Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran’s Revolutionary
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:41 PDT
- Thieves of State: Why Corruption Threatens Global Security. By Sarah
Chayes. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2015.
Authors: Benjamin Dille
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:35 PDT
- Defeating ISIS: Who They Are, How They Fight, What They Believe. By
Malcolm Nance, Foreword by Richard Engel. New York, N.Y.: Skyhorse
Publishing Company, 2016.
Authors: Millard E. Moon; Ed.D
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:29 PDT
- Dark Territory: The Secret History of Cyber War. By Fred Kaplan. New York:
Simon & Schuster, 2016.
Authors: Edward M. Roche, Ph.D, J.D
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:24 PDT
- Big Data and Intelligence: Applications, Human Capital, and Education
Authors: Michael Landon-Murray
Abstract: The potential for big data to contribute to the US intelligence mission goes beyond bulk collection, social media and counterterrorism. Applications will speak to a range of issues of major concern to intelligence agencies, from military operations to climate change to cyber security. There are challenges too: procurement lags, data stovepiping, separating signal from noise, sources and methods, a range of normative issues, and central to managing these challenges, human capital. These potential applications and challenges are discussed and a closer look at what data scientists do in the Intelligence Community (IC) is offered. Effectively filling the ranks of the IC’s data science workforce will depend on the provision of well-trained data scientists from the higher education system. Program offerings at America’s top fifty universities will thus be surveyed (just a few years ago there were reportedly no degrees in data science). One Master’s program that has melded data science with intelligence is examined as well as a university big data research center focused on security and intelligence. This discussion goes a long way to clarify the prospective uses of data science in intelligence while probing perhaps the key challenge to optimal application of big data in the IC.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:17 PDT
- Political Violence and the Mediating Role of Violent Extremist
Authors: Nele Schils et al.
Abstract: Research into violent extremism is lacking integrated theoretical frameworks explaining individual involvement in politically or religiously motivated violence, resulting in a poor understanding of causal mechanisms. Building on situational action theory, the current study moves beyond the dominant risk factor approach and proposes an integrated model for the explanation of political/religious violence, distinguishing between direct mechanisms and “causes of the causes.” The model integrates mechanisms from different but complementary traditions. Following previous work, this study focusses on the causes of the causes influencing direct key mechanisms, violent extremist propensity, and exposure to violent extremist moral settings that explain political/religious violence. The theoretical model is tested using structural equation modelling. The analyses are based on a web survey (N = 6,020) among adolescents and young adults in Belgium. Results show that violent extremist propensity and exposure to violent extremist moral settings have direct effects on the likelihood of political/religious violence. These direct mechanisms are in turn determined by a series of exogenous factors: perceived injustice and poor social integration. The relationship between perceived injustice and poor social integration and political/religious violence is further mediated by perceived alienation, perceived procedural justice, and religious authoritarianism. The implications of these findings are discussed.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:11 PDT
- China’s Three Warfares Strategy Mitigates Fallout From Cyber
Authors: Emilio Iasiello
Abstract: China is engaged in longstanding cyber espionage against the U.S., as well as other nations, to collect sensitive public and private information in support of national objectives laid out in its 12th Five Year Plan. Foreign governments citing China’s malfeasance have rebuked these activities, a claim vehemently denied by Beijing. In response, China is leveraging the “Three Warfares” an integrated three-prong information warfare strategy to combat these accusations by leveraging Media, Legal, and Psychological components designed to influence the international community. While the United States has threatened the imposition of economic sanctions, Beijing has successfully parried consequential actions by arresting U.S.-identified hackers, thereby demonstrating its commitment toward preserving a stable and peaceful cyberspace. These interrelated “Three Warfares” disciplines have targeted the cognitive processes of the U.S. leadership, as well as the international public’s perception of China as a global threat, thereby having successfully forestalled the implementation of any effective punitive or economic deterrence strategy to include the imposition of cyber sanctions.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:37:04 PDT
- The Influence of Charismatic Authority on Operational Strategies and
Attack Outcomes of Terrorist Groups
Authors: David C. Hofmann
Abstract: Despite the historical and contemporary prevalence of charismatic terrorist leaders, there has been very little empirical examination of the relationship between charismatic forms of authority and the strategic operation of terrorist groups. In response to this gap in knowledge, this study seeks to investigate if charismatic authority has a real-world impact on strategic choices and attack outcomes of terrorist groups. Using a theoretical framework meant to help measure charisma in terrorist organizations, this study quantitatively examines how differing levels of the presence of charismatic authority contributes to the choice in operational tactics (e.g., weapon and target choices) and the results of attack outcomes (e.g., success rates, lethality) within a sample of thirty international terrorist groups. In the concluding section, relevant findings, policy recommendations, study limitations, and areas for future research are discussed.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:36:59 PDT
- Is the Hybrid Threat a True Threat?
Authors: David L. Raugh
Abstract: Does the “hybrid threat” discussed in General Marty Dempsey’s 2015 United States National Military Strategy make logical sense? In this paper I define the national security threat risk assessment process, examine the most significant US security threats, and study the hybrid threat. I conclude that the hybrid threat is the one that could most exploit our nation’s critical vulnerabilities- both from a security and foreign policy perspective. I conclude with a study of security and economic methods to reduce this threat.
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:36:53 PDT
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Fri, 10 Jun 2016 10:36:47 PDT
- Superforecasting: The Art and Science of Prediction. By Philip Eyrikson
Tetlock and Dan Gardner. New York, N.Y.: Crown Publishers, 2015
Authors: Edward M. Roche, Ph.D; J.D.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:32:21 PDT
- Relentless Strike: The Secret History of Joint Special Operations Command.
By Sean Naylor. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 2015
Authors: Martin S. Catino Ph.D
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:32:14 PDT
- The Great War of Our Time: The CIA’s Fight Against Terrorism from Al
Qa’ida to ISIS. By Michael Morell with Bill Harolow, New York, NY:
Hachette Book Group, 2015
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:32:08 PDT
- Disciplining Terror: How Experts Invented “Terrorism”. By Lisa
Stampnitzky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:32:02 PDT
- Comparative Analysis of VNSA Complex Engineering Efforts
Authors: Gary A. Ackerman
Abstract: The case studies undertaken in this special issue demonstrate unequivocally that, despite being forced to operate clandestinely and facing the pressures of security forces seeking to hunt them down and neutralize them, at least a subset of violent non-state actors (VNSAs) are capable of some genuinely impressive feats of engineering. At the same time, success in such endeavours is not guaranteed and VNSAs will undoubtedly face a number of obstacles along the way. A comparative analysis of the cases also reveals new insights about the factors influencing the decision to pursue complex engineering efforts, the implementation of such decisions and the determinants of the ultimate outcome. These result in a set of hypotheses and indicators that, if confirmed by future research, can contribute to both operational and strategic intelligence assessments. Overall, the current study enriches our understanding of how and why VNSAs might engage in complex engineering efforts.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:55 PDT
- A.Q. Khan Nuclear Smuggling Network
Authors: Molly MacCalman
Abstract: Abdul Qadeer Khan, widely viewed as the father of Pakistan’s nuclear weapons program, was arrested on January 31, 2004 for his key role in the black market sale of nuclear technology and equipment to Iran, North Korea, Libya, and possibly others. A.Q. Khan’s nuclear smuggling network prospered throughout the 1980s and 1990s and was linked to middlemen and businesses in over 20 countries. The network offered buyers a menu of both technical expertise and materials with prices ranging from millions to hundreds of millions of dollars. The Khan network was ultimately exposed largely due to years of intelligence gathering by the United States and the United Kingdom. However, very few of the network’s members have been successfully prosecuted and the demand for nuclear material by both state and non-state actors continues. The exposure of Khan’s network confirmed that a non-state actor could procure and sell a turnkey nuclear weapons program to willing buyers.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:47 PDT
- Digging Into Israel: The Sophisticated Tunneling Network of Hamas
Authors: Nicole J. Watkins et al.
Abstract: By the end of Operation Protective Edge in August 2014, the Israel Defense Force (IDF) claimed to have discovered and destroyed more than 30 tunnels spanning from beneath Gaza into Israeli territory. Hamas officials have praised these tunnels as an innovative approach to fighting an asymmetric war with a far more conventionally powerful Israel. The purpose of this case study is to examine the complexity of Hamas’ vast tunneling network by assessing the motivations behind the group’s decision to construct the network, to identify the factors that enabled Hamas to engage in such a complex engineering task, and to assess the level of effectiveness of the tunnel network both strategically and tactically against the IDF.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:38 PDT
- Los Zetas and Proprietary Radio Network Development
Authors: James Halverson
Abstract: The years from 2006 through 2011 were very active years for a number of Mexican drug trafficking organizations. However, the group that probably saw the most meteoric rise in this period, Los Zetas, had a unique and innovative tool at their disposal. It was during these years that the group constructed and utilized a proprietary encrypted radio network that grew to span from Texas to Guatemala through the Gulf States of Mexico and across much of the rest of the country. This network gave the group an operational edge. It also stood as a symbol of the latitude the group enjoyed across vast areas, as this extensive illicit infrastructure stood, in the face of the government and rival cartels, for six years. This investigation explicates the process by which Los Zetas constructed, concealed and utilized this network and attempts to draw conclusions about the motivations and organizational dynamics that brought the network to be, with attention paid to what this case says about the complex engineering capabilities of non-state entities in general.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:31 PDT
- The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) and the Development of
Authors: Michelle Jacome Jaramillo
Abstract: The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) have been one of the world's most consistently formidable violent non-state actors over the last forty years. Unsurprisingly, the group has provided one of the most compelling and concerning examples of the level of technical sophistication attainable by sub-state organizations. Over the last two decades the group has carried out an iterative and innovative process that, in reaction to improved detection capabilities, has brought them from depending on disposable go-fast boats to transport drugs to possessing fully submersible and reusable covert vessels for transportation. The following case study will discuss the development of narco-submarines and the underlying motivations behind the pursuit of this complex engineering task. The case study will outline the different phases of the narco-submarine development and highlight FARC’s determination to overcome the challenges present in each design. This discussion will show how FARC’s systematized acquiring of information and expertise has resulted in the accomplishment of fully submersible vessels, capable of transporting more than 10 tons of illicit product.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:23 PDT
- Aum Shinrikyo’s Nuclear and Chemical Weapons Development Efforts
Authors: Andrea A. Nehorayoff et al.
Abstract: This article details the terrorist activities of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinrikyo, from the perspective of its complex engineering efforts aimed at producing nuclear and chemical weapons. The experience of this millenarian organization illustrates that even violent non-state actors with considerable wealth and resources at their disposal face numerous obstacles to realizing their destructive aspirations. Specifically, Aum’s attempts at complex engineering were stymied by a combination of unchecked fantastical thinking, self-imposed ideological constraints, and a capricious leadership. The chapter highlights each of these mechanisms, as well as the specific ways in which they constrained the decision-making process and the implementation of the complex engineering tasks associated with their unconventional weapons development.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Mar 2016 13:31:12 PDT