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LABORATORY AND EXPERIMENTAL MEDICINE (99 journals)

Showing 1 - 99 of 99 Journals sorted alphabetically
AAPS PharmSciTech     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Actualites Pharmaceutiques     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Adipocyte     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
African Journal of Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
American Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
American Journal of Medical and Biological Research     Open Access   (Followers: 10)
Animal Models and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
Applied In Vitro Toxicology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Archives of Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Open Access  
Archives of Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 31)
Archives of Preventive Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Biomedical Engineering     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal  
Clinica Chimica Acta     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 30)
Clinical & Experimental Metastasis     Hybrid Journal  
Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Clinical and Experimental Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Clinical Trials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 21)
Clinical Trials in Degenerative Diseases     Open Access  
Clinical Trials in Orthopedic Disorders     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Current Medicine Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
Current Research in Drug Discovery     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Drug Design, Development and Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Ecography     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 28)
European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy : Science and Practice (EJHP)     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
European Journal of Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
European Journal of Nanomedicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Experimental & Molecular Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Aging Research: An International Journal Devoted to the Scientific Study of the Aging Process     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Experimental Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 20)
Frontiers in Laboratory Medicine     Open Access  
Frontiers in Medical Technology     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
IN VIVO     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 5)
International Archives of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
International Journal of Experimental Pathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Health Research and Innovation     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences     Open Access   (Followers: 5)
International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 5)
Journal of Cell Science & Therapy     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Biomedical and Clinical Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis     Open Access   (Followers: 14)
Journal of Clinical Medicine and Research     Open Access  
Journal of Clinical Medicine Research     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Clinical Trials     Open Access   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Current and Advance Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Current Medical Research and Practice     Open Access  
Journal of Current Research in Scientific Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Current Researches on Health Sector     Open Access  
Journal of Drug Delivery and Therapeutics JDDT     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Enzyme Inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry     Open Access   (Followers: 4)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine     Open Access  
Journal of Experimental Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 45)
Journal of Experimental Pharmacology     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Journal of Histotechnology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Journal of International Medical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 3)
Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports     Open Access  
Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Journal of Muhammadiyah Medical Laboratory Technologist     Open Access  
Journal of Operating Department Practitioners     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 2)
Journal of the American Society of Cytopathology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 6)
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 1)
Lab on a Chip     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 42)
Laboratory Investigation     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Medical Devices & Sensors     Hybrid Journal  
Medical Image Analysis     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 15)
Medical Instrumentation     Open Access  
Medical Laboratory Observer     Full-text available via subscription  
Medical Laboratory Technology Journal     Open Access  
Medicinal Chemistry Research     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 12)
Medtech Insight     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 4)
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 7)
New Zealand Journal of Medical Laboratory Science     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 1)
Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine     Partially Free   (Followers: 3)
Pathology and Laboratory Medicine International     Open Access   (Followers: 7)
Physical Biology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 4)
Practical Laboratory Medicine     Open Access   (Followers: 2)
Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers Part H: Journal of Engineering in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 3)
Prosthetics and Orthotics International     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 9)
Pulse     Full-text available via subscription  
Qualitative Research in Medicine & Healthcare     Open Access  
Recent Advances in Biology and Medicine     Open Access  
Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 43)
Reproduction     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 7)
Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud P├║blica     Open Access  
Revista Romana de Medicina de Laborator     Open Access  
RSC Medicinal Chemistry     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 6)
SA Pharmacist's Assistant     Open Access  
Savannah Journal of Medical Research and Practice     Full-text available via subscription  
SLAS Technology     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 2)
Statistics in Medicine     Hybrid Journal   (Followers: 190)
Trends in Molecular Medicine     Full-text available via subscription   (Followers: 14)
Turkish Journal of Clinics and Laboratory     Open Access   (Followers: 1)
Similar Journals
Journal Cover
Reproduction
Journal Prestige (SJR): 1.322
Citation Impact (citeScore): 3
Number of Followers: 7  
 
  Full-text available via subscription Subscription journal
ISSN (Print) 1470-1626 - ISSN (Online) 1741-7899
Published by Bioscientifica Homepage  [8 journals]
  • Parthenogenesis in birds: a review
    • Authors: Ramachandran, R; McDaniel, C. D.
      Abstract: Parthenogenesis or ‘virgin birth’ is embryonic development in unfertilized eggs. It is a routine means of reproduction in many invertebrates. However, even though parthenogenesis occurs naturally in even more advanced vertebrates, like birds, it is mostly abortive in nature. In fact, multiple limiting factors, such as delayed and unorganized development as well as unfavorable conditions developing within the unfertilized egg upon incubation, are associated with termination of progressive development of parthenogenetic embryos. In birds, diploid parthenogenesis is automictic and facultative producing only males. However, the mechanisms controlling parthenogenesis in birds are not clearly elucidated. Additionally, it appears from even very recent research that these mechanisms may hinder the normal fertilization process and subsequent embryonic development. For instance, virgin quail and turkey hens exhibiting parthenogenesis have reduced reproductive performance following mating. Also, genetic selection and environmental factors, such as live virus vaccinations, are known to trigger the process of parthenogenesis in birds. Therefore, parthenogenesis has a plausible negative impact on the poultry industry. Hence, a better understanding of parthenogenesis and the mechanisms that control it could benefit commercial poultry production. In this context, the aim of this review is to provide a complete overview of the process of parthenogenesis in birds.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0728
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • MicroRNAs: crucial regulators of placental development
    • Authors: Hayder, H; OBrien, J, Nadeem, U, Peng, C.
      Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding single-stranded RNAs that are integral to a wide range of cellular processes mainly through the regulation of translation and mRNA stability of their target genes. The placenta is a transient organ that exists throughout gestation in mammals, facilitating nutrient and gas exchange and waste removal between the mother and the fetus. miRNAs are expressed in the placenta, and many studies have shown that miRNAs play an important role in regulating trophoblast differentiation, migration, invasion, proliferation, apoptosis, vasculogenesis/angiogenesis and cellular metabolism. In this review, we provide a brief overview of canonical and non-canonical pathways of miRNA biogenesis and mechanisms of miRNA actions. We highlight the current knowledge of the role of miRNAs in placental development. Finally, we point out several limitations of the current research and suggest future directions.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0603
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Reduced levels of stromal sex hormone-binding globulin and androgen
           receptor dysfunction in the sperm storage region of the rat epididymis
    • Authors: de Santi, F; Beltrame, F. L, Hinton, B. T, Cerri, P. S, Sasso-Cerri, E.
      Pages: 467 - 479
      Abstract: The cauda epididymidis is the major sperm storage region whose androgenic supply, essential for the sperm viability, is provided by the vasculature and is dependent upon testosterone diffusion through the stromal tissue to reach the epithelial cells. We have focused our efforts on examining the regulation of this important epididymal region by evaluating the impact of the androgen disrupter cimetidine on the epithelial–stromal androgenic microenvironment. Male rats received 100 mg/kg cimetidine (CMTG) or saline (CG) for 50 days, serum testosterone levels were measured and the epididymal cauda region was processed for light and transmission electron microscopy. In the proximal cauda region, the duct diameter was measured and birefringent collagen in the stroma was quantified. TUNEL-labeled epithelial cells were quantified, and androgen receptor (AR), karyopherin alpha (KPNA) and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels were analyzed by immunofluorescence and Western blot. CMTG showed reduced duct diameter and high number of apoptotic epithelial cells. In the epithelium, the total AR concentration and the KPNA immunoreactivity were reduced, and a weak/absent AR nuclear immunofluorescence was observed in contrast to the enhanced AR immunolabeling observed in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells. A significant reduction of collagen and SHBG levels in the stroma was also observed. Cimetidine treatment impairs AR nuclear import in the epithelium, causing androgenic dysfunction and subsequent epithelial cell apoptosis and duct atrophy. The connective tissue atrophy and reduction of SHBG stromal levels associated with epithelial androgenic dysfunction indicate a possible role of stromal SHBG in the androgenic supply of the sperm storage region of the epididymis.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-18-0014
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Removal of sialic acid from bull sperm decreases motility and mucus
           penetration ability but increases zona pellucida binding and polyspermic
           penetration in vitro
    • Authors: Fernandez-Fuertes, B; Blanco-Fernandez, A, Reid, C. J, Meade, K. G, Fair, S, Lonergan, P.
      Pages: 481 - 492
      Abstract: This study tested the hypothesis that sperm sialic acid (Sia) is required to reach the site of fertilization, and that successful fertilization requires recognition of Sia from both the sperm and oocyte to occur. In addition, it has recently been reported that Siglecs (Sia-binding-immunoglobulin-like lectins) are present on the sperm surface. Thus, the possibility that the recognition of oocyte Sia was sperm-Siglec-mediated was also addressed. Sperm exposed to neuraminidase (NMase) exhibited lower overall and progressive motility, which translated to a decreased ability to swim through cervical mucus from cows in oestrus. In addition, when either sperm or cumulus–oocyte complexes (COCs) were treated with NMase, a decrease in cleavage and blastocyst rate was observed. However, incubation of sperm with increasing concentrations of anti-Siglec-2, -5, -6 and -10 antibodies prior to fertilization had no effect on their fertilizing ability. Interestingly, treatment with NMase increased the number of sperm bound to the ZP but also the rate of polyspermic fertilization. Flow cytometry analysis revealed no differences in the percentage of capacitated or acrosome-reacted sperm. These results suggest that Sia are required to reach the site of fertilization but need to be removed for sperm–oocyte interaction. However, fine regulation is needed to avoid abnormal fertilization which can lead to impaired embryo development.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0429
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Ovarian steroid dependence of endoplasmic reticulum stress involvement in
           endometrial cell apoptosis during the human endometrial cycle
    • Authors: Choi, J. Y; Jo, M. W, Lee, E. Y, Lee, D.-Y, Choi, D. S.
      Pages: 493 - 503
      Abstract: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common cellular stress response that enhances apoptosis to trigger cell death. However, recent studies have shown that estrogen suppresses apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress in some cell types, suggesting that ER stress-induced apoptosis is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones. In endometrial cells, ER stress may also be controlled by ovarian steroid hormones and could be involved in apoptosis induction during the menstrual cycle. To test this hypothesis, we elucidate whether ER stress is regulated by ovarian steroid hormones in human endometrial cells and if it is involved in apoptosis induction. Specifically, we sought to determine the effects of estrogen and progesterone on the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP pathway, a pro-apoptotic pathway mediated by ER stress. Our results show that ER stress maker GRP78 expression was increased in human endometrial Ishikawa and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) treated with tunicamycin. Addition of estrogen decreased tunicamycin-induced GRP78 expression. In contrast, progesterone treatment increased GRP78 in estrogen-treated Ishikawa and ESCs, which significantly increased CHOP expression through phosphorylation of eIF2α and upregulation of ATF4. This upregulation was accompanied by an increased apoptosis induction. The progesterone-induced increase in apoptosis was reversed by either mifepristone (progesterone receptor modulator) or salubrinal (ER stress inhibitor). Furthermore, our in vivo results also showed that GRP78, CHOP expression and apoptosis were significantly increased in endometrial cells during the secretory phase as well as by in vitro treatment with progesterone. In conclusion, our results suggest that estrogen inhibits ER stress in human endometrial cells. This inhibition is reversed by progesterone during the secretory phase, and this is directly involved in apoptosis induction.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T03:16:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0713
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Role of RAB5A in FSHR-mediated signal transduction in human granulosa
           cells
    • Authors: Zhu, K; Li, S, Liu, J, Hong, Y, Chen, Z.-J, Du, Y.
      Pages: 505 - 514
      Abstract: Polycystic ovary syndrome, a common condition characterized by endocrine dysfunction, menstrual irregularity, anovulation and polycystic ovaries, affects 5–7% of reproductive-age women. RAB5B, which is identified by a genome-wide association study as a risk locus for this syndrome, encodes a small GTPase involved in control of receptor internalization and early endosome fusion. We found that RAB5A mRNA levels in luteinized granulosa cells of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome were lower than in those of obese women without the syndrome. RAB5A regulated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-mediated translocation of the FSH receptor (FSHR) from the membrane to the cytoplasm and the subsequent FSH–FSHR signaling pathway. We showed that RAB5A negatively regulated aromatase expression and estradiol synthesis in human granulosa cells in association with changes in FSHR levels by way of the cAMP/PKA/CREB pathway. The regulation of FSHR by RAB5A may have been associated with two transcription factors, USF1 and USF2. In conclusion, RAB5A gene was abnormally expressed in luteinized granulosa cells of obese patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, which may help explain high FSHR levels found in this syndrome.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-18-0015
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Activation of lysosomal cathepsins in pregnant bovine leukocytes
    • Authors: Talukder, M. A. S; Balboula, A. Z, Shirozu, T, Kim, S. W, Kunii, H, Suzuki, T, Ito, T, Kimura, K, Takahashi, M.
      Pages: 515 - 528
      Abstract: In ruminants, interferon-tau (IFNT)-mediated expression of interferon-stimulated genes in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) can indicate pregnancy. Recently, type 1 IFN-mediated activation of lysosomes and lysosomal cathepsins (CTSs) was observed in immune cells. This study investigated the status of lysosomal CTSs and lysosomes in PBLs collected from pregnant (P) and non-pregnant (NP) dairy cows, and conducted in vitro IFNT stimulation of NP blood leukocytes. Blood samples were collected 0, 7, 14 and 18 days post-artificial insemination, and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) separated. The fluorescent activity of CTSB and CTSK in PMNs significantly increased with the progress of pregnancy, especially on day 18. In vitro supplementation of IFNT significantly increased the activities of CTSB and CTSK in NP PBMCs and PMNs. CTSB expression was significantly higher in PBMCs and PMNs collected from P day-18 cows than from NP cows, whereas there was no difference in CTSK expression. IFNT increased CTSB expression but did not affect CTSK expression. Immunodetection showed an increase of CTSB in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. In vitro stimulation of IFNT increased CTSB in NP PBMCs and PMNs. Lysosomal acidification showed a significant increase in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. IFNT also stimulated lysosomal acidification. Expressions of lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP) 1 and LAMP2 were significantly higher in P day-18 PBMCs and PMNs. The results suggest that pregnancy-specific activation of lysosomal functions by CTS activation in blood leukocytes is highly associated with IFNT during maternal and fetal recognition of pregnancy.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-18-0078
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Murine sperm capacitation, oocyte penetration and decondensation following
           moderate alcohol intake
    • Authors: Sanchez, M. C; Fontana, V. A, Galotto, C, Cambiasso, M. Y, Sobarzo, C. M. A, Calvo, L, Calvo, J. C, Cebral, E.
      Pages: 529 - 541
      Abstract: Male chronic alcohol abuse causes testicular failure and infertility. We analyzed the effects of moderate sub-chronic alcohol intake on sperm morphology, capacitation, fertilization and sperm head decondensation. CF-1 male mice were administered 15% ethanol in drinking water for 15 days; control mice received ethanol-free water. Similar patterns of tyrosine phosphorylation were observed in capacitated spermatozoa of control and treated males. Percentage of hyperactivation (H) and spontaneous (SAR) and progesterone-induced (IAR) acrosome reaction significantly decreased at 120 and 150 min of capacitation in treated males compared to controls (H: 14.1 ± 2.5 vs 23.7 ± 2.6, P < 0.05; SAR-T120 min: 17.9 ± 2.5 vs 32.9 ± 4.1, P < 0.01; IAR-150 min: 43.3 ± 3.5 vs 73.1 ± 1.1, P < 0.001, n = 6). During in vitro fertilization (2.5, 3.5 and 4.5 h post-insemination), there was an increased percentage of fertilized oocytes (with a decondensed sperm head and one or two pronuclei) in treated males (P < 0.001, n = 7). After 60 min of in vitro decondensation with glutathione plus heparin, the percentage of decondensed sperm heads was significantly higher in treated males than in controls (mean ± s.d.: 57.1 ± 5.6 vs 48.3 ± 4.5, P < 0.05, n = 5). The percentage of morphologically normal sperm heads was significantly decreased in treated males with respect to controls (P < 0.001, n = 9). These results show that short-term moderate alcohol consumption in outbred mice affect sperm morphology, hyperactivation, acrosomal exocytosis, and the dynamics of in vitro fertilization and in vitro sperm nuclear decondensation.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0507
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • The impact of infertility diagnosis on embryo-endometrial dialogue
    • Authors: Parks, J. C; McCallie, B. R, Patton, A. L, Al-Safi, Z. A, Polotsky, A. J, Griffin, D. K, Schoolcraft, W. B, Katz-Jaffe, M. G.
      Pages: 543 - 552
      Abstract: Initial stages of implantation involve bi-directional molecular crosstalk between the blastocyst and endometrium. This study investigated an association between infertility etiologies, specifically advanced maternal age (AMA) and endometriosis, on the embryo-endometrial molecular dialogue prior to implantation. Co-culture experiments were performed with endometrial epithelial cells (EEC) and cryopreserved day 5 blastocysts (n = 41 ≥ Grade 3BB) donated from patients presenting with AMA or endometriosis, compared to fertile donor oocyte controls. Extracellular vesicles isolated from co-culture supernatant were analyzed for miRNA expression and revealed significant alterations correlating to AMA or endometriosis. Specifically, AMA resulted in 16 miRNAs with increased expression (P ≤ 0.05) and strong evidence for negative regulation toward 206 target genes. VEGFA, a known activator of cell adhesion, displayed decreased expression (P ≤ 0.05), validating negative regulation by 4 of these increased miRNAs: miR-126; 150; 29a; 29b (P ≤ 0.05). In endometriosis patients, a total of 10 significantly altered miRNAs displayed increased expression compared to controls (miR-7b; 9; 24; 34b; 106a; 191; 200b; 200c; 342-3p; 484) (P ≤ 0.05), targeting 1014 strong evidence-based genes. Three target genes of miR-106a (CDKN1A, E2F1 and RUNX1) were independently validated. Functional annotation analysis of miRNA-target genes revealed enriched pathways for both infertility etiologies, including disrupted cell cycle regulation and proliferation (P ≤ 0.05). These extracellular vesicle-bound secreted miRNAs are key transcriptional regulators in embryo-endometrial dialogue and may be prospective biomarkers of implantation success. One of the limitations of this study is that it was a stimulated, in vitro model and therefore may not accurately reflect the in-vivo environment.
      PubDate: 2018-05-15T03:16:52-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0566
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Radiation-induced ovarian follicle loss occurs without overt stromal
           changes
    • Authors: Kimler, B. F; Briley, S. M, Johnson, B. W, Armstrong, A. G, Jasti, S, Duncan, F. E.
      Pages: 553 - 562
      Abstract: Radiation damage due to total body irradiation (TBI) or targeted abdominal radiation can deplete ovarian follicles and accelerate reproductive aging. We characterized a mouse model of low-dose TBI to investigate how radiation affects the follicular and stromal compartments of the ovary. A single TBI dose of either 0.1 Gy or 1 Gy (Cesium-137 ) was delivered to reproductively adult CD1 female mice, and sham-treated mice served as controls. Mice were euthanized either 2 weeks or 5 weeks post exposure, and ovarian tissue was harvested. To assess the ovarian reserve, we classified and counted the number of morphologically normal follicles in ovarian histologic sections for all experimental cohorts using an objective method based on immunohistochemistry for an oocyte-specific protein (MSY2). 0.1 Gy did not affect that total number of ovarian follicles, whereas 1 Gy resulted in a dramatic loss. At two weeks, there was a significant reduction in all preantral follicles, but early antral and antral follicles were still present. By five weeks, there was complete depletion of all follicle classes. We examined stromal quality using histologic stains to visualize ovarian architecture and fibrosis and by immunohistochemistry and quantitative microscopy to assess cell proliferation, cell death and vasculature. There were no differences in the ovarian stroma across cohorts with respect to these markers, indicating that this compartment is more radio-resistant relative to the germ cells. These findings have implications for reproductive health and the field of fertility preservation because the radiation doses we examined mimic scatter doses experienced in typical therapeutic regimens.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-18-0089
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Reciprocal regulation of TEAD4 and CCN2 for the trophectoderm development
           of the bovine blastocyst
    • Authors: Akizawa, H; Kobayashi, K, Bai, H, Takahashi, M, Kagawa, S, Nagatomo, H, Kawahara, M.
      Pages: 563 - 571
      Abstract: The first segregation at the blastocyst stage is the symmetry-breaking event to characterize two cell components; namely, inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE). TEA domain transcription factor 4 (TEAD4) is a well-known regulator to determine TE properties of blastomeres in rodent models. However, the roles of bovine TEAD4 in blastocyst development have been unclear. We here aimed to clarify the mechanisms underlining TE characterization by TEAD4 in bovine blastocysts. We first found that the TEAD4 mRNA expression level was greater in TE than in ICM, which was further supported by TEAD4 immunofluorescent staining. Subsequently, we examined the expression patterns of TE-expressed genes; CDX2, GATA2 and CCN2, in the TEAD4-knockdown (KD) blastocysts. These expression levels significantly decreased in the TEAD4 KD blastocysts compared with controls. Of these downregulated genes, the CCN2 expression level decreased the most. We further analyzed the expression levels of TE-expressed genes; CDX2, GATA2 and TEAD4 in the CCN2 KD blastocysts. Strikingly, the CCN2 KD blastocysts showed the downregulation of CDX2, GATA2 and TEAD4. Furthermore, the ratio of TE-to-ICM cell numbers in the CCN2 KD blastocysts significantly decreased compared to controls. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing the regulation of CCN2 expression thorough TEAD4 in mammalian embryos. Not only that, this study also provides evidence that reciprocal regulation of TEAD4 and CCN2 is required for TE development with appropriate gene expression in bovine blastocysts.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-18-0043
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
  • Bromodomain protein BRD4 is increased in human placentas from women with
           early-onset preeclampsia
    • Authors: Liong, S; Barker, G, Lappas, M.
      Pages: 573 - 582
      Abstract: Preeclampsia affects 5% of all pregnancies and is a serious disorder of pregnancy, characterised by high maternal blood pressure, placental hypoxia, fluid retention (oedema) and proteinuria. Women with preeclampsia are associated with exaggerated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and anti-angiogenic factors such as soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFLT1). Studies in non-gestational tissues have described the bromodomain (BRD) and extraterminal family of proteins, in particular BRD4 to play a critical role in propagating inflammation and is currently a therapeutic target for treating cancer, lung inflammation and asthma. The aims of this study were to: (i) determine the effect of severe early-onset preeclampsia on placental BRD4 expression; (ii) the effect of loss of BRD4 function by siRNA-targeted knockdown or with the BRD inhibitor JQ1 in human primary trophoblast cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on TNF-stimulated production of pro-inflammatory mediators, cell adhesion molecules and anti-angiogenic markers and (iii) the effect of BRD4 suppression on placental sFLT1 secretion under hypoxia conditions and in preeclampic placenta. BRD4 mRNA expression was significantly increased (sevenfold) in severe early-onset preeclampsia placenta. BRD4 silencing resulted in a significant reduction in TNF-induced IL6, CXCL8, CCL2, CXCL1 and sFLT1-e15a mRNA expression and IL6, CXCL8, CCL2, CXCL1 and sFLT1 secretion in primary trophoblast and HUVECs. Additionally, JQ1 treatment significantly reduced placental sFLT1 secretion under hypoxic conditions and in preterm preeclamptic placenta. In conclusion, these findings suggest BRD4 may play a central role in propagating inflammation and endothelial dysfunction associated with the pathophysiology of early-onset preeclampsia.
      PubDate: 2018-05-10T08:38:18-07:00
      DOI: 10.1530/REP-17-0744
      Issue No: Vol. 155, No. 6 (2018)
       
 
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