Subjects -> RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (Total: 839 journals)
    - BUDDHIST (14 journals)
    - EASTERN ORTHODOX (1 journals)
    - HINDU (6 journals)
    - ISLAMIC (175 journals)
    - JUDAIC (24 journals)
    - PROTESTANT (21 journals)
    - RELIGION AND THEOLOGY (561 journals)
    - ROMAN CATHOLIC (33 journals)

ISLAMIC (175 journals)                     

Showing 1 - 175 of 175 Journals sorted alphabetically
Abgadiyat     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Afkaruna : Indonesian Interdisciplinary Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Ağrı İslami İlimler Dergisi     Open Access  
Ahkam : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Ahkam : Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AJIS : Academic Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Al 'Adalah : Jurnal Hukum Islam     Open Access  
Al Ihkam : Jurnal Hukum & Pranata Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
AL QUDS : Jurnal Studi Alquran dan Hadis     Open Access  
Al-Albab     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Banjari : Jurnal Ilmiah Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Bayan : Journal of Qur’an and Hadith Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Al-Burhan : Journal of Qur’an and Sunnah Studies     Open Access  
Al-Dzikra : Jurnal Studi Ilmu al-Qur'an dan al-Hadits     Open Access  
Al-Fikra     Open Access  
Al-Fikrah     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Al-Hikmah     Open Access  
Al-Iqtishad : Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Jami'ah : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Al-Mabsut : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Maslahah Jurnal Ilmu Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
AL-QANTARA     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Al-Risalah     Free   (Followers: 1)
Al-Risalah : Journal of Islamic Revealed Knowledge and Human Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Al-Shajarah : Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC)     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Al-Tadzkiyyah : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Al-Tahrir     Open Access  
Al-Tijary : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Al-Ulum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
An-Nisbah : Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Analisis : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
Annida'     Open Access  
Ar-Raniry : International Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
ASAS : Jurnal Hukum dan Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Asian Journal of Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies     Hybrid Journal  
Asy-Syir'ah : Jurnal Ilmu Syari'ah dan Hukum     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
At-Ta'dib Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
At-Tabsyir : Jurnal Komunikasi Penyiaran Islam     Open Access  
at-Tajdid     Open Access  
At-Taqaddum     Open Access  
at-turas : Jurnal Studi Keislaman     Open Access  
At-Turats     Open Access  
Attarbiyah : Journal of Islamic Culture and Education     Open Access  
Atthulab : Islamic Religion Teaching and Learning Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
BELAJEA : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Berkeley Journal of Middle Eastern & Islamic Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Bina' Al-Ummah     Open Access  
Cakrawala : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Dauliyah Journal of Islamic and International Affairs     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
De Jure: Jurnal Hukum dan Syar'iah     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Didaktika Religia     Open Access  
Dimas : Jurnal Pemikiran Agama untuk Pemberdayaan     Open Access  
Dirāsāt : Jurnal Manajemen dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Dirosat : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Economica : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Edukasi : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Edukasi Islami: Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
edureligia : Pendidikan Agama Islam i     Open Access  
El-Harakah     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Empirisma : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Episteme : Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Fenomena : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Fikr-o Nazar     Open Access  
FOKUS : Jurnal Kajian Keislaman dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Hakam : Jurnal Kajian Hukum Islam dan Hukum Ekonomi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hayula : Indonesian Journal of Multidisciplinary Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Hikma : Journal of Islamic Theology and Religious Education     Hybrid Journal  
History of Islam and Iran     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
HONAI : International Journal for Educational, Social, Political & Cultural Studies     Open Access  
Hukum Islam     Open Access  
IBDA' : Jurnal Kebudayaan Islam     Open Access  
Ijtimaiyya : Jurnal Pengembangan Masyarakat Islam     Open Access  
Ikonomika : Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam     Open Access  
Indonesian Journal of Islam and Muslim Societies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
INSANCITA : Journal of Islamic Studies in Indonesia and Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Insaniyat : Journal of Islam and Humanities     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Intellectual Discourse     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Intellectual History of the Islamicate World     Hybrid Journal  
International Journal of Fiqh and Usul al-Fiqh Studies     Open Access  
International Journal of Islamic Economics and Finance Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Islamic Marketing and Branding     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
International Journal of Nusantara Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Zakat     Open Access  
Intiqad : Jurnal Agama dan Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Intizar     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Iqtishoduna : Jurnal Ekonomi Islam     Open Access  
İslâm Araştırmaları Dergisi     Open Access  
Islamic Africa     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Islamika Indonesiana     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Islamiyyat : The International Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Islamuna : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Istawa : Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access  
JAWI     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
JICSA : Journal of Islamic Civilization in Southeast Asia     Open Access  
Journal of Abbasid Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Arabic and Islamic Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Indonesian Islam     Open Access  
Journal of Islam in Asia     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Islamic and Near Eastern Law     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Islamic Architecture     Open Access   (Followers: 11)
Journal of Islamic Education     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Islamic Finance     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Islamic Philosophy     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Malay Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Journal of Muslim Mental Health     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Journal of Muslims in Europe     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Sufi Studies     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Juris (Jurnal Ilmiah Syariah)     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurisdictie Jurnal Hukum dan Syariah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Ekonomi dan Bisnis Islam (Journal of Islamic Economics and Business)     Open Access  
Jurnal Hadhari : An International Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Living Hadis     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Jurnal Studi Al-Qur'an     Open Access  
Jurnal Theologia     Open Access  
Jurnal Ushuluddin     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Kader     Open Access  
KALAM     Open Access  
Kalimah : Journal of Religious Studies and Islamic Thought     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
KARSA : Jurnal Sosial dan Budaya Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Kodifikasia     Open Access  
Komunika: Jurnal Dakwah dan Komunikasi     Open Access  
Kontemplasi : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Ushuluddin     Open Access  
Les cahiers de l'Islam     Free   (Followers: 1)
Madania : Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access  
Marâji` : Jurnal Ilmu Keislaman     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Mathal/Mashal : Journal of Islamic and Judaic Multidisciplinary Studies     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Medina-Te : Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access  
Muaddib : Studi Kependidikan dan Keislaman     Open Access  
Muqarnas Online     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Muslim Heritage     Open Access  
Nadwa : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
New Perspectives on Turkey     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 3)
Nuansa : Jurnal Penelitian Ilmu Sosial dan Keagamaan Islam     Open Access  
Nurani     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Potensia : Jurnal Kependidikan Islam     Open Access  
Profetika Jurnal Studi Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Psikis : Jurnal Psikologi Islami     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
QURANICA : International Journal of Quranic Research     Open Access  
Refleksi     Open Access  
Reflektika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Religia     Open Access  
Religions of South Asia     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 10)
Review of Middle East Studies     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 10)
Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos     Open Access  
Ruhama : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Sociology of Islam     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studia Islamica     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Studia Islamika     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Studies in Islam and Psychology     Open Access  
Ta'dib     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tadrib : Jurnal Pendidikan Agama Islam     Open Access  
Tadris : Islamic Education Journal     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tafáqquh : Jurnal Penelitian Dan Kajian Keislaman     Open Access  
Tajdida : Jurnal Pemikiran dan Gerakan Muhammadiyah     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
TARBIYA : Journal of Education in Muslim Society     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Tarbiyatuna     Open Access  
Tawazun : Jurnal Pendidikan Islam     Open Access  
Teosofi : Jurnal Tasawuf dan Pemikiran Islam     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Teosofia : Indonesian Journal of Islamic Mysticism     Open Access  
The Islamic Culture     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Tidsskrift for Islamforskning     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Tsaqafah : Jurnal Peradaban Islam     Open Access  
Turkish Journal of Islamic Economics     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Ulul Albab     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Ulumuna : Journal of Islamic Studies     Open Access  
Wahana Akademika : Jurnal Studi Islam dan Sosial     Open Access  
Walisongo : Jurnal Penelitian Sosial Keagamaan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Wardah : Jurnal Dakwah dan Kemasyarakatan     Open Access  
Wawasan     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Yinyang : Jurnal Studi Islam, Gender dan Anak     Open Access  
النور للدراسات الحضارية والفكرية - AL-NUR Academic Studies on Thought and Civilization     Open Access   (Followers: 1)


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Journal Cover
Journal of Islamicjerusalem Studies
Number of Followers: 1  

  This is an Open Access Journal Open Access journal
ISSN (Print) 1367-1936 - ISSN (Online) 2514-6009
Published by DergiPark Homepage  [214 journals]
  • Nur al-Din’s Hospital: A shining example of Islamic / Turkish-Islamic
           Medicine in the Medieval period

    • Authors: Fatma İnce
      Abstract: Atabegs of Mosul who weresubject of the Great Seljuk state and began to act independently during thedisintegration of the Seljuk State. To the Seljuks the title “atabeg” was givento those individuals who were engaged in the education of the sultan’s children.This title was initially given to the Seljuk vizier Nizam al-Mulk. Atabegs wereoriginally responsible with dealing with the princes of the Seljuk dynasty andtheir crowning as sultans.  As the state wasweakening the Atabegs engaged in establishing their own sovereignty and rule.The Zengid Dynasty also has emerged in the same manner and Nur al-Din MahmudZengi is considered as one of the most renowned of the Zengids. In addition tohis successful struggles against the Crusaders, he has an important place inIslamic medicine because of the hospital which were founded under his own name.It is rumoured that he had built this hospital with the ransom taken from aFrankish king who had been captured during the Crusades. The present state ofthe structure reveals to us the oldest Seljuk hospital and it is still intact inits original form. Quite extensive information about this educationalinstitution and how the education was conducted within it reaches us from the ophthalmologistand medical historian Ibn Abi Usaibia through his book Ṭabaqāt al-Aṭibbā.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Nur Al-Din Zengi's Coins in Mardin Museum

    • Authors: Zekai Erdal; Hasan Menteşe
      Abstract: The Zengid dynasty is oneof the prominent Turkish states that ruled Iraq, Syria and eastern and south-easternAnatolia regions (today within contemporary Turkey) with Aleppo and Mosul astheir centre between 1127 and 1233. Apart from Mosul and Aleppo, it had three moreprincipalities centred in Cizre, Sinjar and Shahrizor. The state founded in1127 when Imad al-Din Zengi was appointed to govern Mosul dominated a vastarea, and then, they saw the Crusaders as their primary enemy and laid thefoundations until the conquest of Jerusalem by Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi.  One of the greatest sultans of the Zengidswas Nur al-Din Zengi (1118-1174) who came to Aleppo and ascended the throneupon the death of Imad al-Din Zengi at Qal‘at Ja‘bar in 1146. At the time, heconstantly fought the Crusaders to recapture many places they held. A pious,just and scholarly person, Nur al-Din Zengi also did not neglect thereconstruction of his country.  Among therich collection of Islamic coins in Mardin Museum, there are only 2 coinsbelonging to Nur al-Din Zengi. These copper coins are rather simple and plainin comparison with other Zengid coins in terms of motifs, script and ornament.Only the name and titles of Nur al-Din Zengi can be read on the coins. Placeand date of mint as well as other information are not readable. The scripts arewritten in Kufic calligraphy and contain only a couple of vegetal motifs.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Architecture of Mosul in the era of Nur al-Din Zengi

    • Authors: Vian Mowafaq Al-Nuaimi
      Abstract: The Iraqi city of Mosul is one of the mostimportant cities in the Muslim and Arab worlds, since it became part of Muslimlands in 1st century AH/ 7th century CE.  Its architecture expanded and evolved underthe Muslims til the reign of the Zengids and especially the period of the reignof Sultan Nur al-Din Zengi, who paid much attention to the buildings of thecity and its walls were many of its buildings were restored as well asconstructing new ones such as the mosque named after him. This paper is anattempt to highlight his role in the city’s architecture. The theme was chosenin view of previous studies which primarily had focused on the political andmilitary aspects of the Zengi dynasty, such as the study of Prof. Dr. ImadEddin Khalil about “Imad al-Din Zengi” and the study of Dr. Ali Muhammadal-Sallabi on “Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zengi: his personality and era”. This is whatdistinguishes our study from previous works, as it emphasises on the architecturalstructures during his reign and the city of Mosul in particular. A number ofrelevant sources and references have been utilised and the paper includes a mapshowing the urbanisation of the city.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Role of Nur al-Din Zengi in unifying Bilad al-Sham during the Crusades

    • Authors: Ahmed Abdallah Muhammad; Mukhtar Ramadan AL-FAKI
      Abstract: The Crusades were one of the most dangerousand the infamous wars led by European countries against the Muslim world and inparticular Bilad al-Sham, as it left great effects on subsequent events in theMuslim and western worlds. It is well-known that these wars took its name fromthe cross which became a motto for these wars. A number of reasons helped inthe making of the crusade amongst them: the conditions that prevailed in Europe, the historical context, reasonsconcerned with Christianity, the Battle of Manzikert and the call of EmperorAlexius Comnenus, the Byzantine Emperor, to the Pope Gregory VII to assist theChristians of the East. In response to the crusade some Muslim leaders made aneffort to counter them and try to defend Muslim lands and force the crusadersout. Thus, the family Zengi emerged to carry out this task in defending theMuslim world and its holy land and sites. Prior to defending the land from thisforeign invasion and occupation, strenuous efforts were essential to unify theMuslim states in order to achieve this task. Therefore, this paper studies theefforts of Nur al-Din Mahmoud in unify Bilad al-Sham during the Crusades. Theimportance of the study is reflected in shedding light on this crucialhistorical period and tries to show the efforts that was made during theCrusades to find a united Islamic front to counter the crusade. The study’smain objectives are aimed at seeing what prepared Nur al-Din to take on thisgreat task from his background and biography. Also, the extent of his role in unifying Bilad al-Sham during the periodof the crusades in preparation to face them and end their occupation of Muslimlands.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Jurisprudence in Bilad al-Sham during the reign of Nur al-Din Zengi

    • Authors: Aya ALSHAQAQI
      Abstract: This paper deals the life of the Just King, ‘al-Malikal-Adil’, Nur al-Din Mahmud Zengiand presents a short biography of his life. It also deals with his personality,upbringing, characteristics, asceticism, titles as well as his achievements. Thepaper deals additionally with his interest in developing scholarly centres forteaching jurisprudence, as he paid much attention to the restoration andconstruction of mosques, schools and libraries, and dedicating endowments(Awqaf) on them.  Furthermore, the paper discussesthe most important scholarly institutions of jurisprudence for the four Sunnimadhhabs (legal schools of law) particularly in Aleppo and Damascus. Togetherwith deliberating on the most prominent scholars of these schools and theirworks during this period. It is also noted that although Nur al-Din wasadherent to the Hanafi madhhab he paid particular interest to the Shafi'i Madhhaband an explanation for the reasons behind that is presented. The study shows theinterest of Nur al-Din in jurisprudence and jurists and its effect on eradicatingShi'ism from the region. It is also shown how he was successful, through his wisepolicies, in contributing to the unification of the Muslim Ummah.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030

    • Authors: Burhan Che Daud; Abdal-Fattah El-Awaisi, Mohd Roslan Mohd Nor
      Abstract: Nūr al-Dīn Mahmūd Zankīwas one of the 6th century AH Muslims leaders who particularly hadthought very carefully of how to liberate Bayt al-Maqdis. The main objective ofthis article is namely to examine Nūr al-Dīn’s preparation plan to liberate Baytal-Maqdis, in particular if he had prepared the ground to achieve such a goalwhich was successfully accomplished during the time of his successor, Salāhal-Dīn al-Ayyūbī. In addition to the religious impact, this article examinesthe remaining material evidence and the practical steps that had been taken byNūr al-Dīn throughout twenty-eight years of his career to construct a strongand a solid argument concerning his clear and distinctive plan towardsliberating Bayt al-Maqdis. The main focus is on examining his preparation stepstowards the unification of Syria and afterwards the unification of Syria withEgypt.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Military Activities of Nur al-Din Zengi in Damascus and Manbij

    • Authors: Aeisha Marshoud El-Harbi
      Abstract: This paper aims at presenting the activitiesof Nur al-Din Mahmud Zengi in Damascus and Manbij, through both diplomatic andmilitary means. He competed with the Crusaders in controlling Damascus and wassuccessful in brining it under his control, which had many consequences inconsolidating his strength in the region. One of the most important being thetransfer of sovereignty from the Buri to Atabak dynasty.  This brought him closer to achieving his goalof uniting Syria with Egypt and thus widen the horizons of Jihad against theCrusaders.  Also controlling Damascus hadanother impact on severing the alliance between the Toghtekin with the Crusaders.In dealing with the local population Nur al-Din resorted to the implementationof a wise policy based on munificence and distancing himself from any bloodshed.  This is together with his eagerness on constructingDamascus and making it a symbol of Islamic civilization. As for the region ofal-Jazeera (Mesopotamia) Nur al-Din was able to bring many of its cities and citadelsunder his control and particularly the city of Manbij. In this paper a historicalmethodological approach was adopted based on description, comparison andanalysis of sources.  The paper’s mostimportant conclusion is that, Nur al-Din’s control over Damascus broke thebarrier that separated the north and south of Syria.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Awqaf during the reign of Nur al-Din Mahmud Zengi

    • Authors: Yusef ALZAMLI; Fayez ALZAMLI
      Abstract: The Waqf system was known from ancient times,and with the rise of Islam, Muslims paid great attention to the Awqaf for itsimportance in the public life. The Awqaf spread and varied to included variousaspects of people's lives in the Zengid era, especially during the reign of theJust King Nur al-Din Mahmud Zengi (541-569AH/ 1146-1174CE) who was famous forhis rapid establishment of public facilities and institutions that were funded fromthe Waqf revenues. Nur al-Din ordered the establishment of mosques, schools, Khanqah,Zawiyah, Ribat, libraries, as well as release of Muslim captives and pursing Jihad.This research comes to highlight this unique personality and its contributionto the Awqaf which in turn helped build and develop the Zengid State. After abrief introduction, the paper comprises of three sections together with the conclusionsand results; the first section deals with the idea of the Waqf and evidence ofits legitimacy in Islam. Whilst the second section deals with Nur al-Din'sinterest in mosques, schools and libraries. The third section deals with his interestin other institutions as well as Jihad and the releasing of prisoners of war.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The Class of Ulama in the Period of Nur al-Din Mahmoud (541-569/1146-1174)

    • Authors: Abdulkadir Turan
      Abstract: Nur al-Din Mahmoud Zengi,who became one of the most significant actors of the 6th/12thcentury after dominating large parts of Syria. The Zengi Atabeg in 541/1146steadily expanded from its base in Aleppo and transformed its territory into a productivescholarly centre for the Muslim world throughout Nur al-Din’s twenty-seven yearsreign. With such activities, many scholars (ulama) settled down in his realm andcame from neighbouring countries and emirates. Nur al-Din Mahmoud is mentionedalongside great leaders, whom under knowledge flourished such as al-Ma’mun,Nizam al-Mulk and Salah al-Din, he opened numerous madrasas for the ulama andestablished an environment for education firstly in Aleppo and then inDamascus, and at the same time he benefitted from their knowledge, ability andprestige by assigning them positions within the administration of hisgovernment. In this article, the formation period of the class of ulama duringthe reign of Nur al-Din Zengi, its outlook, hierarchy, and the missionsundertaken by the ulama both in the educational system and other state affairsare discussed.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • Relations of Nur al-Din Zengi with Christian States on the northern border

    • Authors: Ahmet KÜTÜK
      Abstract: During the criticalperiod of the Crusaders invading the East, it was predicted that the Zengidswho managed to keep a large part of Anatolia, Syria and Iraq would be eradicatedfollowing the death of Imad al-Din Zengi in 1146. But one of his sons, Nural-Din Mahmud, distinguished amongst his sibling, with characteristics such courageand determination to fight against his rivals together with the ambition ofexpanding his territory proved him to be a good successor to his father. Nural-Din who made Aleppo his capital in Syria, was well aware of the crusaders asthe greatest danger to his realm and to the Muslim world as a whole. Amongstthe neighbouring crusader territory was the Principality of Antioch which hadbeen the focus for securing Nur al-Din’s northern borders. Additional threatson the northern borders emanated from the Armenian principality which held asignificant portion of the Mediterranean coastal area and the Byzantine empirewhich attack the northern region periodically and were both challenging adversariesto Nur al-Din. This paper will examine the policy of Nur al-Din on the northernborders with non-Muslim states, namely the Crusaders, Armenians and Byzantines. 
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
  • The dreams of Nur al-Din Zengi fulfilled by Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi

      Abstract: Aksungur laid thefoundation of the Zangi principality (Atabeylik), which governed headquartersof Mosul and Aleppo, as well as al-Jazīra, East Anatolia and Syria. He servedfor Seljuqs and was appointed as the governor of Aleppo. After Aksungur’sdeath, his son Imād al-Din, was appointed as atabeg (atabey) of two sons of theSeljukian Sultan of Iraq, Mahmud, thus the Zangi principality was formallyestablished. After his appointment, as a Muslim leader Imād al-Din started thefirst serious attempt against Crusaders. As a result of his efforts, the CrusaderCounty of Edessa (Urfa) fell and was repossessed once again by the Muslims.After Imād al-Din’s death, in accordance with the tradition of principality isa shared property of the dynasty; the realm was divided into two; Mosul and Aleppo.Following his father’s footsteps, Nur al-Din strived for the welfare of theMuslim world. He fought against Crusaders for the sake of this ideal and hecaused them great losses. Nur al-Din had three main objectives to protectMuslim world from primarily Crusaders and other non-Muslims. While two of his objectiveswere realised by Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi, the third one was fulfilled after quitesome time by Fatih Sultan Mehmed (the conqueror). This article will discuss thetwo objectives of Nur al-Din fulfilled by Salah al-Din.
      PubDate: Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +030
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