Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
[7 followers] Follow
Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- The Internationalization of Internal Conflicts-Threatening the State.
Edited by Amy L. Freedman. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.
ISBN13:978-0-415-50789-9. Notes. Sources cited. Index. 280 pages.
Authors: Jeffrey A. James; Ph.D.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:35 PDT
- Routledge Companion to Intelligence Studies. Edited by Robert Dover,
Michael S. Goodman and Claudia Hillebrand. New York, NY: Routledge, 2014.
ISBN 978-0-415-50752-3. Figures. Tables. References, Index. Sources cited.
Pp. xvii, 363.
Authors: Mark J. Roberts
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:34 PDT
- Understanding Transatlantic Relations: Whither the West? By Serena
Simoni. New York and London: Routledge, 2013. ISBN 978-0-415-50159-0.
Figures. Tables. Notes. Sources cited. Index. Pp.vii- 206.
Authors: Benjamin Dille; Ph.D.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:32 PDT
- Redefining the Indirect Approach, Defining Special Operations Forces (SOF)
Power, and the Global Networking of SOF
Authors: Scott Morrison
Abstract: The current Defense Strategy assigns Special Operations Forces (SOF) to play a central role in countering terrorism, weapons of mass destruction, and irregular warfare. However, there has been little published that defines the role of Special Operations alongside air, land, and sea domains. The U.S. Special Operations Community struggles to define its own theoretical concepts such as direct approach and indirect approach. The U.S. SOF circles typically define direct approach with direct action and the indirect approach with foreign internal defense or security force assistance. Military theorist Liddell Hart viewed the indirect approach as a method to orient upon, target, and upset an adversary’s equilibrium in order to plan for and direct decisive blows. Today, the SOF indirect approach is arguable more applicable due to the prevalence of non-state threats and internal conflicts. Following Hart’s definition, precision raids are among the integral components of a broader application of the indirect approach. The approach also networks U.S. government power as a force when used in concert with allies and local partners. Global networking along with balanced precision raids will exponentially increase the utility of SOF power and position it to appropriately complement all domains to tackle 21st century challenges.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:30 PDT
- From the Ground Up: The Importance of Preserving SOF Capacity Building
Authors: Whitney Grespin
Abstract: The last decade of international engagements marks a shift in the way that the American military fights wars and mitigates conflict overseas. Although America has long had an affinity for creative destruction and cycles of force buildup and tear down, it is increasingly apparent that such an approach is not a viable option for the U.S. military’s path ahead. After a decade of costly conflict with large conventional forces and an abundance of direct action operations, the American way of war is evolving towards less muscle, more mind.
To this end, the specialized training, mentoring, and capacity building skills that Special Operations Forces (SOF) receive must remain a priority in an era of fiscal austerity and streamlined resources. It is easier to strengthen security forces than to strengthen governance and the drivers that combat instability. As SOF returns to a focus on partner capacity building programs rather than direct action missions, the lessons learned of the last twelve years of international security assistance programs must be embraced and codified rather than allowed to atrophy, as is often the case when the United States military reorients its attention to new policy priorities. Reliance on external nations and allied partners, coupled with the strategic direction to employ innovative, low-cost, and small-footprint indirect approaches to prevent conflict, have made SOF a resource of choice for both Combatant Commanders and military strategists.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:28 PDT
- Enabling Local Solutions to Global Problems: The Role of Cultural
Intelligence in Building Global SOF Networks
Authors: Emily Spencer
Abstract: In order to provide regional solutions to potentially world-wide problems, global special operations forces (SOF) networks maximize the benefits of SOF, in particular, their aptitude and ability to perform in a culturally intelligent manner. Indeed, to be able to facilitate regional solutions to potentially global problems, SOF need to exhibit high levels of cultural intelligence, which requires an understanding of culture combined with an ability to apply strategic thinking. By being able to address issues critically and creatively – the hallmarks of strategic thinking – while understanding and behaving appropriately in a variety of cultural contexts, SOF, acting within global networks, provide collective, cost effective, pre-emptive solutions for an increasingly volatile and interconnected world. This article explores methods for increasing levels of cultural intelligence and highlights the benefits of doing so while also warning of the pitfalls of not behaving in a culturally intelligent manner.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:26 PDT
- Forces of Habit: Global SOF's Role in Countering Illicit Drug
Authors: Paul Rexton Kan
Abstract: Illicit drug trafficking is a prominent national security issue in a globalizing world. Drug trafficking intersects with major security issues such as rogue and narco-states, weak and failing states, insurgencies and terrorism, transnational organized crime and protracted intrastate conflicts. These are the same issues that sets the operational environment for the deployment of SOF. Rather than treating drug trafficking as a singular and separate security issue, global SOF counternarcotics operations must adapt previous approaches to new realities.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:24 PDT
- Global SOF and Interagency Collaboration
Authors: Christopher Lamb
Abstract: The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has emphasized the importance of international SOF collaboration, or what USSOCOM refers to as a “global SOF network.” It is difficult to achieve requisite levels of collaboration even among departments and agencies within a single country, much less on an international basis. Yet USSOCOM has been rightly praised for its trailblazing collaboration efforts in counterterrorism operations, so perhaps it can extend successful collaboration to its “global SOF network.” This article argues collaboration lessons from the past decade of counterterrorism operations can be used to facilitate better international SOF collaboration. Even if the lessons are well recognized they will be hard to act upon, especially when USSOCOM is using its indirect approach to SOF missions managed out of U.S. embassies overseas. But the first step in solving any problem is recognizing the nature of the problem and what is required to solve it. The rest is all disciplined, aggressive and intelligent implementation, which Special Operations Forces do well.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:22 PDT
- The Global SOF Network: Posturing Special Operations Forces to Ensure
Global Security in the 21st Century
Authors: Keenan D. Yoho et al.
Abstract: Globalization’s “interconnecting” effects have blended with an ethos of instability to create an extraordinarily complex global security environment. Though the number of armed conflicts worldwide has declined since the early 1990s, the character of those conflicts has evolved in some troubling ways. Conventional inter-state wars are less common, but they have been displaced by a proliferation of smaller scale, asymmetric, diffuse and episodic struggles: What Trinquier calls “subversive warfare or revolutionary warfare.” The participants in these conflicts are not limited to national military forces, but include a range of non-state actors, including militias, ethnic groups, illicit transnational networks, informal paramilitary organizations, and violent extremists. Many of today’s most vexing global threats, including those that affect the United States’ national security interests, emanate from terrorist networks, transnational criminal organizations, rogue states, and the intersection of activities and shared objectives among malicious actors operating from frontiers or “ungoverned spaces.” Special Operations Forces (SOF) have had an essential, but evolving, role in countering those threats. The articles assembled in this issue of Journal of Strategic Security examine SOF’s role in the global, joint force of the future. Through a military-academic partnership between U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and the University of South Florida, five papers have been selected for the purpose of further developing dialogue on issues related to SOF’s pivot toward partnership-driven, indirect action. Some common themes emerge in these works: a view that future security rests in partnerships, and an acknowledgement that the threats, constraints, and realities of the current strategic environment demand applications of “smart power” to assure collective security.
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:20 PDT
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Mon, 14 Jul 2014 10:45:18 PDT
- Critical Terrorism Studies Since 11 September 2001: What Has Been
Learned' Edited by David Miller, Jessie Blackbourn, Rani Dhanda and
Helen Dexter. New York, NT: Routledge, 2014.
Authors: Mark Roberts
Abstract: Critical Terrorism Studies Since 11 September 2001: What Has Been Learned' Edited by David Miller, Jessie Blackbourn, Rani Dhanda and Helen Dexter. New York, NT: Routledge, 2014. ISBN 978-0-415-83852-8. Graphs. Tables. Sources cited. Index. Pp. viii, 144. $137.75.
PubDate: Fri, 07 Mar 2014 10:36:55 PST
- North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J.
Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO:
Lynne Rienner Press, 2013.
Authors: Robert Stewart-Ingersoll
Abstract: North American Regional Security: A Trilateral Framework. By Richard J. Kilroy, Jr., Abelardo Rodriquez Sumano, and Todd S. Hataley, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2013. ISBN 978-1-58826-854-9.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:09 PST
- Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace: The Challenge to National
Security. Edited by Panayotis A. Yannakogeoros and Adam B. Lowther. Boca
Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group, 2014.
Authors: Mark Roberts
Abstract: Conflict and Cooperation in Cyberspace: The Challenge to National Security. Edited by Panayotis A. Yannakogeoros and Adam B. Lowther. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor and Francis Group, 2014. ISBN 978-1-4665-9201-8. Tables. Figures. Sources cited. Index. Pp. xxviii, 332.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:08 PST
- International and Domestic Challenges to Comprehensive National
Cybersecurity: A Case Study of the Czech Republic
Authors: Nadiya Kostyuk
Abstract: While many countries and companies have fallen victim to cyber attacks over the past few years, including American companies such as Apple, Microsoft, and Facebook, Czech websites remained relatively safe until March 2013, when they were interrupted by a series of cyber attacks. Even though the origin of the attacks remains debatable, this case study demonstrates the importance of cooperation between nations in the nascent phase of the internet development and their more powerful allies. Domestic challenges that nations face in addressing cybersecurity in an effective and comprehensive manner include ambiguous legislation, recalcitrant officials, and a lack of both fiscal and human capital. To address these challenges, nations should cooperate with their more capable allies, such as the EU and NATO, create better cyber protective measures, train and hire qualified specialists in the public sector, and intensify private-public partnership. Until an international agenda on cyberspace is set, these nations with limited resources should cooperate with developed nations lest they risk more severe attacks in the future.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:06 PST
- Is Cyber Deterrence an Illusory Course of Action'
Authors: Emilio Iasiello
Abstract: With the U.S. government acknowledgement of the seriousness of cyber threats, particularly against its critical infrastructures, as well as the Department of Defense officially labeling cyberspace as a war fighting domain, the Cold War strategy of deterrence is being applied to the cyber domain. However, unlike the nuclear realm, cyber deterrence must incorporate a wide spectrum of potential adversaries of various skill, determination, and capability, ranging from individual actors to state run enterprises. What’s more, the very principles that achieved success in deterring the launch of nuclear weapons during the Cold War, namely the threat of severe retaliation, cannot be achieved in cyberspace, thus neutralizing the potential effectiveness of leveraging a similar strategy. Attribution challenges, the ability to respond quickly and effectively, and the ability to sustain a model of repeatability prove to be insurmountable in a domain where actors operate in obfuscation.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:05 PST
- Homegrown Muslim Extremism in the Netherlands: An Exploratory Note
Authors: Maria M. Komen
Abstract: In his Widening Circles of Disidentification the Dutch sociologist Abram de Swaan argues that enmity and violent conflicts occur most frequently among groups that resemble one another, in transitional phases in which the social differences between these groups are growing smaller. This paper sets out to explore this thesis, in relation to the recent tensions in the Netherlands generated by a trend towards radicalization among second-generation Moroccan youth. Another relevant point that is discussed is the way some ethnic minority juveniles are socialised and integrated in Dutch society. Political radicalism among young Moroccans in the Netherlands seems to be promoted by emancipation and coercive family processes.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:03 PST
- Intelligence and Public Diplomacy: The Changing Tide
Authors: Jonathan Pinkus
Abstract: This article argues that the executive branches of governments will need to change the way that they employ intelligence for public diplomacy in the context of military action. Intelligence assessments that have been “politicized” through distortion and/or omission have led to poor decision-making and a decline in public trust. These propositions are demonstrated using the American and British public diplomacy that preceded the 2003 invasion of Iraq as a case study. This case is then compared to a second case study, the American and British public appeals for a strike on Syria following the 2013 Ghouta chemical attack. The article concludes by reflecting on what changes are still needed and how the strategy of using intelligence for public diplomacy is likely to evolve in the future.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:21:01 PST
- Diversionary Foreign Policy in Authoritarian States: The Use of Multiple
Diversionary Strategies by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War
Authors: Kilic B. Kanat
Abstract: The diversionary theory of war has been considered one of the most contested theories that link domestic and external conflicts. Thus far scholarship in this field has focused on one-time single diversionary attacks, which led to the temporary deflection of attention from domestic problems to external ones. This study intends to bring revisions to the assumptions in the center of diversionary theory and demonstrate these through a well-known but underutilized case. This article intends to show that leaders have not one single option but rather a repertoire of different foreign policy actions in their possession to divert the attention of domestic public. In addition to the use of force, leaders can also use the threat to use force and other less violent means to create a rally round the flag effect. Secondly, this study will show that, unlike the presumptions of the previous studies, leaders can use multiple different diversionary strategies within a short period of time if the initial diversionary action does not create intended outcomes and if they are still willing to use externalization to boost his approval rating and divert public attention from present problems. These two contributions to the theory will be demonstrated in the case of Saddam Hussein’s attacks to Kuwait and Israel during the first Gulf War.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:20:59 PST
- The Dawn of a New Age' Democracies and Military Victory
Authors: Steve Dobransky
Abstract: Democracies are perceived often by the public as relatively docile and not suited best for wars. This paper challenges this perception by analyzing the relationship between regime type and war outcomes. It builds upon David Lake’s 1992 model in “Powerful Pacifists: Democratic States and War” by updating it to the present period. It examines the empirical evidence and scholarly debate in order to test and elaborate on the argument that democratic states in the modern era are more prone to fighting and winning wars. This paper, furthermore, adds a number of new variables to the Lake model to analyze the possibility that more factors are needed in the equation to better understand regime type and war outcomes. This research finds that regime type and alliances are significant variables in winning wars and that democracies win the large majority (84%) of wars that they are involved in. The paper concludes with recommendations for further research.
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:20:57 PST
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Wed, 05 Mar 2014 12:20:56 PST