Journal of Strategic Security
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Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1944-0464 - ISSN (Online) 1944-0472
Published by Henley-Putnam University [1 journal]
- European Air Power: Challenges and Opportunities. Edited by John Andreas
Olsen. Dulles, VA: Potomac Books, 2014.
Authors: Mel Deaile
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:25 PST
- Fighting to the End: The Pakistan Army’s Way of War. By C. Christine
Fair. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 2014.
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:24 PST
- Rainy Street Stories: Reflections on Secret Wars, Espionage and Terrorism.
By John William Davis, Huntsville, Alabama, Red Bike Publishing, 2013.
Authors: Millard E. Moon Colonel (ret.)
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:23 PST
- Dirty Entanglements: Corruption, Crime, and Terrorism. By Louise I.
Shelley. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press, 2014.
Authors: Nicole K. Drumhiller
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:22 PST
- The Strategy of Drone Warfare
Authors: Mike Fowler
Abstract: There is a budding controversy with the combat use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA). Also known as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), there is a growing literature critiquing the use of RPAs, often using the pejorative term “drone.” RPAs seem to get the blame for a variety of complaints about policy and employment that have little to do with the airframe or its processes. While all of the military functions of an RPA can and are done by manned aircraft, the RPAs must endure additional scrutiny. The decision to employ RPAs requires additional considerations at both the strategic and operational levels of war. This article explores the strategic issues that govern the decisions to employ RPAs in combat. The decision to employ RPAs involves a variety of strategic and operational concerns involving legal issues, technological constraints, operational efficiency, and an interdependency upon information operations.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:21 PST
- Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian
Casualties in Gaza
Authors: Dr. Ann Rogers
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:20 PST
- The “Surgical” Legitimacy of Drone Strikes? Issues of
Sovereignty and Human Rights in the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems in
Authors: Alcides Eduardo dos Reis Peron
Abstract: The Revolution in Military Affairs had an important role in providing the United States Armed Forces the technical instruments necessary to conduct high-risky operations in the context of Irregular Warfare. The development of these instruments, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), allowed the emergence of a discourse of surgical and lean wars by the George W. Bush and Barack Obama administrations, whose legitimacy of the interventions were related to the accuracy and technical superiority of the UAVs. Focusing in the case of the U.S. drone strikes in Pakistan, this article seeks to debate the legal limits of the employment of these instruments. Despite the supposed accuracy and visual capacity of the UAVs, we argue that there are several information on the deaths of civilians, and legal limitations in the International Humanitarian Law, that constrain the employment of this instrument, and illegitimate the argument of surgical war.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:19 PST
- Help Wanted: American Drone Program Needs Multifaceted Support to be
Authors: S. Hall
Abstract: The U.S. drone program in Pakistan faces strong resistance in Pakistan. Because the program solely seeks to eliminate terrorist groups and leaders through bombing campaigns, with no built in social support, the local population’s anti-American sentiment has reached the highest level in history. This angry mood against U.S. drone programs is spreading throughout the Islamic world. To counter this anti-American sentiment, and increase the drone program’s effectiveness, the U.S. must invest in multifaceted, socio-economic support efforts to educate the population and rebuild the gratuity, trust, and commitment of Pakistan’s people to the “War on Terror.”
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:18 PST
- Lost in Debate: The Safety of Domestic Unmanned Aircraft Systems
Authors: Yeonmin Cho
Abstract: The United States is poised to integrate commercial unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace and enable government entities to use UAS in a more expedient manner. This policy change, mandated by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, offers new economic, social and scientific opportunities as well as enhanced law enforcement capacity. However, such benefits will be accompanied by concerns over misuse and abuse of the new technologies by criminals and terrorists. Privacy has been the focus of public debate over the more widespread use of UAS. This paper examines a variety of issues related to allowing broad UAS operations in domestic airspace, and puts forth that safety should be the top priority of policy makers in their effort to integrate UAS into the national airspace system.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:17 PST
- Drones: The American Controversy
Authors: Michael C. Heatherly
Abstract: One of the most enduring problems confronted by a free society is the method through which law and order are maintained. There is an inherent tradeoff between freedom and the preservation of order through the construct and enforcement of laws. These attributes alone could be the subject of great debate. However, the United States and many other modern nations are experiencing a proliferation of technology that greatly enhances the sensory and capabilities of the user. If that user is the government, the debate over apparent intrusions into the lives of private citizens is amplified. The questions examined by this article are; should advanced technologies be used by law enforcement agencies? Is the government overstepping their Constitutional constraints by employing advanced technologies? Do the advantages outweigh the disadvantages of the uses of such technologies?
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:16 PST
- Pandora’s Presumption: Drones and the Problematic Ethics of
Authors: Matthew Crosston
Abstract: Present American policy proclaims the compatibility of drone usage with the traditional Rules of Engagement and the Laws of War. Largely absent in this is an examination of how enemy combatants are being defined on both sides of drone activity: not just the targets and operators but also the relevance of drone technology proliferation. This work engages the void to reveal inconsistent and contradictory ethical standards in American drone policy, based largely on an assumed continued technical preeminence that is by no means guaranteed. The argument is not a humanitarian lament against hegemony: it is a realist argument addressing how ethical inconsistencies in defining American technological warfare compromise the ‘leadership high ground’ for the United States in a manner that carries fairly significant national security blowback potential.
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:15 PST
- Future Challenges in Drone Geopolitics
Authors: Matthew Crosston
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:14 PST
- Table of Contents
PubDate: Wed, 17 Dec 2014 12:14:12 PST
- The Business of Counterterrorism. Public-Private Partnerships in Homeland
Security. By Nathan E. Busch & Austen D. Givens. New York, NY: Peter
Authors: Robert L. Ditch, Ed.D; CEM
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:46 PDT
- The Direction of War: Contemporary Strategy In Historical Perspective. By
Hew Strachan. New York, N.Y: Cambridge University Press, 2013.
Authors: Mark Roberts
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:45 PDT
- The Art of Betrayal: The Secret History of MI6, Life and Death in the
British Secret Service. By Gordon Corera. New York, NY: Pegasus Books,
Authors: Ed J. Hagerty; Ph.D.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:44 PDT
- Towards A Better U.S. Nuclear Strategy
Authors: John J. Klein
Abstract: The U.S. nuclear posture and the future role of nuclear deterrence is a topic that continues to be hotly debated. This situation will continue because of changes in the international security environment and the pressure to find reductions within the U.S. defense budget. Regardless of claims to the contrary, nuclear deterrence remains critical in ensuring future peace and stability.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:43 PDT
- Motivations and Implications of Community Service Provision by La Familia
Michoacána / Knights Templar and other Mexican Drug Cartels
Authors: Shawn T. Flanigan
Abstract: Research demonstrates that service provision by violent organizations can be an effective strategy for coercing the local community to accept and conceal a group’s violent activities, and for creating loyalty to these groups. This has been most frequently explored among political organizations such as terrorist groups, with organizations like Hezbollah and Hamas very visibly engaged in providing social welfare in addition to their violent activities. Recent reports indicate that criminal organizations in Mexico also are involved in instances of public service provision in local communities. This article explores the extent to which drug cartels operating in Mexico are involved in public service provision to members of communities where they operate, and considers possible motivations and implications for public service provision by these criminal organizations, with specific attention to the organization La Familia Michoacána/ Knights Templar. The article also gives attention to the consequences to citizenship and government of service provision by violent nonstate actors, and the ways such service provision may disrupt the social contract between the citizen and the state.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:41 PDT
- Threat Assessment: Do Lone Terrorists Differ from Other Lone
Authors: Diane M. Zierhoffer
Abstract: This study evaluates the viability of a threat assessment model developed to calculate the risk of targeted violence as a predictor of violence by potential lone terrorists. There is no profile, to date, which would assist in the identification of a lone terrorist prior to an attack. The threat assessment model developed by Borum, Fein, Vossekuil, and Berglund and described in “Threat Assessment: Defining an approach for evaluating risk of targeted violence” (1999) poses ten questions about the patterns of thinking and behaviors that may precipitate an attack of targeted violence. Three terrorists are studied to assess the model’s value as a predictor of terrorism. It is assessed for its use within law enforcement, during an investigation of someone brought to attention as a possible terrorist and for family members or friends who suspect potential terrorist behavior. Would these questions encourage someone to report a friend to prevent a possible attack? This threat assessment model provides a foundation for future research focused on developing a structured risk assessment for lone terrorists. In its present form, the questions can assist both citizens and law enforcement personnel in identifying the patterns of thought and behavior potentially indicative of a lone terrorist.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:40 PDT
- Explaining Violent Extremism for Subgroups by Gender and Immigrant
Background, Using SAT as a Framework
Authors: Nele Schils et al.
Abstract: The principal object of this paper is to study the effects of extremist propensity, exposure to extremist moral settings and their interaction effect on political violence in sub groups by gender and immigrant background. The situational action theory, as outlined by Wikström is used as a framework. Although previous studies have found empirical evidence for this interaction effect in the light of general offending, no study so far has applied SAT to the study of violent extremism. In doing so, we will also address the stability of the interaction effect by gender and immigrant background. The present study is based on a large web survey on self-reported political violence as a measure for violent extremism. Strong support is found for the hypothesis that the effect of exposure to violent extremist moral settings is depending on the strength or weakness of individual violent extremist propensity. This indicates that exposure to violent extremist moral settings has the strongest effect on political violence for individuals with a high propensity to violent extremism. These results imply that SAT can be used to as a framework to explain individual violent extremism. This pattern is found for boys and girls of both native (Belgian) and immigrant background.
PubDate: Fri, 19 Sep 2014 08:49:39 PDT