Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Fri, 16 Oct 2015 05:49:47 PDT
- Nexus between Intelligence Education and Intelligence Training: A South
Authors: M. A. van den Berg
Abstract: This paper examines the nexus of intelligence education and training from a South African perspective with the focus on current practices in light of the country’s transition towards democracy. A brief overview is provided on the history and development of the South African intelligence community with specific focus on the civilian intelligence services from the period prior 1994 to date (2015). The main focus, however, is on intelligence education that is currently available from training institutions and universities in South Africa as registered with the Department of Higher Education as well as private training institutions on the one hand, and the intelligence training practices within the statutory intelligence environment on the other. To this extent, the relations between academic institutions and the intelligence structures in terms of education and training within South Africa are perused against other practices within the African continent and internationally. The approaches to the study of intelligence are also addressed within this paper. Likewise, the how, what as well as to whom – pertaining to intelligence education and training availability and accessibility to students and practitioners within South Africa, is reviewed and analysed with the focus on making recommendations for the enhancement and improvement thereof to enable a focus on preparing the next generation of professional intelligence officers.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:01 PDT
- Global Climate Change as a Threat to U.S. National Security
Authors: Emilio Morales Jr.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:00 PDT
- All Propaganda is Dangerous, but Some are More Dangerous than Others:
George Orwell and the Use of Literature as Propaganda
Authors: Samantha Senn
Abstract: The true battles of the Cold War between the United States and the Soviet Union were fought on the ideological front: pitting democracy and capitalism against totalitarianism and communism. The Office of Policy Coordination (OPC) of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) was formed in the late 1940s to help combat the spread of Communism across Europe and in the United States. Part of the “psychological warfare” included the use of propaganda. Around the same time, British author George Orwell had recently published Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Both novels, due to the anti-Communist overtones, were adopted by the OPC as part of a larger anti-Soviet campaign. By examining the use by intelligence agencies of Orwell’s works during the Cold War and the potential use of those works in a post-9/11 global society, this paper aims to illustrate the fickle nature of literary works as propaganda.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:35:00 PDT
- Human Aspects in Intelligence Education
Authors: Gregory Moore
Abstract: Midway through the second decade of the twenty-first century, it has become increasingly apparent that the majority of Americans are relatively ignorant of international affairs and lacking in foreign language proficiency. For the emergent academic discipline of intelligence studies, this represents a serious challenge. All too often policy decisions, particularly in American foreign policy, have been driven by assumptions, especially in regard to cultures and societies with which Americans have had little familiarity. Therefore, the twenty-first century intelligence studies curriculum would be well served by educating students in global affairs and foreign languages as well as in the core skills related to analysis and collection.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:59 PDT
- From WMD to WME: An Ever-Expanding Threat Spectrum
Authors: Bowman H. Miller Ph.D.
Abstract: One of the challenges the United States and its intelligence community confronts today, if not the foremost challenge, is the girth of its national security problem set. The array of threat types, as well as the potential sources of those threats, is unprecedented and growing. The burdensome task for intelligence at all times, but especially given the present rate of change and the increasing porosity of borders, is to try to cope with an escalating mix of challenges and rising expectations of what intelligence can provide. Existing tasks persist; they are not replaced. The number and types of potentially threatening actors have exploded. Nation-states are now joined by countless ethno-religious groupings, terrorists, criminals of all stripes, drug cartels, transnational movements and issue groups, and malevolent and delinquent individuals. Threats come from all quarters and in all sizes these days, and the mission of intelligence, i.e., to track indicators to provide warning and to reduce uncertainty for decision-makers, is monumental.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:58 PDT
- America’s Evolution of Women and Their Roles in the Intelligence
Authors: Amy J. Martin
Abstract: The role of women in the Intelligence Community has evolved over time and captures the use of their skills to further assist, perpetuate, and lead intelligence operations globally. This paper serves as a historical overview of some of the techniques of the early female spies and highlights the successes of the modern woman’s contributions to the intelligence mission. Emerging female operations officers often face obstacles: dealing with bias within the bureaucracy, issues of female equality within certain cultures, and experiencing slower rates of promotion. This has meant a lack of females in competitive leadership positions. Female mentors and former intelligence members explore avenues for surviving and thriving within the CIA. Women must have high standards of performance and professionalism and grasp the politics of advancement in a male-dominated hierarchical agency. Communication in leadership training and awareness is key, as seen in the CIA's 1991 “glass ceiling” study and 2013 Director’s Advisory Group on Women in Leadership (DAG) report on the statistics of the lack of women in senior management. The current trend of women serving in top positions in intelligence organizations should offer encouragement and promote further changes within the American culture.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:57 PDT
- Cyberspace’s Dynamic Duo: Forging a Cybersecurity Public-Private
Authors: Max Manley
Abstract: As of 2015, cyber threats have become more prevalent due to high-profile cases like the Target, JPMorgan Chase & Co., Home Depot, and Sony Entertainment breaches. In order to prevent what former Secretary of Defense Leon Panetta characterized as a “Cyber Pearl Harbor,” the US government has to engage the private sector in order to build a solid public-private partnership (PPP) for cybersecurity. For there to be a successful cybersecurity PPP between the US government and the private sector, there must be a PPP founded on a model composed of four essential elements: a high level of trust between the public and private entities that corresponds to a mutual belief in the positive gains of both partners; clear baseline guidance imposed from legislation, which should be reinforced with government training and financial incentives; a bottom-up structural approach for efficient operations that allows for more autonomy at lower levels on local needs and resources; and, gaining influential community involvement in the formation of PPPs from all levels of the participating organizations, as well as civil leadership and the general public.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:56 PDT
- Choosing an SAT with SAnTA: A Recommender System for Informal Workplace
Authors: Frank Linton et al.
Abstract: Current intelligence community analytic standards encourage the use of structured analytic techniques; these are taught in training programs and supported by analytic tradecraft cells. Yet resources are scarce, timely personalized help is not available to all when it is most needed, and conditions for the improper selection and misapplication of these techniques prevail. The Structured Analytic Technique Advisor (SAnTA) is an electronic interactive job aid that recommends structured analytic techniques to analysts, based on the current state of their analysis and on the synthesized expertise of tradecraft staff. SAnTA is undergoing formative evaluation and iterative development. When released, SAnTA will provide individualized support to a large number of analysts every day.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:55 PDT
- Intelligence Sesquicentennial: Testament of Bleeding War
Authors: David M. Keithly
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:54 PDT
- Social Media and U.S. Intelligence Agencies: Just Trending or a Real Tool
to Engage and Educate?
Authors: Michael Landon-Murray
Abstract: Social media use has become ubiquitous not just among individuals, groups, and businesses, but also government institutions. In turn, the adoption of services like Facebook and Twitter in the public sector has increasingly become the focus of academic study. U.S. intelligence agencies, however, have been excluded from examination. The potential benefits—engagement, education, and transparency, among others—are significant, and studying how U.S. intelligence uses social media will help us realize those benefits. In the arcane, complex and potentially intrusive world of intelligence, new opportunities to bolster public knowledge and accountability must be utilized. Today, understanding government requires studying e-government, and in intelligence, social media likely represents the most direction connection between citizens and the public agencies that serve them. To take a first step, this study maps how U.S. intelligence agencies are using Facebook and Twitter, examines other social media practices, and presents findings from correspondence with four intelligence and security journalists.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:54 PDT
- How to Keep our Youth away from IS: The Need for Narrative Analysis and
Authors: Bob de Graaff
Abstract: The German war theorist Carl von Clausewitz pointed out that in order to defeat an opponent one had to crush his point of gravitation (Schwerpunkt).  In the case of non-state opponents, like the Islamic State, which do occupy territory, but more or less in a nomadic way, moving like a snake among the rocks, it is difficult to target a physical point of gravitation. In fact their Schwerpunkt is their ideological narrative, which functions as a redoubtable pull-factor, responsible for attracting throngs of foreign fighters. So far the West has shown a poor record in targeting this narrative. This paper tries to map some of the elements in IS’s Schwerpunkt that look vulnerable and may be targeted in order to diminish the power of the Islamic State as much as possible without actually fighting the self-proclaimed Caliphate.  http://www.clausewitz.com/readings/VomKriege1832/TOC.htm .
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:53 PDT
- Sample Size of One: Operational Qualitative Analysis in the Classroom
Authors: John Hoven et al.
Abstract: Qualitative analysis has two extraordinary capabilities: first, finding answers to questions we are too clueless to ask; and second, causal inference – hypothesis testing and assessment – within a single unique context (sample size of one). These capabilities are broadly useful, and they are critically important in village-level civil-military operations. Company commanders need to learn quickly, "What are the problems and possibilities here and now, in this specific village? What happens if we do A, B, and C?" – and that is an ill-defined, one-of-a-kind problem. The U.S. Army's Eighty-Third Civil Affairs Battalion is our "first user" innovation partner in a new project to adapt qualitative research methods to an operational tempo and purpose. Our aim is to develop a simple, low-cost methodology and training program for local civil-military operations conducted by non-specialist conventional forces. Complementary to that, this paper focuses on some essential basics that can be implemented by college professors without significant cost, effort, or disruption.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:52 PDT
- Critical Infrastructure Protection: Maintenance is National Security
Authors: Kris Hemme
Abstract: U.S. critical infrastructure protection (CIP) necessitates both the provision of security from internal and external threats and the repair of physically damaged critical infrastructure which may disrupt services. For years, the U.S. infrastructure has been deteriorating, triggering enough damage and loss of life to give cause for major concern. CIP is typically only addressed after a major disaster or catastrophe due to the extreme scrutiny that follows these events. In fact, CIP has been addressed repeatedly since Presidential Decision Directive Sixty-Three (PDD Sixty-Three) signed by President Bill Clinton on May Twenty-Second, 1998. This directive highlighted critical infrastructure as “a growing potential vulnerability” and recognized that the United States has to view the U.S. national infrastructure from a security perspective due to its importance to national and economic security. CIP must be addressed in a preventive, rather than reactive, manner. As such, there are sixteen critical infrastructure sectors, each with its own protection plan and unique natural and man-made threats, deteriorations, and risks. A disaster or attack on any one of these critical infrastructures could cause serious damage to national security and possibly lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure.  The White House, Presidential Decision Directive/NSC–63 (Washington D.C.: The White House, May 22, 1998): 1–18, available at: http://www.epa.gov/watersecurity/tools/trainingcd/Guidance/pdd-63.pdf.  Ibid, 1.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:51 PDT
- Before and Beyond Anticipatory Intelligence: Assessing the Potential for
Crowdsourcing and Intelligence Studies
Authors: Alexander Halman
Abstract: Crowdsourcing is a new tool for businesses, academics, and now intelligence analysts. Enabled by recent technology, crowdsourcing allows researchers to harness the wisdom of crowds and provide recommendations and insight into complex problems. This paper examines the potential benefits and limitations of crowdsourcing for intelligence analysis and the intelligence community beyond its primary use: anticipatory intelligence. The author constructs a model and compares it to existing crowdsourcing theories in business, information science, and public policy. Finally, he offers advice for intelligence analysis and public policy.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:50 PDT
- Developing a Better Understanding of the Personal Dimensions of Working at
the Central Intelligence Agency
Authors: Hector J. Escobar III
Abstract: Working at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is shrouded in mystery. Film, television and fictional spy stories are often the leading sources of information that allow the general public insight into the “spy world.” These often inaccurate depictions not only cause careers at the CIA to be misunderstood, but also create false perceptions of the employees of the CIA. Because of this, the general public—including those interested in pursuing a career within the CIA—is not presented with an accurate view of the personal aspects regarding motives, perceptions, and costs related to working at the CIA. In order to aid those individuals interested in pursuing a career within the CIA, this study will examine the available information provided by the CIA’s official website, determine what information may be lacking, and attempt to provide a better depiction of the personal dimensions of working at the CIA through a variety of firsthand accounts provided by former members. By providing potential employees with this information, they will be better able to weigh the costs and benefits of working at the CIA and make a more informed decision in regards to their career path, reducing cultural mismatch and turnover.
PubDate: Thu, 15 Oct 2015 14:34:49 PDT
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2015 08:46:04 PDT
- The Test of Terrorism: Responding to Political Violence in the
Twenty-First Century. Edited by Alastair Finlan. New York, NY: Routledge,
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2015 08:46:04 PDT
- The Black Banners: The Inside Story of 9/11 and the War Against al-Qaeda
by Ali H. Soufan. London, New York, W.W. Norton & Company, 2011.
Authors: Leland R. Erickson
PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2015 08:46:03 PDT
- The Fight for the High Ground: The U.S. Army and Interrogation during
Operation Iraqi Freedom, May 2003 – April 2004. By Douglas A. Pryer,
Fort Leavenworth: CGSC Foundation Press, 2009.
Authors: Kevin S. Gould
PubDate: Wed, 30 Sep 2015 08:46:02 PDT