWARDS GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISMS

    • Authors: Inese Aleksejeva
      Abstract: Genetic modification and genetically modified organisms (GMO) remains a controversial issue. Latvian consumers’ attitude towards genetic modification and GMO have been characterized as negative using Eurobarometer data, but so far no specific investigation of Latvian consumers has been done in this field. The aim of this study was to analyse Latvian consumers’ attitude towards genetic modification and GMO, the subjective and objective knowledge about this questions and acceptability of use of GMO in different application areas. Main task in frame of this research is to summarize different literature and data available to outline some of factors that influence attitudes towards GMO: mainly public subjective and objective knowledge, perception on risk and benefits, and ethical concerns. The survey method was chosen as a tool to collect data and elicit Latvian consumers’ attitude towards use of GMO in different industries. The survey was composed of 18 questions; seven of them have been structured on one to ten-point scale. The survey data of Latvia’s inhabitants (N = 1184) were collected by the telemarketing company from September 2014 until June 2015.  To select the units to be included in the sample systematic sampling was applied - every twentieth inhabitant was approached by phone call and invited to answer on survey questions. The results of Latvian consumers’ survey showed that Latvians’ acceptability of genetic modification varies by application area; genetically modified non-food products are more accepted than GM food and feed products. Ethical and moral aspects play essential role among Latvian consumers. Respondents’ subjective and objective knowledge of genetic modification and GMO differs. The findings would be essential to policy makers when designing risk-communication strategies targeting different consumer segments to ensure proper discussion and addressing potential concerns about genetic modification.  
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14628
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
  • BENCHMARKING ANALYSIS OF PATENT AND TRADEMARK APPLICATIONS IN THE EUROPEAN
           UNION: COMPREHENSIVE INNOVATION POLICY EVALUATION FOR YEARS 1960-2013

    • Authors: Jari Roy Lee Kaivo-oja
      Abstract: This study provides benchmarking analysis of patent and trademark applications in the European Union. The objectives of benchmarking are (1) to determine what and where improvements are called for, (2) to analyze how other nations achieve their high performance levels, and (3) to use this information to improve performance in favor of the EU Internal Market. The benchmarking study provides benchmarking results about (1) patent applications of residents and nonresidents, (2) trademark applications of residents and nonresidents, (3) total patent applications, and (4) total trademark applications. The study also provides benchmarking analyses about patent and trademark application in relation to population and gross domestic product. The results of benchmarking cover the time period 1960-2013. The study provides some comparative statistical analyses and discusses whether there has been convergence in patent and trademark activity in the European Union. The study identifies top 10 champions in the different categories of patent and trademark activity. Key results will be reported in the forms of descriptive statistics, Pareto charts, and key statistical indicators. Some special indicators of innovation activity will be reported. The study provides some policy relevant results for the EU Internal Market development
      DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.eis.0.10.14611
      PubDate: 2016-09-23
      Issue No: Vol. 0 (2016)
       
 
 
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