Subjects -> LAW (Total: 1584 journals)
    - CIVIL LAW (38 journals)
    - CONSTITUTIONAL LAW (52 journals)
    - CORPORATE LAW (93 journals)
    - CRIMINAL LAW (28 journals)
    - CRIMINOLOGY AND LAW ENFORCEMENT (155 journals)
    - FAMILY AND MATRIMONIAL LAW (24 journals)
    - INTERNATIONAL LAW (191 journals)
    - JUDICIAL SYSTEMS (23 journals)
    - LAW (970 journals)
    - LAW: GENERAL (10 journals)

INTERNATIONAL LAW (191 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 191 of 191 Journals sorted alphabetically
Acta Juridica Hungarica     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
African Journal of International and Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
African Yearbook of International Law Online : Annuaire Africain de droit international Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Afrilex     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Agora International Journal of Juridical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
AJIL Unbound     Open Access  
American Business Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 25)
American Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 68)
American University International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 12)
Annuaire Français de Droit International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Annual Review of Law and Social Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
Annual Survey of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 16)
Antitrust Chronicle - Competition Policy International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Anuario Colombiano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access  
Anuario de Derechos Humanos     Open Access  
Anuario Español de Derecho Internacional     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Anuario español de derecho internacional privado     Partially Free  
Anuario Iberoamericano de Derecho Internacional Penal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Anuario Mexicano de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Arbitration International     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 20)
ASA Bulletin     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Asia-Pacific Journal of Ocean Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal  
Asian International Arbitration Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Asian Journal of Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Asian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Australasian Policing     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Australian International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 23)
Australian Journal of Asian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Austrian Review of International and European Law Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Baltic Yearbook of International Law Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Belli Ac Pacis : Jurnal Hukum Internasional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Berkeley Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 24)
Boletin Mexicano de Derecho Comparado     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Boston College International & Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 13)
Brigham Young University International Law and Management Review     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
British Yearbook of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
Brooklyn Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
California Western International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Canadian Yearbook of International Law / Annuaire canadien de droit international     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Cape Town Convention Journal     Open Access  
Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Chicago Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 8)
Chinese Journal of Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal  
Chinese Journal of Global Governance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Chinese Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 24)
Climate law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Columbia Journal of Transnational Law     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Common Law World Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Commonwealth Law Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Comparative and International Law Journal of Southern Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Comparative Strategy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Computer Law Review International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Contemporary Security Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Cornell International Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Corporate Governance An International Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Criterios     Open Access  
Denver Journal of International Law and Policy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Deusto Journal of Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Duke Journal of Comparative & International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
European Business Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
European Company Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
European Foreign Affairs Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
European Journal for Security Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
European Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 246)
European Journal of Migration and Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 37)
European Labour Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
European Political Science     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
European Property Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Fordham International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Foreign Policy Bulletin     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Frontiers of Law in China     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Georgetown Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Georgia Journal of International and Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Global Jurist     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Global Justice : Theory Practice Rhetoric     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Harvard International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 50)
Houston Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
ICSID Review : Foreign Investment Law Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 11)
Indian Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal  
Inter: Revista de Direito Internacional e Direitos Humanos da UFRJ     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intergenerational Justice Review     Open Access  
International & Comparative Law Quarterly     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 273)
International Area Studies Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
International Commentary on Evidence     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Community Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Comparative Jurisprudence     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
International Human Rights Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 29)
International Journal for Court Administration     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal for the Semiotics of Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
International Journal of Comparative Labour Law and Industrial Relations     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 29)
International Journal of Discrimination and the Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
International Journal of Evidence and Proof     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Information Privacy, Security and Integrity     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 27)
International Journal of Language & Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Journal of Law in Context     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 64)
International Journal of Law, Policy and the Family     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
International Journal of Nuclear Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Political Economy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
International Journal of Private Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
International Journal of Public Law and Policy     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
International Journal of Refugee Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 39)
International Journal of Transitional Justice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 14)
International Law: Revista Colombiana de Derecho Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
International Negotiation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
International Organizations Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 26)
International Planning Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
International Review of Law     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
International Review of the Red Cross     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
International Security     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 83)
Israel Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Italian Yearbook of International Law Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Ius Gentium     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Jerusalem Review of Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Journal of Biosecurity Biosafety and Biodefense Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of European Competition Law & Practice     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Journal of Genocide Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Journal of International Dispute Settlement     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal of International Economic Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 33)
Journal of International Humanitarian Legal Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Journal of International Political Theory     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 19)
Journal of Law, Policy and Globalization     Open Access   (Followers: 18)
Journal of Liberty and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Migration and Refugee Issues, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 34)
Journal of Private International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Journal of the History of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 16)
Journal on the Use of Force and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 17)
Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Law and Practice of International Courts and Tribunals     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 22)
Legal Issues of Economic Integration     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 13)
Leiden Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 42)
LEX     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
London Review of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 8)
Loyola of Los Angeles International and Comparative Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 9)
Loyola University Chicago International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Maastricht Journal of European and Comparative Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 27)
Maryland Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Max Planck Yearbook of United Nations Law Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Melbourne Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 18)
Michigan State International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Netherlands International Law Review     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 21)
Netherlands Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 16)
New Zealand Journal of Public and International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 15)
New Zealand Yearbook of International Law, The     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Nordic Journal of International Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 17)
Northwestern Journal of International Human Rights     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Northwestern Journal of International Law & Business     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Notre Dame Journal of International & Comparative Law     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Oromia Law Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Pace International Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 8)
Palestine Yearbook of International Law Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Polar Journal     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Public and Private International Law Bulletin     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Recht der Werkelijkheid     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Review of European Community & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Review of European, Comparative & International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
Revista de Derecho de la Unión Europea     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Revista de Direito Brasileira     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista de la Secretaría del Tribunal Permanente de Revisión     Open Access  
Revista Tribuna Internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Revista Videre     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Revue québécoise de droit international / Quebec Journal of International Law / Revista quebequense de derecho internacional     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Santa Clara Journal of International Law     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
SASI     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
South African Yearbook of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
South Carolina Journal of International Law and Business     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Stanford Journal of International Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 12)
Syracuse Journal of International Law and Commerce     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
TDM Transnational Dispute Management Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Texas International Law Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Tilburg Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Transnational Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Uniform Law Review     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
University of Miami Inter-American Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Utrecht Journal of International and European Law     Open Access   (Followers: 17)
Vanderbilt Journal of Transnational Law     Free   (Followers: 5)
Virginia Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 4)
Washington University Global Studies Law Review     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Wisconsin International Law Journal     Free   (Followers: 4)
World Journal of VAT/GST Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
World Trade and Arbitration Materials     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Yale Journal of International Law     Free   (Followers: 18)
Yearbook of International Environmental Law     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Yearbook of International Humanitarian Law     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 9)
Yearbook of Polar Law Online     Hybrid Journal  
Zeitschrift für Außen- und Sicherheitspolitik     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Zeitschrift für das Privatrecht der Europäischen Union - European Union Private Law Review / Revue de droit privé de l'Union européenne     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Zeitschrift für öffentliches Recht     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 18)
Zeitschrift für Zivilprozess International     Hybrid Journal  

           

Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Australian International Law Journal
Number of Followers: 23  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1325-5029
Published by RMIT Publishing Homepage  [387 journals]
  • Volume 25 Technology and international law an emerging markets perspective
    • Abstract: Lim, Hannah
      The impact of technology on society is primarily discussed in the context of the developed world, where such technology was developed. This article considers how technology trends could impact developing countries and the unique challenges such communities face. This article argues that these struggles arise, in part, because our current technological capabilities allow actors to ignore State borders rooted in geography, thereby making it difficult for States to manage their jurisdiction. This posits a direct challenge to existing conceptions of jurisdiction and international legal personality under international law.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Responsibility rising from the rubble: Lessons from the
           Bangladesh accord for arbitration of business and human rights disputes
    • Abstract: Levine, Judith; Ambast, Ashwita
      This article explores lessons learned from two recent arbitrations brought by global workers unions against fashion companies pursuant to the 2013 Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh. The cases, administered by the Permanent Court of Arbitration in The Hague, were the first publicly known arbitrations of their kind dealing with business and human rights. The first part of this article sets the cases in the context of the PCA's evolving mandate in facilitating resolution of multi-stakeholder disputes. The second part reviews developments in the realm of business and human rights generally, with a focus on the third pillar of the UN Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights, access to remedy. It also sets out key provisions of the Bangladesh Accord, which was a ground-breaking example of a legally binding instrument offering a genuine access to remedy for victims of human rights violations. The third part of the article recounts the progress of the Bangladesh Accord arbitrations and reflects on lessons from the experience, including those relating to consent, confidentiality, and coordination of multiple claims. Finally, the article considers the Bangladesh Accord as a model for resolving business and human rights disputes in the future, within the fashion industry and beyond.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Foreword
    • Abstract: Ward, Christopher
      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Filling the gap: The new regime of responsibility for armed
           non-state actors
    • Abstract: Kleczkowska, Agata
      The aim of this article is to explore whether ANSAs as such may bear direct responsibility for their violations of international law. It undertakes the task of both reconstructing the current state of law when it comes to the responsibility of ANSAs, as well as submitting a proposal for a model of direct responsibility of ANSAs. Section II compares the current regulation (or lack thereof ) of responsibility of ANSAs with the regimes of responsibility of States and international organisations under international law. Section III examines how ANSAs may currently be held responsible under international law. The final section seeks to build a model of direct responsibility of ANSAs under international law, drawing on the conclusions from the previous parts. At the same time the article also pays attention to the fact that the situation of different ANSAs is diversified, examining separately the status of insurrectional movements and 'de facto' regimes created by ANSAs.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Civil society organisations' role in the development of
           international law through strategic litigation in challenging times
    • Abstract: Hondora, Tawanda
      Many Civil society organisations ('CSOs') are now using strategic litigation to realise their strategic goals and to influence the development of progressive rules of domestic and international law. Despite its growing popularity, this field of practice has not benefitted from detailed analyses, and practitioners are yet to produce one generally accepted definition. In addition to providing a working definition, this article argues that CSOs which use strategic litigation as a change-influencing tool should: (a) collaborate and address inherent weaknesses in the predominant fragmented strategic litigation model; (b) increase the number and diversity of litigation jurisdictions and forums; and (c) devise effective strategies to counter threats posed by Strategic Lawsuits Against Public Participation (SLAPPs) and the invariably high costs of strategic litigation.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Role of non-state actors in the Paris agreement and the
           development of international law
    • Abstract: Kimura, Hitomi
      This article analyses the role of non-State actors, especially of cities and companies, in the Paris Agreement in the context of development of international law. In spite of President Trump's decision to withdraw from the Paris Agreement, initiatives by local governments, cities, companies, investors and universities are notable in keeping to the initial US' pledge. These bottom-up initiatives support the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)1 process toward effective implementation of the Paris Agreement,2 but at the same time, pose fundamental questions about the role of non-State actors in the development of international law, which has been traditionally based on State actors. The traditional international law focus on States' obligations does not include consideration of the positive contribution which non-State actors make to achieving respect for international obligations such as those contained in the Paris Agreement. Expansion of transnational networks by non-State actors may create and reinforce the State and international legal regimes without confronting or challenging traditional international law, in particular, if those private and local government connections are proactively linked with national government networks. In the climate arena, non-State actors are no longer just indirectly affecting international law-making, and they could be key players in this process.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Extending a collective human right to address a global
           challenge: Self-determination for refugees, asylum seekers and stateless
           persons
    • Abstract: Maguire, Amy; Elton, Amy
      Forced human displacement is a significant challenge for global society, with 68.5 million people displaced by conflict or persecution at the end of 2017. This challenge is both massive in scale and highly complex, with the human experience of displacement varying globally for refugees, asylum seekers and stateless people. Nation States are increasingly adopting securitised responses to large-scale human movement that prioritise territorial integrity and border regulation over human rights and wellbeing. No existing international legal mechanism enables forcibly displaced people to interact productively with States or international organisations.

      This article grapples with the development of international law in this highly challenging context. It focuses particularly on the collective human right of self-determination, which was most frequently engaged during the decolonisation era. We question whether the right of self-determination should be extrapolated from its historical context to enable forcibly displaced people to communicate their aspirations. This proposal sees merit in countering State-centric discourses in international law with the lived experiences of some of the world's most vulnerable populations; in particular refugees, asylum seekers and stateless persons. As a founding principle of the international human rights framework, can self-determination be deployed to generate more durable and humane responses to forced displacement'

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 The due diligence principle from international to domestic law:
           Applying the principle in practice
    • Abstract: Pain, Nicola; Rheinberger, Brigitte
      Due diligence is an emerging principle of public international law requiring States to ensure that activities carried out in their jurisdiction do not cause harm to other States. It has developed as a variable and flexible concept responsive to the level of risk posed by a particular source of environmental harm and the means available to prevent such harm. The principle may require States to adopt certain rules or measures or conduct environmental impact assessment inter alia. This article considers how the due diligence principle may usefully inform or is already incorporated in some respects in Australian environmental law. Elements of due diligence which are already part of Australian environmental law such as the precautionary principle and the prevention of harm through the use of environmental impact assessment will be discussed. The regulation of the Murray Darling Basin and the Montara Oil Spill incident in 2009 in the Timor Sea provide useful case studies of how implementing due diligence principles could further improve Australia's environmental laws.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Freedom (') of the high seas: Some preliminary remarks on a
           venerable old concept
    • Abstract: Cogliati-Bantz, Vincent
      There is a famous paradox in mathematics according to which the sum of natural numbers 1+2+3 +...infinity , is not, contrary to instinctive popular belief, an infinite number, but -1/12. The Ramanujan summation, as it is called, is not the subject of this article. Yet, it seems that there is something equally paradoxical about the freedom of the high seas: while we continue to advocate the freedom of the high seas as a structuring principle, neither its content, nor the limit to its exercise, has received any consensual understanding. This article therefore aims to make some tentative remarks on the role of freedom in the modern law of the sea and its relationship with competing values.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Investor-state dispute settlement challenges and reforms
    • Abstract: Kofman, Marina
      This article will discuss the issues that have emerged over time in the field of investor- State dispute settlement (ISDS) as the field has matured, and the efforts being made by different stakeholders to reform the current system. The first part will give a brief background to the ISDS system. The second part will discuss the criticisms of the system that have emerged and the challenges of reforming the system given its structural aspects. The third part will outline the reform efforts currently underway, including the reform mandate of UNCITRAL Working Group III. The fourth part will look to the future, reflecting on some dynamics that have emerged during the UNCITRAL negotiations.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 A survey of the jurisdiction rules in unimodal transport
           conventions and their impact on international multimodal transport of
           goods contracts
    • Abstract: Zhu, Ling; Li, Xiaojing
      Given the fact that uniform liability rules for international multimodal transport contracts of goods are still lacking, it is important to undertake a holistic study of the rules for resolving issues that may arise relating both to jurisdiction and to dispute resolutions in a contract for the international multimodal transport of goods. This article thus carries out a general survey of jurisdiction rules in the unimodal transport conventions and discusses the possible impacts of those rules on international multimodal transport of goods contracts. It concludes that, unless the parties have clear and unequivocal agreements in their contracts, a set of jurisdiction rules for contracts for the multimodal transport of goods is both necessary and important.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Introduction to the forums in resolving international aviation
           disputes
    • Abstract: Zhang, Luping
      This article will offer an overview of forums in resolving international aviation disputes. It will first address the significance of the topic by identifying the special features of aviation and market growth in aviation. It will then define the scope of the topic, which includes disputes at three levels of governance: State-to-State disputes, State-to-airline disputes and airline-to-airline disputes. Further, it introduces potential forums: International Civil Aviation Organization ('ICAO') Council, International Court of Justice ('ICJ'), 'ad hoc' arbitration tribunals, Dispute Settlement Body ('DSB') in World Trade Organization ('WTO'), International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes ('ICSID'), and Court of Justice of the European Union ('CJEU').

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Protecting children from unintended effects of return orders
           under the 1980 Hague convention
    • Abstract: Saladino, Rosa
      This article advocates for proper consideration to be given to the welfare of the individual child in proceedings under the 1980 'Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction' ('1980 Convention'). Such an approach will bring the 1980 Convention into line with the 'United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child' ('UNCRC') and address the paradigm shift, which has occurred at least since 1999, from abducting non-custodial father to abducting custodial mother. The 1980 Convention was based on the paradigm of the frustrated access father abducting the children in order to assert his rights to an ongoing relationship with them. This is clear from the International Social Services study, which was commissioned for the 14th session of the Hague Conference concerning the 1980 Convention. The article reviews research on the wellbeing of children who have been the subject of international parental child abduction and argues for a shift in focus in the conduct of Hague Convention matters from a pure rights based inquiry to one which gives a greater role to the welfare of the individual child rather than the welfare of children in general and advances some suggested measures that in the light of the research may assist in minimising harm to individual children involved in Hague Convention proceedings.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 25 Human rights for regulators: Using international standards to
           assist in domestic regulation
    • Abstract: Southalan, John
      Government agencies and decision-makers can, and should, make more use of international human rights standards in their work. International human rights law is often seen as something only for the government's 'Foreign Affairs' agency (to negotiate/decide whether to commit the State) or the legislature (to enact those parts of international law which they choose, thereby making it 'domestic law'). There are, however, three ways in which regulators can use international human rights in furthering domestic regulatory aims:

      (1) 'where domestic law specifies a discretionary decision-making power' (eg to an agency/ minister in granting a licence/application, or a broad 'public interest' criteria in exercising governmental power) - the State's international human rights obligations should inform the government's discretionary decisions;

      (2) 'supporting the growing 'business and human rights' mechanisms', with regulators ensuring (to the greatest extent legally possible) their actions regarding business operations complement the human rights' responsibilities that business needs to meet; and

      (3) 'as a 'defence' against attacks on regulatory initiatives', in responding to legal challenges (including those raised in the course of investment arbitration) to public health and environmental regulation - international human rights obligations have assisted in responding to some of these claims.

      This article examines these three aspects, in explaining why and how domestic regulators can use international human rights standards.

      PubDate: Tue, 29 Sep 2020 22:54:17 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 The Prosecutor v Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo, Judgment of the
           Appeals Chamber, No. ICC-01/05-01/08 A, International Criminal Court
    • Abstract: Gauld, Kate
      In 2016 Congolese militia leader Jean-Pierre Bemba Gombo ('Bemba') was convicted by the Trial Chamber of the International Criminal Court ('ICC') of crimes against humanity and war crimes and sentenced to 18 years in custody. It was hailed as a landmark result for victims of mass atrocity: not only was Bemba the first offender to be convicted by the ICC for crimes of sexual violence, he was also the first to be convicted on the basis of 'command responsibility', a notoriously complex mode of liability in international criminal law.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Jesner v Arab Bank: The US Supreme Court Forecloses on
           Accountability for Corporate Human Rights Abuses
    • Abstract: Kolieb, Jonathan
      On 24 April 2018, the US Supreme Court handed down its decision in Jesner v Arab Bank. This is the latest in a string of lawsuits to reach the highest court in the United States brought against a non-American multinational corporation for serious human rights abuses committed beyond the borders of the US under the Alien Tort Statute ('ATS').

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 There are not plenty of fish in the Sea: PCA Case No. 2018-13 on
           Ecuador's objection to a decision of the Commission of the South Pacific
           Regional Fisheries Management Organisation
    • Abstract: Levine, Judith; Pondel, Camilla
      In the 4th century BCE, Democritus said 'in a shared fish there are no bones'. More recently, however, the sharing of high seas fishery resources has caused bones to be picked within regional fisheries management organisations ('RFMOs').

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Delivering justice': The ECCC's verdict in case 002/02
    • Abstract: Ryan, Sophie
      7 January 2019 marked 40 years since the capture of Phnom Penh and fall of the Khmer Rouge from power in Cambodia. Justice has been a long time in the making for the atrocities that led to the killing of roughly 20 percent of the Cambodian population between 17 April 1975 and 6 January 1979. Though criticised for many inadequacies, the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia ('ECCC') has, for twelve years now, been the primary vehicle for achieving such justice. In what has been lauded as a verdict comparable to the Nuremberg judgment after World War II in its significance for Cambodia, the ECCC Trial Chamber on 16 November 2018 convicted Khmer Rouge leaders, Nuon Chea and Khieu Samphan, for genocide, crimes against humanity, and grave breaches of the Geneva Conventions in a summary of its judgment in Case 002/02 ('Summary Judgment').

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Conceptualising climate change in law as a threat to
           international security and human rights
    • Abstract: Peretko, Aneta
      The language of the climate change debate is obsessed with rights and risks. Does the right to clean water outweigh the risk of conflict over limited resources' Does the right to adequate housing outweigh the risks caused by climate-related population displacement' Does the right of one State to pollute its way to prosperity outweigh the risk of rising sea levels erasing one of its neighbours' The international community has struggled to deal with these questions of shared hazards, and struggled to emphasise climate change as a real threat causing human suffering and instability. It is no surprise then, that what has long been a stale debate over international and domestic environmental law has been revived through a number of alternative conceptions, particularly the characterisation of climate change as either a threat to international security or a violation of international human rights law. This article attempts to expound precisely what the stakes are for security risks and human rights when it comes to climate change, and precisely how the focus on security risks and human rights enhances or detracts from global action on climate change, drawing conclusions about how best to start mitigating and adapting to survive.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Brexit and choice of law in the law of obligations
    • Abstract: O'Sullivan, Samuel
      With Brexit seemingly moving ahead, United Kingdom legislators have the rare opportunity to take stock and assess the future of their private international law. This article examines the three possible post-Brexit choice of law frameworks on which UK authorities could rely in the law of obligations. While evaluating these frameworks in whole would be an enormous task, this article specifically focuses on applicable law in the absence of choice for contractual obligations and applicable law in tort for non-contractual obligations. Each component of this article will touch on legal capacity, functionality and finally desirability. The three frameworks appear in order from: a return to the common law; reliance on the UK's pre-existing statutory framework; and finishes at enactment of the current European Union instruments into UK domestic law.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Arm sales to Taiwan: An act of aggression'
    • Abstract: Walayat, Aaron J
      In the famous 1986 'Nicaragua' case, the International Court of Justice condemned the United States for breaching its obligations under customary international law not to intervene in the affairs of another State by 'training, arming, equipping, financing and supplying the contra forces'. Despite this condemnation, the United States under President Donald Trump has approved an arms sale to a non-State entity which claims to be the legitimate government of a territory, garnering an angry response from the other party in the conflict, a recognised UN Member State. However, in this instance, the sale is not covert arming as in Nicaragua but one of a series of sales that have taken place since the Carter administration, where the recognised State is not Sandinista Nicaragua, but the People's Republic of China, and the non-State entity is not the Contras, but the Republic of China, commonly known as Taiwan. This article is a legal analysis investigating whether the United States, by arming Taiwan, is committing an act of aggression similar to that alleged in the 'Nicaragua' case. It will begin by examining the political and legal status of Taiwan under both the constitutive and declaratory theories of Statehood. Then, it will discuss the historical relationship between the United States, China and Taiwan including the Three Communiques, the one-China policy, and current US law and policy toward China concerning Taiwan. There will then be a discussion of the definition of an act of aggression as well as a consideration of potential justifications of acts normally considered aggression including cases of civil war, self-defence and justified intervention. This article provides an analysis of a situation in which political pressures capture all parties in a stalemate where otherwise binding international precedent would hold.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Head of state immunity: The ongoing debate and implications for
           the future development of international criminal law
    • Abstract: Lee, Se Eun
      Nearly a decade on, the debate around the International Criminal Court's issuance of arrest warrants for the Sudanese President Omar Al Bashir remains heated, and the issue of his head of State immunity remains highly controversial. Recent developments, including Jordan's appeal against the Pre-Trial Chamber's finding of non-compliance with its obligations under the Rome Statute, and Kenya's request to the United Nations to refer the immunity question to the International Court of Justice, suggest a possible conclusion to the Al Bashir case in the near future. This article seeks to contribute to the ongoing debate around head of State immunity by interrogating the assumption that the ICC's removal of Al Bashir's immunity would necessarily benefit the development of international criminal law. It argues that under current state of international law, head of State immunity remains inviolable even before international courts. As a consequence, the article contends that the ICC's removal of Al Bashir's immunity, rather than advancing the fight against impunity, may actually do more harm than good for the future of international criminal law, and especially for the continuing legitimacy of the ICC.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Establishing the 'mens rea' of the crime of aggression in the
           Rome statute of the International Criminal Court
    • Abstract: Ziukelis, Dayna
      The International Criminal Court's jurisdiction over the crime of aggression was enacted on 17 June 2018 after twenty years in the making. It was not until 2010, twelve years after the adoption of the Rome Statute, that State parties settled on a definition of the crime. A further eight years later, the necessary preconditions to invoke the jurisdiction of the Court have been satisfied. Whilst much discussion in relation to the crime has centred upon the high bar to prosecution that has been set by jurisdictional hurdles and ambiguity in the definition of the State act of aggression, the likelihood of prosecutors being able to evidence the requisite mental state of the accused is a topic less traversed. The mens rea requirements of the crime will be integral to the process of determining individual criminal liability for uses of force that contravene article 2(4) of the UN Charter. The mens rea components of complex crimes are often conceptually difficult and the crime of aggression is no exception. This article examines the mens rea requirements corresponding to each element. In so doing, it finds that this aspect of the crime has been conservatively framed. While there are gaps that will need to be addressed by the International Criminal Court, the evidentiary burden for future prosecutors is not insurmountable.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Legal consciousness and the Australian Interactive Gambling Act
           - the success of expert bureaucrats in transnational networks
    • Abstract: Eulenstein, Kristy
      The 'Interactive Gambling Act 2001' (Cth) seeks to restrict both Australian and overseas operators from advertising and providing certain online gambling services to Australians. In 2017, the regime was reformed, including empowering the Australian Communications and Media Authority to engage within global networks. After a year of operation, indications are that the use of expert bureaucrats in transnational networks can effectively deliver Australian domestic policy - as large reputable offshore providers have pulled out of the Australian market or sought a licence to operate within Australia's law. This article uses the construct of legal consciousness to explore the key legislative reforms.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Australia's International Law obligations concerning food
           security
    • Abstract: Howard, Justine
      Throughout the world people depend upon food for their very survival. The challenges of ensuring food security in the developed world are different from the issues of food security facing the developing world. This article considers the notion of what food security means for a developed country. It examines Australia's international obligations concerning food security. Relevant international treaties and agreements that impact upon Australia's food security are considered. Whether changes to Australia's domestic laws concerning food security would violate Australia's relevant international obligations is reviewed. Ultimately this article discusses what is required to ensure that Australia's domestic legislative measures do not contravene its international obligations concerning food security.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Justification and excuse in international law [Book Review]
    • Abstract: Anderson, Keilin
      Review(s) of: Justification and excuse in international law, by Federica Paddeu, Cambridge University Press 2018, ISBN 1107106206, 600 Pages.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 'Due regard' in the high seas: The tension between submarine
           cables and deep seabed mining
    • Abstract: Kroon, Danielle
      The high seas belong to no single country; the concept of freedom of the high seas forms the foundation of modern law of the sea. This can potentially lead to problems when two activities are allowed to co-exist in the same area, but there are no clearly defined obligations governing how they co-exist or who will be liable in the event of a dispute or damage. This is of particular relevance when considering submarine cables and deep seabed mining in areas beyond national jurisdiction. There is already an extensive network of submarine cables in the high seas, which are of vital importance for communications, military and other industries. Developments in technology have allowed for advances in deep seabed mining activities, and approvals for exploration have already been granted. Both activities are allowed to co-exist in the same area, with both industries required to give each other 'due regard' under law of the sea. Given the potential for damage, and the extensive costs and significant consequences that would be involved, it is necessary to understand what this obligation means and whether it is sufficient to protect the interests of relevant parties.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Foreword
    • Abstract: Ward, Christopher
      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Trump v. International Law: Who's winning'
    • Abstract: Koh, Harold Hongju
      Donald Trump's presidency has thrown U.S. foreign policy into turmoil. The constant twists and turns have left bewildered observers in Australia and elsewhere asking: 'Who's winning' Trump or international law'' As Trump's immigration policies and on-again/ off-again North Korea policy illustrate, the law is pushing back against his assaults, leaving intact an uneasy status quo ante. Some have taken as evidence favouring Trump his narrow win before the Supreme Court in Trump v. Hawaii, the Travel Ban Case. This essay - from a recently published book by a former Legal Adviser to the U.S. State Department - reviews that 'victory' and explains why, at the end of the day, it may turn out to be 'pyrrhic.' But while for now, the guardrails of domestic and international law in the United States seems to be holding, Trump's actions and rhetoric are empowering authoritarians elsewhere who are antagonistic to the rule of law. Going forward, Professor Koh argues, who ultimately prevails will depend on the continuing support of America's rule-of-law allies, like Australia, and the resilience of our shared rule-of-law institutions.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 24 Outdated and unhelpful: The problem with the comity principle
           and act of state doctrine
    • Abstract: Ireland-Piper, Danielle
      The temptation in troubled times is to stretch the reach of power and authority. While this may, in some circumstances, be a reasonable response to issues with global and transnational dimensions, exercises of extraterritorial jurisdiction can provide the means by which such power becomes unchecked. This can be seen in the decision of the High Court of Australia in 'Plaintiff M68/2015 v Minister for Immigration and Border Protection', the effect of which was that the Commonwealth's extraterritorial conduct was not subject to the same checks and balances as would its domestic conduct. For this reason, the way in which courts adjudicate on extraterritoriality is important. Declining to adjudicate exercises of State power on the basis of comity and the act of state doctrine is an outdated and unhelpful response to the interconnectedness of legal regulation in the 21st century. In that context, I make three arguments: First, the comity principle and act of state doctrine are both unsatisfactory tools in the adjudication of extraterritoriality and ought to be abandoned. Second, the abuse of rights doctrine as it is understood in international law and the principles of State responsibility may be usefully 'transplanted' into the domestic domain when adjudicating on exercises of extraterritorial power by the state. And, third, the integration of international law doctrine into domestic public law contexts with dualist approaches can be characterised as a type of legal transplant. In so doing, I propose an additional formulation of the abuse of rights doctrine as it relates to the adjudication of extraterritorial jurisdiction.

      PubDate: Mon, 6 Jan 2020 20:12:29 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Costs awards by international courts and tribunals: Key lessons
           from Philip Morris v Australia
    • Abstract: Tully, Stephen
      Philip Morris Asia Limited (PM Asia) commenced arbitration against Australia under a bilateral investment treaty challenging Australia's plain packaging legislation with respect to tobacco products. A tribunal decided that it lacked jurisdiction over the dispute and issued a costs award. The tribunal required PM Asia to reimburse Australia for a share of the arbitration costs and a portion of Australia's representation costs. The tribunal had regard to reasonableness, the relative success of the parties and other factors. This approach is assessed against other awards rendered in investment treaty arbitrations, recent developments in international commercial arbitration, the practice of significant international courts and tribunals and relevant provisions of national and international law. The costs award is broadly consistent with similar determinations but the outcome, like other cases, is very particular to its circumstances.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 The paradox of peacetime espionage in international law: From
           state practice to first principles
    • Abstract: Browne, Kathryn Jane
      While the customary law of espionage is codified under the law of armed conflict, international law is silent on the status of peacetime espionage. An abundance of state practice runs at odds with a paucity of opinio juris, and the most highly qualified publicists are divided over the question of peacetime espionage's legality. This paper will draw on the most learned teachings and address their concerns. Starting from the proposition that international law is a complete system, capable of answering the question peacetime espionage, the paper will apply the principles of sovereignty, equality, and non-intervention to an example of peacetime espionage. The application of first principles does not provide an answer regarding peacetime espionage's legality per se. But this paper will prove that state practice is amenable to legal analysis. States and their lawyers need not fear that the practice necessarily incurs state responsibility.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 The judgments project: A review of the Hague conference on
           private international law's work in progress
    • Abstract: Kelleher, Guy
      The 'Judgments Project' is an ambitious enterprise undertaken by The Hague Conference on Private International Law over the past two decades. It involves the strengthening of two key aspects of cross-border litigation in civil and commercial matters: the international jurisdiction of courts, and the recognition and enforcement of their judgments abroad. This article reviews the project's trajectory to date, arguing that it remains a 'work in progress.' In suggesting this, it discusses some of the challenges that continue to hinder the project's progress: the dominance of arbitration in cross border disputes, and the difficulty of reconciling the divergent approaches to jurisdiction adopted by the world's major legal systems. The article concludes by surveying some of the inroads made in the field in recent years at the local level - in particular the Trans - Tasman Regime implemented between Australia and New Zealand.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 Mind the gap: Child soldiers and the law of targeting
    • Abstract: Roughley, Charmaine
      Despite international law's recognition of the need to afford special protection to children, a distinct gap in this protection, and in the law, exists. International Humanitarian Law (IHL) expressly protects children from their recruitment into armed forces and provides special protections once they cease to participate in hostilities, however, between these phases children are treated identically to adults in the law of targeting. Despite human rights law moving to provide additional protection to children in the last five decades, IHL has stagnated. This article addresses this gap, proposing two additions to the law of targeting that work to achieve a more appropriate balance between military necessity and principles of humanity.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 The immunities of state officials in civil proceedings involving
           allegations of torture
    • Abstract: Mora, Paul David
      Whether a State may plead immunity on behalf of its public officials in civil actions pursuing damages for torture has recently been explored by a number of judicial decisions. This article evaluates the findings made towards this question in the cases of 'Samantar v Yousuf, Kazemi Estate v Islamic Republic of Iran, Li v Zhou, and Jones v The United Kingdom'. These decisions make an important contribution to the international rules governing the immunities of State officials. Not only do they bring clarity to the scope of the existing law, those judgments decided by national courts also constitutes State practice and thereby play a role in forming the rules under customary international law.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
  • Volume 23 The ICC regime of victims' reparations: More uncertainties and
           inconsistencies brought to light by recent cases
    • Abstract: Lambert, Elisabeth
      This article discusses the system of victims' reparations established by the Rome Statute. It offers a critical analysis of recent Reparations Orders delivered by the ICC and shows how these latter have revealed more inconsistencies and uncertainties. Three themes have emerged: eligible victims, individual vs collective reparations and the implementation issue. This article recommends that the ICC would benefit from setting up a specialised body to address these complex issues. Moreover the ICC should keep a lower profile by focusing on individual reparations aimed at compensating and restoring the victims. Thus reparative measures should focus on monetary and economic measures. Consequently the role played by the ICC and the TFV would be more clearly distinguished and complementary, the TFV addressing medium-term and long-term reconciliation and collective development measures.

      PubDate: Mon, 30 Sep 2019 15:57:20 GMT
       
 
JournalTOCs
School of Mathematical and Computer Sciences
Heriot-Watt University
Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, UK
Email: journaltocs@hw.ac.uk
Tel: +00 44 (0)131 4513762
 


Your IP address: 3.228.10.64
 
Home (Search)
API
About JournalTOCs
News (blog, publications)
JournalTOCs on Twitter   JournalTOCs on Facebook

JournalTOCs © 2009-