Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- Tradecraft Primer: A Framework for Aspiring Interrogators. By Paul Charles
Topalian. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 2016.
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:43:05 PST
- Defeating Jihad: The Winnable War. By Dr. Sebastian Gorka. Washington,
D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2016.
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:43:01 PST
- Operation Whisper: The Capture of Soviet Spies Morris and Lona Cohen. By
Barnes Carr. Lebannon, NH: University Press of New England, 2016.
Authors: Edward J. Hagerty Ph.D.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:57 PST
- Latent Memories of Terror: Media Perceptions of the Woolwich Attack
Authors: Logan Stickel
Abstract: The Woolwich Attack of 2013 remains a distinctive case of lone wolf terrorism in terms of its hyper violent theatricalization and symbolic presentation of user-generated content. Although being described as having a paradigmic effect on the way terrorism is viewed and presented, its relationship to traditional media is under examined. To understand the perceptive impact, an exploratory qualitative research project was designed to gauge public views in terms of event presentation by media modality. Primary data was collected through interviews upon a theoretical sampling of fifteen Londoners and interpreted using a framework analysis technique. Results indicated that the main mode by which residents learned of the incident was not through social media, but through traditional media. Although there was significant discussion upon the video address created by the assailants during attack, this was generally only viewed after or in conjunction with journalistic interpretation. Definitions of terrorism were not seen to change as a direct result of the attack, it only reaffirming prior conceptions proffered in media cases, reducing the plausibility of its paradigmic effect. Despite the small sample, the early dawning of patterns and redundancies demonstrates some level of data saturation, verifying its probative value in terrorism and media research.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:53 PST
- An IC Intervention for Post-Conflict Northern Ireland Secondary Schools
Authors: Eolene M. Boyd-MacMillan et al.
Abstract: Without carefully planned, sustained resourcing of children and young people, post-conflict Northern Ireland (NI) may fail to flourish. In May, 2016, MI5 (the UK domestic security agency) increased the security threat level from moderate to substantial for NI related terrorism. For over two years we have been partnership building in post-conflict NI to produce a plan for developing an evidence-based integrative complexity resource for NI secondary schools. Integrative complexity interventions have been shown effective at increasing capacities in a range of contexts, on different conflicts and extremisms, with diverse population samples (evaluated using the cross-culturally validated integrative complexity measurement frame). Based on over forty years of research, integrative complexity measures assess how we think about our social world, from rapid, inflexible, closed thinking toward more deliberate, flexible, open thinking about our own and opposed groups. The latter predicts more peaceful outcomes to conflict. This research plan has the most rigorous and systematic empirical design to date, to advance the theory and method of integrative complexity science in partnership with end-users for promoting capacities to live well with difference and disagreement. The findings will benefit NI and other post-conflict regions struggling to overcome legacies of violence. Peter Suedfeld and Philip E. Tetlock, “Integrative complexity at forty: Steps toward resolving the scoring dilemma,” Political Psychology 35 (2014): 597-601.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:48 PST
- Increasing Cognitive Complexity and Collaboration Across Communities:
Being Muslim Being Scottish
Authors: Eolene M. Boyd-MacMillan
Abstract: Being Muslim Being Scottish (BMBS) joins a family of IC interventions, Being Muslim Being British (BMBB) and Being Kenyan Being Muslim (BKBM). Like BMBB and BKBM, the newest family member, BMBS, is designed to increase cognitive complexity management by enabling participants to identify and access a wider range of their own values (value pluralism). Increased cognitive management capacities enable movement from rapid, inflexible, closed, black and white thinking that sees no validity in other viewpoints toward more deliberate, flexible, open thinking that can tolerate shades of grey, and see validity in other viewpoints without sacrificing one’s core values. Piloted in a large city in Scotland with a new model of participant involvement, participants represented both safeguarding practitioner and Muslim communities. Evaluated using the cross-culturally validated integrative complexity empirical measurement frame, statistical analyses showed significant gains in complex thinking about participants’ self-identified in and outgroups. These results predict more peaceful outcomes to intra- and inter-group conflict as participants recognize and access a wider range of responses choices in the face of difference and disagreement. Qualitative analyses found increased awareness of risks to radicalization, confidence to discuss controversial and sensitive topics, and communication among diverse communities for effective safeguarding. While these pilot results indicate that BMBS is effective at reducing violent extremism through increased integrative complexity management capacities and structured cross community-learning, further research is suggested.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:44 PST
- I SEE! Scotland: Tackling Sectarianism and Promoting Community
Authors: Eolene M. Boyd-MacMillan et al.
Abstract: We developed and tested through two studies a new intervention run as a course, I SEE! Scotland, to reduce and prevent Protestant-Catholic sectarianism in Scotland, a historic inter-group conflict expressed in forms ranging from polite to violent, within a wider population that includes those who feel untouched. Designed to reflect the social ecology of Scotland and engage individuals regardless of sectarian involvement, the intervention aimed to increase cognitive complexity, measured as integrative complexity, through participatory theatre and experiential methods. We hypothesised that the confluence of experiential learning to support multiple forms of self, other, and systems awareness with narrative framing would increase integrative complexity management capacities. Tested with a diverse sample of 104 participants (secondary school staff; achieving, disruptive or vulnerable students; young adults returning to education; other professionals; prisoners; recovering drug addicts; unemployed), study one pre-post comparisons showed significant integrative complexity gains that cohered with second end of intervention integrative complexity measures, replicating results from other integrative complexity interventions despite differences in samples, conflicts, and context. Study two with twenty-eight of the one hundred and four participants showed significant pre post increases in resilience. These results predict peaceful outcomes to intergroup conflict, tackling sectarianism and promoting community psychosocial health. We note future research plans.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:38 PST
- Wicked Problems: How Complexity Science Helps Direct Education Responses
to Preventing Violent Extremism
Authors: Lynn Davies
Abstract: This article draws on the insights from complexity science to outline potential strategies within education which could interrupt the spread of violent extremism. It first identifies three problems in examining extremism - definitions, causes and targets—before arguing for a focus on systems, not individual learners. Within systems, diversity is needed for emergence, and narrow, hard secularism is rejected in favor of a dynamic secularism which encourages a variety of belief systems in order to guard against polarization. The systems of education, religion, law and of terrorism itself are analyzed to identify entry points and vulnerabilities. After looking at the theories of change used by extremist groups, the paper proposes a theory of change within the niche of education which has four strands: Introducing turbulence through value pluralism, working within the enabling constraints of human rights, building confidence and resilience, and developing networking for social change. All four combined are necessary to generate the creativity which can undermine the wicked problem.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:34 PST
- Complexity Under Stress: Integrative Approaches to Overdetermined
Authors: Patricia Andrews Fearon et al.
Abstract: Over four decades of cognitive complexity research demonstrate that higher integrative complexity (measured by the ability to differentiate and integrate multiple dimensions or perspectives on an issue) predicts more lasting, peaceful solutions to conflict. Interventions that seek to raise integrative complexity offer a promising approach to preventing various forms of intergroup conflict (e.g. sectarianism, violent extremism). However, these contexts can also be extremely stressful, and dominant theory suggests that cognitive complexity diminishes in the face of high stress. However, we know that this is not always the case, with some findings demonstrating the opposite pattern: increases in complexity under high stress. How is it that some people in the midst of stressful conflict are able to recognize multiple perspectives and solutions, while others become increasingly narrow and rigid in their thinking? The aim of this paper is to integrate these divergent findings through the broader framework of the biopsychosocial model of stress and to explore possible underlying mechanisms such as affect. Implications for intervention will also be discussed.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:29 PST
- Defeating ISIS on the Battle Ground as well as in the Online Battle Space:
Considerations of the “New Normal” and Available Online Weapons in the
Authors: Anne Speckhard; Ph.D. et al.
Abstract: The United States and its allies continue to achieve significant military victories against ISIS (otherwise known as ISIL or the “Islamic State”). The loss of territories resulting from military victories is especially important given that ISIS relies in part on recruits from the territories it controls. Efforts have also been directed at killing the group’s core leadership; stemming the flow of foreign fighters to Iraq and Syria through tightening up border security and surveillance; and targeting militant jihadi narratives and propaganda that is pushed out by ISIS on a twenty-four/seven basis via the Internet and social media platforms. In such a complicated security landscape, a new discourse on ISIS is born—its allure, threat, grandeur, lawlessness, and violence have emerged as the “new normal” in Syria and Iraq, and recently have spilled out to Western Europe and beyond in home grown and ISIS directed attacks. While cognizant of the progress achieved in the fight against ISIS, this article, in particular, highlights the dangers emanating from the group’s continuing online, as well as face-to-face, recruiting success in the West and the apparent stagnation in the fight for dominance in the digital battlefield where ISIS is currently winning.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Dec 2016 05:42:25 PST
- Playing to the Edge: American Intelligence in the Age of Terror. By
Michael Vincent Hayden. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.
Authors: Edward Roche
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:37 PDT
- Violent Extremism Online: New Perspectives on Terrorism and the Internet.
Edited by Anne Aly, Staurt MacDonald, Lee Jarvis, and Thomas Chen. New
York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2016.
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:33 PDT
- No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance
State. By Glenn Greenwald, New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2014.
Authors: Richard J. Kilroy Jr; Ph.D.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:29 PDT
- The Hidden Face of Terrorism: An Analysis of the Women in Islamic State
Authors: Amanda N. Spencer
Abstract: As it stands today, counterterrorism approaches aimed to dismantle the Islamic State primarily targets male militants. Astoundingly enough, women are leading contributors to ISIS’ strength and capabilities. Female operatives hold increasingly influential positions in the group’s construction of a proto-state. Women responsibilities include: suitability as a wife to ISIS soldiers; birthing the next generation of jihad; advancing ISIS’ global reach through online recruiting; maintaining order within ISIS’ network of women. All crucial roles in the advancement of the cause. This paper will explore the myriad of activities performed by ISIS’ network of women and analyze why women hold particular roles in the caliphate. A reliable comprehension of these factors can produce essential intelligence in the fight against ISIS.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:25 PDT
- Social Media: Insight on the Internal Dynamics of Mexican DTOs
Authors: Ana L. Dávila 7058384
Abstract: Recent literature analyzes the use of social media by terrorist organizations, gangs, and other criminal groups. Despite the valuable insight that this approach provides on these actors, the use of social media by Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) remains largely understudied. This study provides information on the scope and nature of Mexican DTOs’ online presence, a demographic snapshot of their users, and insight into the internal dynamics of these organizations through the systematic study of primary-source data collected from 150 Facebook accounts likely to belong to members of Mexican DTOs. This information gleaned from social media has the potential to enrich our knowledge and understanding of these organizations and to serve as a guide for more effective and assertive anti-narcotics policies and strategies in Mexico and Latin America. Finally, this study raises new questions and provides avenues for future research on specific issues and trends related to DTOs observed throughout the analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:21 PDT
- Britain’s Approach to Balancing Counter-Terrorism Laws with Human
Authors: Christian A. Honeywood
Abstract: This paper examines the UK's approach to balancing counter-terror laws with human rights and civil liberties after 9/11. Since then, a litany of legislation has been passed that some human rights commentators have labeled as overzealous and draconian. Because of the glut of counter-terror laws instituted, only a fraction of the provisions contained within them will be reviewed including, indefinite detentions, stop and search rights, passport seizures, and Temporary Exclusion Orders. The potential for government abuse of far-reaching legislation is also highlighted through a case study of Miranda v. the Secretary of State for the Home Department and others. Part II analyzes how terrorism cases are dealt with through the UK's judicial system, along with the UK's contentious interaction with the European Court of Human Rights. The author finds that, although the UK possesses a robust legislative process with many checks and balances for countering the threat of terrorism, it should not compromise its international and domestic legal obligations in its search for security, or else risk losing its reputation as a model democracy, and potentially isolate disaffected communities even further.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:16 PDT
- Secular States in a “Security Community”: The
Authors: Colette G. Mazzucelli et al.
Abstract: This article discusses the disintegration paradox as set against the backdrop of the Brexit referendum and the migration crisis in Europe. In face of an apparent inability effectively to address the challenge of migration, and tested by disintegrative dynamics of which Brexit is just one example, religion has been brought back to narratives employed by societies perceived as secular. The instrumental use of religion and, as a consequence, the emergence of a migration-terrorism nexus, obscure our ability to understand and address the migration crisis as well as the subsequent disintegrative dynamics in the European Union. In this context, this article makes a case that, while the concepts of migration and the migrant have to be revisited, it is fundamental that the agency (individual and plural) of the migrant be brought into the analysis. In this way, migration can be viewed as a complex phenomenon that is a function of the postmodern and post-Westphalian reality, whereby the EU becomes a nomadic hub defined by “fluid frontiers” rather than binary divides. The migrant’s agency serves as the key to decode a complex matrix of strategies that could be employed to address the disintegrative dynamics that the current migration crisis exacerbates.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:11 PDT
- Drugs & Thugs: Funding Terrorism through Narcotics Trafficking
Authors: Colin P. Clarke
Abstract: To date, much of the literature on the financing of terrorism and insurgency has focused at the macro-level on groups involved in financing their organizations through involvement in the drug trade. This paper discusses some of those implications, but argues that to better understand the threat faced by the new generation of jihadists in the West, security forces and intelligence services must also look at the micro-level of how lower level trafficking, drug dealing and petty criminal activity, combined with prison radicalization and ties to the black market and illicit underworld, combine to present a new spin on a longstanding threat. To be sure, the micro-level is even more difficult to counter, given already poor community-police cooperation and relations in the marginalized communities throughout the West. Further, the threat from drug trafficking at the micro-level can be equally as nefarious, as smaller cells are given greater autonomy to finance plots, recruit new members and ultimately conduct attacks in developed democracies. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations geared toward helping host-nations build capacity in critical areas, including law enforcement and intelligence, from the local to the state to the federal level.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:07 PDT