Journal of Strategic Security
[8 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:24 PST
- Intelligence Communication in the Digital Era: Transforming Security,
Defence and Business. Edited by Rubén Arcos and Randolph H. Pherson.
Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015
Authors: Nicole J. Drumhiller
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:23 PST
- The Red Web: The Struggle Between Russia's Digital Dictators and the
New Online Revolutionaries. By Andrei Soldatov and Irina Borogan. New
York, N.Y.: PublicAffairs, 2015
Authors: Edward M. Roche
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:22 PST
- The Routledge History of Terrorism. Edited by Randall D. Law. New York,
N.Y.: Routledge, 2015
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:21 PST
- A Spy Among Friends: Kim Philby and the Great Betrayal. By Ben Macintyre,
NY: Crown, 2014
Authors: Robert Smith
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:20 PST
- Understanding the Intelligence Cycle. Edited by Mark Phythian. New York:
Authors: Cynthia Nolan
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:19 PST
- ISAF'S Afghan Truck Drivers: The Overlooked Counterinsurgency
Authors: Myron Varouhakis et al.
Abstract: A yearlong U.S. Army field study in Afghanistan examined the demographics and threat perceptions of one of the most-at-risk populations, that of Afghan truck drivers working for NATO’s International Security Assistance Force Afghanistan (ISAF). The study collected data from 766 Afghan truck drivers at the U.S.-operated Kandahar Airfield in ISAF’s Regional Command South. The findings show a wide diversity in age of the Afghan drivers as well as in terms of their home province. The findings also show that although all Afghan truck drivers had acute awareness and understanding of the high risks and dangers of the job, they all noted that the attractive salary and scarcity of jobs were dominant reasons for staying on the job. Findings also reveal a strong resentment among the Afghan truck drivers about their treatment by ISAF soldiers, as for the lack of protection for them and their families after the 2014 departure of NATO forces. The findings can provide significant insights and enhance the understanding of scholars, counterinsurgency strategists, policymakers, and military planners about “Host Country Nationals” as an important population of the human terrain.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:18 PST
- The Influence of U.S. Strategic Culture on Innovation and Adaptation in
the U.S. Army
Authors: Hassan M. Kamara
Abstract: Culture is an abstract phenomenon that influences its environment. According to culture theorist Edgar Schein, “culture is an abstraction, yet the forces that are created in social and organizational situations that derive from culture are powerful. If we don’t understand the operation of these forces, we become victim to them.” As a subset of culture, the strategic culture of the United States requires study so we can understand its influences on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army, and try to manage those that adversely affect the insititution’s ongoing transformation. Using the American Interwar era (1919-1941) as a case—based on some similarities to the contemporary period—this article focuses on the adverse influences of America’s strategic culture on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army to provide insight to Army leaders addressing similar (recurring) cultural hindrances to transformation. As a subset of culture, the strategic culture of the United States requires study so we can understand and mitigate its powerful adverse influences on innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army. As the Army transforms amidst conflict and budget reductions, it is important to examine and mitigate the negative influences of the broader strategic culture on its ability to innovate and adapt. Using the American Interwar era (1919-1941) as a case, this article studies how America’s strategic culture adversely influences innovation and adaptation in the U.S. Army to provide insight to today’s Army leaders addressing similar (recurring) cultural hindrances to transformation.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:17 PST
- The Grand Strategy of Nonstate Actors: Theory and Implications
Authors: Garrett Pierman
Abstract: This article addresses the Realist assumption that only actors that are states can be considered to have a strategic culture. The primary issue raised is the question of the ability of non-state actors to have a strategic culture. Al-Qaida is used as a theoretical case study. Ultimately this article rejects the idea of territoriality in strategic culture formulation and calls for academics and policymakers alike to adopt a broader conception of actors on the international, stage. This broader conception of actors would necessitate rich case studies to be done in the future in order to seek an understanding of the strategic culture of the non-state actors which academics and policymakers must deal with in the modern security environment. In particular, the article finds that the assumptions held about al-Qaida thus far are wrong and, in reality, the group has ambitions that are cosmic in nature, which will necessitate change in the strategies used to fight against terrorism.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:15 PST
- Best Practices for Operating Government-Industry Partnerships in Cyber
Authors: Larry Clinton
Abstract: Since the publication of the first National Strategy to Secure Cyber Space in 2003 the US federal government has realized that due to the interconnected nature of the Internet, securing the system would require an industry-government partnership. However, defining exactly what that new partnership would look like and how it would operate has been unclear. The ramifications of this ambiguous strategy have been noted elsewhere including the 2011 JSS article “A Relationship on the Brink” which described the dysfunctional state of public private partnerships with respect to cyber security. Subsequently, a joint industry-government study of partnership programs has generated a consensus list of “best practices” for operating such programs successfully. Moreover, subsequent use of these principles seems to confirm their ability to enhance the partnership and hopefully helps ameliorate, to some degree, the growing cyber threat. This article provides a brief history of the evolution of public-private partnerships in cyber security, the joint study to assess them and the 12 best practices generated by that analysis.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:14 PST
- How Power-Laws Re-Write The Rules Of Cyber Warfare
Authors: David L. Bibighaus
Abstract: All warfare contains and element of randomness. This article will argue that, the kind uncertainty encountered in cyber warfare (Power-Law randomness) is fundamentally different from the uncertainty the military has evolved to deal with in the physical world (Gaussian-Randomness). The article will explain the difference between these two kinds of randomness, and how cyber weapons appear to operate under Power-Law randomness. It then will show how in cyberspace, key aspects of strategic thought are based on a flaws assumption of randomness. Finally, this article shall argue that if the American military is going to be effective in cyberspace, it must re-examine the way the military assumes risk, recruits is forces, plans for war and maintains the peace.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:14 PST
- Deterring and Dissuading Cyberterrorism
Authors: John J. Klein
Abstract: Cyberterrorism, while being written about since the early 2000s, is still not fully understood as a strategic concept and whether such actions can be deterred is hotly contested. Some strategists and policy makers believe that acts of cyberterrorism, especially by non-state actors, may prove to be undeterrable. Yet the leadership of both state and non-state actors tend to act rationally and function strategically, and therefore they can, in fact, be deterred to some degree. Helping to shape the legitimate options following a significant cyberattack, the Law of Armed Conflict has salient considerations for the deterrence of cyberterrorism, particularly the principles of military necessity and lawful targeting. Furthermore, when considered holistically and using all available means, deterrence combined with dissuasion activities can lessen the likelihood of cyberterrorism, while mitigating any consequences should such a cyberattack actually occur.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:13 PST
- Using the Oldest Military Force for the Newest National Defense
Authors: Brian Claus et al.
Abstract: The National Guard is establishing Cyber Mission Teams (CMT) that will fulfill a federal role to backfill active duty defending Department of Defense networks, but are also exploring how they could effectively fulfill state missions. The President, Council of Governors, and USCYBERCOM Commander have expressed concerns about U.S. critical infrastructure cyber network vulnerabilities and the increasing magnitude of threat our adversaries pose to those networks’ security. This article explores using this emerging National Guard capability in a state role for protection of critical infrastructure cyber networks. Most of the critical infrastructure is privately owned. Although current executive orders and policy mandate government sharing of cyber threat information, private providers’ reciprocation of sharing their vulnerabilities is voluntary. This article contends that effective cyber defense requires strong private-public partnerships. We developed a critical infrastructure cyber defense model based upon key characteristics from the literature on private-public partnerships and performed a case study of current cyber defense partnerships to validate the model. Our research shows this model to be a useful guide for emerging National Guard Cyber Mission Forces to consider when establishing partnerships for effective critical infrastructure cyber defense.
PubDate: Mon, 07 Dec 2015 09:44:12 PST
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2015 05:49:47 PDT
- Nexus between Intelligence Education and Intelligence Training: A South
Authors: M. A. van den Berg
Abstract: This paper examines the nexus of intelligence education and training from a South African perspective with the focus on current practices in light of the country’s transition towards democracy. A brief overview is provided on the history and development of the South African intelligence community with specific focus on the civilian intelligence services from the period prior 1994 to date (2015). The main focus, however, is on intelligence education that is currently available from training institutions and universities in South Africa as registered with the Department of Higher Education as well as private training institutions on the one hand, and the intelligence training practices within the statutory intelligence environment on the other. To this extent, the relations between academic institutions and the intelligence structures in terms of education and training within South Africa are perused against other practices within the African continent and internationally. The approaches to the study of intelligence are also addressed within this paper. Likewise, the how, what as well as to whom – pertaining to intelligence education and training availability and accessibility to students and practitioners within South Africa, is reviewed and analysed with the focus on making recommendations for the enhancement and improvement thereof to enable a focus on preparing the next generation of professional intelligence officers.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:01 PDT
- Global Climate Change as a Threat to U.S. National Security
Authors: Emilio Morales Jr.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:00 PDT
- All Propaganda is Dangerous, but Some are More Dangerous than Others:
George Orwell and the Use of Literature as Propaganda
Authors: Samantha Senn
Abstract: The true battles of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union were fought on the ideological front: pitting democracy and capitalism against totalitarianism and communism. The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was formed in the late 1940s to help combat the spread of Communism across Europe and in the United States. Part of the “psychological warfare” included the use of propaganda. Around the same time, British author George Orwell had recently published Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Both novels, due to the anti-Communist overtones, were adopted by the OPC as part of a larger anti-Soviet campaign. By examining the use by intelligence agencies of Orwell’s works during the Cold War and the potential use of those works in a post-9/11 global society, this paper aims to illustrate the fickle nature of literary works as propaganda.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:00 PDT
- Human Aspects in Intelligence Education
Authors: Gregory Moore
Abstract: Midway through the second decade of the twenty-first century, it has become increasingly apparent that the majority of Americans are relatively ignorant of international affairs and lacking in foreign language proficiency. For the emergent academic discipline of intelligence studies, this represents a serious challenge. All too often policy decisions, particularly in American foreign policy, have been driven by assumptions, especially in regard to cultures and societies with which Americans have had little familiarity. Therefore, the twenty-first century intelligence studies curriculum would be well served by educating students in global affairs and foreign languages as well as in the core skills related to analysis and collection.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:59 PDT
- From WMD to WME: An Ever-Expanding Threat Spectrum
Authors: Bowman H. Miller Ph.D.
Abstract: One of the challenges the United States and its intelligence community confronts today, if not the foremost challenge, is the girth of its national security problem set. The array of threat types, as well as the potential sources of those threats, is unprecedented and growing. The burdensome task for intelligence at all times, but especially given the present rate of change and the increasing porosity of borders, is to try to cope with an escalating mix of challenges and rising expectations of what intelligence can provide. Existing tasks persist; they are not replaced. The number and types of potentially threatening actors have exploded. Nation-states are now joined by countless ethno-religious groupings, terrorists, criminals of all stripes, drug cartels, transnational movements and issue groups, and malevolent and delinquent individuals. Threats come from all quarters and in all sizes these days, and the mission of intelligence, i.e., to track indicators to provide warning and to reduce uncertainty for decision-makers, is monumental.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:58 PDT
- America’s Evolution of Women and Their Roles in the Intelligence
Authors: Amy J. Martin
Abstract: The role of women in the Intelligence Community has evolved over time and captures the use of their skills to further assist, perpetuate, and lead intelligence operations globally. This paper serves as a historical overview of some of the techniques of the early female spies and highlights the successes of the modern woman’s contributions to the intelligence mission. Emerging female operations officers often face obstacles: dealing with bias within the bureaucracy, issues of female equality within certain cultures, and experiencing slower rates of promotion. This has meant a lack of females in competitive leadership positions. Female mentors and former intelligence members explore avenues for surviving and thriving within the CIA. Women must have high standards of performance and professionalism and grasp the politics of advancement in a male-dominated hierarchical agency. Communication in leadership training and awareness is key, as seen in the CIA's 1991 “glass ceiling” study and 2013 Director’s Advisory Group on Women in Leadership (DAG) report on the statistics of the lack of women in senior management. The current trend of women serving in top positions in intelligence organizations should offer encouragement and promote further changes within the American culture.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:57 PDT