Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- Playing to the Edge: American Intelligence in the Age of Terror. By
Michael Vincent Hayden. New York: Penguin Press, 2016.
Authors: Edward Roche
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:37 PDT
- Violent Extremism Online: New Perspectives on Terrorism and the Internet.
Edited by Anne Aly, Staurt MacDonald, Lee Jarvis, and Thomas Chen. New
York, N.Y.: Routledge, 2016.
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:33 PDT
- No Place to Hide: Edward Snowden, the NSA, and the U.S. Surveillance
State. By Glenn Greenwald, New York, NY: Metropolitan Books, 2014.
Authors: Richard J. Kilroy Jr; Ph.D.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:29 PDT
- The Hidden Face of Terrorism: An Analysis of the Women in Islamic State
Authors: Amanda N. Spencer
Abstract: As it stands today, counterterrorism approaches aimed to dismantle the Islamic State primarily targets male militants. Astoundingly enough, women are leading contributors to ISIS’ strength and capabilities. Female operatives hold increasingly influential positions in the group’s construction of a proto-state. Women responsibilities include: suitability as a wife to ISIS soldiers; birthing the next generation of jihad; advancing ISIS’ global reach through online recruiting; maintaining order within ISIS’ network of women. All crucial roles in the advancement of the cause. This paper will explore the myriad of activities performed by ISIS’ network of women and analyze why women hold particular roles in the caliphate. A reliable comprehension of these factors can produce essential intelligence in the fight against ISIS.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:25 PDT
- Social Media: Insight on the Internal Dynamics of Mexican DTOs
Authors: Ana L. Dávila 7058384
Abstract: Recent literature analyzes the use of social media by terrorist organizations, gangs, and other criminal groups. Despite the valuable insight that this approach provides on these actors, the use of social media by Mexican drug trafficking organizations (DTOs) remains largely understudied. This study provides information on the scope and nature of Mexican DTOs’ online presence, a demographic snapshot of their users, and insight into the internal dynamics of these organizations through the systematic study of primary-source data collected from 150 Facebook accounts likely to belong to members of Mexican DTOs. This information gleaned from social media has the potential to enrich our knowledge and understanding of these organizations and to serve as a guide for more effective and assertive anti-narcotics policies and strategies in Mexico and Latin America. Finally, this study raises new questions and provides avenues for future research on specific issues and trends related to DTOs observed throughout the analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:21 PDT
- Britain’s Approach to Balancing Counter-Terrorism Laws with Human
Authors: Christian A. Honeywood
Abstract: This paper examines the UK's approach to balancing counter-terror laws with human rights and civil liberties after 9/11. Since then, a litany of legislation has been passed that some human rights commentators have labeled as overzealous and draconian. Because of the glut of counter-terror laws instituted, only a fraction of the provisions contained within them will be reviewed including, indefinite detentions, stop and search rights, passport seizures, and Temporary Exclusion Orders. The potential for government abuse of far-reaching legislation is also highlighted through a case study of Miranda v. the Secretary of State for the Home Department and others. Part II analyzes how terrorism cases are dealt with through the UK's judicial system, along with the UK's contentious interaction with the European Court of Human Rights. The author finds that, although the UK possesses a robust legislative process with many checks and balances for countering the threat of terrorism, it should not compromise its international and domestic legal obligations in its search for security, or else risk losing its reputation as a model democracy, and potentially isolate disaffected communities even further.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:16 PDT
- Secular States in a “Security Community”: The
Authors: Colette G. Mazzucelli et al.
Abstract: This article makes a case for bringing religion back into the analysis and by suggesting that migration should be reconceptualised, with a significant part of that reconceptualization consistent with restoring agency to a migrant, the value added of this article is threefold. At the diagnostic level, the argument developed offers an insight into the reasons underlying the inability of the EU to address the challenge of migration effectively. At the explanatory level, this article makes a case that national leaders in the European Council are unable to establish a new integrative narrative of European integration. Migration serves as a handy opportunity to offer European audiences a vision of the Union, a largely inaccurate image of reality that feeds into the imaginations and expectations of large segments of the electorate. At the conceptual level, the argument developed makes a case for the reconceptualization of migration as transcending those binary oppositions characteristic of borders and the controls that delineate borders: the present-day EU has been transformed into a migration hub on a continental scale, thereby aggravating the density problem of too many diverse peoples in too limited a connected space. In order to understand migration, this article posits that it is necessary to restore the migrant question, including, most significantly, the agency of the migrant to the analysis.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:11 PDT
- Drugs & Thugs: Funding Terrorism through Narcotics Trafficking
Authors: Colin P. Clarke
Abstract: To date, much of the literature on the financing of terrorism and insurgency has focused at the macro-level on groups involved in financing their organizations through involvement in the drug trade. This paper discusses some of those implications, but argues that to better understand the threat faced by the new generation of jihadists in the West, security forces and intelligence services must also look at the micro-level of how lower level trafficking, drug dealing and petty criminal activity, combined with prison radicalization and ties to the black market and illicit underworld, combine to present a new spin on a longstanding threat. To be sure, the micro-level is even more difficult to counter, given already poor community-police cooperation and relations in the marginalized communities throughout the West. Further, the threat from drug trafficking at the micro-level can be equally as nefarious, as smaller cells are given greater autonomy to finance plots, recruit new members and ultimately conduct attacks in developed democracies. The paper concludes with some policy recommendations geared toward helping host-nations build capacity in critical areas, including law enforcement and intelligence, from the local to the state to the federal level.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Sep 2016 05:52:07 PDT
- Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran’s Revolutionary
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:41 PDT
- Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. By Sarah
Chayes. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.
Authors: Benjamin Dille
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:35 PDT
- Defeating ISIS: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe. By
Malcolm Nance, Foreword by Richard Engel. New York, N.Y.: Skyhorse
Publishing Company, 2016.
Authors: Millard E. Moon; Ed.D
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:29 PDT
- Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War. By Fred Kaplan. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2016.
Authors: Edward M. Roche, Ph.D, J.D
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:24 PDT
- Big Data and Intelligence: Applications, Human Capital, and Education
Authors: Michael Landon-Murray
Abstract: The potential for big data to contribute to the US intelligence mission goes beyond bulk collection, social media and counterterrorism. Applications will speak to a range of issues of major concern to intelligence agencies, from military operations to climate change to cyber security. There are challenges too: procurement lags, data stovepiping, separating signal from noise, sources and methods, a range of normative issues, and central to managing these challenges, human capital. These potential applications and challenges are discussed and a closer look at what data scientists do in the Intelligence Community (IC) is offered. Effectively filling the ranks of the IC’s data science workforce will depend on the provision of well-trained data scientists from the higher education system. Program offerings at America’s top fifty universities will thus be surveyed (just a few years ago there were reportedly no degrees in data science). One Master’s program that has melded data science with intelligence is examined as well as a university big data research center focused on security and intelligence. This discussion goes a long way to clarify the prospective uses of data science in intelligence while probing perhaps the key challenge to optimal application of big data in the IC.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:17 PDT
- Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist
Authors: Nele Schils et al.
Abstract: Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020) among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:11 PDT
- China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber
Authors: Emilio Iasiello
Abstract: China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:04 PDT
- The Influence of Charismatic Authority on Operational Strategies and
Attack Outcomes of Terrorist Groups
Authors: David C. Hofmann
Abstract: Despite the historical and contemporary prevalence of charismatic terrorist leaders, there has been very little empirical examination of the relationship between charismatic forms of authority and the strategic operation of terrorist groups. In response to this gap in knowledge, this study seeks to investigate if charismatic authority has a real-world impact on strategic choices and attack outcomes of terrorist groups. Using a theoretical framework meant to help measure charisma in terrorist organizations, this study quantitatively examines how differing levels of the presence of charismatic authority contributes to the choice in operational tactics (e.g., weapon and target choices) and the results of attack outcomes (e.g., success rates, lethality) within a sample of thirty international terrorist groups. In the concluding section, relevant findings, policy recommendations, study limitations, and areas for future research are discussed.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:36:59 PDT
- Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?
Authors: David L. Raugh
Abstract: Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:36:53 PDT
- Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction. By Philip Eyrikson
Tetlock and Dan Gardner. New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishers, 2015
Authors: Edward M. Roche, Ph.D; J.D.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:32:21 PDT